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Browsing: Papers of John Adams, Volume 12


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Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0220

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-24

From John Bondfield

[salute] Sir

Permit me to congratulate you on the progress which the vigorous resolves of the province of Frise informs us is taking to a publick acknowledgement of the american Independance as also of the late resolves of the British parlement.1 The Neutral Consuls at this Port construe the late Acts to a licence to their flag to transport Goods to the United States under the privalidge and restrictions observed in Europe and at present in the West Indies. I dined yesterday with the prussien Consul he is ready to embark deeply in conections with us so soon as licence is granted. We have upwards of one hundred Sail of neutral Ships in this port all which wish to be Charterd for America. The late resolves of Parlement is not a direct acknowledgement of Independance but under the present situation of Great Britain with the neutral powers a spirritted instruction from the Emperor or the King of Prussia to their Consuls would smoth the road. Every State are anxious to open Commercial Conections with us. You have brought Holland to your terms. The Confederated Neutrals are impowerd by their Union to Act without Control being satisfied there { 350 } can be no longer a doubt of Americas ever returning under the Gouvernment of Great Britain. To obtain a Cessation of Hostilities and establish a firm and speedy Peace Spirritted resolves of all the European Nations is the most certain line. But these Neutrals reap such advantages that is more probable they will add feul to the Flame than attempt any measure to bring about a Conciliation.
We expect our Great West India fleet from St Domingo dayly. We are held in suspence by the various reports transmitted of the Operations at St. Kitts from Cadiz by a vessel that left martinico 29 Jany. The French possest the Island but Brimstone Hill was stil in possession of the English.2 I have the Honor to be with due respect Sir your most Obedient Humble Servant
[signed] John Bondfield
1. Bondfield presumably means Parliament’s resolutions of 27 Feb. to end the further prosecution of an offensive war in America and to declare those who acted contrary to that motion to be enemies of the King. During the debate on the second motion the issue had been raised, but not decided, as to what constituted the prosecution of an offensive war ( Parliamentary Hist. , 22:1099). Apparently the neutral consuls believed that the seizure of neutral ships trading with America would violate the resolutions and contemplated the sort of arrangement that was negotiated with the French by the residents of Nevis and Montserrat following the fall of St. Kitts. They were allowed to act as neutrals and export their produce on neutral ships (Mackesy, War for America , p. 456). The British, however, contemplated no similar accommodation.
2. See JA ’s letter of 5 March from Robert R. Livingston, and note 5, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0221

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Franklin, Benjamin
Date: 1782-03-26

To Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

One day, last Week, I recd at Amsterdam a Card from Diggs, inclosing two Letters to me from Mr David Hartley. The Card desired to see me upon Business of Importance: and the Letters from Mr Hartley contained an assurance that to his Knowledge the Bearer came from the highest Authority. I answered the Card, that in the present Situation of Affairs here and elsewhere, it was impossible for me to See any one from England without Witness, but if he was willing to see me in Presence of Mr Thaxter my Secretary and that I should communicate whatever, he should Say to me to Dr Franklin and the Comte de Vergennes, I would wait for him at home at ten o Clock, but that I had rather he should go to Paris without Seeing me and communicate what he had to Say to Dr Franklin, whose situation enabled him to consult the Court without loss of time. At ten, however he came, and told me a long story about Consultations { 351 } with Mr Pen, Mr Hartley Lord Beauchamp and at last Lord North, by whom he was finally sent, to enquire of me, if I, or any other, had Authority, to treat with Great Britain of a Truce. I answered, that I came to Europe last with full Powers to make Peace, that those Powers had been announced to the public upon my Arrival, and continued in force untill last Summer, when Congress Sent a new Commission, containing the Same Powers to five Persons, whom I named.1 That if the King of England were my father, and I the Heir apparent to his throne, I would not advise him ever to think of a Truce, because it would be but a real War under a simulated appearance of Tranquility, and would <finally> end in another open and bloody War, without doing any real good to any of the Parties.
He Said, that the Ministry would send, Some Person of Consequence over, perhaps General Conway, but they were apprehensive, that he would be ill treated or exposed. I said, that if they resolved upon such a measure, I had rather they would send immediately to Dr Franklin, because of his Situation near the French Court. But there was no doubt, if they sent any respectable Personage properly authorised, who should come to treat honourably, he would be treated with great Respect. But that if he came to me, I could give him no opinion upon any thing without consulting my Colleagues, and should reserve a Right of communicating every Thing to my Colleagues, and to our Allies.
He then Said, that his Mission was finished. That the Fact to be ascertained was Simply, that there was a Commission in Europe to treat and conclude, but that there was not one Person in G. Britain who could affirm or prove that there was such a Commission, altho it had been announced in the Gazettes.
I desired him and he promised me not to mention Mr Laurens, to the Ministry without his Consent, and without informing him that it was impossible he should Say any thing in the Business, because he knew nothing of our Instructions, because altho it was possible that his being in such a Commission might induce them to release him, yet it was also possible, it might render them more difficult concerning his Exchange.2
The Picture he gives of the situation of Things in England, is gloomy enough for them. The Distresses of the People and the Distractions in Administration and Parliament, are such as may produce any Effect, almost that can be imagined.
The only Use of all this I think is, to Strike dicisive Strokes at New York and Charlestown. There is no Position so advantageous { 352 } for Negotiation, as when We have all an Ennemies Armies Prisoners. I must beg the favour of you, Sir, to send me, by one of the C de Vergennes’s Couriers to the Duc de la Vauguion, a Copy in Letters of our Peace Instructions. I have not been able to decypher one Quarter Part of mine. Some Mistake has certainly been made.
Ten or Eleven Cities of Holland, have declared themselves in favour of American Independence, and it is expected that to day or tomorrow, this Province will take the decisive Resolution of Admitting me to an Audience. Perhaps Some of the other Provinces, may delay it for, three or four Weeks. But the Prince has declared that he has no hopes of resisting the Torrent and therefore that he shall not attempt it. The Duc de la Vauguion has acted a very friendly and honourable Part in this Business, without, however doing any ministerial Act, in it.

[salute] With great Respect, I have the Honour to be, sir, your most obedient and most humble servant

[signed] J. Adams3
RC (OClWHi:Autograph Letters of U.S. Presidents, 1782–1963).
1. In a conversation with Matthew Ridley on 20 May, JA indicated that he read his commission to Digges (MHi:Matthew Ridley Diaries).
2. For more on JA ’s conversation with Digges, see letters from Digges of [26 March] and 2 April, note 1, both below; Digges to Benjamin Franklin, 22 March (Digges, Letters , p. 357–362); Henry Laurens’ memorandum, [post 18 April] , below; and Matthew Ridley’s diary, 20 May (MHi:Matthew Ridley Diaries).
3. Benjamin Franklin enclosed a copy of this letter in one to Robert R. Livingston dated 30 March. Franklin wrote that the meeting between JA and Digges showed that the British “are weary of the war, and would get out of it if they knew how” (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. , 5:277).