COLLECTION GUIDES

ca. 1875-1878

Guide to the Collection

Restrictions on Access

The original sketch book has been removed to Special Collections. Photocopies, microfilm, and digital images are available for use by researchers.


Collection Summary

Abstract

This collection consists of a book of hand-colored sketches made by Making Medicine and others, including Bear's Heart, Buffalo Meat, Etah-dle-uh Doanmoe, and Koba, Cheyenne Indian prisoners at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida.

Biographical Sketches

Making Medicine (1844-1931)

Making Medicine (Cheyenne name: O-kuh-ha-tuh, or "Sun Dancer") was a Cheyenne warrior who became one of the most prolific of the Indian artists at Fort Marion and first sergeant of the company of guards there. When the Fort Marion prisoners were released in the spring of 1878, Making Medicine went to New York to be educated in the Christian ministry. He took the name David Pendleton Oakerhater after the family that sponsored him (the family of Senator George Pendleton), was ordained an Episcopal deacon on 7 June 1881, and worked as a missionary among the Plains Indian tribes for many years.

Note: Oklahoma State University has digitized many items related to David Pendleton Oakerhater at: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Oakerhater/index.html.

Bear's Heart (1851-1882)

Bear's Heart (Cheyenne name: Nock-ko-ist) was a Cheyenne Indian warrior. After his release from Fort Marion, he attended the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia and worked as a carpenter on a reservation in Oklahoma. He died of tuberculosis.

Buffalo Meat (1847-1917)

Buffalo Meat (Cheyenne name: O-e-wo-toh) was a Cheyenne warrior and later a deacon in the Baptist church. He died of tuberculosis.

Etah-dle-uh Doanmoe (1856-1888)

Etah-dle-uh Doanmoe (English name: Boy Hunting, a.k.a. Edwin Dunmoe) was a Kiowa warrior who served as quartermaster sergeant of the guards at Fort Marion. After his release, he attended Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia and Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. In 1880, he worked briefly at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. He returned to the Indian Territory as a Presbyterian missionary in 1888.

Co-hoe (1853-1924)

Co-hoe (English name: Broken Leg) was a Cheyenne warrior who attended Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute after his imprisonment at Fort Marion.

Koba (1848-1880)

Koba (English name: Wild Horse) was a Kiowa Indian warrior. After his release from Fort Marion, he attended Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia, worked on a farm in Massachusetts, and studied to be a tinsmith at Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He died of tuberculosis on a trip back to Indian Territory.

Tsait-kope-ta (1852-1910)

Tsait-kope-ta (English name: Bear Mountain) was a Kiowa warrior who later took the name Paul Caruthers.

Howling Wolf (1849-1927)

Howling Wolf (Cheyenne name: Ho-na-nist-to) was a Cheyenne warrior who was appointed sergeant of the guards at Fort Marion. When he was released in the spring of 1878, he intended to remain in the east to continue his education, but his eyesight was failing. After undergoing unsuccessful treatment in Boston, he returned to Indian Territory and rejoined his people on the reservation. Disillusioned by the poverty there, he spoke out for the rights of Indians and against the encroachment of Anglo-American culture, including the implementation of the Dawes Act in 1887. He died in a car accident.

Francis Parkman (1823-1893)

Francis Parkman was a Boston historian and Harvard professor who traveled extensively in North America and Europe. His books include The Oregon Trail (1849), The History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac (1851), and France and England in North America (7 vols., 1865-1892). He lived with the Sioux Indians for a few weeks in 1846.

Sources

Lookingbill, Brad D. War Dance at Fort Marion: Plains Indian War Prisoners. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006.

Petersen, Karen Daniels. Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.

Pratt, Richard Henry. Battlefield and Classroom: Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964.

Viola, Herman J. Warrior Artists: Historic Cheyenne and Kiowa Indian Ledger Art Drawn by Making Medicine and Zotom. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1998.

See also the Massachusetts Historical Society's "Focus On: Indian Ledger Art": http://www.masshist.org/objects/cabinet/october2001/october2001.html.

See also the National Museum of American History's "Keeping History: Plains Indian Ledger Drawings": http://americanhistory.si.edu/documentsgallery/exhibitions/ledger_drawing_1.html.

Collection Description

This sketch book of Indian ledger art contains hand-colored sketches made by Making Medicine and others, including Bear's Heart, Buffalo Meat, Etah-dle-uh Doanmoe, and Koba, Indian prisoners at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida. Indians prisoners, primarily Cheyenne and Kiowa, were held at Fort Marion for almost three years in an effort by the U.S. military to prevent further Indian uprisings after the Red River War of 1874-1875.

Also included in this collection is a map by Howling Wolf, sent as a message to his father in the form of a picture map on a postcard, of his voyage from Fort Marion to Savannah, Ga.

Acquisition Information

Gift of Mrs. John Forbes Perkins, Jan. 1956. Removed from the Francis Parkman papers (Ms. N-645 Tall).

Restrictions on Access

The original sketch book has been removed to Special Collections. Photocopies, microfilm, and digital images are available for use by researchers.

List of Sketches

Use the links below to access digital images of each page.

Minimic's picture letter, undatedPage taken from unidentified book.Artist unknown.Full page: 23 cm x 16.5 cm.

Recto

Pictogram letter sent to Minimic from his squaw relaying information about his family. Tucked into sketch book.

Verso

Letter from Mrs. J. Dorman Steele interpreting pictogram letter sent to Minimic from his squaw. Tucked into sketch book.

Howling Wolf's pictogram to his father Minimic, [1875-1878]Graphite and ink on postcard.Drawn by Howling Wolf (Cheyenne).Full page: 7.5 cm x 13 cm.

Recto

Pictogram letter from Howling Wolf to his father Minimic, describing Howling Wolf's journey from Fort Marion to Savannah and beyond. Tucked into sketch book.

Verso

Postcard addressed to Captain Pratt. Tucked into sketch book.

Francis Parkman's translation of Howling Wolf's pictogram, undatedInk on paper.Written by Francis Parkman.Full page: 7.1 cm x 11.3 cm.

Short note from Francis Parkman translating Howling Wolf’s pictogram letter for Minimic. Tucked into sketch book.

Insert
Unidentified clipping, undatedNewsprint.Unknown publication. 29 cm x 6 cm.

Tucked into sketch book.

NOTE: This newspaper clipping has not been digitized. See the microfilm (P-245) or photocopy (Ms. S-56) for access to this item.

"The Indian prisoners who made these pictures...," [1875-1878]Ink on paper.Written by Francis Parkman.Full page: 20.4 cm x 16.8 cm.

Description of contents of sketch book.

Roll call of prisoners, [1875-1878]Ink on wove paper.Written by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Full page: 20.4 cm x 16.8 cm.

List of names of prisoners held at Fort Marion, written out by Making Medicine.

List of Native American names with English translations, [1875-1878]Ink on wove paper.Written by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Full page: 20.4 cm x 16.8 cm.

List of Native American names and English translations.

Cheyenne buffalo chase, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper, lined.Drawn by [Making Medicine (Cheyenne)]?Image: 21 cm x 61.2 cm.

Buffalo Chase. Unsigned, possibly by Making Medicine.

NOTE: The size of this drawing, the orientation of the lined paper, and the separations along the fold lines indicate that this page was folded and inserted into the sketch book.

Native American Indian family group[?], [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, graphite on wove paper.Drawn by Bear's Heart (Cheyenne).Image: 16.7 cm x 20.5 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.2 cm.

Untitled family group. Campfire scene with tipis and figures. Signed "Bears Heart."

Lieutenant Zalinski by Making Medicine, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 14 cm x 13.2 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.7 cm.

Portrait of Lieutenant Zalinski by Making Medicine.

Native American Indians hunting bear, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 12.5 x 29 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

Untitled picture of two mounted Native American Indians hunting a bear. Signed "Making Medicine."

Chief Buffalo Meat hunting buffalo, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Buffalo Meat (Cheyenne).Image: 18 cm x 16 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.7 cm.

View of mounted Native American Indian hunting buffalo. Signed "Cheyenne Chief / Buffalo Meet."

U.S. Cavalry and Native American Indians, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 17.5 cm x 33.3 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

Untitled view of U.S. Cavalry, troops, and field artillery advancing on Native American Indian chiefs and warriors, all mounted. Signed "Making Medicine."

Native American Indians hunting buffalo, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 17 cm x 32.5 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 32.5 cm.

View of mounted Native American Indian hunting buffalo. Signed "Making Medicine."

Osage-Kiowa parley, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil, graphite on wove paper.Drawn by Etah-dle-uh Doanmoe (Kiowa).Image: 16.5 cm x 16.7 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.7 cm.

View of Osage tribe and Kiowa tribe in face-to-face parley. Signed "Etah-dle-uh" at top.

Sioux and Ute tribes at war, [1875-1878]Ink, colored pencil, graphite on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 19 cm x 32 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

Untitled view of battle between mounted Sioux and Ute Native American Indians. Signed "Making Medicine."

Osage and Cheyenne tribes at war, [1875-1878]Ink, colored pencil, graphite on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 20.5 cm x 33 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

Untitled view of mounted battle between Osage and Cheyenne tribes of Native American Indians. Signed "Making Medicine."

Cheyenne Indians hunting buffalo, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor on wove paper.Drawn by Bear's Heart (Cheyenne).Image: 19 cm x 32 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

View of Cheyenne tribe of Native American Indians hunting buffalo. Signed "Bears Heart."

Osage war dance, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor on wove paper.Drawn by Bear's Heart (Cheyenne).Image: 19.5 cm x 30.5 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

Osage War Dance [signed] Bears Heart.

Cheyenne medicine pow-wow, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor on wove paper.Drawn by Bear's Heart (Cheyenne).Image: 20 cm x 33.3 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

Cheyenne Medicine Pow-wow [signed] Bears Heart. View of ceremony under large tent amid tipis.

U.S. Cavalry advancing on Cheyenne village, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Bear's Heart (Cheyenne).Image: 17.5 cm x 33.3 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

Untitled view of U.S. Cavalry drawn up in ranks before Cheyenne village, with attacking Cheyenne warriors. Signed "Bears Heart."

Osage warriors under attack by Cheyenne, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Buffalo Meat (Cheyenne).Image: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

Untitled view of Osage warriors fighting off attacking Cheyenne warriors. Signed "Buffalo Me et / Chyenne."

Pawnee warriors under attack by Cheyenne, [1875-1878]Ink, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Co-hoe (Cheyenne).Image: 19.5 cm x 33.3 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.3 cm.

Untitled view of battle between Pawnee and Cheyenne Native American Indians. Signed "Co-hoe."

Cheyenne Chief Roman Nose, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by [Making Medicine (Cheyenne)].Image: 14 cm x 13 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.5 cm.

Roman Nose Cheyenne Chief. Attributed to Making Medicine.

Cheyenne Chief White Horse, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 16.5 cm x 11.5 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.5 cm.

White Horse Cheyenne Chief / [signed] Making Medicine.

Native American Indian buffalo hunt, [1875-1878]Ink, colored pencil, graphite on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 15.5 cm x 33.2 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.2 cm.

Untitled view of Native American Indians hunting buffalo. Signed "Making Medicine."

Miss Trask, Miss H. and Lt. Zalinski, [1875-1878]Ink, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 13.3 cm x 28 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.2 cm.

Miss Trask Miss H. Lieut. Z. [Zalinski]. Three figures on horseback, the ladies on side-saddles. Signed "Making Medicine."

Native American Indians, [1875-1878]Ink, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Making Medicine (Cheyenne).Image: 15 cm x 20.8 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 33.2 cm.

Untitled view of standing American Indian hailing mounted Indian. Signed "Making Medicine."

Native American Indian, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor on wove paper.Drawn by Bear's Heart (Cheyenne).Image: 13.4 cm x 10.8 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.8 cm.

Untitled view of mounted Native American Indian. Signed "Bears Heart."

Native American Indian Chief, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor on wove paper.Drawn by Bear's Heart (Cheyenne).Image: 13 cm x 12 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.8 cm.

Untitled view of mounted Native American Indian chief. Signed "Bears Heart."

Wounded Kiowa warrior, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor on wove paper.Drawn by Koba (Kiowa).Image: 15 cm x 17.2 cm; full page: 16.8 cm x 20.5 cm.

Kiowa by Koba [wounded Native American Indian warrior on wounded horse].

Fighting Osage and Kiowa Chiefs, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor on wove paper.Drawn by Koba (Kiowa).Image: 16 cm x 20.4 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.8 cm.

Untitled fight between mounted Osage and Kiowa Native American Indians. Signed "Koba."

Fighting Kiowa warriors, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor on wove paper.Drawn by Tsait-kope-ta (Kiowa).Image: 20 cm x 16.5 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.8 cm.

Untitled view of mounted Kiowa Native American Indians, fighting. Signed "Tsait-kope-ta."

Native American Indians with U.S. flag, [1875-1878]Ink, colored pencil on wove paper.Drawn by Etah-dle-uh Doanmoe (Kiowa).Image: 16.1 cm x 13.7 cm; full page: 20.5 cm x 16.8 cm.

Untitled view of standing Native American Indians, brave handing U.S. flag to chief. Signed "Eta de li uh Kiowa."

Osage Brave shooting [Kiowa?] Chief, [1875-1878]Ink, watercolor, graphite on wove paper.Drawn by unidentified Native American Indian.Image: 17.4 cm x 10 cm; full page: 20.4 cm x 16.8 cm.

Untitled view of Osage warrior shooting [Kiowa?] chief. Unsigned.

Names of Indian prisoners, [1875-1878]Graphite on paper.Written by unidentified Native American Indian.Image: 17.5 cm x 11.5 cm; full page: 20.4 cm x 16.8 cm.

Seven names of Indian prisoners.

Preferred Citation

Book of sketches made at Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., Massachusetts Historical Society.

Access Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in ABIGAIL, the online catalog of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Researchers desiring materials about related persons, organizations, or subjects should search the catalog using these headings.

Persons:

Bear's Heart, 1851-1882.
Buffalo Meat.
Doanmoe, Etahdleuh, 1856-1888.
Howling Wolf, 1849-1927.
Koba.

Subjects:

Cheyenne Indians.
Drawings.
Fort Marion (St. Augustine, Fla.).
Indian art--North America.
Indian captivities.
Indian ledger drawings.
Indians of North America--By name--Bear's Heart.
Indians of North America--By name--Buffalo Meat.
Indians of North America--By name--Etahdleuh Doanmoe.
Indians of North America--By name--Howling Wolf.
Indians of North America--By name--Koba.
Indians of North America--By name--Making Medicine.
Indians of North America--Florida--St. Augustine.
Maps, Manuscript.
Notebooks.
Prisoners--Florida--St. Augustine.