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Browsing: Diary of Charles Francis Adams, Volume 1


Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-18

Friday. June 18th. V.

Arose and having read my Enfield over attended Prayers and recitation. I then read Cowper’s Table Talk, which I did not feel at all struck with, some satire in it but he has treated it so much better in { 193 } other parts of his works that this seems to be only the outline of the more perfect picture. He is satirical to a great degree and although more pious than I wish him to be as he inveighs against the theatre, billiards, cards, which I take to be perfectly innocent amusements when not used for any sinister purposes.
I then wrote my journal and at ten o’clock was ready to attend Mr. Channing’s Lecture which was today upon deliberative Oratory or that sort of Eloquence adapted to Assemblies by which he meant a number of Individuals meeting together to consult upon the interests of any number or some national concern. He passed over the Areiopagus and Amphictyonic Council without notice, referred to the Council of Five Hundred and to the favourable opportunity for display of this sort at Athens in the time of Demosthenes. He then spoke of the Romans, their prevailing passion, ambition and this the reason that Eloquence did not flourish till in the decline of the State. He then gave us an account of the opportunity for this kind of speaking in the Senate of Rome and referred to the state of subjection an Orator was in to the people even when he governed them most. He then descanted upon the nature of a popular government and in fact employed half of it in nothing whatsoever to do directly with the subject but a mere essay on government. I was quite dissatisfied with him I must confess.
Coming home I read Mitford’s sixth Chapter in the course of the Morning. It treated of Asia, the kingdom of the Medes and Persians, of Cyrus, Cambyses and Darius and the circumstances which led to the connection between the two people. In fact there is not much in this part which cannot easily be remembered without notes. It is mere history and although the Author sometimes reflects, his observations are always short and simple but almost always somewhat striking. I then finished the first part of the Introduction to Anacharsis. I am not so well pleased reading over this a second time as history because the author deviates into the romantic too often. He intended it probably as a popular work among a large class of the light readers who would like history very well when garnished up with a good deal of imagination and when the fabulous ages particularly can be treated as the author chooses.
I read also almost the whole of the life of Lycurgus in Plutarch and was much pleased with it. I am somewhat of an admirer of his system although he excludes knowledge from his community. He was a remarkable man and performed an astonishing work, he made a very great change by small means and was pure certainly so far as temporal { 194 } desires went. He was ambitious but not of being a sovereign. One of the strongest marks of his sense was I think, not to permit any of his laws to be put down in writing but to take the general sense of the people. As corruption advances, people always become more attached to the letter than to the spirit of the laws and an evasion of the former saves a man even though he shall have done the criminal action. By destroying all opportunity he destroyed all desire.
There are but few actions which can be considered as natural crimes in my mind, perhaps murder is the only one, all others are formed by convention. Theft and adultery were not known as such in Sparta, they were allowed and formed no disgrace to the code. The fact is that we do not think of laws except by the custom of the country and I for my part believe that there are in a savage state no such things as crimes, except murder and rape, which is violating the natural freedom of every individual. That in society other laws are necessary, I grant, and also that they should have the force and consideration of natural laws, I allow also. I was not able to finish this Life before Declamation which I attended and heard Brown1 and Cunningham speak very well.
Immediately after this I attended Mr. Nuttall’s Lecture which was upon the Corrolla of Flowers. He mentioned their different sorts and illustrated them by Examples. He has a very simple and easy way of lecturing which I am much pleased with. I was pretty well acquainted with this part of the subject before.
After his lecture I went and obtained a Chaise and we drove (Sheafe and I) to Lexington. We were caught in a slight shower of rain but luckily it passed off and the weather and scenery were delightful. I went to be patriotic and see the monument of those who fell in the first battle in the revolutionary war in this country. I copied the inscription and shall insert it in my Common Place Book although it does no credit to the Author, I could have done better myself.2 We returned to tea and in the Evening, I attended a meeting of the Knights at Wheelwrights.3 The Porcellians met but decided upon nothing, they all looked blown. XI.
1. William K. Brown, of Boston, a junior ( Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
2. CFA did insert the long inscription in his Literary Commonplace Book (M/CFA/18), p. 290 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 312).
3. William Wilson Wheelwright, of Boston, a senior ( Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-19

Saturday June 19th. VII.

I missed Prayers and recitations this morning unintentionally how• { 195 } ever as I had intended to have been up at all events, my number of misses not being small already. I have failed egregiously in my intention not to miss another recitation until Quarter day.1 I received a letter this morning from my father on the subject which I have written so peremptorily to him. I felt rather fearful before opening it and let it remain on my table until my last morning duty was performed before opening. It was very mild, but at the same time informing me gently that he had a smaller opinion of my prudence than I held, that he had considered my proposition and had some inclination to agree to it but that he wished me to transmit an account of my debts to him in the first place that he might arrange them before he began upon a thorough agreement. I have the satisfaction now to announce to him my freedom except from that at Hilliard’s which I have no reason to be ashamed. I will pursue this new system if he gives me an opportunity although I shall be compelled to retrench my style of living considerably. The change will be a beneficial one to me as it will teach economy, a quality which I only want because I am allowed to run on. I take no care of the matter for whatever I do creates no responsibility on my part whatever. I read over the letter attentively twice, it was short and simple, and determined to answer it fully tomorrow.2
In the mean time I read Cowper’s Poem on Conversation and two or three occasional ones. I might by him be styled one of the impious but I cannot help thinking that few minds have that happy medium which he speaks of, and that it is but too natural for the world to degenerate into bigotry and fanaticism when once their minds have been acted upon by religion, with most people I might call it superstition. I have had but little experience in religious matters, but I do think that I have seen certainly as bad if not worse feelings cherished under the cloak of sanctity than in the reckless character of vice. Not that I would support either but the base hypocrite is far more disgusting to a young man than the criminal. Herein, old people say, lies the danger but for my part I hope I know it well on both sides.
I engaged some days since to go over with Tudor and spend the day at Savin Hill3 which I accordingly did, we went from here at about half past ten and arrived there in a little less than an hour, the day was exceedingly warm and the billiard room to which we immediately repaired was a perfect oven being built of thin wood without plastering, the sun came directly through and made it quite unpleasant. I have not touched a cue before for a year and a half with the exception of a few moments at Nahant, last fall vacation, so that it was not surprising that I played very poorly before dinner while Tudor played { 196 } as well, after dinner I improved and reduced his difference to me materially. It is a very amusing and fascinating game, when one just commences playing well but perfection in it I should think would soon generate dislike. I felt but little interested today for the cues were very poor and the table is hardly worth much, so little care has been taken of it. It used to be quite good when at Neponset4 where I have often played on it with my brother. We dined here and smoked, drank and played all the afternoon. As I improved I took more interest in the game but I was not on the whole very sorry when it became time to return. I was surprised to see the quantity of company here this afternoon all the bowling allies being full, nobody disturbed us however. As “we had only come for a week” to use Tudor’s expression, we paid no immoderate bill although not a small one and at half past seven o’clock we returned home.
I seldom have felt more fatigued than this evening from the continued and unusual exercise of walking round the table. Although this was the case, at ten o’clock Tudor and I went and took Supper at Mr. Willard’s establishment. I was hungry and partook considerably although I was headachish, dreadfully tired and indeed never felt more generally distressed than to night. Returning home, I read my Chapters and sat down a few moments cogitating upon my father’s letter. I found myself nodding so often however that I determined upon going to bed directly. I paid for this however as I had two hours of feverish dozing and was troubled in the night with a horrible dream. XI.
1. The last Friday in June, the day Harvard students’ bills were due ( Harvard Annual Cat., 1823, p. 16).
2. CFA had repeatedly asked his father for a monthly allowance, to be paid to him directly and not through his uncle, TBA. JQA thought the sum he requested was more than he could afford or CFA should require. The proposed allowance was, he said, at least double JQA’s own college expenses and half again as much as GWA or JA2 had been given. But before making a final decision, he asked CFA for an account of his expenses, particularly of his debts (JQA to CFA, 12 June 1824, Adams Papers).
3. In Dorchester, three miles from Boston City Hall ( Bacon’s Dict. of Boston , p. 132–133). Savin Hill is still a stop on the Dorchester-Cambridge subway.
4. Present Neponset Circle, near the Boston-Quincy boundary line.