Guide to the Collection
This collection contains the personal and business papers of Amos A. Lawrence, merchant and investor in the textile industry, anti-slavery sympathizer, and benefactor of educational and other social causes.
Amos Adams Lawrence was born in Boston on 31 July 1814, the second child of Amos Lawrence and Sarah Richards Lawrence. He had an older brother, William Richards Lawrence, born 3 May 1812, who married Susan Combs Dana and died in 1885; and a younger sister, Susanna Lawrence, born 23 May 1817, who married Reverend Charles Mason and died 2 Dec. 1844.
After the death of their mother in 1819, the Lawrence children were sent to Groton, Mass. to live with their Lawrence grandparents and aunts while their father continued his thriving merchant business in Boston. Two years later, they returned to Boston to live with their father and his new wife, Nancy (Means) Ellis. Amos and Nancy had two children: Mary Means Lawrence, born 15 Apr. 1823, died 8 Dec. 1828; and Robert Means Lawrence, born 17 Sep. 1826, died 1 Nov. 1845.
Lawrence was sent away to school at Franklin Academy in Andover, Mass. He was not particularly happy in these surroundings, even running away for several days. Lawrence entered Harvard in 1831, but his studies there were interrupted the following year. Following some disturbances involving gunpowder that had been removed from Lawrence's room, President Josiah Quincy wrote to Amos Lawrence suggesting that his son might benefit from private tutoring for a time before returning to college. Sent to Bedford, Mass. to be tutored by J. Stearns, young Lawrence enjoyed himself so much that he voluntarily delayed returning to Harvard for eighteen months. He did return to Cambridge, however, and immediately following his graduation in 1835, traveled in the southern United States and Washington, D.C.
On 31 Mar. 1842. Lawrence married Sarah Elizabeth Appleton, the daughter of William and Mary Anne Appleton of Boston. They had seven children: Marianne Appleton Lawrence, born 12 May 1843, who married Robert Amory on 12 May 1864 and died 15 May 1882; Sarah Lawrence, born 5 July 1845, who married Peter Chardon Brooks on 4 Oct. 1866 and died 13 July 1915; Amory Appleton Lawrence, born 22 Apr. 1848, who married Emily Silsbee on 1 June 1871 and died 6 July 1912; William Lawrence, born 30 May 1850, who married Julia Cunningham on 19 May 1874 and died 6 Nov. 1941; Susan Mason Lawrence, born 4 Feb. 1852, who married William Loring on 25 Sep. 1883 and died 10 Mar. 1923; Hetty Sullivan Lawrence, born 21 Nov. 1855, who married Frederic Cunningham on 11 Dec. 1877 and died 20 Aug. 1931; and Harriett Dexter Lawrence, born 8 June 1858, who married Augustus Hemenway on 28 Dec. 1881.
Upon leaving college, Lawrence entered into business for himself as a commission merchant in the textile industry. In 1843, he established a partnership with Robert M. Mason under the name of Mason & Lawrence. Mason was forced by ill health to forego an active role in the firm after the first few years, and Lawrence was the more active partner for the forty years of the partnership's existence.
The firm of Mason & Lawrence was an extremely successful selling agency for several large textile mills in New England. Independently of the firm, Lawrence was also involved in the manufacture of textiles. His main investment in this area was the Ipswich Mills (Mass.), one of the earliest mills to manufacture cotton hosiery and other knitted goods in the country. This mill, acquired in 1860, eventually became the largest manufacturer of knit products in the United States.
Lawrence had many interests other than business. Like his father, he was deeply interested in education. In addition to his abiding support of Harvard and the Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge, he founded Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin, and established the nucleus of the University of Kansas at Lawrence, Kansas.
During the 1850s, Lawrence was deeply interested and involved in the political and social issues of the day. In both 1856 and 1860, he was nominated for the governorship of Massachusetts by the American Party, but declined. In 1860, he ran for governor on the Constitutional Union ticket, but was defeated.
Passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, which turned Kansas into a battleground for pro- and anti-slavery forces, shocked many people, including Lawrence, into acting on their anti-slavery beliefs. Eli Thayer of Worcester, Mass. advocated the organized emigration of anti-slavery settlers, but did not have the financial means to carry out such a plan. Lawrence, a strong supporter of a free Kansas, was instrumental in establishing the New England Emigrant Aid Company, which financed settlement by free state supporters. Lawrence served as treasurer of the Emigrant Aid Company for the first two years of its existence. In addition to his time, Lawrence also contributed large sums of money to the cause. His belief in and work on behalf of this venture is reflected by the wish of Kansas settlers to name a new village "Lawrence." (Records of the New England Emigrant Aid Company are also held by the Massachusetts Historical Society.)
Lawrence continued his active involvement in issues of the day following the outbreak of the Civil War. Although he had not previously been in the camp of the Republican Party or Abraham Lincoln, he became a wholehearted backer of the president and the war effort. In 1862, Lawrence was authorized by Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew to raise a battalion that became known as the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry, although age and family responsibilities kept him from riding off to war himself. He was also a strong supporter of the Massachusetts 54th Infantry Regiment, the first Black regiment raised in the North, providing financial backing, as well as lending his name to the effort.
With the end of the war, Lawrence began to live a much quieter life. Although he remained vitally interested in the affairs of the country, his days of greatest involvement in political and other public affairs were essentially coming to an end. One organization of which he did become president was the National Association of Cotton Manufacturers and Planters.
There was, however, one last flurry of social activism in the last year of his life. Along with Eli Thayer, his associate from Kansas days, Lawrence proposed the formation of a "Utah Emigrant Aid Company," modeled on the Kansas group, in order to populate Utah with non-polygamous non-Mormons. The effort came to naught, however, since the backers could not gain Congressional support and because the Mormons gave up polygamy in order to gain statehood.
In addition to the major donations of time and money that Lawrence made to educational, temperance, and anti-slavery endeavors, he was a constant benefactor of needy individuals, be they former servants in the Lawrence household, old schoolmates fallen on hard times, or merely persons whose causes had been recommended by someone whose judgment Lawrence trusted.
Lawrence moved with his family to the Longwood section of Brookline in 1851 and had a summer residence first in Lynn, then in Nahant. The Lawrence family was very close, and Lawrence regarded his wife and children as his greatest treasures. He remained very close to his brother William, who, with his family, also lived in Longwood. William had a summer house in Swampscott, and the brothers could see each other's houses from their respective porches.
Lawrence died at Nahant on 25 July 1886. He is buried in Mt. Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Mass. After his death, his son William published a memoir entitled Life of Amos A. Lawrence: With Extracts From His Diary and Correspondence (1888).
The Amos A. Lawrence papers contain 44 boxes, 1 cased volume, and 1 oversize box. The loose papers were at one time bound into volumes, but have since been disbound, with the page numeration remaining on the tops of many of the documents.
The collection consists of the personal and business papers of Amos A. Lawrence, a Boston, Mass. merchant and investor in the textile industry, anti-slavery sympathizer, and benefactor of educational and other social causes. His personal papers contain a substantial amount of family correspondence, both loose and in letterbooks, with his father Amos, brother William R., son Amory A., and other members of the Lawrence family. Business papers include correspondence with Robert M. Mason, Lawrence's partner in the firm of Mason & Lawrence; financial statements and other papers related to Lawrence's interest in the textile industry, in particular with Ipswich Mills; and account books kept from 1836-1842.
Correspondence and papers also pertain to Lawrence's interest, with Eli Thayer and Charles Robinson, in the New England Emigrant Aid Company and the emigration of anti-slavery supporters to Kansas following the Kansas-Nebraska Act; the establishment of Lawrence University (Appleton, Wis.) and the University of Kansas in Lawrence, a town named for him; his financial support of Harvard University and other individuals and institutions; his part in the raising of the 2nd Mass. Cavalry and the Mass. 54th Infantry Regiment; and the Utah Emigrant Aid Company, founded to populate Utah with non-polygamous non-Mormons. Lawrence's commonplace-book for 1833 is also included.
Among Lawrence's many correspondents are U.S. presidents Abraham Lincoln, Franklin Pierce, Andrew Johnson, and Theodore Roosevelt; Harvard presidents Josiah Quincy, C. C. Felton, and Charles W. Eliot; and abolitionist John Brown.
Gift of Mrs. Frederic Cunningham in 1927.
Detailed Description of the Collection
I. Loose correspondence and papers, 1817-1886
The loose papers contain a great deal of family correspondence, beginning with letters to Amos Adams Lawrence during his schooldays from his father Amos Lawrence and ending with letters to Lawrence from his grandchildren. In addition to the letters from his father, Lawrence corresponded extensively with his brother William, aunt Eliza Greene, uncle Samuel Lawrence, and after they had left home, his children.
Material from Lawrence's early business career provides information about the textile industry and Lawrence's role in it. An example of this is an 1837 "Sketch of some consignments and my relation to the consignee." Also included, primarily in the pre-Civil War years, are financial statements of companies Lawrence and/or his father were interested in, as well as letters on business matters addressed to Lawrence from his father or from partner Robert M. Mason. There are throughout the entire collection many letters from needy individuals seeking financial help from Lawrence.
Throughout the 1850s, Lawrence's correspondence is, in addition to business, heavily concerned with educational and political involvements. Not only was Lawrence University being established in Appleton, Wis., but closer to home, Lawrence was promoting educational and religious activities for workers at the Salmon Falls Company, of which he was a director. From 1854 to the beginning of the Civil War, Lawrence's papers relate almost exclusively to Kansas and politics. Eli Thayer and Charles Robinson corresponded extensively with Lawrence, Robinson in his role first as the Kansas agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company and later as the first Governor of Kansas. John Brown wrote to Lawrence (19 Mar. 1857) asking for funds to advance his cause, and Brown was also a topic of discussion in letters to Lawrence following the raid on Harper's Ferry. Edward Everett Hale also corresponded with Lawrence about Kansas. Lawrence continued to receive many letters from Robinson about Kansas matters during the postwar years. Their main concern at that time was the establishment of a college at Lawrence, Kansas. Lawrence also continued to send money for the relief of survivors and the families of victims of Quantrill's wartime raid.
Lawrence corresponded with several U.S. presidents before, during, and after their terms of office. Millard Fillmore wrote to Lawrence (Aug. 1856) about political matters and the role of the federal government in Kansas. Franklin Pierce, a kinsman of Lawrence's through his stepmother, is also represented in this collection. Besides several letters, an 1856 page with several signatures by Pierce is noted by Lawrence as "autographs of a small man who held a great office." Andrew Johnson corresponded with Lawrence beginning in 1861, as both men were vitally interested in keeping Johnson's native Tennessee in the Union. Letters from Abraham Lincoln (Aug. 1862) and Theodore Roosevelt (Sep. 1877) can also be found, although their content is not particularly noteworthy. There is also a letter signed by Mrs. Rutherford B. Hayes (Aug. 1877), thanking Lawrence for his hospitality on her recent visit to Boston.
Family correspondence comprises the bulk of the material from approximately 1870 on. Son Amory went into his father's business, and his letters from this period discuss both business and personal matters. For example, in a 12 Aug. 1877 letter to Amory, Lawrence explains his philosophy of charity and demonstrates that the more he gives away, the more he ends up with.
Because of his active involvement with Harvard over the years, there are many letters from Harvard presidents Josiah Quincy, C. C. Felton, and Charles M. Eliot.
II. Volumes, 1824-1884
Volumes are divided into two sections: personal volumes and business volumes. Personal volumes consist of letterbooks containing copies of personal letters, written mainly to family members, and miscellaneous personal volumes, including two commonplace books. Business volumes consist of letterbooks and financial business records. Some of the business letterbooks contain selected copies of personal correspondence at the end of the volume. Some business letterbooks are simply duplicates of others within the series, and some are partial duplicates (see especially Vols. 10-16).
A. Personal volumes, 1829-1859
B. Business volumes, 1824-1884
Amos Adams Lawrence papers, Massachusetts Historical Society.
Materials Removed from the Collection
Printed items were removed to the MHS Printed Collections.
This collection is indexed under the following headings in ABIGAIL, the online catalog of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Researchers desiring materials about related persons, organizations, or subjects should search the catalog using these headings.