This Week @ MHS

By Dan Hinchen

– Tuesday, 2 May, 5:15PM : We start the week with an Early American History Seminar, this time in panel format. “Nathaniel Hawthorne and Friends” is a discussion with Philip Gould of Brown University and Thomas Balcerski of Eastern Connecticut State University. The conversation revolves around their respsective essays, “Hawthorne and the State of War” and “A Work of Friendship.” Maurice Lee of Boston University provides comment. Seminars are free and open to the public; RSVP requiredSubscribe to receive advance copies of the seminar papers.

– Wednesday, 3 May, 12:00PM : Stephen Engle of Florida Atlantic University leads this week’s Brown Bag lunch talk, titled “Politics of Civil War Governance: A Conversation about Lincoln and his Loyal Governors during the Civil War.” Engle discusses his most recent book, Gathering to Save a Nation: Lincoln and the Union’s War Governors and how it led to his current project, a biography of Massachusetts Governor John Albion Andrew. This talk is free and open to the public. 

– Wednesday, 3 May, 6:00PM : “Where to Go” is the next installment of the Cooking Boston series of public programs here at the MHS, exploring the culinary history of Boston. In the 20th century, Boston clung to two identities: that of thrifty Puritans and of cosmopolitanism through education. This created some remarkably bland food but also made the city fertile ground for a culinary revolution. In the 1960s, chefs like Julia Child and Joyce Chen brought the flavors of the world to America through Boston. This event features a discussion with James O’Connell, Corky White, and Eriwn Ramos, moderated by Peter Drummey of the MHS. This talk is open to the public and registration is required with a fee of $20 (no charge for MHS Members of Fellows). A pre-talk reception begins at 5:30PM, followed by the speaking program at 6:00PM. 

– Saturday, 6 May, 10:00AM : The History and Collections of the MHS is a 90-minute docent-led walk through our public rooms. The tour is free, open to the public, with no need for reservations. If you would like to bring a larger party (8 or more), please contact Curator of Art Anne Bentley at 617-646-0508 or

While you’re here you will also have the opportunity to view our current exhibition: The Irish Atlantic: A Story of Famine Migration and Opportunity.

– Saturday, 6 May, 1:00PM : The practice of slavery in the early modern Atlantic world generated a variety of theological debates about its nature, origins, and legitimacy. “Of One Blood? New England Slavery and Theology,” part of the Begin at the Beginning series of talks, is a discussion led by PhD candidate Eduardo Gonzalez of Boston College. This program is open to the public, registration required at no cost. The discussion is based on primary readings listed on the reigstration page. 


Reference Man in Catalog Land : Describing publications in the George Frisbie Hoar papers

By Daniel Tobias Hinchen, Reader Services

We here in the Library Reader Services department at the MHS concern ourselves with the user/researcher side of our collections. This job allows us to continually sharpen the skills of reference librarians: catalog searching, materials handling, patron interactions, and the like. Unfortunately, this being a full-time job, there is a chance that some of our other library skills can atrophy. Thankfully, we occasionally get the opportunity to flex those other muscles by taking on projects in other areas.


Recently, I started a cataloging project in which I create bibliographic records for entry in our online catalog, ABIGAIL. The print material that I am cataloging all comes from the George Frisbie Hoar papers, a voluminous collection that contains a heady mix of manuscript material, printed matter, and even some images. This is a valuable project for me because it allows me to get a much better sense about some of the topics on which the collection is informative. It also results in a great deal more description for a researcher about what is contained in the collection, at least as far as the printed matter is concerned.

Much of the project consists of copy-cataloging. That is, using catalog information already created by other institutions and made available via the Online Computer Library Center, or OCLC. This method of cataloging saves us from recreating the wheel for every single object, though we still need to add information about the specific copy in our holdings. For instance, in every catalog record I create for ABIGAIL, I need to note that it is stored offsite with the rest of the collection, a note not needed by other libraries.

When there is no record freely available through OCLC, then original cataloging is required. This entails adding into a form all of the bibliographic data necessary for making the item discoverable by researchers. So, we had the basic stuff like author, title, and publisher (when known), but also things like subject headings which provide another means of discovery. When the project is finished, a researcher working on a project about currency will now be able to find several publications in the Hoar papers about bimetallism, for example.

The project is also well-timed as we are seeing a very dramatic upswing in requests for material from this collection. In the last twelve months there were over 170 requests for the collection! Not only are people very interested in the large amount of manuscript material – over 100 record cartons simply of correspondence – but also in the wealth of print material that Hoar collected. Most of this related to various topics with which Hoar and his congressional colleagues wrestled during the latter-half of the 19th century, some of which are gaining renewed relevance today: immigration, American imperialism, election laws and controversies, bankruptcy and anti-trust legislation, and Supreme Court matters, to name a few.

In the end, this project is a classic Win-Win-Win scenario: I get some practice using my cataloging skills, our cataloger has one less project to worry about, and the researcher gets better information about what we hold in our collections.

Interested in learning more about this collection? You can find an online collection guide to the George Frisbie Hoar papers on our website, then, learn about Visiting the Library


“Legible only to myself”: John Quincy Adams’s Shorthand

By Gwen Fries, Adams Papers

A line in John Quincy Adams’s 1788 diary is the earliest example of his use of English poet John Byrom’s shorthand system. The system replaces words with symbols to make writing faster and, eventually, easier. Six years later, Adams recorded in his diary that his youngest brother, Thomas Boylston, was attempting to teach himself shorthand and noted that he had once endeavored to learn the system, “but soon gave over the pursuit; not having a very high opinion of the utility of the art.”

Later in life John Quincy changed his mind about shorthand’s usefulness, though he did not strictly adhere to the Byrom system. The symbols, some of which are his own variations, appear in his diary more frequently beginning in 1810. John Quincy penned an entire sonnet in shorthand on October 30, 1826. He wrote, “I record it thus that it may be legible only to myself, or to a reader who will take the trouble to pick it out of the short-hand— If it were better poetry I would have written it at full length.”

Though it at first appears to be a page of scribbles, by using a combination of Byrom’s original structure and the hints John Quincy scattered throughout his papers, it is indeed possible to “pick it out.” The linear symbols represent consonants and digraphs; vowels are represented by dots, if at all. If a symbol stands alone, it represents a commonly used word.



Directly translated, the first line of the sonnet (above) reads, “Da f/v m fthrs brth I hl th y.” Once the vowels and commonly used words are filled in, we get “Day of my father’s birth I hail thee yet.” Let’s examine some of the symbols used here. The first symbol in the line is a “d.” If it stood alone, it would mean “and;” however, it is modified by a dot. The placement of the dot reveals what vowel it represents. From top to bottom, the dots represent A E I O U. Because it sits at the top of the symbol, we can read the letters as “da.” The word is “day.” For longer words, several symbols are combined. You can see the green that represented f or v in the second word is repeated in the fourth; in this case, it represents f. The next symbol, in blue, is the digraph th. The orange dash is r, and the yellow line is s. What is written is “fthrs,” obviously, “father’s.” The r and th are repeated in the following word, with a b at the front, “brth,”—“birth.” Note that even though the th arch is flipped upside down, the meaning remains the same.

Using past examples of John Quincy’s shorthand as a guide, you simply need to write out what you know, use context clues, repeat the process fourteen times, and you’ve picked out the sonnet!

This Week @ MHS

By Dan Hinchen


This week’s program schedule is heavy in the middle, with a seminar and a pair of public programs. Here are the specifics:

– Tuesday, 25 April, 5:15PM : Anna M. Blankenship of North Dakota State University leads a Modern American Society and Culture seminar, titled “Interreligious Responses to the Settlement House Movement, 1880-1924.” This paper analyzes how Catholic and Jewish immigrant communities in New York City responded to the Protestant origins and agenda of their benefactors prior to the 1920s, when many settlement houses secularized activities in order to receive money from the Community Chest. Kristen Petersen of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences provides comment. Seminars are free and open to the public; RSVP requiredSubscribe to receive advance copies of the seminar papers.

– Wednesday, 26 April, 6:00PM : Join us for an author talk with David Waldstreicher and Matthew Mason, author/editors of a recent book titled John Quincy Adams and the Politics of Slavery: Selections from the Diary. Within, the authors offer an unusual perspective on the dramatic and shifting politics of slavery in the early republic. By juxtaposing Adams’ personal reflections of slavery with what he said – and did not say – publicly on the issue, the editors offer a nuanced portrait of how he interacted with prevailing ideologies during his consequential career and life. This talk is open to the public and registration is required with a fee of $10 (no charge for MHS Members or Fellows). Pre-talk reception begins at 5:30PM, followed by the program at 6:00PM. 

– Thursday, 27 April, 6:00PM : “Eating Other People’s Food” is the second installment of the Cooking Boston series. In this program, Alex Prud’homme, Laura Shapiro, Stephen Chen, and moderator Megan Sniffin-Marinoff discuss Americans’ re-introduction to the food of the world in the second half of the 20th century. The expansion of the American palate that began with television chefs like Julia Child in Cambridge continued with restaurants across greater Boston and helped reshape the idea of dinner. This talk is open to the public and registration is required with a fee of $20 (no charge for MHS Members or Fellows). A pre-talk reception starts at 5:30PM, followed by the program at 6:00PM. 

– Saturday, 29 April, 9:00AM : Civil Rights in America is a teacher workshop sponsored by the Ashbrook Center at Ashland University, and is made possible thanks to a grant form the Lincoln and Theresa Filene Foundation. This program is SOLD OUT and registration is closed.


“All things are in common now”

By Susan Martin, Collections Services

Today is the 242nd anniversary of the battles of Lexington and Concord, the first battles of the American Revolution. The MHS holds some terrific letters and diaries containing first-hand accounts of that famous day, not to mention related books, pamphlets, maps, and artifacts. We’ve also digitized select items over the years, and they’re available on our website with full transcriptions. My favorites are the letters of two refugees, Sarah Winslow Deming and Hannah Winthrop.


Sarah Winslow Deming (1722-1788) wrote to her niece Sally Coverly, possibly sometime in June, two months after the battles. In her 12-page journal-style letter, she recounted her harrowing flight from Boston after that “fatal” and “dreadfull” day. Early the following morning, she was told that British troops had closed all roads to carriages and that she was essentially “Genl Gage’s prisoner.” Nevertheless she persisted.

I then determined to try if my feet would support me thro’, tho’ I trembled to such a degree, that I could scarce keep my feet in my own chamber, had taken no sustenance for the day, & very sick at my stomack. […] ah! can any one that has not felt it, know my sensation? Surely no.

Learning that some carriages had gotten out, she, her husband John, and others borrowed a chaise and managed to pass through the British checkpoints without incident, but with no idea of their final destination.

We had got out of the city of destruction; such I lookt upon Boston to be, yet I could not but lift up my desires to God that he would have mercy upon, & spare the many thousands of poor creatures I had left behind. […] I was far from being elated with my escape. I remember my sensations but cannot describe ‘em.

Along the way, the Demings encountered other refugees, including many women and children.

A lad who came out of Boston wth us […] run up to our chaise wth a most joyful countenance & cry’d, Sir, Sir; Ma’m, here are the cannon – Our cannon are coming […] The matter of his joy was terror to me […] We met little parties, old, young, & middle aged, some with fife & drum, perhaps not an hundred in the whole, a kind of pleasant sedateness on all their countenances. We met such parties all the way, which gave me the Idea of sheep going to the slaughter.

Drenched from a downpour of rain, they stopped at the house of Rev. William Gordon in Jamaica Plain, a man they barely knew but who immediately offered them accommodation. As Gordon told Sarah Deming, “all things are in common now.” Deming’s husband rode off to return the chaise, which was needed to rescue other stranded residents, and she was terrified she’d never seem him again.

Read about the rest of her narrow escape here.


The letter from Hannah Fayerweather Winthrop (1727?-1790) to her friend Mercy Otis Warren was written around May 1775 and forms part of our online exhibit of their correspondence. In this letter, Winthrop described her flight from Cambridge the day of the battle, first to a house a mile outside of town.

What a distressd house did we find there filld with women whose husbands were gone forth to meet the Assailiants, 70 or 80 of these with numbers of Infant Children, Crying and agonizing for the Fate of their husbands. In adition to this scene of distress we were for Some time in Sight of the Battle, the glistening instruments of death proclaiming by an incessant fire, that much blood must be shed, that many widowd & orphand ones be Left as monuments of that persecuting Barbarity of British Tyranny.

The next day, in the aftermath of the battles, Winthrop and others were forced to move again, which she compared to Eve’s expulsion from the Garden of Eden. But while Deming was making her way south, Winthrop fled north to the town of Andover, “alternately walking & riding.” The sights she saw along the way were gruesome.

What added greatly to the horror of the Scene was our passing thro the Bloody field at Menotomy which was strewd with the mangled Bodies, we met one Affectionate Father with a Cart looking for his murderd Son & picking up his Neighbours who had fallen in Battle, in order for their Burial.

Like Deming, Winthrop found asylum with a “very obliging” family. Her rural refuge in Andover was peaceful, a surreal juxtaposition with the historical moment in which she lived. Read the rest of her letter here.

For more information on the battles of Lexington and Concord and the people who experienced them, search our online catalog ABIGAIL or our website.


This Week @ MHS

By Dan Hinchen

After you recover from the Marathon why not take in some public progams here at the Society. Here is what is lined up for the week ahead:

The MHS is CLOSED on Monday, 17 April, in observance of Patriots’ Day.

– Tuesday, 18 April, 2:00PM : Looking for something to do with the kids during vacation week? Come on in Tuesday at 2:00PM for Make Your Own Comic: The Jamestown Relief Mission to Ireland, a hands-on history program. After hearing from historians about the famine relief mission from Boston to Ireland led by Robert Bennet Forbes aboard the Jamestown, local comic book artists will help the young historians make their own historical comic depicting stories of Irish immigration. This event is open to the public free of charge though registration is required.

– Thursday, 20 April, 9:00AM : Boston to the Rescue: Robert B. Forbes & Irish Famine Relief is a full-day teacher workshop open to K-12 educators and students. Participants will explore the history of earliy Irish immigration to Boston and the tensions divided Catholic immigrants and Protestant New Englanders in the 1830s and 1840s. Registration is required at a cost of $25 (free for students). Please e-mail or call 617-646-0557 for more information or to register. 

– Thursday, 20 April, 5:30PM : Lauren Meyer of Yale University presents this weeks History of Women and Gender Seminar, “Sadie Alexander, Black Women’s Work, and Economic Citizenship during the New Deal Era.” This argues that Sadie Alexander, the first black woman to earn a Ph.D. in economics and a successful practicing lawyer, offered an alternative, black feminist definition of economic citizenship that shifted discourses on the relationship between race, gender, labor, and the meaning of citizenship. Martin Summers of Boston College provides comment. Seminars are free and open to the public; RSVP requiredSubscribe to receive advance copies of the seminar papers.

– Saturday, 22 April, 10:00AM : The History and Collections of the MHS Tour is a 90-minute docent-led walk through our public rooms. The tour is free, open to the public, with no need for reservations. If you would like to bring a larger party (8 or more), please contact Curator of Art Anne Bentley at 617-646-0508 or

While you’re here you will also have the opportunity to view our current exhibition: The Irish Atlantic: A Story of Famine Migration and Opportunity.

Gertrude Codman Carter’s Diary, April 1917

By Anna Clutterbuck-Cook, Reader Services

Today we return to the 1917 diary of Gertrude Codman Carter. You may read the previous entries here: 

Introduction | January | February | March

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines “paleography” as “the study of ancient writings and inscriptions.” This practice however, and the word to describe it, are increasingly used to refer to the practice of deciphering handwritten manuscripts in an age when typescript is what many of us encounter on a daily basis beyond the scribbled shopping list or note to self in one’s planner — unless you, like many of us, have abandoned the print version in favor of Google calendars or a planner-like app. The art of slow reading, when making sense of a densely-handwritten letter might take the better part of a day in the archive’s reading room — and often an intimate familiarity with the writer’s hand — is a skill that we must increasingly practice with intent rather than one that we develop passively through everyday exposure.

Gertrude’s diary and letters are no exception to this rule, and in the spirit of this rough-and-ready transcription project I have undertaken for the year, I often find myself inserting [illegible] in the place of partially or wholly impenetrable words that by the end of a year spent in Lady Carter’s company might well seem perfectly understandable. Another solution to [illegible] manuscripts, one that we are often called upon to assist with in the MHS reading room, is crowdsourcing: enlisting a second, or third, or an entire list of social media followers to cast their eyes over the scribblings that befuddle a researcher and see what we can decipher as a group.

In the spirit of demonstrating the labor of paleography, I offer in this month of April the rough-and-ready transcription of Gertrude’s scattered April 1917 entries alongside the phrases that confounded me at first and second pass. Think you have an idea of what a word may be? Leave a comment below or let us know on Twitter @mhs1791!

* * *

2 April.

Paid bills.


3 April.

[left blank]


4 April. Great day!

10.30 Meeting at the [illegible] Road.

11.30 Theater meeting with the model. Everyone pleased. A splendid meeting.

[Pilgrims?] at home.

President Wilson’s grand speech. America enters the war.

Mr. Fell rang to tell me how pleased he was to hear it.


Here the diary skips to April 19 and continues on.


19 April.

[illegible] stonework.

G[odettes?] to dinner & Mr. Fell. He sang a heartrending little song called “Somewhere in France”. How terrible it must have been for Mrs. [Water?]worth.


20 April.

Band at the Savannah Club

Had an offer for 501 which was depressing & yet I don’t dare refuse $18,000 ($15,000 on mortgage at 4 ½ %). I cabled 5% or $20,000 which was very clever (so Charlie said in his letter) – I got the 5%. This was some time ago.


21 April.

I [damaged text] sale of 501.

4.15 Dinner party at [illegible]. An amusing chat with Laddie. He can be quite fun.


22 April.

To church.

To Erdiston in the afternoon.


23 April.

Consul again.

4 Miss Packer re: Savannah beautification

Later Mr. Carpenter. Jolly chat.


24 April.

8.30 Miss Packer

Laddie Challum motored me out to Caledonia. He has a nice little Ford car, a ripper at hills.


25 April.


[illegible] to auction

Procession of Civic Circle around its various outposts & then meeting.


Here ends the April 1917 entries remaining in the diary.

* * *

If you are interested in viewing the diary or letters yourself, in our library, or have other questions about the collection please visit the library or contact a member of the library staff for further assistance.

This Week @ MHS

By Dan Hinchen

There is a flurry of activity to start the week here at the Society before we ease into a long weekend. Here is what we have in store:

– Monday, 10 April, 6:00PM : We begin the week with an author talk featuring Ronald H. Epp, whose recent book is titled Creating Acadia National Park: The Biography of George Bucknam Dorr. In his work, Epp examines the pioneering role of Dorr’s seminal contributions – largely unacknowledged – to the American environmental movement. This talk is open to the public and registration is required with a fee of $10 (no charge for MHS Members or Fellows). A pre-talk reception begins at 5:30PM followed by the speaking program at 6:00PM. 

– Tuesday, 11 April, 5:15PM : This weeks Environmental History Seminar is a panel discussion titled “Fishing the Commons.” The talk will feature Erik Reardon of University of Maine at Orono and his paper “New England’s Pre-Industrial River Commons: Culture and Economy,” as well as Stacy Roberts of University of California, Davis, and her essay “The Private Commons: Oyster Planting in 19th-century Connecticut.” Matthew McKenzie of University of Connecticut at Avery Point provides comment. Seminars are free and open to the public; RSVP requiredSubscribe to receive advance copies of the seminar papers.

– Wednesday, 12 April, 12:00PM : Come in for a Brown Bag talk on Wednesday titled “Radical Enlightenment in the Struggle over Slavery,” featuring Matthew Stewart, author of Nature’s God: The Heretical Origins of the American Republic. This talk draws material from a work in progress to lead a discussion about the role of Enlightenment ideas in shaping abolitionism, anti-slavery politics, and the Civil War. This talk is free and open to the public so grab your lunch and stop by!

– Wednesday, 12 April, 6:00PM : “The Rise and Fall of the American Party” is a public program that is part of The Irish Atlantic Series which is centered on our current exhibition. In this talk, Stephen T. Riley Librarian of the MHS, Peter Drummey, looks at the meteoric rise of the American Party – the “Know Nothings” – as well as its rapid decline with the approach of the Civil War. This talk is free and open to the public though registration is required. Pre-talk reception kicks-off at 5:30PM and the program starts at 6:00PM. 

– Saturday, 15 April, 10:00AM : The History and Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society Tour is a 90-minute docent-led walk through our public rooms. The tour is free, open to the public, with no need for reservations. If you would like to bring a larger party (8 or more), please contact Curator of Art Anne Bentley at 617-646-0508 or

While you’re here you will also have the opportunity to view our current exhibition: The Irish Atlantic: A Story of Famine Migration and Opportunity.

Please note that the Society is CLOSED on Monday, 17 April, in observance of Patriot’s Day.

Celebrate National Beer Day!

By Daniel Tobias Hinchen, Reader Services

If you are like me then you were unaware until this morning that today is National Beer Day in the United States. And just like that, you learned an important fact on a Friday afternoon.

On 13 March 1933, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt drafted a memo which read:

To the Congress:

I recommend to the Congress the passage of legislation for the immediate modificaiton of the Volstead Act, in order to legalize the manufacture and sale of beer and other beverages of such alcoholic content as is permissable under the Constitution; and to provide through such manufacture and sale, by substantial taxes, a proper and much-needed revenue for the Government. I deem action at this time to be of the highest importance. 1


According to the folks at that National Constitution Center, on 22 March 1933, Roosevelt signed the Cullen-Harrison Act, a piece of legislation that amended the Volstead Act of 1919. The Cullen-Harrison Act went into effect on 7 April 1933 and was met with celebration around the country. Happily for many, the CHA did not stick around long; it was voided upon ratification of the 21st Amendment to the Constitution in December 1933.2

In commemoration of the Cullen-Harrison Act of 1933, here are two recipes from the collections of the MHS to brew your own beer and spruce beer:

To brew Beer

     Take 3 pints of malt, a double handful of Hops, as much of bran or shorts, boil these in ten gallons of soft water for two hours. then strain it, and when cold, add half a pint of molasses a half a pint of yest and work it well. To colour it add a handfull of roasted barley whilst it is boiling. The yest of this beer put in a bottle with water, & kept in a cool place, will serve to make Bread.__

Spruce Beer

          Take half a pint of Spruce. boil it two hours in five gallons of soft water, a quart of molasses. When cold work in a large tea cup full of good thick yest. let it work 24 hours & then bottle it off. it will be pleasant Beer without the Spruce.__ 3


While it is too late to brew and sample today, you have a full year to practice your brewing and have a homemade batch for the next National Beer Day. I, for one, look forward to reader submissions to see who creates the best brew.



1. Franklin D. Roosevelt: “Message to Congress on Repeal of the Volstead Act.,” March 13, 1933. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. Accessed 7 April 2017.

2. National Constitution Center, “The constitutional origins of National Beer Day.,” April 7, 2017. Constitution Daily Accessed 7 April 2017.

3. From an Anonymous recipe book, ca. 1800.


This Week @ MHS

By Dan Hinchen

It’s a pretty quiet week here at the Society as we begin a new month. Here is what lies ahead:

– Tuesday, 4 April, 5:15PM : Agnès Delahaye of the Université Lyon II presents this week’s Early American History seminar titled “Promotional Literature and Identity in Colonial Massachusetts.” This essay examines the institutional and cultural factors behind promotional literature, the body of colonial sources written for metropolitan audiences. The essay details the tropes and expressions of the commonality of purpose that Delahaye sees in most New England historiography, and explores the relationship between colonial historiography and exceptionalism in the New England tradition. Conrad E. Wright of the MHS provides comment. Seminars are free and open to the public; RSVP required.
Subscribe to receive advance copies of the seminar papers.

– Wednesday, 5 April, 12:00PM : Julia Rose Kraut of the Historical Society of the New York Courts leads this week’s Brown Bag lunch talk, entitled “A Fear of Foreigners and of Freedom: Ideological Exclusion and Deportation in America.” This talk examines the history of the exclusion and deportation of foreigners from the United States based on their beliefs, associations, and/or expressions, from the Alien Act of 1798 to the War on Terror. This talk is free and open to the public.

– Saturday, 8 April, 10:00AM : The History and Collections of the MHS is a 90-minute docent-led walk through the public spaces here at the Society. The tour is free and open to the public with no need for researvations for individuals and small groups. Larger parties (8 or more) should contact Curator of Art Anne Bentley in advance at 617-646-0508 or

While you’re here you will also have the opportunity to view our current exhibition: The Irish Atlantic: A Story of Famine Migration and Opportunity.