Diary of Charles Francis Adams, volume 1

Wednesday. June 16th. VIII. CFA Wednesday. June 16th. VIII. CFA
Wednesday. June 16th. VIII.

Missed Prayers. At study bell I attended a lecture of Mr. Channings. His subject today he divided into three heads, Demonstrative, deliberative and judicial oratory. He treated today of the first of these, he considered it as the least important of the three as it was used only on occasions of meetings for the purpose of hearing, and not on occasions involving the interest of any portion of individuals. Funeral orations, panegyrics, Orations on annual festivals such as the fourth of July and others. This style of speaking was suited therefore only for holiday occasions. He closed this lecture and this part of his subject with a few observations concerning the requisites for this, of which he mentioned the accurate delineation of character as the most important, that it was not sufficient to speak merely of his qualities as general, such as that he was brave or generous, for this he has in common with thousands, and although some people might prefer a bombastic sounding expression of some common qualities, it exhibited bad taste and showed that they only who had no discernment would do this. Other men would give value to the exact description of some remarkable peculiarity, some feeling for which he was remarkable 189only to these immediately.1 On a judicious selection of these he said depended the principal ..., 2 the force of an Oration of the demonstrative kind. This was a pretty good lecture.

I did absolutely nothing this Morning from a sort of listlessness always following a blow, although I had no headache or sick feeling much to my satisfaction and our good companions lost their expected satisfaction. I regret that I saw this for really I do not wish to think ill of more fellows than I can help. These I have a good opinion of at present and wish to continue. Had Otis possessed one quality more I could have liked him. Had Richardson been in good society he would have made a better companion. Wheatland knew no politeness. Thus it is, I am necessarily debarred by a consciousness of their faults from the intimacy of many whom I have wished to respect. I attended Dr. Popkin at eleven o’clock and recited without having looked at the lesson. This Greek Testament is boy’s play. After it I read the two books of Cowper’s Task which finish it. I did not neglect reading it yesterday but it was done in the examination room and so lazily that I thought it proper to go over it again. I have no remarks further to make on this subject.

After dinner I read a very little in Mitford’s Greece which I shall not notice at present. At two o’clock, I attended a lecture from Mr. Nuttall the Curator of the gardens on Botany,3 a course which I wish to attend as by this I shall ensure regularity and order, to my study of it. To accommodate the Senior members he began his course with the more important parts of his flower, in this way making it quite puzzling to those who have not been over the terms. I have studied them and found but little difficulty in understanding him. He treated today of the calyx or flower cup, its different forms and illustrated them by different flowers. He appears to be an agreable man, and quite easy in his manner. He certainly appears desirous of giving some instruction in this branch, and as it is a pleasing one, I am delighted at having this opportunity of cultivating it. This first lecture was sufficiently simple.

I then returned home and wrote my journal for Monday as I had no opportunity for this purpose yesterday. We then went to Mr. Farrar, Otis, Sheafe, Percy4 and I were all the class. He employed all the time in explaining to us the day’s lesson and by dint of perseverance made us or at least Otis and myself understand it. As to Percy he never will understand anything. Sheafe did not take the trouble. We returned home, for me to laze away my time as I have been during this term, but I do not know why, my hope is that a letter from my father will 190encourage me to continue my studies. I went to the Athenaeum and spent half an hour reading there and then went to Prayers. After which I took a walk with Sheafe and Richardson crossing the Cham, the romantic name of a very pretty stream which winds along here.

Returning, I spent the evening at Tudor’s, reading with him the trip to Paris of Mathews5 in ridiculous style. This, to be sure is a very foolish way of spending my time and really I begin to be very much ashamed of myself. My Mitford has for the last few days been deplorably neglected and I altogether reject all time because there appears so little of it.6 Indeed I have decided I think that the two first years are far the best for reading. When I came down, I tried to read Enfield over but could not, it appeared so unusual to get a lesson, I did not know what to make of it. I read my Chapters in the Bible all and finished the book of Genesis. It is a book I will not criticize although perhaps I ought to. X.


Thus in MS.


Word omitted in MS.


Thomas Nuttall (1786–1859), the noted botanist and ornithologist, who in 1822 became curator of the Botanical Garden at Harvard ( DAB ).


Robert Dow Percy, of St. Francisville, La., a junior ( Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).


Possibly Henry Matthews, The Diary of an Invalid; being the Journal of a Tour ... in Portugal, Italy, Switzerland and France in the Years 1817–1819, London, 1820.


Thus in MS.

Thursday. June 17th. VII:30. CFA Thursday. June 17th. VII:30. CFA
Thursday. June 17th. VII:30.

I missed Prayers and recitation this morning as I had not got my lesson and was very sleepy. On getting up, found myself afflicted with a very heavy cold which I had caught on Tuesday night by sitting down at the door after our return. I was somewhat troubled this Morning about my Forensic for which I had made no preparation from some cause or other. Just as I was in the middle of my quandary, Cunningham brought the agreable news of there being none this morning. I was rejoiced at this as it gave me an opportunity to write up my journal in the course of the Morning. I also read Cowpers Tirocinium or Review of Schools. It is a very severe satire upon the present system of large Schools but it gives none in return which is not open to greater objection.

In matter of instruction, I think there can be no doubt, but what private life is the best and also that the morals of a child may be injured by a public education but then there can be as little doubt that a bookish man, a mere student, will never pass off in the world. He can not succeed who is not plentifully supplied with that fashion-191able quality called brass. He also loses the society of people of his own age and class and all that polish of manner which is acquired only in associating with persons of proper rank. I know well from experience that this is injurious to a high degree to a man. He should take care who has children that while students and acquiring knowledge, they should know the ways of the world and be able to meet every man on his own ground. As to the seduction in a common school, a boy of a moderately strong mind with good principles early inculcated and narrowly observed without his knowledge will pass through the ordeal without material injury and with the good of experience. I am now in the midst of my trial and will know the success of my doctrine by my own case. If not a respectable man at least, it will not be owing to education but to a taste naturally perverted. Cowper was an instance of fear of the world carried to a most extreme height, such perhaps as brings no confirmation to his doctrine. Thus my Morning went and I felt somewhat lighter in spirits as this burden was heavy. Chapman and Dwight were driven in by stress of weather and sat with me until dinner time. I have not seen the latter privately for a great while and wish to speak with him on the subject of Cunningham as I really am anxious to make that matter up.

After dinner I went down to Porter’s Hall,1 understanding that they were going to select Officers from my Class for the next year. There has been much talk of a great competition for it but there was none. North,2 his great rival, has left College and Cunningham was elected unanimously. I was much pleased as this gives the decided triumph to the Northern party in our class, which has so long been in a struggling state. We have had many good men from the South and two or three braggarts for whom the whole suffered. Cunningham declined under the present restrictions, and stated, that unless the government changed their vote concerning the music he should decide against having any thing to do with the matter. As no body else would do any more and the company were not inclined to choose any one else, the company was adjourned until Tuesday when the Officers would report the success of a petition to the Government.3

I employed the afternoon in reading one Chapter of Mitford on the History of Athens, Institutions of Solon, the changes of their government—the Colonies from Greece, the institutions of Archons, Medon being the first, the gradual change to an absolute democracy, the characters of Solon and Peisistratus, the nine archons, the chief, the king, the polemarch, and thesmothetae. The Areiopagus. An absolute democracy appears to me to be no better than decided anarchy, and 192Athens from it’s commencement turned to this sort of government. Lacedaemon appears almost always to have been the most powerful as I think it is the most perfect on record. The Athenians by calling them in to their assistance in the time of Hippias which I am now reading. The books of Homer were first collected at this time or in that of Peisistratus immediately preceding and were set in order as they now are.

I went to recitation in Greek Testament to Dr. Popkin at four o’clock, spent half an hour at the Athenaeum, attended Prayers, and after tea, took a walk with Richardson and Tudor. Upon our return, we went to Tudor’s where we spent the evening. Barnwell4 of his class was there and conversed until half past ten o’clock when I came down to look at my lesson. I did not however examine this trusting to an early hour tomorrow morning. I then read over my Chapters of the Bible as usual and retired to bed having spent my day more usefully than common. XI.


There appear to have been two Porter’s Taverns in Cambridge at about this period, one on the Cambridge side of the Charles, near the present Anderson Bridge (Batchelder, Bits of Harvard History, p. 67), the other at Porter Square, in North Cambridge (The Harvard Book, Cambridge, 1875, 2:357).


John G. North, of Charleston, S.C., a junior ( Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).


The sectional rivalry at Harvard which embittered club affairs (see entry for 13 June, and note, above) also affected class politics. The juniors were now electing a captain for one of the companies of the celebrated Harvard Washington Corps. This marching society, organized in 1811 and remodeled in 1822, consisted of four companies, totaling one hundred and twenty men. At its head was a lieutenant colonel. Its grand function was to parade in uniform on the afternoon of Exhibition days (see entry for 29 June, below).

To keep down expenses and to tighten college discipline, a faculty committee, consisting of Professors Otis and Channing, had been appointed on 29 April to consider the future of the military order. On 10 May they recommended that the group be continued, but that in the future it should not hold an encampment, should not be allowed more than six musicians, including fife and drum, and should not be served refreshments after Exhibition day parades. The proposed rules were very distasteful to members of the corps, who enjoyed martial music as well as the traditional gay dinner which capped their public performances. Nevertheless, the faculty approved the new rules on 21 June, with the concession (made, perhaps, as a result of the petition CFA mentioned) that ten musicians, drum and fife included, were to be allowed on great occasions. See Records of the College Faculty, 10:65, 66, 69, Harvard Archives; Batchelder, Bits of Harvard History, p. 65 ff., for a full history of the corps; Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard , p. 214–215.


William Barnwell, of Beaufort, S.C., a senior ( Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).