[The preceding text was added in the handwriting of Charles Francis Adams]
Inside Front Cover
Sent to be washed at
Philadelphia. 6 shirts 5 Stocks -- 2 Caps [and] Pair worsted stockings in one silk Handkerchief.
AUG. 15. MONDAY.
Last Evening, after spending the Evening at the Meeting House to hear the
Singing, We were invited into Mr. Church's. Mr.
Seymour, Mr. Paine [Payne],
Lawyers, and Mr. Bull, Merchant, came to see us and invited us
to dine with them this Day with the Principal Gentlemen of the Place.
This Morning Mr. Deane, and two young Gentlemen,
Messrs. Webbs, came to see us from
Weathersfield. -- Mr. Deane says there is
30,000 Bushells of Flax Seed sent to
New York yearly, in Exchange for Salt. That it would be no Loss
to stop this, as the Seed may be made into Oil more profitably. They have many
Oil Mills in the Colony.
Connecticutt sends great Quantities of Provisions, Cattle and
Horses to the
West Indies, and bring [brings] great
Quantities of Rum as well as Sugar and Molasses, to
N. York. Some Lumber they send, Staves, Hoops, Heading &c.
There is a Stream of Provisions continually running from
Mr. Deane, and Messrs. Webbs, are
intimately acquainted and closely connected with People at
We dined at the Tavern, with upwards of thirty Gentlemen of the first
Character in the Place, at their Invitation. The Secretary Willis
[Wyllys], the Treasurer, Judge
Talcott, Mr. Alsop, Merchant, Mr.
Paine and Mr. Seymour Lawyers, two Mr.
Bulls, and many others. The Company appeared to be determined to abide
by the Resolutions of the Congress.
After Dinner at 4 o Clock We satt out, for
Middleton. A Number of Gentlemen in Carriages and a
No. on Horse back
insisted upon attending us, which they did to our Brother
Weathersfield. There We stopd, and
were most cordially and genteelly entertained with Punch, Wine, and Coffee.
We went up the Steeple of
Weathersfield Meeting House from whence is the most grand and
beautifull Prospect in the World, at least that I
ever saw. Then We rode to
Middleton and lodged at Bigelows. There
Mr. Hobby and another Gentleman came to see us.
AUG. 16. TUESDAY.
This Morning Dr. Elliot Rawson, Mr.
Allsop, Mr. Mortimer, and others the Committee of
Correspondence, Mr. Henshaw, and many other Gentlemen, came to
pay their Respects to Us, and to assure us that they thought, We had their all
in our Hands, and that they would abide by whatever should be determind on,
even to a total Stoppage of Trade to
Europe and the
This morning rode to
Wallingford, to Johnsons where We dine.
We wrote a Card to Dr. Dana, to dine with us. He came and
informed us that he had wrote some Cards to Us to put up with him this Night.
The Doctor dined with us and was very social and agreable.
At four We made for
Haven. 7 Miles out of Town at a
Tavern We met a great Number of Carriages and of Horse Men who had come out to
meet us. The Sherriff of the County and Constable of the Town and the Justices
of Peace were in the Train, as We were coming We met others to the amount of I
know not what Number but a very great one. As We came into the Town all the
Bells in Town were sett
to ringing, and the People Men,
Women and Children, were crouding
at the Doors and
as if it was to see a Coronation. At Nine O Clock the
Cannon were fired, about a Dozen Guns I think.
These [illegible] Expressions of Respect to Us, are intended
as Demonstrations of the Sympathy of this People with the
Massachusetts Bay and its Capital, and to shew their Expectations from the Congress and their
Determination to carry into Execution whatever shall be agreed on.
No Governor of a Province, nor General of an Army was ever treated with so
much Ceremony and Assiduity, as We have been, throughout the whole Colony of
Connecticutt, hitherto, but especially all the Way from
N. Haven, inclusively.
Nothing shews to me, the Spirit of the
Town of New Haven, in a stronger Point of Light, than the
Politeness of Mr. Ingersoll Judge of Admiralty for the
Pensilvanian middle District, who came over with his Neighbours this Evening, and made his Compliments very
respectfully to Tom. Cushing, Sam. Adams,
John Adams and Bob. Paine.
The Numbers of Gentlemen who have waited on Us from Hartford to this Place,
the Heat of the Weather and the shortness of the Time, have made it impossible
for me to learn the Names.
AUG. 17. WEDNESDAY AT
We are told here that
New York are now well united and very firm.
This Morning Roger Sherman Esqr., one of the Delegates for
Connecticutt, came to see us at the Tavern, Isaac
Bears's. He is between 50 and 60-a solid sensible Man. He said he read
Mr. Otis's Rights &c. in 1764 and thought that he had
conceeded away the Rights of
America. He thought the Reverse of the declaratory Act was true,
vizt. that the Parliament of
G.B. had Authority to make Laws for
America in no Case whatever. He would have been very willing the
Massachusetts should have rescinded that Part of their Circular
Letter, where they allow Parliament to be the Supream Legislative, over the Colonies in any Case.
Mr. Jones, Mr. Douglass, and several other
Gentlemen accompanied us, to take a View of the Town. It is very pleasant.
There are 3 Congregational Meeting Houses and one Episcopal Church, near
together. Went to view the Grave Stone of Dixwell the
Regicide, in the Burying Yard.
Went to Colledge and saw their Library, their
Apparatus and Chappell &c.
Mr. Dwight and Mr. Davenport, two of the
Tutors, waited on us with great Civility.
We dined with Mr. Douglass, with Mr. Badcock
[Babcock], son of Dr. Badcock of
Westerly, Mr. Odle [Odell],
Mr. Smith, Mr. Sherman and a
No. of Ladies. Were very genteelly entertained, and
spent the whole Afternoon in Politicks, the Depths
of Politicks. Mr. Douglass
shew [shewed] us his Garden, which is
a very good one -- fine fruit, and Musk Mellens and
Water Mellens such as I never saw before, a Musk
Mellen 17 Inches long and a Water Mellen, whose Inside looked as if it was
An Enquiry was started, who were the Members of
the H. of Commons who had Plantations in the
West Indies, and who were returned by the Interest of the West
No one could tell. None could pretend to foresee the Effect of a total Non
Exportation to the
Jamaica was said to be the most independent Part of the
World. They had their Plantane for Bread. They had vast forrests, and could make their own Heading, Staves and
Hoops. They could raise their own Provisions.
This Afternoon and Evening We had a plentifull
AUG. 18 THURSDAY.
Mr. Badcock is of the same Mind with Major
Hawley, that a Non Importation and Non Consumption Agreement will not
be observed faithfully observed -- That the Congress have not Power
to inforce Obedience to their Laws -- That they will be like a Legislative
without an Executive.
We had a good deal of Chatt last Evening with
Mr. Bears our Landlord. By his Account, the Parade which was
made, to introduce Us into Town, was a Sudden Proposal, in order to divert the
Populace from erecting a Liberty Pole &c. Ingersols
Friends were at the Bottom of it.
Breakfasted at Bryants in
Milford, where there are two Meeting Houses and a Church. We
visited the burying Yard and the Tomb of Paines Great
Grandfather R. Treat 30 years Governor and Deputy Governor
died 1710, 87 Years of Age. There is an old venerable Monument over him, with
About 10 We passed
the Housatonnoc River, at
Stratford, a River which runs up 150 Miles and more,
tho it is not navigable above 10 miles. We
stoped at Curtis's. The People here
Boston is suffering Persecution, that now is the Time for all
the rest to be generous, and that
Boston People must be supported.
Fairfield, at Bulkeleys. Mr. Elliot
[Eliot] the new Minister of this Town came to see
us. This is a County Town, and has an elegant Court House, Meeting House and
Church, as well as many very elegant private Houses.
Mr. Burr came to see us.
After noon We rode to Quintards of
Norwalk, where we are to put up, having rode 36 Miles, and
having 50 Miles to
AUG. 19. FRYDAY.
Rode to Fitch's of
Stamford, where we breakfasted. Rode to
Rye, the first Town in the Province of
N. York. The Barber says that Religion dont flourish in this
Town. The congregational Society have no Minister. The Church minister has
45 from the Society. They have a School for Writing and Cyphering, but
no Grammar School. There is no Law of this Province that requires a Minister or
AUG. 20. SATURDAY.
Lodged at Cocks at
Kingsbridge, a pretty Place --
Uncas River running before the Door and verdant Hills all round.
This Place is about 15 Miles from
Uncas River is the Bound between the
County of Westchester and the
County of N. York. This Place is
10 Miles from
Hell Gate, which is supposed to be occasioned by a large Cavern
under the Rocks, into which the Water rushes at certain Times of the Tide. This
Whirlpool is 5 Miles from the City.
We breakfasted at Days, and arrived in the
City of New York at 10 O Clock -- at Hulls, a
Tavern, the Sign the Bunch of Grapes. We rode by several very elegant Country
Seats, before we came to the City.
This City will be a Subject of much Speculation to me.
From Hulls We went to private Lodgings at Mr.
Tobias Stoutenberg's, in
Kings Street, very near the City Hall one way and the French
Church the other. Mr. McDougal and Mr. Platt
came to see us. Mr. Platt asked us to dinner next Monday.
Mr. McDougal stayed longer, and talk'd a good deal. He is a very sensible Man, and an open
one. He has none of the mean Cunning which disgraces so many of my
Country men. He offers to wait on us this
afternoon to see the City.
After Dinner, Mr. McDougal and Mr. Platt
came and walked with Us, to every Part of the City. First We went to the Fort
where We saw the Ruins of that magnificent Building the Governors House From
the Parade before the Fort you have a fine Prospect of
the East River or
the Sound and of
-- of Long Island, beyond
the Sound River, and of
New Jersey, beyond
Hudsons River. The Walk round this Fort is very pleasant,
the Fortifications are not strong. Between the
Fort and the City is a beautifull
Elipsis of Land,
railed in with solid Iron, in the Center of which is a Statue of his Majesty on
, very large, of solid Lead, gilded with
Gold, standing on a Pedastal
of Marble very high.
We then walked up the
, a fine Street, very wide,
and in a right Line from one End to the other of the City. In this
We saw the old Church, and the new Church. The
new is a very magnificent Building -- cost 20,000 York Currency. The
Prison is a large and an handsome stone building. There are two
of Barracks. -- [illegible]
New York Colledge
which is also a
large Stone Building. A new Hospital is building of Stone. We then walked down
to a ship Yard
, where a Dutch East India Ship is
building of 800 Tons burden. Then We walked round thro
another Street which is the Principal Street of
Business. Saw the several Marketts
. After this We
went to the Coffee House, which was full of Gentlemen, read the
, &c. Here were introduced to Us
Mr. Morine [John Morin]
Scott and a
Mr. Litchfield, who invited us to Hulls
Tavern, where we went and staid
till 11 o Clock. We
supped together, and had
is a Lawyer, of about 50
years of Age, a sensible Man, but not very polite. He is said to be one of the
readiest Speakers upon the Continent. It was he who harrangued
the People, and prevailed upon them to
discard the Resolves of their Committee of 51 as void of Vigour
, Sense and Integrity.
Mr. Scott was censuring
McDougal in a friendly free Way for not insisting upon
choosing Delegates by Ballot, &c.
Mr. Platt said but little. But McDougal
was talkative, and appears to have a thorough Knowledge of Politicks. The two great Families in this Province, upon
whose Motions all their Politicks turn, are the
Delanceys and Livingstones. There is Virtue
and Abilities as well as fortune, in the Livingstones, but not
much of either of the three in the Delanceys, according to
The Streets of this Town are vastly more regular and elegant than those in
Boston, and the Houses are more grand as well as neat. They are
almost all painted -- brick buildings and all.
In our Walks they shewed us the House of
Mr. William Smith, one of their Council and the famous Lawyer
-- Mr. Thomas Smith &c., Mr. Rivington's
AUG. 21. SUNDAY.
Went to Meeting at the old
Presbyterian Society, where Dr. Pemberton
formerly preached. We heard Dr. Rogers
"seek first the Kingdom of God and his Righteousness and all other Things
shall be added unto you." After Service, Mr. Peter Vanbrugh
Livingston and Mr. Thos. Smith came to our Lodgings
introduced to Us by Mr. McDougall.
Mr. Livingston is an old Man, extreamly Stanch in the Cause, and very sensible. He
tells us, that Dr. Chandler and Dr. Cooper
and other Episcopal Clergymen, were met together about the Time of the News of
Boston Port Bill, and were employed night and Day writing
Letters and sending Dispatches to the other Colonies, and to
England. This he thinks was to form an Union of the Episcopal
Party thro the Continent in Support of ministerial
Measures. He says they never have been able to obtain a Charter for their
Burying Yard or the Ground on which their Presbyterian Church stands. They have
solicited their Governors, and have solicited at Home, without success.
In the afternoon We went to the same Meeting and heard Mr.
"These shall go away into everlasting Punishment." Both these Clergymen
are good Speakers, and without Notes.
The Psalmody is an exact Contrast to that of
Hartford. It is in the Old Way, as we call it --
all the drawling, quavering, Discord in the World.
After Meeting Mr. McDougal introduced me and Mr.
Paine to Mr. Wm. Smith, the Historian of
N. York, a Gentleman a little turn'd
of 40 -- a plain, composed Man to appearance. He very politely invited us to
Tea at his House, but we were engaged. He then enquired where we lodged, and
said he would wait on us.
After Meeting We went to Mr. McDougals, where we saw his
Lady, a charming Woman, and his Daughter an agreable Miss. Mrs. Climer
[Clymer] was there from
Philadelphia, who enquired very kindly after Mr.
Hancock and his Aunt and Mr. Jona. Mason and his
Family. This is a very facetious and social Lady. -- At Mr.
McDougals Coll. Folsom and
Major Sullivan, the Delegates from
N. Hampshire, came to see us. They were hastening over the ferry
for fear of the small Pox, neither of them having
had that Distemper.
Att Mr. McDougalls, a Number of
Gentlemen came to see us. Mr. Low, a Relation of the Delegate
N. York of that Name, Mr. Lamb, Mr.
Hewes a School Master, and many others, whose Names I cant
We then went to Mr. David Vanhorns, who sent his
Compliments to Mr. McDougal, and requested him to introduce Us
to his House as he was sick and unable to come out. He seems well affected to
the public Cause, and speaks very sensibly about it.
AUG. 22. MONDAY.
This Morning We took Mr. McDougal into our Coach and rode
three Miles out of Town, to Mr. Morine
to break fast
. A very pleasant
Ride! Mr. Scott
has an elegant Seat
Hudsons River just behind his House, and a rural Prospect all
round him. Mr. Scott
, his Lady and
Daughter, and her Husband Mr. Litchfield were dressed to
receive Us. We satt
in a fine Airy Entry, till called
into a front Room to break fast
. A more elegant
Breakfast, I never saw -- rich Plate -- a very large Silver Coffee
, a very large Silver Tea Pott
-- Napkins of the very finest Materials, and toast and
bread and butter in great
Perfection. After breakfast, a Plate of
Peaches, another of Pairs
and another of Plumbs
Muskmellen were placed on the Table.
Mr. Scott, Mr. William
Smith and Mr. William Livingston, are the
Triumvirate, who figured away in younger Life, against the Church of
England -- who wrote the independent Reflecter, the Watch Tower,
and other Papers . They are all of them Children of
Scott and Livingston
are said to be lazy. Smith improves every Moment of his Time.
Livingstone is lately removed into
N. Jersey, and is one of the Delegates for that Province.
Mr. Scott is an eminent Lawyer. He
drew the Answer of the Council to Governor [illegible] Coldens Reasons in favour of an Appeal in the Case of Forsey
vs. Cunningham. He is said to be one
of the readyest Speakers On the Continent.
told me that the
State of the New York Claim,
N. Hampshire Claim and
Canada Claim, which is printed [illegible]
the Journal of the House in
New York 1773, to the Lands contested between
Hudsons River was principally drawn by Mr.
Duane who has unhappily involved almost all his Property in those
He has purchased Patents of Government and Claims of
Soldiers &c. to the amount of 100,000 Acres. Mr. Duane is
an Episcopalian, so are all the Delegates from
N. York, excepting Mr. Livingston.
Mr. Jay is a young Gentleman of the Law of about 26,
Mr. Scott says an hard Student and a
Mr. Alsop is a Merchant, of a good Heart, but unequal to
the Trust in Point of Abilities, as Mr.
Mr. Low, the Chairman of the Committee of 51, they say will
profess Attachment to the Cause of Liberty but his Sincerity is doubted.
Mr. Wm. Bayard, Mr. McEvers, and
Mr. Beech, are Gentlemen who were very intimate with
General Gage when he was here. Mr. Bayard has
a son and a Son in Law in the Army, and a son in the Service of the East India
Company. These are connected with Mr. Apthorp and his
Contracts and are Lookers up to Government for favours -- are Correspondents of General
Gages -- and will favour his Measures,
tho they profess attachment to the American
Mr. McDougal gave a Caution to avoid every Expression here,
which looked like an Allusion to the last Appeal.
He says there is
Party here, who are intimidated by
Fears of a Civil War, and they have been induced to acquiesce by Assurances
that there was no Danger, and that a peacefull
Cessation of Commerce would effect Relief.
Another Party he says are intimidated [illegible] least the
levelling Spirit of the
New England Colonies should propagate itself into
Another Party are prompted by Episcopalian Prejudices, against
Another Party are Merchants largely concerned in Navigation, and therefore
afraid of Non Importation, Non Consumption and Non Exportation Agreements.
Another Party are those who are looking up to Government for
About 11 O Clock four of the Delegates for the City and County of
N. York came to make their Compliments to us -- Mr.
Duane, Mr. Livingston, Mr. Low and
Mr. Alsop. Mr. Livingston is a
down right strait
Man. Mr. Alsop is a soft sweet Man. Mr.
Duane has a sly, surveying Eye, a little squint Eyed -- between 40 and
45 I should guess -- very sensible I think and very artfull
. He says their private Correspondence and their
that the Nation is against us, that we cannot depend upon any Support of any
kind from thence, that the Merchants are very much against us, that their Pride
is touched and what they call their Rights by our turning away our
Ships from our Ports.
A Question arose whether it was a Prerogative of the Crown at common Law to
licence Wharfes. I thought it was by Statutes at
home which were never extended to
America before the
Boston Port Bill. Mr. Duane was of my Opinion.
Mr. Livingston thought it was a Prerogative of the Crown at
Common Law. Said it had been so understood here -- that all the public Wharfes
in this Town were by Charter from the Governor. He questioned whether the
officers of the Customs were obliged to attend any Wharfes, but
Mr. Morin Scott called upon Us at
our Lodgings, and politely insisted upon our taking a Seat in his Chariot, to
Mr. Platts. We accepted the Invitation and when We came there
were shewn into as elegant a Chamber as ever I saw --
the furniture as rich and splendid as any of Mr. Boylstones.
Mr. Low, Mr. Peter Vanbrugh Livingston,
Mr. Phillip Livingston, Dr. Treat a Brother
of the Minister, and Mr. McDougal,
Mr. Scott and Mr.
Litchfield dined with us and spent the Afternoon.
P. V. Livingston is a sensible Man, and a Gentleman -- he
has been in Trade, is rich, and now lives upon his Income. Phill.
Livingston is a great, rough, rappid Mortal.
There is no holding any Conversation with him. He blusters away. Says if
England should turn us adrift we should instantly go to civil
Wars among ourselves to determine which Colony should govern all the rest.
Seems to dread
N. England -- the Levelling Spirit &c. Hints were thrown out
of the Goths and Vandalls -- mention was made of our hanging the Quakers,
&c. I told him, the very Existence of the Colony was at that Time at Stake
-- surrounded with Indians at War, against whom they could not have defended
the Colony, if the Quakers had been permitted to go on.
AUG. 23. TUESDAY.
We went upon the new
Dutch Church Steeple and took a View of the City. You have a
very fine View of the whole City at once -- the Harbour,
N. Jersey &c. The whole City is upon a Levell -- a Flatt. The Houses in
general are smaller than in
Boston and the City occupies less Ground.
We breakfasted with Mr. Low
Gentleman of Fortune and in Trade. His Lady is a Beauty. Rich Furniture again,
for the Tea Table. Mr. Lott, the Treasurer of the Province,
with us, and politely asked us to dine
or to break fast
with him but we were engaged for
all the Time we were to stay.
The Conversation turned upon the Constitution of the City; the
[illegible] Mayor and Recorder are appointed by the Governor, the
Aldermen and Common Council are annually elected by the People. The Aldermen
are the Magistrates of the City and the only ones. They have no justices of the
Peace in the City, so that the Magistracy of the City are all the Creatures of
the People. The City cannot tax itself. The Constables, Assessors &c. are
chosen annually. They Petition the Assembly every Year to be impowered by Law
to assess the City for a certain Sum.
The whole Charge of the Province is annually between 5 and 6000 York
Money. Mr. Cushing says the Charge of the
Massachusetts is about 12,000 L.M., which is 16,000 York
Currency. The Support of
Harvard Colledge, and of Forts and
Garrisons and other Things makes the Difference.
About Eleven o Clock Mr. Low,
Mr. Curtenius, Mr. Pascall Smith, Mr.
Van Shaw [Van Schaack] and others, a Deputation
from the Committee of Correspondence from this City, waited on Us, with an
Invitation to dine with them Thursday next which we accepted.
One of the Gentlemen said, he was in
England at the Time of a former Non Importation Agreement and it
was not much felt among the Merchants or Manufacturers. Another of them replyed
the true Cause of that was the German Contract and the Demand from
Mr. Ebenezer Hazard waited on me with a Letter requesting
my assistance in making his Collection of American State Papers. I recommended
him to Mr. S. Adams, and Dr. Samuel Mather. I
advised him to publish from Hackluyt,
the Voyage of Sebastian Cabot, in this Collection. He thought
it good Advice.
Hazard is certainly very capable of
the Business he has undertaken -- he is a Genius.
Went to the Coffee House, and saw the
Virginia Paper. The Spirit of the People is prodigious. Their
Resolutions are really grand.
We then went to Mr. Peter Vanbrugh Livingstons where at 3 O
Clock we dined, with Scott, McDougal,
Phillip Livingston, Mr. Thomas Smith, and a
young Gentleman Son of Mr. Peter Livingston.
Smith and young Livingston seem to be
modest, decent and sensible Men.
The Way we have been in, of breakfasting, dining, drinking Coffee &c.
about the City is very disagreable on some
Accounts. Altho it introduces us to the
Acquaintance of many respectable People here, yet it hinders us from seeing the
Colledge, the Churches, the Printers Offices and
Booksellers Shops, and many other Things which we should choose to see.
With all the Opulence and Splendor of this City, there is very little good
Breeding to be found. We have been treated with an assiduous Respect. But I
have not seen one real Gentleman, one well bred Man since I came to Town. At
their Entertainments there is no Conversation that is agreable. There is no Modesty -- No Attention to one
another. They talk very loud, very fast, and Altogether. If they ask you a
Question, before you can utter 3 Words of your Answer, they will break out upon
you, again -- and talk away.
AUG. 24. WEDNESDAY.
This Day Cushing and Paine went over to
Long Island to dine with Phill. Livingston.
Adams and I sent our Excuse that we were not very well. It was
raw and wett.
AUG. 25. THURSDAY.
Mr. Mathew Cushing came and escorted Us into
Trinity Church and Church Yard. Under the Chancell of this
Church Mr. Pratt was buried. This is an old Building. We then
St. Pauls. This is a new Building which Cost 18,000 Y
[York] Money. It has a Piazza in Front and some Stone
Pillars, which appear grand, but the Building taken all together does not
strike me, like the Stone Chappell or like
Dr. Coopers Meeting, Either on the Inside or Outside.
We then went to see Mr. Cushing work his new constructed
Pumps, which work easier he says, and convey more Water than any other.
We then went to Colledge, were introduced to
Mr. Harper [Harpur], who shew [shewed] Us the Library, the Books and
Curiosities. We were then introduced to Dr. Clossie
[Clossy] who was exhibiting a Course of Experiments
to his Pupils to prove the Elasticity of the Air.
There is but one Building at this Colledge and
that is very far from full of Schollars. They never
have had 40 Schollars at a Time.
We then made a Visit of Ceremony to Mr. William Smith, a
Councillor at Law, and a Councillor by Mandamus. This Gentleman has the
Character of a great Lawyer, a sensible and learned Man and yet a consistent
unshaken Friend to his Country and her Liberties. He entertained us with an
Account of his Negociating between the Governor
Colden, the General (Gage) and the People in
the year 1765, when the People attacked the Fort, to obtain the Stamped Papers
-- in which he acted an intrepid, an honest and a prudent Part. Mr.
McDougal told me of the Part he acted in the Affair of the Prosecution
of him for a Libel. The Governor asked him if he would not act for the Crown.
Mr. Smith said he would not do the dirty jobbs of Government -- He would not hold any Thing under the Crown upon such Terms.
Mr. Smith expressed his Sentiments of General
Gage and his new Station and Character very freely. He said he had a
great personal Regard for the General -- that he was a good natured,
and sociable Man here. But that he was
altogether unfit for
a Governor of the
Massachusetts. That he would loose all the Character he had
acquired as a Man, a Gentleman and a General and dwindle down into a mere
Scribbling Governor, a mere Bernard, and
Mr. Smith received us very politely.
We afterwards made a Visit to Friend Holt, the Liberty
Printer, and to Noel and Hazards. We
afterwards dined in the Exchange Chamber, at the Invitation of the Committee of
Correspondence, with more than 50 Gentlemen, at the most splendid Dinner I ever
saw -- a Profusion of rich Dishes &c. &c. I had a great deal of
Conversation with Mr. Duane who is a sensible, an
Artfull, and an insinuating Man. He talked of
Mr. Pratt -- said he had the greatest Memory of any Man he
ever saw, that he had read a great deal -- but that he had not a clear Head.
One of the Bar used to say that Mr. Pratt thickened the clear.
That he knew Mr. Pratt try 8 criminals in a forenoon, upon
different Indictments, and with the same jury, that he took no Notes, but
summed the Evidence with great Exactness, remembered every Circumstance of
every Testimony, and the Names of all the Witnesses, altho the Witnesses were dutch People and their Names
such as Mr. Prat never could have heard.
After Dinner the
Connecticutt Delegates came in. In the Evening several Gentlemen
came to our Lodgings and among others Mr. Sears.
AUG. 26. FRYDAY.
This Morning We went to see the City Hall, the Chamber where the
Supream Court sitts, and
that where the Mayor and Recorder sit. Afterwards We went down to the new Dutch
Church, which is a much more elegant Building than
St. Pauls -- it is the most elegant Building in the City. The
Pillars are smaller than Dr. Coopers, and the Pews are all
painted, but the Building is not so handsome. At Nine o Clock We crossed
Powlus Hook Ferry, to
N. Jersey -- then
Hackinsack Ferry, then
Newark Ferry and dined at
Elizabeth Town. After Dinner We rode twenty miles, crossed
Brunswick Ferry and put up at Farmers, in the
City of Brunswick. That Part of the Province of
New Jersey which We have passed is all upon a Level -- as fine a
Road as ever was trod. Yet the Lands seem to be good.
AUG. 27. SATURDAY.
Went to view the
City of Brunswick, there is a Church of
England, a Dutch Church and a Presbyterian Church in this Town,
there is some little Trade here -- small Craft can come up to the Town. We saw
a few small sloops. The River is very beautifull.
There is a stone Building for Barracks which is tolerably handsome. It is about
the Size of
Boston Goal. Some of the Streets are paved and there are 3 or 4
handsome Houses. Only about 150 Families in the Town. Rode ten Miles to
Jones's, where We stopped to blow our Horses.
Colony of N. Jersey is a Champaign.
About 12 O Clock We arrived at the Tavern in
Prince Town, which holds out the Sign of Hudibrass, near
Nassau Hall Colledge. The Tavern
Keepers Name is Hire.
The Colledge is a stone building about as large
as that at
New York. It stands upon rising Ground and so commands a
Prospect of the Country.
After Dinner Mr. Pidgeon a student of
Nassau Hall, Son of Mr. Pidgeon of
Watertown from whom we brought a Letter, took a Walk with us and
us the Seat of Mr. Stockton
a Lawyer in this
Place and one of the Council, and one of the Trustees of the
. As we returned we met Mr. Euston
and natural Philosophy, who
kindly invited Us to his Chamber. We went. The Colledge
is conveniently constructed. Instead of Entries
across the Building, the Entries are from End to End, and the Chambers are on
each side of the Entries. There are such Entries one above another in every
Story. Each Chamber has 3 Windows, two studies, with one Window in each, and
one Window between the studies to enlighten the Chamber.
Mr. Euston then shewed
Library. It is not large, but has some good Books. He then led us into the
Apparatus. Here we saw a most beautifull
an Orrery, or Planetarium, constructed by Mr. Writtenhouse of
Philadelphia. It exhibits allmost
every Motion in the astronomical World. The Motions of the Sun and all the
with all their Satellites. The Eclipses of
the Sun and Moon &c. He shewed
us another orrery,
which exhibits the true Inclination of the orbit of each of the
to the Plane of the Ecliptic. He then
Us the electrical Apparatus, which is the most
and elegant that I have seen. He charged
the Bottle and attempted an Experiment, but the State of the Air was not
. By this Time the Bell rang for
Prayers. We went into the Chappell
soon came in,
and we attended. The Schollars
sing as badly as the
New York. After Prayers the President attended Us to the Balcony
of the Colledge
, where We have a Prospect of an
Horizon of about 80 Miles Diameter. We went into the Presidents House, and
drank a Glass of Wine. He is as high a Son of Liberty, as any Man in
America. He says it is necessary that the Congress should raise
Money and employ a Number of Writers in the Newspapers in
England, to explain to the Public the American Plea, and remove
the Prejudices of Britons. He says also We should recommend it to every Colony
to form a Society for the Encouragement of Protestant Emigrants from the 3
Kingdoms. The Dr. waited on us to our Lodgings and took a Dish of Coffee. He is
one of the Committee of Correspondence, and was upon the Provincial Congress
for appointing Delegates from this Province to the general Congress.
Mr. William Livingston and He laboured
he says to procure an Instruction that the Tea
should not be paid for. Livingston he says is very sincere and
very able in the public Cause, but a bad Speaker, tho
a good Writer.
Here we saw a Mr. Hood a Lawyer of
Brunswick, and a Mr.
Jonathan Dickenson Serjeant, a young Lawyer of
Prince town, both cordial Friends to American Liberty. In the
Evening, young Whitwell, a student at this Colledge, Son of Mr. Whitwell at
Boston to whom we brought a Letter, came to see us.
By the Account of Whitwell and Pidgeon,
the Government of this Colledge is very Strict, and
the Schollars study very hard. The President says
they are all Sons of Liberty.
AUG. 28. SUNDAY.
Heard Dr. Witherspoon all Day.
A clear, sensible, Preacher. Mr. Mason came to see us. We sent
a Card to Mr. Serjeant a
Lawyer. He dined, drank Coffee and spent the Evening with Us. He is a young
Gentleman of about 25 perhaps. Very sociable. He gave us much Light concerning
the Characters of the Delegates from
Virginia &c. and concerning the Characters of the Principal
Lawyers, in all these Provinces.
Smith he says is the oracle of
New York for Chamber Council. Scott is a
Character very much like that of old Mr. Auchmuty. Set up all
Night at his Bottle.
Yet argue to Admiration next Day. An
admirable Speaker according to him. Duane is a plodding Body,
but has a very effeminate, feeble Voice. He says the Virginians speak in
Raptures about Richard Henry Lee and Patrick
Henry -- one the Cicero and the other the
Demosthenes of the Age. Jo Reed is at the
Head of his Profession in
Philadelphia. Fisher is next.
and Dickenson have
AUG. 29. MONDAY
Delaware River, to break fast. At
Williams's the Tavern at
Trenton Ferry, We saw four very large black Walnut Trees
standing in a Row behind the House. It seems that these Trees are plenty in
these Southern Provinces -- all the black Walnut Timber which is used by our
Cabinet Makers in
Boston is brought from the Southern Provinces.
Town of Trenton is a pretty Village -- it appears to be the
largest Town that we have seen in
the Jerseys, larger than
We then crossed the Ferry over
Delaware River to the
Province of [illegible] Pensylvania. We then rode
across an Elbow, and came to the
Delaware again -- a beautifull
River navigable up as far as
Trenton. The Country on each Side is very level.
We arrived at
Bristol about Eleven O Clock, a Village on
the Delaware, opposite to which is
Burlington. The Scenes of Nature are delightfull here. This is 20 Miles from
Philadelphia. Here We saw two or 3 Passage Waggons -- a Vehicle with four Wheels contrived to carry
many Passengers and much Baggage.
We then rode to the
red Lion and dined. After Dinner We stopped at
Frankfort [Frankford] about five Miles out of
Town. A Number of Carriages and Gentlemen came out of
Phyladelphia to meet us. Mr. Thomas Mifflin,
Mr. McKean of the Lower Counties, one of their Delegates,
Mr. Rutledge of
Carolina, and a Number of Gentlemen from
Philadelphia. Mr. Folsom and Mr.
N. Hampshire Delegates. We were introduced to all these
Gentlemen and most cordially wellcomed to
Philadelphia. We then rode into Town, and dirty, dusty, and
fatigued as we were, we could not resist the Importunity, to go to the Tavern,
the most genteel one in
America. There we were introduced to a Number of other Gentlemen
of the City -- Dr. Shippen, Dr. Knox,
Mr. Smith, and a Multitude of others, and to Mr.
Linch and Mr. Gadsden of
S. Carolina. Here we had a fresh Welcome to the
City of Philadelphia, and after some Time spent in Conversation
a curtain was drawn, and in the other Half of the Chamber a Supper appeared as
elegant as ever was laid upon a Table. About Eleven O Clock we retired.
By a Computation made this Evening by Mr. McKean, there
will be at the Congress about 56 Members, twenty two of them Lawyers.
Mr. McKean gave me an Account this Evening of the
Behaviour of Ruggles at the former
Congress 1765. He was treated pretty cavalierly, his Behaviour was very dishonourable.
A Gentleman who returned into Town with Mr. Paine and me in
our Coach, undertook to caution us against two Gentlemen particularly. One was
Dr. Smith the Provost of the Colledge, who is looking up to Government for an American
Episcopate and a Pair of lawn Sleeves. Soft, polite, insinuating, adulating,
sensible, learned, industrious, indefatigable, he has had Art enough and
Refinement upon Art to make Impressions even on Mr. Dickinson
and Mr. Reed.
AUG. 30. TUESDAY.
Walked a little about Town. Visited the Markett,
the State house, the Carpenters Hall where the Congress is to Sit, &c. --
then call'd at Mr. Mifins -- a
grand, spacious, and elegant House. Here We had much Conversation with
Mr. Charles Thompson [Thomson], who is it
seems about marrying a Lady a Relation of Mr. Dickensons with
5000. st [sterling]. This Charles
Thompson is the Sam. Adams of
Phyladelphia -- the Life of the Cause of Liberty, they
A Friend Collins came to see us and invited us to dine on
We returned to our Lodgings and Mr. Lynch, Mr.
Gadsden, Mr. Middleton, and young Mr.
Rutledge came to visit us. Mr. Linch introduced
Mr. Middleton to us. Mr. Middleton was silent
and reserved, young Rutledge was high enough. A Promise of the
King was mentioned. He started,
"I should have no Regard to his Word. His Promises are not worth any
Thing," &c. This is a young, smart, spirited Body.
Mr. Blair came to visit us, with another Gentleman.
Mr. Smith, an old Gentleman, was introduced to us, by his Son.
Another Mr. Smith came in with our Mr.
The Regularity and Elegance of this City are very striking. It is situated
upon a Neck of Land, about two Miles wide between
the River Delaware and
the River Schuilkill. The Streets are all exactly straight and
parrallell to the River.
Front Street is near the River, then 2 street, 3d, 4th, 5th,
6th, 7th, 8th, 9th. The cross Streets which intersect these are all equally
wide, straight and parallell to each other, and are
named from forrest and fruit Trees,
Chestnut Street, &c.
Towards the Evening, Mr. Thomas Smith, son of the old
Gentleman who made us a Visit who is a Brother of Mr. Smith
the Minister of
Casco Bay, and Dr. Shippen and his Brother and
Mr. Reed, went with Us to the Hospital. We saw, in the lower
Rooms under Ground, the Cells of the Lunaticks
Number of them, some [illegible]
merry, some Melancholly
, and among the rest
John Ingham, whom I once saved at
Taunton Court from being whipped and sold for Horse stealing. We
then went into the Sick Rooms which are very long, large Walks with rows of
Beds on each side, and the lame and sick upon them -- a dreadfull
Scene of human Wretchedness. The Weakness and
Languor, the Distress and Misery, of these Objects is truely a
Dr. Shippen then carried Us into his Chamber where he
shewed Us a Series of Anatomical Paintings of
exquisite Art. Here was a great Variety of Views of the human Body, whole, and
in Parts. The Dr. entertained us with a very clear, concise and comprehensive
Lecture upon all the Parts of the human Frame. This Entertainment charmed me.
He first shewed us a Set of Paintings of Bodies
entire and alive -- then of others with the Skin taken off, then with the first
Coat of [illegible] Muscles taken off, then with the second, then
with all -- the bare bones. Then he shewed Us
paintings of the Insides of a Man, seen before, all the Muscles of the Belly
being taken off. The Heart, Lungs, Stomach, Gutts.
AUG. 31. WEDNESDAY.
Breakfasted at Mr. Bayards of
Philadelphia, with Mr.
Sprout a presbyterian Minister.
Made a Visit to Governor Ward of
Rhode Island at his Lodgings. There We were introduced to
Mr. Dickenson, the Farmer of
Pensylvania, came to Mr. Wards Lodgings to see
us, in his Coach and four beautifull Horses. He
was introduced to Us, and very politely said he was exceedingly glad to have
the Pleasure of seeing these Gentlemen, made some Enquiry after the Health of his Brother and Sister, who
are now in
Boston. Gave us some Account of his late ill Health and his
present Gout. This was the first Time of his getting out.
Mr. Dickenson has been Subject to Hectic Complaints. He is
a Shadow -- tall, but slender as a Reed -- pale as ashes. One would think at
first Sight that he could not live a Month. Yet upon a more attentive
Inspection, he looks as if the Springs of Life were strong enough to last many
We dined with Mr. Lynch, his Lady and Daughter at their
Lodgings, Mrs. McKenzies. And a very agreable
Dinner and Afternoon we had notwithstanding the
We were all vastly pleased with Mr.
Lynch. He is a solid, firm, judicious Man.
He told us that Coll.
Washington made the most eloquent Speech at the
Virginia Convention that ever was made. Says he,
"I will raise 1000 Men, subsist them at my own Expence, and march my self at
their Head for the Relief of Boston."
He entertained us with the Scandalous History of Sir Egerton
Leigh -- the Story of his Wifes Sister, and of his Dodging his Uncle,
the Story the Girl swore to before the Lord Mayor, and all that.
There is not says Lynch a greater Rascall among all the Kings Friends. He has great Merit, in
Mr. Lynch says they shall export this Year 12,000 Wt. of
Indigo and 150,000 Tierces of Rice from
S. Carolina. About 300 Ships are employed.
Mrs. Lynch enquired kindly
after Mrs. Adams's Health, and Mrs.
Smith and family and Mr. Boylstone And Mrs.
and Mr. Gill &c.
SEPTR. 1. THURSDAY.
This Day, We breakfasted at Mr. Mifflins, Mr. C.
Thompson came in, and soon after Dr. Smith. The
famous Dr. Smith, the Provost of the Colledge. He appears a plain Man -- tall, and rather
Aukward -- there is an Appearance of Art.
We then went to return Visits to the Gentlemen who had visited us. We
visited a Mr. Cadwallader a Gentleman of large Fortune, a
grand and elegant House And Furniture. We then visited Mr.
Powell, another splendid Seat. We then visited the Gentlemen from
S. Carolina and about twelve were introduced to Mr.
Galloway, the Speaker of the House in
Pensylvania. He looks like Ben. Davis the
We dined at Friend Collins's -- Stephen
Collins's -- with Govr. Hopkins, Govr.
Ward, Mr. Galloway, Mr. Rhoades,
In the Evening all the Gentlemen of the Congress who were arrived in Town,
met at Smiths the new City Tavern and spent the Evening
together. 25 Members were come.
Maryland, and the
City of N. York were not arrived.
Mr. William Livingston from
the Jerseys, lately of
New York, was there. He is a plain Man, tall, black, wears his
Hair -- nothing elegant or genteel about him. They say he is no public Speaker,
but very sensible, and learned, and a ready Writer.
Mr. Rutledge the Elder, was there, but his Appearance is
not very promising. There is no Keenness in his Eye. No Depth in his
Countenance. Nothing of the profound, sagacious, brilliant, or sparkling in his
Yesterday We removed our Lodgings to the House of Miss Jane
Arch Street, about half Way between
Front Street and
I find that there is a Tribe of People here,
exactly like the Tribe in the
Massachusetts, of Hutchinsonian Addressers. There is indeed a
in every Colony. We have seen the Revolutions of
their Sentiments. Their Opinions have undergone as many Changes as the Moon. At
the Time of the Stamp Act, and just before it, they professed to be against the
Parliamentary Claim of Right to tax Americans, to be Friends to our
Constitutions, our Charter &c. Bernard was privately,
secretly endeavouring to procure an Alteration of our Charter. But he concealed
his Designs untill
his Letters were detected.
Hutchinson professed to be a stanch Friend to Liberty, and to
our Charter, untill
his Letters were detected -- a
great Number of good People thought him a good Man, and a Sincere Friend to the
Congregational Interest in Religion and to our Charter Priviledges
. They went on with this machiavilian
those Letters were detected --
after that they waited untill
Boston Port Bill was passed, and then, thinking the People must
submit immediately and that Lord North would carry his
whole System triumphantly, they threw off the Mask. Dr. Smith,
Mr. Galloway, Mr. Vaughan and others in this
Town, are now
just where the Hutchinsonian Faction were in the
Year 1764 
, when We were endeavouring to obtain a
Repeal of the Stamp Act.
Dined at Mr. Thom. Mifflins with Mr.
Lynch, Mr. Middleton, and the two
Rutledges with their Ladies. The two
Rutledges are good Lawyers. Govr.
Hopkins and Govr. Ward were in Company. Mr.
Lynch gave us a Sentiment
"The brave Dantzickers, who declare they will be free in the face of the
greatest Monarch in
Europe." We were very sociable, and happy.
After Coffee We went to the Tavern, where we were introduced to
Peyton Randolph Esqr., Speaker of
[illegible] Harrison, Richard Henry
Lee Esq., and Coll. Bland.
Randolph is a large, well looking Man. Lee is a tall, spare
Man. Bland is a learned, bookish Man.
These Gentlemen from
Virginia appear to be the most spirited and consistent, of any.
Harrison said he would have come on foot rather than not come.
Bland said he would have gone, upon this Occasion, if it had
SATURDAY. AUG. 3.SEPTR. 3.
Breakfasted at Dr. Shippens. Dr.
Witherspoon was there. Coll. R. H.
Lee lodges there. He is a masterly Man.
This Mr. Lee is a Brother of the Sherrif of
London, and of Dr. Arthur Lee, and of
Mrs. Shippen. They are all sensible, and deep thinkers.
Lee is for making the Repeal of every Revenue Law, the
Boston Port Bill, the Bill for altering the
Massachusetts Constitution, and the
Quebec Bill, and the Removal of all the Troops, the End of the
Congress, and an Abstinence from all Dutied Articles the Means -- Rum,
Mollosses, Sugar, Tea, Wine, Fruits, &c.
He is absolutely certain, that the same Ship which carries home the
Resolution will bring back the Redress. If we were to suppose that any Time
would intervene, he should be for Exceptions.
He thinks We should inform his Majesty, that We never can be happy, while
the Lords Bute,
Mansfield and North are his Confidents and
He took his Pen and attempted a Calculation of the Numbers of People
represented by the Congress which he made about 2200000, and of the Revenue now
actually raised which he made 80,000 St.
He would not allow Ld. North to have great Abilities.
He had seen no symptoms of them. His whole Administration had been blunder.
He said the Opposition had been so feeble and incompetent hitherto that it
was Time to make vigorous Exertions.
Mrs. Shippen is a religious and a reasoning Lady. She said
she had often thought, that the People of
Boston could not have behaved through their Tryals, with so much Prudence and firmness at the same
Time, if they had not been influenced by a Superiour Power.
Mr. Lee think's that to strike at the Navigation Acts would
unite every Man in
Britain against us, because the Kingdom could not exist without
them, and the Advantages they derive from these Regulations and Restrictions of
our Trade, are an ample Compensation for all the Protection they have afforded
us, or will afford us.
Dr. Witherspoon enters with great Spirit into the American
Cause. He seems as hearty a Friend as any of the Natives -- an animated Son of
This Forenoon, Mr. Caesar Rodney, of the lower Counties on
Delaware River, two Mr. Tilghmans from
Maryland, were introduced to us.
We went with Mr. Wm. Barrell to his Store and drank Punch
and eat dryed smoaked Sprats
with him, read the Papers and our Letters from
Dined with Mr. Joseph Reed the Lawyer, with Mrs.
Deberdt and Mrs. Reed, Mr. Willing,
Mr. Thom. Smith, Mr. De hart, and &c.
Spent the Evening at Mr. Mifflins with Lee
and Harrison from
Virginia, the two Rutledges,
Dr. Witherspoon, Dr. Shippen, Dr.
Steptoe, and another Gentleman. An elegant Supper, and We drank
Sentiments till 11 O Clock. Lee and Harrison
were very high. Lee had dined with Mr.
Dickenson, and drank Burgundy the whole Afternoon.
Harrison gave us for a Sentiment
"a constitutional Death to the Lords
Bute, Mansfield and North."
Paine gave us
"May the Collision of british [illegible] Flint and
American Steel, produce that Spark of Liberty which shall illumine the latest
Posterity." Wisdom to
Britain and Firmness to the Colonies, may
Britain be wise and
America free. The Friends of
America throughout the World. Union of the Colonies. Unanimity
to the Congress. May the Result of the Congress, answer the Expectations of the
People. Union of
Britain and the Colonies, on a Constitutional Foundation -- and
many other such Toasts.
Young Rutledge told me, he studied 3 Years at the Temple.
He thinks this a great Distinction. Says he took a Volume of Notes, which
J. Quincy transcribed. Says that young Gentlemen ought to
travel early, because that freedom and Ease of Behaviour
, which is so necessary, cannot be acquired but
in early Life.
This Rutledge is youngsprightly
but not deep. He has the most indistinct, inarticulate Way of Speaking. Speaks
through his nose -- a wretched Speaker in Conversation. How he will shine in
public I dont yet know. He seems good natured, tho
conceited. His Lady is with him in bad Health.
His Brother still maintains the Air of Reserve, Design and Cunning -- like
Duane, and Galloway, and Bob
Caesar Rodney is the oddest looking Man in the World. He is
tall -- thin and slender as a Reed -- pale -- his Face is not bigger
than a large Apple. Yet there is Sense and Fire, Spirit, Wit and
Humour in his Countenance.
He made himself very merry with Ruggles and his pretended
Scruples and Timidities, at the last Congress.
Mr. Reed told us, at dinner, that he never saw greater joy,
than he saw in
London when the News arrived that the Nonimportation agreement
was broke. They were universally shaking Hands and Congratulating each
He says that George Haley is the worst Enemy to
America that he knew there -- swore to him that he would stand
by Government in all its Measures, and was allways
censuring and cursing
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