I have not seen a Chimney in
Spain, except one of the french Consul at
Corunna. One or two half Imitations of Chimneys in the Kitchens
are all that I have seen. The Weather is very cold, the frosts hard, and no
fire when We stop, but a few Coals or a flash of Brush in the Kitchen, full of
Smoke and dirt, and covered with a dozen Pots and Kettles, and surrounded by 20
People looking like Chimney Sweepers.
[The preceding text was added in the handwriting of Charles Francis Adams]
[The preceding text was added in the handwriting of Charles Francis Adams]
JANUARY 8 SATURDAY.
San Juan Segun, to
Paredese de Nava. We have passed thro
a Village every League. The Villages are all built of Mud and Straw. They have
no Timber nor Wood nor Stone. The Villages all appear going to decay. Every
Village has Churches and Convents enough in it, to ruin it, and the whole
Country round about it, even if they had nothing to pay to the
King or the Landlord. But all three together, Church, State and
Nobility, exhaust the People to such a degree, I have no Idea of the
Possibility of deaper Wretchedness. There are in this
little Village, four Parish Churches and two Convents one of Monks and one of
Nuns, both of the order of St. Francis.
The Parish Churches, and their Curates are supported here by the
paid by the People. They pay every tenth Pound
of Wool, every Tenth Part of
Wine, Grain, Honey, in short of every
Thing. The good Curates sometimes alieviate
Severity of this by Compositions or Modus's.
The Archbishop has Power to do every Thing for the good of the People, that
is to make new Parishes or alter old ones at his Pleasure. There are but four
Spain. The Archbishop of Saint Iago, has
one hundred and Eighty thousand Ducats of Rent a Year.
This War is popular in
Spain, the Clergy, the Religious Houses and other Communities
have offered to grant large Sums to the King for the
Support of it. The English had become terrible to them.
Astorga to this Place, the face of the Country is altered. It is
a plain. But there is little Appearance of Improvement, Industry, or
Cultivation. No Trees, of any Kind scarcely. No forrest or Timber or fruit trees. Scarcely any fences
except a few mud Walls for Sheep folds.
JANUARY. 11TH TUESDAY.
Burgos. We came from
Sellada el Camino, 4 Leagues. We had Fog, and Rain and Snow, all
the Way, very chilly, and raw. When We arrived at the Tavern, (which is the
best in the City, as I am informed, and my Servant went to examine the others.)
We found no Chimney. A Pan of Coals in a Chamber without a Chimney was all the
Heat We could get. We went to view the Cathedral, which is ancient and very
large. The whole Building is supported upon four grant Pillars, the largest I
ever saw. Round the great Altar are represented our Saviour from the Scene of
his Agony, on the Mount, when an Angel presents him the Cup, to his
Crucifixion, bet. 2 thieves, his Descent from the
Cross and his Ascention into Heaven. The
Chapells round the great Altar are the largest I
Round the Altar, the several Stages are represented. 1. The Agony in the
Garden. 2. Carrying the Cross. 3d. Crucifixion between
2 Thieves. 3. Descent. 4. Ascention.
There is no Archbishop, at
Burgos. There was one, which made five, but the K. abolished it, and now there are but 4, in the
whole Kingdom. There is a
Chapell of Saint Iago.
Went into three Booksellers Shops, to search for a Chart or Map of
Spain, but could find none, except a very small and erroneous
one in a Compendio of History of
It is five and Twenty Years that I have been, almost constantly, journeying
and voyaging, and I have often undergone severe Tryals, great Hardships, cold, wet, heat, fatigue, bad
rest, want of sleep, bad nourishment, &c. &c. &c. But I never
experienced any Thing like this journey. -- Every Individual Person in Company
has a great Cold. We go along barking, and sneezing and coughing, as
if We were fitter for an Hospital than for Travellers, on the Road.
My Servant and all the other Servants in Company, behave worse than ever
they do I knew servants behave. They are dull, inactive,
unskillfull. The Children are sick, and in short
my Patience was never so near being exhausted as at Present.
Mr. Thaxter is as shiftless as a Child. He understands no
Language, neither French nor Spanish, and he dont seem to think himself obliged
to do any Thing, but get along, and write his journal. -- In short, I am in a
deplorable situation, indeed. -- I know not what to do. -- I know not where to
From this Place We go to
Monasterio, which is four Leagues, from thence to
Berebiesca [Briviesca], which is four more,
from thence to
Santa Maria del Courbo, which is two more, from thence to
Courbo, which is one, thence to
Pancourbo which is two, where the Road parts, to
Vitoria and to
| Monasterio ||4
| Berebiesca ||4
|S.M. del Courbo ||2
| Pancourbo ||2
|13. Leagues to the Parting of the Roads.
Jany. 11. Tuesday.
I have taken a Walk about the Town a little. A River runs directly through
the Town, and there are several Bridges over it. There is a great Number of
Monasteries in it. There is an old ruined Castle on a Hill. But I have not had
time to see much. There is a little Appearance of Business, here. Some
Upon my Inquiry after the Religious Houses in
Burgos, our Guide went out and procured me the following
Combentos de Fraires
|La Trinidad ||1.
|Cathedral y St. Iago de la Capilla ||2
|St. Nicolas ||1
|Sn. Roman ||1
|La Blanca ||1
|Sn. Martin ||1
|Sn. Pedro ||1
|Sn. Cosmes ||1
|Sn. Lesmes ||1
|Sn. Esteban ||1
|Sn. Gil ||1
Combentos de Monjas
|Sta. Dorotea Agustinas ||1
|Sta. Franciscas ||2
|Sn. il de fonso ||1
|De Monjas ||10
We passed through several Villages, this day and rode along a River, and
Bribiesca. The Country a little more hilly than for some time
past. But it has a naked and poor Appearance.
JANUARY 12. WEDNESDAY.
Bribiesca, where there [are] two Convents,
one of Men, the other of Women, both Franciscans, and two Parish Churches.
The Tavern We are in is a large House and there are twelve good Beds in it,
for Lodgers. Yet no Chimneys, and the same Indelicacy as in all the others. --
Smoke and dirt, yet they give us clean Sheets.
A Spanish Kitchen is one of the greatest Curiosities in the World, and they
are all very much alike.
JANUARY 13. THURSDAY.
Pancourbo where we dined. We passed thro
Courbo, which is a little Village with half a dozen other small
Villages in Sight. In every one of them is a Church.
Pancourbo is at the Beginning of the Rocks. There is the
Appearance of an ancient Carriage Way, up the steepest Part of the Rocks. We
passed between two Rows of Mountains consisting wholly of Rocks, the most
lofty, and craggy Precipices that I ever saw. These rocky Mountains made the
Boundary between the ancient
Pancourbo is the last Village in
old Castile. At
Puente de la Rada, We were stopped by a No. of Officers, and asked if We had a Passeport. I produced my Passport of the
Galicia, they read it, with much Respect and let Us
Pass. We came 4 good Leagues this afternoon, and are now at
Jany. 13. Thursday.
We are now at the best public House that I have seen. Yet the Kitchen is a
Spanish Kitchen, like all the others, and there is no Chimney in the House.
There is not a Tavern We have been in, but is filled with religious Prints
and Images. The Chamber where I now write has two Beds, at the Head of each is
a Delph Vessell, for holy Water Agua Santa, or Agua
benita. At the Head of each also is a neat Cross about 9 Inches long, with an
Image of J.C. in some Metal, Tin,
Belmetal, [or] Pewter, upon
it. Upon the Wall is a Picture of Vierge de Montcarmel, or Virgo
Maria de Monte Carmelo -- a great Number of others that I have not
Patience to transcribe.
From Ezpexo where We now are, We go to
Ordua, which is 4 Leagues, and to
Bilbao, which is six.
JANUARY 14 FRYDAY.
Rode from Ezpex
Ordua, four Leagues. The Road is made all the Way, at a
, but the Descent of the Mountains of
Orduna is a great Curiosity. These Mountains are chiefly Rocks,
of a vast hight
: But a Road has been blown out of the
Rocks, from the Hight
of the Mountains, quite down
into the Valey
. After winding round and round a great
Way, and observing the Marks of the Drills remaining in the Rocks, the Road at
last came to a Steep where the only Method of making a Road for a Carriage up
and down is by Serpentining it thus.
[Figure -- see page image]
There is a fertile Valley, and well cultivated at the feet of these
Mountains, in the Center of which is the Village of
Ordua. In this narrow Space they have crowded two
Convents, one of Frailes the other of Monjas. I saw the lazy Drones of
Franciscans at the Windows of their Cells, as We passed. At the Bottom of the
Mountains We had a small Toll to pay, for the Support of the Road. The
Administrator sent to search our Trunks, but We sent him our Passport which
produced a polite Message by his Clerk, that he had seen my Name in the
Gazette, that he was very glad I was arrived, wished me Success and Prosperity,
and desired to know if I wanted any Thing, or if he could be any Way
usefull to me. I returned the Message that I was
obliged &c. but wanted nothing.
In the Afternoon, We followed the Road, which pursues the Course of a little
River, which originates in the
Mountains of Ordua, and rode
two Rows of Mountains to
Lugiando where We put up for the night, four Leagues from
Bilbao. It is as dirty and uncomfortable a House as almost any
We have seen.
We have met, to day and Yesterday, great Numbers of
Mules loaded with Merchandizes from
Bilbao. The Mules and their Drivers look very well, in
comparison of those We have seen before. Their Burdens are Salted Fish,
Sardines, Cod, and a Sort of Fish that We see here very plenty called Besugo.
They carry also Horse shoes, ready made in
Bilboa, to sell in various Parts of the Kingdom.
The Mountains of
Pancourbo, for by these Names they are called, are the most
remarkable that I have seen. Phillip 5. made the first
Carriage Road through those of
Pancourbo. The present King has done most
to those of
It was a vexatious Thing to see the beautifull
Orduna, devoured by so many Hives of Drones. It is a
beautifull, a fertile and a well cultivated Spot,
almost the only one, We have yet seen in
Biscay, capable of Cultivation.
JANUARY 15 SATURDAY.
Followed the Road by the Side of the River, between two Rows of Mountains,
untill We opened upon
Bilboa. We saw
the Sugar Loaf some time before. This is a Mountain, in the
shape of a Piramid, which is called
the Sugar Loaf. The Town is surrounded with Mountains. -- The
Tavern where We are is tolerable, situated between a Church and a
Monastry. We have been entertained with the
Musick of the Convent since our Arrival.
Soon after our Arrival Captain Babson and
Capt. Lovat made Us a Visit.
Lovat is bound for
America, the first Wind, and Babson very soon,
both in Letters of Mark.
Took a Walk, down the River, which is pleasant enough.
While We were absent our Walk, Mr. Gardoqui and Son came to
Reposed and wrote.
Dined, with the two Messrs. Gardoquis and a Nephew of
theirs. After Dinner the Gentlemen accompanied Us, to the Parish Church over
the Way, then to the old
Parish Church of St. Iago, which was certainly standing in the
Year 1300. The high Altar appears very ancient, wrought in Wooden figures, the
Work very neat. The Choir, and the Sacristie
&c. as in all others. -- We then went to the Chambers of the Board of
This is a curious Institution. On a certain Day annually in the Beginning of
January all the Merchants of
write their Names on a Ball or Ballot
which is put into a Box, from whence four are drawn by Lott. These four name a
certain Number of Councillors or Senators. -- But this must be further
This Board of Trade, first endeavours to make all disputing Merchants agree.
If they cant succeed, Application must be made to the Board by Petition in
Writing. It is then heard and determined, subject to an Appeal, somewhere. --
There is no Consul here from
Holland -- Nor any other Nation. The Board of Trade oppose it.
-- The Chamber is hung round with Pictures of the present King and
Queen, the late King and Queen, &c.,
with Pictures of the royal Exchange
London, the Exchange of
Captains Babson, Lovatt and
Wickes dined with Us. I spoke to Mr. Gardoqui
in behalf of fifteen American Prisoners escaped from
Portugal, and he consented to furnish them Cloaths to the Amount of six dollars a Man. I told him I
had no Authority, and that I could not assure him Repayment, but I believed
Congress would do all in their Power to repay him.
There is an Accademy at
Bergara, for the Youth of
Yesterday, a Mr. Maroni an Irish Gentleman came to visit
The Lands in
Biscay are chiefly in the Hands of the People -- few Lordships.
The Duke of Berwick and the Duke of Medina
Cli have some Estates here, but not considerable. In the
Spring Freshes, the Water is deep enough upon Change and in the Streets for
Vessells of 100 Tons to float.
JANUARY. 18. TUESDAY.
Spent the Day in Walking about the Town. Walked round the Wharf upon the
River, through the Market. Saw a plentiful Markett of
Fruit and Vegetables, Cabages, Turnips, Carrots,
Beets, Onions &c. Apples, Pairs &c. Raisens,
Figs, nuts &c. -- Went as far as the Gate, where We entered the Town --
then turned up the Mountain by the Stone Stairs, and saw fine Gardens, Verdure
and Vegetation. Returned, and viewed a Booksellers Stall. Then walked in
succession thro every Street in the Town. Afterwards
met Messrs. Gardoquis who went with Us to
shew Us a No. of Shops. Glass
Shops, China Shops, Trinket Shops, Toy Shops and Cutlary Shops. I did not find any Thing very great. There
are several Stores and Shops, however, pretty large and pretty full.
1780. JANUARY 19. Tuesday.
Went down the River, on a Visit to the Rambler a Letter of
Mark, of 18 Guns, belonging to Mr. Andrew Cabot of
Beverly, Captain Lovatt Commander, and the
Phoenix a Brig of 14 Guns belonging to Messrs.
N. Port, Captain Babson Comr.
We were honoured, with two Salutes of 13 Guns
each, by Babson and with one by Lovat. We
dined at the Tavern on shore and had an agreable
day. Went to see a new Packett of the Kings on the
Stocks, and his new Rope walks, which are two hundred and ten fathoms long.
JANUARY 31. MONDAY.
On the 20th We left
Bilbao, arrived at
Bayonne the 23d Staid one day, there. Sat off for
BayonneBourdeaux the 25th. Arrived at
Bourdeaux Saturday 29th. Dined Yesterday at the
Hotel D'Angleterre at the Invitation of Mr.
Bondfield with Sir Robert Finlay and Mr. Le
Texier and Mr. Vernon.
Went to the Comedy, saw Amphitrion and Cartouche. Mr. A. L.
[Arthur Lee] at
Paris. Mr. I [Izard] at
Amsterdam. Mr. W. L [William
FEB. 1. TUESDAY.
Dined Yesterday, at the
Hotel D'Angleterre, with Mr. Maccartey,
Mr. Delap, Mr. Vernon, Mr.
Bondfield, and my Company, at the Invitation of Sir Robert
Finlay. Towards Evening Mr. Cabarras came in with the
News of [a] Blow struck by Rodney upon the
On Wednesday, the second of Feb. We took Post
Paris, and on Fryday the 4 arrived at
Cou, where We lodged, but in the night it rained and
froze at the same time untill the Roads were a glare
[of] Ice, so that the Postillions informed Us, it was
impossible for their Horses which in this Country are never frosted to go.
We passed by
Angouleme Yesterday Morning and encircled almost the whole Town.
It stands upon an high Hill and is walled all round -- a fine, Airy, healthy
Situation with several Streams of Water below it and fine Interval Lands. The
River Charente runs by it. The Lands are chiefly cultivated with
Bordeaux to this Place, which afford but a poor Prospect in the
Winter. In some Places Wheat is sown and Vines planted alternately in
Great Numbers of the Vineyards are in a Soil that has the greatest
Appearance of Poverty
It is a red Loom
intermixed with so many Pebbles or small Stones of a reddish Colour
, that it looks like an heap of Stones, or a dry
. One would think there was not Earth enough
for the Vines to take root.
Other Vineyards are in a black Sand intermixed with a few small stones.
Others in fine, black, fat, mellow mould.
The numerous Groves, Parks and Forrests in this
Country form a striking Contrast with
Spain where the whole Country looks like a Mans face that is
newly shaved, Every Tree, bush and shrub being pared away.
JULY 27. THURSDAY.
Setting off on a journey, with my two Sons to
Amsterdam. -- Lodged at
Compiegne. Fryday night, lodged at
Valenciennes. Saturday arrived at
Brussells. -- his Road is through the finest Country, I have any
where seen. The Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Peas, Beans and several other Grains,
the Hemp, Flax, Grass, Clover, Lucerne, St. Foin, &c., the Pavements and
Roads are good. The Rows of Trees, on each side the Road, and around many
Squares of Land. -- The Vines, the Cattle, the Sheep, in short every Thing upon
this Road is beautiful and plentiful. Such immense fields and heavy Crops of
Wheat I never saw any where. The Soil is stronger
and richer, than in other Parts.
I lodged in
L'hotel de L'Imperatrice. The Cathedral Church, the Park, the
Ramparts and Canals of this Town, are very well worth seeing.
JULY 30. SUNDAY.
Went to the Cathedral Church. A great Feast. An infinite [Crowd]. The Church more splendidly ornamented than any that I
had seen. Hung with Tapestrie. The Church Music
here is in the Italian style.
A Picture in Tapestry was hung up, of a No. of
Jews stabbing the Wafer, the bon Dieu, and blood gushing in streams, from the
This insufferable Piece of pious Villany,
shocked me beyond measure. -- But thousands were before it, on their Knees
adoring. I could not help cursing the Knavery of the Priesthood and the brutal
Ignorance of the People, -- yet perhaps, I was rash and unreasonable, and that
it is as much Virtue and Wisdom in them to adore, as in me to detest and
despise. -- Spent the Afternoon, and drank Tea, with Mr. W.
Lee, Mr. Jennings, and his Nephew, Mrs.
Izard, her two Daughters and Son, and Miss
[Steed,] Mrs. Lee
and her Children &c. An agreable Circle of
In the Evening Mr. Lee, Mr. Jennings and
his Nephew, My two Sons, &c. took a Walk to see the Canals
of some Burthen
come up here, in the Canal which reaches to the Sea. We afterwards walked upon
In this Town is a great Plenty of stone, which I think is the same with our
Braintree North Common stone. It is equally hard, equally fine
grain -- capable of a fine Polish. I think the Colour
is a little darker, than the
Braintree stone. There is a new Building here, before which is
the Statue of the late Prince Charles, in Front of which are
six Pillars, wholly of this stone. Indeed the Steps, and the whole Front is of
the same stone.
This Town is the Capital of
the Austrian Netherlands. The late Prince
Charles was a Brother of the Empress Queen, L'Imperatrice
Emperor and the Queen of France. He was
beloved, by the People, and has left an
excellent Character. The Emperor did not like him, it is said. In the late War,
the Emperor called upon this Prince for Money. The Prince wrote to dissuade him
from it. The Emperor sent again. The Prince wrote back, that he saw
They were determined, and they must appoint another Governor of this
Province, for he could not execute their orders. Upon this the Imperial Court
We lodged one night at
Antwerp, viewed the Cathedral and the Exchange &c. and went
Rotterdam, where We arrived, the 4th. August.
[i.e. 1780] AUG. 5.
Lodged at the
Mareschall De Turenne. Dined with Mr.
Dubblemets. Went to see the Statue of Erasmus, the
Exchange, the Churches &c. Mr. Dubblemets sent his Coach
in the Evening and one of his Clerks. We rode, round the Environs of the Town,
then to his Country Seat, where We supped. -- The Meadows are very fine, the
Horses and Cattle large. The Intermixture of Houses, Trees, Ships, and Canals
throughout this Town is very striking. The Neatness here is remarkable.
[i.e. 1780] AUG. 6.
Went to the
English Presbyterian Church, and heard a sensible sermon, the
mode of Worship differs in nothing from ours but in the organ, whose
Musick joins in the Singing.
Pages 32 - 69
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[LIST OF PERSONS AND FIRMS TO BE CONSULTED IN THE NETHERLANDS,
Mr. John de Neufville, et Fils.
Le Chr. de Luxembourg.
Le Chr. de Launay.
Cs. Van der Oudermeulen
G. H. Matthes.
Henry du Bois.
Mr. Jean Luzac, Avocat, Leide.
Nicholas and Jacob Van
Mr. John Gabriel Tegelaer, by the new Market.
Mr. Daniel Crommelin and Sons.
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