. William Bingham (175 2–1804), Philadelphia financier, land speculator, and (later) U.S. senator, had recently
brought his young wife, the former Ann Willing, to Europe on a combined business and
pleasure trip; in 1784–1786 the Adamses were to see much of the Binghams at The Hague,
Paris, and in London again (
, under both husband's and wife's names; Margaret L. Brown, “Mr. and Mrs. William Bingham of Philadelphia,”
, 61:286–324 [July 1937], which quotes relevant material from published Adams correspondence and journals).