Papers of John Adams, volume 3

From Joseph Palmer, 19 June 1775 Palmer, Joseph JA From Joseph Palmer, 19 June 1775 Palmer, Joseph Adams, John
From Joseph Palmer
Cambridge, 19th June 1775 My dear Friend

I thank you for your Several favors, the last of which, the 10th Inst., I just now received.1 I have not had time to write, and thro' abundant business my health has Sometimes been reduced; I now write in Committee of Safety, a few lines at a time as I can; all the business in this Committee has been done by only 6 or 7 Members, upon whom 28it has fallen very heavy, public business having pressed upon us very hard.

To see the distress occasioned by the late measures of Administration is enough to melt a heart of adamant;2 Carts are continually passing in every direction from the Sea-Coast, loaded with Beds, Chairs, Pots, Kettles, and a thousand &ca's, with Women and Children in the midst. Great part of the Sea Coast is thin'd of Inhabitants, and most people have removed their most valuable effects. Mr. Cranch'es Family, and mine, are yet at Vertchild's House; they visit Germantown now and then: I have been with my family only 2 Nights since the 20th March.

You received from Congress the particulars of the battle of Lexington; Since which the affair of Noddles Island3 (and several other smaller Skirmishes) has taken place; in all which, we had greatly the advantage; accounts of which you have doubtless received. But on Saturday last, the 17th, the Regulars attacked us upon one of the Charlestown Hills, where we had begun to entrench, and obliged us to retreat, by means of their Ships and Floating Batterys, we having no large Cannon to match theirs; the Cannon we cou'd have had, if we had had Gunpowder enough to Spare, but we had not more than sufficient for the Field Pieces and Musquetry; however, the Enemy have not much to boast; for tho' they kept the Field, and took from us 4 or 5 pieces, 3 Pounders, yet they lost, by the best accounts we can yet obtain, about 500 kill'd and wounded, and among the former are, as we have reason to believe, several officers of distinction: our loss in numbers is not great, by the best accounts we yet have, about 60 or 70 kill'd and missing;4 but —— among these is —— what Shall I say! how Shall I write the name of our worthy Friend, the great and good Dr. W——. You will hear by others who will write tomorrow, such particulars as I am not possessed of: Soon after the Regulars landed, they Set Fire to the Town of Charlestown, and that day, yesterday and this Day they have consumed most of the Houses as far as Penny-Ferry;5 and they have possession of all that part of Charlestown, and are encamped upon Bunker's Hill; and we are encamped upon Prospect Hill, Winters Hill, and at the Bridge leading to Inman's, Phips's &c. Yesterday and this day, they have Cannonnaded us, but to no purpose; and our people, by Small Parties have picked off some of their out Guards: We expect another action very soon. Do send us Powder, and then we Shall, by the blessing of Heaven, soon destroy this Hornets Nest. This put me in mind of Saltpetre: J Greenleaf Esqr, and Messrs. John Peck and Wm. Frobisher, are now, by 29encouragement from Congress, gone to Brookfield, upon Colo. Foster's Estate, where is supposed to be a very large Bed of fine Earth, such as is described to be in the E. Indies, Strongly impregnated with Nitre: The like is discovered in Several other places. I must beg you to Send the best process of making it. Adieu my dear Friend, and assure Messrs. Hancock, Adams, Paine, &c, that I shou'd be glad to hear often, how, what, and all about the Political World in which I am deeply engaged; and that I remain Your and Their Sincere Friend and very humble Servt.

J: Palmer6

Earth dug up from under a Stable, put into a Tub, as ashes for Lye. Filled with Water. Stand 24 Hours. Then leaked off Slowly. Then boil'd for one Hour. Then run thro another Tub full of ashes. i.e. filtrated thro the ashes a Small Quantity, not to stand. Then put into a Kettle and boiled, untill it grows yellow. Then drop it on a cold stone or cold Iron, and it will christallise for a Proof. Then set it by in Trays in cool Places. Then it will christallise. And the Salt Petre is formed.7

RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “To John Adams Esqr. Philadelphia”; docketed, possibly by the Rev. William Gordon: “John Palmer X June 19. 1775.” The recipe for making saltpeter, written in JA's hand, appears at the top of the third page.


Not found.


Probably a reference to Gen. Gage's having yielded to pressure and modified the agreement he had reached with the Provincial Congress regarding those wishing to leave Boston. At first, those leaving were forbidden to take out any arms or ammunition; then provisions and merchandise were added to the list. Finally, arbitrary searches were made of all containers, and sometimes passports were so drawn as to separate families (Frothingham, Siege of Boston , p. 96–97).


A skirmish that took place on 27 and 28 May, when Americans sought to remove livestock from Noddle's and Hog islands in Boston Harbor. The British tried to prevent the removal, and in the fighting the British lost a schooner and had a sloop badly damaged. Reputedly, the British suffered far more casualties than the Americans. Israel Putnam conducted himself so well as commander that presumably the Continental Congress was the more ready to name him a general (same, p. 109–110).


For figures on battle casualties, see James Warren to JA, 20 June, note 6, and Elbridge Gerry to Massachusetts Delegates, 20 June, note 5 (both below).


The town was set afire by artillery rounds and by marines. The wooden houses and other buildings burned furiously, the flames driven by an east wind. The Penny Ferry, a link between the town and Boston, was at the site of the old Charles River Bridge. A full and meticulous account of the fire and the extent of its damage, including individual claims of losses, is reconstructed from contemporary sources in James F. Hunnewell, A Century of Town Life: A History of Charlestown, Massachusetts, 1775–1887, Boston, 1888, p. 2–15, 112–174.


Palmer's letter and those of James Warren to JA and Elbridge Gerry to the Massachusetts delegates of 20 June (both below), and the Provincial Congress to the Continental Congress (Mass. Provincial Congress, Jours. , p. 365–366), were sent to Philadelphia on 20 June. At New York, on 25 June, the express was intercepted by George Washington, who, after some hesitation, 30opened the packet and read at least the letter from the Provincial Congress to gain recent information about the situation in Boston, particularly about Bunker Hill, for which he had had only fragmentary accounts (Washington, Writings, ed. Fitzpatrick, 3:304; Freeman, Washington , 3:464–465). The express arrived in Philadelphia on 26 June or early 27 June, the date on which the letters were read to the Continental Congress, giving that body the first official word on the battle (Jefferson, Papers , 1:174–175; JCC , 2:109; see also JA to James Warren, 27 June, below).


Neither the source of this recipe nor the date on which it was written is known. It may have been intended for Palmer, since he asked for such instructions, but it is not known whether it was ever sent to him. It may have been included in the enclosure (not found) sent to James Warren in JA's letter of 27 June (below). On 10 June the Continental Congress had appointed a committee to “devise ways and means to introduce the manufacture of salt petre in these colonies” ( JCC , 2:86). A description of the process had been published in the Pennsylvania Gazette of 25 January.

To George Washington, 19 June 1775; 20 June 1775 JA Washington, George To George Washington, 19 June 1775; 20 June 1775 Adams, John Washington, George
To George Washington
Phyladelphia 19 or 20 June 17751 Dear Sir

In Complyance with your Request, I have considered of what you proposed, and am obliged to give you my Sentiments, very briefly, and in great Haste.

In general, Sir, there will be three Committees, either of a Congress, or of an House of Representatives,2 which are and will be composed of our best Men, Such, whose Judgment and Integrity may be most relyed on. I mean the Committee on the State of the Province, the Committee of Safety, and the Committee of Supplies.

But least this should be too general, I beg leave to mention particularly James Warren Esqr. of Plymouth, Joseph Hawley Esqr. of Northampton, John Winthrop Esqr. L.L.D. of Cambridge, Dr. Warren, Dr. Church, Coll. Palmer of Braintree, Elbridge Gerry Esqr. of Marblehead. Mr. Bowdoin, Mr. Sever, Mr. Dexter, lately of the Council will be found to be very worthy Men, as well as Mr. Pitts who I am Sorry to hear is in ill Health.3

The Recommendations, of these Gentlemen, may be rely'd on. Our President was pleased to recommend to you, Mr. William Bant for one of your Aid du Camps.4 I must confess, I know not where to find a Gentleman, of more Merit, and better qualified for Such a Place.

Mr. Paine was pleased to mention to you Mr. William Tudor a young Gentleman of the Law, for a Secretary to the General—and all the rest of my Brothers, you may remember, very chearfully concurr'd with him. His Abilities and Virtues are such as must recommend him to every Man who loves Modesty, Ingenuity, or Fidelity: but as 31I find an Interest has been made in behalf of Mr. Trumbull of Connecticut,5 I must Submit the Decision to your further Inquiries, after you shall arrive at Cambridge. Mr. Trumbulls Merit is Such that I dare not Say a Word against his Pretensions. I only beg Leave to Say that Mr. Tudor is an Exile from a good Employment and fair Prospects in the Town of Boston, driven by that very Tyranny against which We are all contending. There is another gentleman of liberal Education and real genius, as well as great Activity, who I find is a Major in the Army; his Name is Jonathan Williams Austin.6 I mention him, Sir, not for the Sake of recommending him to any particular Favour, as to give the General an opportunity of observing a youth of great abilities, and of reclaiming him from certain Follies, which have hitherto, in other Departments of Life obscured him.

There is another Gentleman, whom I presume to be in the Army either as a Captain, or in Some higher Station, whose Name is William Smith: as this young Gentleman is my Brother in Law, I dont recommend him for any other Place, than that in which the voice of his Country has placed him. But the Countenance of the General, as far as his Conduct shall deserve it, which in an Army is of great Importance, will be gratefully acknowledged as a particular obligation by his Brother.

With great Sincerity, I wish you, an agreeable Journey, and a Successfull, a glorious Campaign: and am with great Esteem, Sir, your most obedient Servant.

John Adams

RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “To General Washington Present.” Although the MS was folded for sending, there is no evidence that it was sealed, and it may not have been sent. JA may have communicated his suggestions orally; but the first half of the letter with its mention of province leaders is repeated in the joint letter to Washington from the Massachusetts delegates (22 June, below). It is possible JA was persuaded that a joint effort was preferable.


That this letter was written before 21 June is evident from JA to James Warren, 20 June (below), in which JA says he has mentioned Warren's name to the general.


JA's uncertainty here comes from his not knowing whether Massachusetts had yet acted upon the advice of the congress respecting its government. See JA to James Warren, 27 June, note 3 (below).


James Bowdoin, William Sever, Samuel Dexter, and James Pitts were all elected to the Council in May 1774, but Gage rejected Bowdoin and Dexter, along with JA and ten others (Council Members Vetoed by Gage, 25 May 1774, JA, Papers , 2:96). Pitts had first been elected to the Council in 1766; Sever began service in the Council in 1769. Sever became a member of the Council again in 1775 and acted as president of that body in rotation with Bowdoin and James Warren until the implementation of the Constitution of 1780. Pitts refused election to the Council in 1775 and died in 1776. On Pitts and Sever, see Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates , 9:76–81; 11:575–578.


William Bant, a Boston merchant 32who acted as business agent for John Hancock, was probably the son of the merchant of the same name who died in 1754 (Thwing Catalogue, MHi). The son served on a couple of town committees, but refused the office of warden (Boston Record Commissioners, 18th Report, passim; 26th Report, passim). Bant died in early 1779, and his widow, Mary Anna, married Caleb Davis, who undertook the complicated business of handling the settlement of accounts against Bant's estate (MHi: Caleb Davis Papers, passim). One letter refers to him as “Colo. William Bant,” but the only record of military service is his being listed as a member of a Boston independent company in 1776 (same, Ebenezer Geary to Mrs. Bant, 26 Aug. 1783; Mass. Soldiers and Sailors , 1:582). On Bant and Hancock, see William T. Baxter, The House of Hancock, Cambridge, 1945 p. 241–242, 287–288.


Joseph Trumbull, son of Gov. Jonathan Trumbull of Connecticut. See Burnett, ed., Letters of Members , 1:128, 133. Actually, Joseph became commissary general on 19 July ( JCC , 2:190).


A former law clerk for JA; for a brief sketch, see JA, Legal Papers , 1:xcvi.