Photographing the American Indian:
Portraits of Native Americans, 1860-1913, from the collections of
the Massachusetts Historical Society
Wa-kan-o-zhan-zhan, (Medicine Bottle.)
After the Sioux Uprising in 1862, Congress called for the forcible removal of all Sioux from Minnesota in April 1863. Wa-kan-o-zhan-zhan (Medicine Bottle), who had participated in confrontations near Fort Ridgely, later fled to a Sioux camp in Canada. During the winter of 1864 he was captured (through trickery that involved whiskey and wine that were spiked with laudanum) and was brought to Fort Snelling, Minnesota. He was put on trial for crimes he committed during the Sioux Uprising, was found guilty by a military commission, and sentenced to death. President Andrew Johnson confirmed the sentence and in November 1865 Wa-kan-o-zhan-zhan was executed.