1. Adopted on the same day that JA was appointed minister to the Netherlands (
, 18:1204, 1206), these instructions were sent under a covering letter of 1 Jan. 1781
from the president of Congress (Adams
; Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev.
, 4:224). That letter, which reached JA on or about 19 March 1781 (same, 4:313), also contained JA's commission
and a proposed Dutch-American treaty
(both below), and a congressional resolution of 5 Oct. (see note 3
). JA's appointment was occasioned most immediately by Henry Laurens' capture, but see also JA's letters to Congress of 24
Sept. (Nos. 9 and 10, above), and particularly note
to the latter.