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Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162

The Negotiation of the Dutch-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce

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22 August – 8 October 1782

I. TO ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON, 22 AUGUST 1782
II. JOHN ADAMS’ DRAFT OF A DUTCH-AMERICAN TREATY OF AMITY AND COMMERCE AND PROPOSALS FOR REVISIONS, [22 AUGUST 1782]
III. JOHN ADAMS’ REPLIES TO THE DUTCH REMARKS ON AND SUGGESTED CHANGES TO HIS DRAFT TREATY OF AMITY AND COMMERCE, [ANTE 22 AUGUST 1782] AND [CA. 27 AUGUST 1782]
IV. PROPOSED ARTICLE IN PLACE OF ARTICLES 22 AND 23, [ANTE 22 AUGUST 1782]
V. PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO ARTICLE 24, [CA. 22–29 AUGUST 1782]
VI. AMENDMENT TO ARTICLE 4, [29 AUGUST 1782]
VII. PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO ARTICLE 9, [29 AUGUST 1782]
VIII. FINAL TEXT OF THE DUTCH-AMERICAN TREATY OF AMITY AND COMMERCE, [ANTE 6 SEPTEMBER 1782]
IX. FINAL TEXT OF THE DUTCH-AMERICAN CONVENTION ON RECAPTURES, [ANTE 6 SEPTEMBER 1782]
X. RESOLUTION OF THE STATES GENERAL AUTHORIZING THE SIGNATURE OF THE DUTCH-AMERICAN TREATY AND CONVENTION ON RECAPTURES, WITH A CONTEMPORARY TRANSLATION, 17 SEPTEMBER 1782
XI. TO ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON, 8 OCTOBER 1782

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0001

Editorial Note

On 19 April the States General recognized the United States as independent and John Adams as its minister at The Hague. Four days later, to cement the relationship between the United States and a nation he hoped and expected would become an important trading partner, Adams presented a draft treaty of amity and commerce to their High Mightinesses. By 26 April the { 260 } draft was translated into Dutch, printed, and referred to the committee on maritime affairs and to representatives of the admiralties for their consideration. These deliberations resulted, on 21 May, in a new printing of the draft, now accompanied by “Remarques en nadere Propositie” (Remarks and Further Propositions), for submission to the provincial states and other interested parties for their comments and approval. Three months later, on 22 August, the draft and suggested alterations, now in their final form, were formally submitted to John Adams (No. II, below). On 27 August the final negotiations began when John Adams presented his response to the Dutch proposals (No. III, below), and less than two weeks later, on 6 September, negotiations were complete, with the final texts of the treaty and a convention on recaptures agreed to by both sides (Nos. VIII and IX, below). On 17 September, the States General authorized its representatives to sign the treaty and convention (No. X, below), and on 8 October John Adams signed the two documents in the Truce Chamber at The Hague.
John Adams’ negotiation of the Dutch-American Treaty is being dealt with in a group document placed at 22 August for several reasons, the most obvious being the need to avoid chronicling the negotiations in a piecemeal fashion. Adams’ letters indicate that he paid close attention to the progress of his draft through various levels of Dutch officialdom, and at various points he discussed the treaty with interested parties, but no substantive negotiations took place until the Dutch formally presented their proposals on 22 August, four months after the draft treaty was presented to the States General.
The available documentary record also influenced the editors’ decision. No copy of the draft treaty in English that John Adams submitted to the States General on 23 April has survived in the Adams Papers nor has one been found in the Dutch archives. This is true despite ample evidence in the States General’s resolutions and Adams’ own writings that the draft was submitted in English and was subsequently translated into Dutch. The document received by the States General may have been discarded after translation, but the absence of an English text from the Adams Papers is puzzling because Adams did not read Dutch. C. W. F. Dumas assisted in the negotiations by translating documents received from the Dutch negotiators into French and by probably also translating Adams’ replies into Dutch, but it is unlikely that he lacked an English text on which to record changes made in the course of negotiations and which would serve as a basis for the English text of the treaty signed on 8 October. Adams wrote on 8 October to Robert R. Livingston that “the Papers, in which the whole progress of this Negotiation is contained in Dutch, French and English; make a large bundle, and, after all, they contain nothing worth transmitting to Congress. To copy them would be an immense labor to, no purpose, and to send the Originals, at once, would expose them to loss” (No. XI, below). This seems to indicate that there were more papers relating to the negotiation than the relatively small number that are in the Adams Papers and printed here. If this is so, then at some point they were lost, possibly { 261 } in the course of Adams’ moves between The Hague, Paris, and London or upon his return to the United States.
There may also be a missing letterbook. From the beginning of his diplomatic career in 1778, Adams took great pains to keep a record of his activities, not only because he was participating in great events of interest to later historians, but also because he needed a means to defend his actions if they were questioned later (vol. 7:427). This meant that Adams usually drafted documents like the draft treaty in his letterbook. But there is no extant letterbook in the Adams Papers containing copies of the documents relating to the Dutch negotiations, which perhaps explains the absence of any account of his negotiations in his letters printed in the Boston Patriot, despite his pride in the treaty and the fact that he dealt there in detail with virtually every other facet of his diplomatic career.
In the absence of an extant copy of John Adams’ original English draft, the editors have reconstructed the draft because a simple translation of the Dutch text would be inadequate as well as misleading. No matter how skilled the modern translator might be or how accurate the translation, the resulting English text necessarily would deviate significantly from the English text of the treaty signed on 8 October. We, in fact, would be providing an English translation of a Dutch text that itself was a Dutch translation of an English text. Treaties are legal contracts between consenting parties, in this case the Netherlands and the United States. Therefore, the exact wording of the treaty agreed upon during the negotiations is of great importance, for the Dutch and English texts were equally binding, unlike the Franco-American treaties of 1778 where only the French text was official. Note, however, that the capitalization, punctuation, and spelling in the text of the reconstructed draft, as well as in the translations of Dutch text supplied by the editors, conforms to modern standard English usage. For comments on the nature of the reconstruction and its sources, see the editorial and descriptive notes to No. II, below.
Finally, the texts of the final versions of the treaty and of the convention on recaptures printed here are taken from the Dutch and English texts agreed to on or about 6 September, rather than from the versions that were copied and signed on 8 October. This is because among the Adams Papers are copies of the English texts in John Adams’ hand and Dutch texts in a clerk’s hand agreed to on 6 September, all of which reflect the last-minute fine-tuning of the documents. For the texts of the treaty and the convention signed on 8 October, as well as the locations of those copies, see Miller, Treaties, 2:59–95.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0002

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1782-08-22

I. To Robert R. Livingston

[salute] Sir

Their High Mightinesses have at length recieved their Instructions from all the Provinces, and I have this day been in Conference { 262 } with the Grand Committe, who communicated to me the Remarks and Propositions on their Part. To this I shall very soon give my Replication;2 and I hope the Affair will be soon ended.
I was recieved in state by two of the Lords at the Head of the Stairs, and by them conducted into the Committee Room where the Business is transacted. The Committee consisted of one or more Deputies from each Province, together with the Grand Pensionary Bleiswick and the Secretary Fagel.

[salute] I have the honor to be, Sir, your most obedient humble Servant.

[signed] J. Adams3
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 133–134).
1. According to its dispatch book, Congress did not receive this announcement that formal negotiations had begun until 1 April 1783, two and a half months after JA’s letter of 8 Oct. (No. XI, below) and the signed copies of the treaty and convention had arrived (PCC, No. 185, III, f. 60, 52).
2. For the “Remarks and Propositions” and JA’s responses, see Nos. II and III, below.
3. Signature in JA’s hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0003

II. John Adams’ Draft of a Dutch-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce and Proposals for Revisions

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[22 August 1782]

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0003-0001

Editorial Note

Two separate documents are presented here. The first is derived from the printed Dutch translation of John Adams’ English draft of a treaty of amity and commerce, accompanied by “Remarques en nadere Propositie” (Remarks and Further Propositions), that was officially presented to Adams on 22 August. The Dutch translation of the draft appears in the left column. In the right column are the “Remarques,” which are (with one notable exception, for which see note 1) keyed to numbered italicized passages in the draft on the left. Most of these proposals, even those regarding a single word, are substantive; however, some are merely textual, intended to correct errors in the translation (see, for example, note 10). Note also that in some instances there are unnumbered italicized words or passages that were intended for deletion with no revision or replacement indicated. The second document consists of the reconstructed English text of Adams’ draft in the left column and an English translation of the Dutch remarks in the right column. For the editors’ decision to reconstruct the draft rather than translate it from the Dutch, see the editorial note to the group document, above.
The reconstruction was possible because by comparing the Dutch text of the draft and the language of the final treaty (No. VIII, below), it was clear that Adams used two sources when he drafted the treaty. He began { 263 } with Congress’ 29 December 1780 plan for a Dutch-American treaty (vol. 10:451–458). Articles 1 through 22 of the draft correspond to Articles 1 through 21 of the treaty plan, the numbering discrepancy owing to one article being the reciprocal of another, for which see note 20. For matters not covered in the treaty plan, Adams then turned to the Lee-Neufville Treaty of 4 September 1778 (Adams Papers; printed: Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:789–798). From this source he took Articles 10, 29, 30, 31, and 32, which correspond to Articles 24 through 28 of the draft treaty, as well as the passport and certificate to be given to American merchant ships. Only Articles 23, 29, and 30 were Adams’ own work. Article 23 does not appear in the final treaty and is translated directly from the Dutch. Articles 29 and 30 do appear in the final treaty, and the text for them there has been used here.
With regard to the English translation of the “Remarques en nadere Propositie” appearing in the right column, it should be noted that the printed Dutch text that Adams received on 22 August, which served as the basis for negotiations, included remarks, proposals, and deletions in an unknown hand, all stemming from proposals adopted by Amsterdam on 9 August (Adams Papers). Those handwritten passages, in both Dutch and English, have been underlined to differentiate them from the rest of the text. The English text of the remarks and proposals is derived from two sources. When a proposal was rejected, or for some other reason was not included in the final treaty, it has been translated directly from the Dutch, but when a Dutch proposal was incorporated more or less verbatim into the treaty, the English text of the passage as it appears in the final treaty has been used, with such instances being indicated in the annotation (but see also John Adams’ responses to the Dutch proposals in No. III, below).

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0003-0002

Dutch Translation of John Adams' Draft of a Dutch-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce and Proposals for Revisions

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0003-0002-0001

Author: Adams, John
Author: Netherlands, States General of
Recipient: Adams, John
Recipient: Netherlands, States General of
Date: 1782-04-23
Date: 1782-08-22

Dutch Translation of John Adams' Draft of a Dutch-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce and Proposals for Revisions

Een Tractaat1hn1Van Vriendschap en Commercie, tusschen haar Hoog Mogende, de Staaten Generaal (1) van de { 264 } zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien,2en de vereenigde Staaten (2) van America,3te weeten New-Hampshire, (3) Massachu-setts, Rhode Island,4Connecti-cutt, New-York, New-Jersey, Pensylvania, (4) Delaware, Mary-land, Virginia, Noord-Carolina, Znid-Carolina en Georgia.hn2
Haar Hoog Mogende de Staaten Generaal (1)hn3van de zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, en de vereenigde Staaten (2)hn4van America, te weeten New-Hampshire, Massachusets, Rhode Island en Providence Plantations, Connecticutt, New-York, New-Jersey, Pensylvanien, Delaware, Maryland, Virginien, Noord-Carolina, Zuid-Carolina en Georgien, geneegen zynde, op een bestendige en billyke wyze te (3)hn5fixeeren, de regelen, die in acht genoomen moeten worden, ten opzigte van de Correspondentie en Commercie welke zy verlangen vast te stellen tusschen haare respective Landen, Staaten, (4) Burgeren5hn6 en Onderdaanen, hebben geoordeelt, dat het gezegde einde niet beeter kan worden bereikt, dan door (5) het stellenhn7 tot een basis van haar Verdrag, de volmaakste egaliteit en reciprociteit, en (6) door zorgvuldiglyk te vermydenhn8 alle die lastige Praeserentien, dewelke doorgaans de bronäders zyn van twist, verwarring en misnoegen; (7) door insgelykshn9 iedere Party de vryheid te laaten, om wegens de Commercie en Navigatie (8) zulke interieurehn10 Reglementen te maaken, als die voor zig zelven het gevoeglykst zal oordeelen; en door de voordeelen van Commercie eeniglyk te (9) fundeerenhn11 op wederzyds nut, en de juiste regels van vyre handel over en weer; reserveerende by alles aan { 265 } iedere Parthy de vryheid, om, na desselfs goedvinden, ande Natien te admitteeren tot het participeeren (10) vanhn12 deselfde voordeelen.6
Op deeze grondbeginzelen, (11) voorgemeldehn13 haar Hoog Mogende de Staaten Generaal (12)7van de zeven vereenigde Provincien, hebbende benoemt en geconstitueert tot haaren Plenipotentiaris:hn14

En de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van (13)hn15 America, hebbende van hunne zyde met Volmagt voorzien, den Heer John Adams, laatst Commissaris van de vereenigde Staaten van (14)hn16 America aan het Hof van Versailes, geweesen Asgevaardigde op het Congres wegens de Staaten van Massachusetts Baay,8 en Opper-Regter van den gemelden Start.
(14) De voornoemde Plenipotentiarissen,hn17 na uitwisseling van hunne Volmagten, en na rype deliberatie, hebben geconcludeert en geresolveert op de volgende Articulen.
Art. I9hn18
Daar zal een vaste, onverbreekelyke, en universeele Vreede, en opregte vriendschap zyn, tusschen haar Hoog Mog de (1) Staaten (2) van de zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien,hn19 en de vereenigde Staa• { 266 } ten van (3)hn20 America, en de Onderdaanen, Burgers en Ingezeetenen van de voornoemde Parthyen, en tusschen de Landen, Eilanden, Steden en Plaatsen, gelegen onder de Jurisdictie van de gemelde vereenigde (4) Nederlandsche Provincienhn21 en de gemelde de vereenigde Staaten van America, en de (5)hn22Burgers, Volkeren en Inwoonders van deselve van allerley staat, zonder onderscheid van Persoonen, (6)hn23of Geslagten.10
{ 267 }
De Onderdaanen van de gemelde Staaten (1) derhn26 Nederlanden, zullen in de Havens, Rheeden, Landen, Eilanden, Steden of Plaatsen van de vereenigde Staaten van America, of eenige van dezelve, geen andere of grootere Regten of Impositien, van wat natuur die ook mogen zyn, of hoedanig dezelve ook genoemt mogen werden, betaalen, dan die welke de meest gefavoriseerde Natien <(2)>hn27 zyn, of zullen worden, verpligt ([2]<3>)hn28 te betaalen. En zy zullen genieten alle de Regten, Vryheeden, Privilegien, Immuniteiten en Exemptien in Handel, Navigatie en Commercie, het zy in het gaan van eene Haven in de gemelde Staaten na eene andere, of gaande na en van dezelve, van en na eenige ([3]<4>)hn29 Haven van de Weereld, welke de gemelde Natien reeds genieten of zullenhn30 genieten. ([4]<5>)
III14
De Onderdaanen en ([5]<6>) Burgershn31 van de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van America, zullen in de Havens, Rheeden, Landen, Eilanden, Steden of Plaatsen van de gemelde vereenigde ([6]<7>) Provincien,hn32 of eenige van dezelve, geen andere, of grootere Regten of Impositien, van wat natuur die ook mogen zyn, { 268 } of hoedanig dezelve ook genoemt mogen worden, betaalen, dan die, welke de meest ([7]<8>) gefavoriseertste Natien <(9)> zyn, of zullen worden verpligt ([8]<10>)hn33 te betaalen. En zy zullen genieten alle de Regten, Vryheeden, Privilegien, Immuniteiten en exemptien in Handel, Navigatie en Commercie, het zy in het gaan van eene Haven in de gemelde Staaten na eene andere, of gaande na en van dezelve, van en na eenige ([9]<11>)hn34 Haven van de Weereld, welke de ([10]<12>)hn35gemelde Natien <(12)>hn36 reeds genieten of zullen genieten. ([11]<13>)hn37
Er zal eene volle, volkomene en geheele vryheid van Conscientie worden toegestaan, aan de Burgers en Onderdaanenhn39 (1) van iedere Parthy, en aan der zelver Familien, (2)hn40aangaande Religie zaaken, en een volkomene en geheele vryheid, om hunne Godsdienst naar haare gewoonte te oeffenen, zonder { 269 } eenigerhande molestatie. Daarenboven zal vryheid worden gegeeven aan de Burgers en Onderdaanen (3)hn41 van iedere Parthye, die in des anderen’s Territoir overlyden, om begraven te worden in (4)hn42 gevoeglyke en decente plaatsen, daar toe te bepaalen, zoo als de geleegentheid zal vereisschen; nogte zullen de doode Lighaamen van die geene die begraaven zyn, eenigzints werden gemolesteert.hn43
Haar Hoog Mogende, de Staaten (1)hn45van de zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, zullen tragten, zoo veel eenigzints in haar vermogen is, te beschermen en defendeeren alle Schepen en andere Effecten, toebehoorende aan (2)hn46de Burgers, Volkeren, Inwoonders en Onderdaanen (3)hn47van de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van America, of eenige van dezelve, zynde in haare Havens of Rheen, (4)hn48of op de Zeén naby haare Landen, Eilanden, Steden { 270 } of Plaatsen; en wederom te bekomen en te doen restitueeren aan de regte Eigenaars, hunne Agenten of Gevolmagtigden, alle zodanige Schepen en Effecten, die onder haare Jurisdictie zullen genoomen worden: en haare (5)hn49Oorlog schepen, of eenige Convoyers zeilende onder der zelver authoriteit, zullen by alle geleegentheeden onder haare protectie neemen alle Schepen, toebehoorende aan (6)hn50de Onderdaanen, Volkeren of Inwoonders van de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van America, of eenige der zelve, houdende dezelve cours, of (7)hn51gaande dezelve weg, en zullen zodanige Schepen defendeeren, zoo lang als zy dezelve cours houden, of dezelve weg gaan, tegens alle aanvallen, magt en geweld, (8)hn52 op dezelve wys als zy zouden moeten beschermen en defendeeren de Schepen toebehoorende aan (9)hn53de Onderdaanen van haar Hoog Mogende.
De vereenigde Staaten van America zullen tragten, zoo veel eenigzints in haar vermogen is, te beschermen en defendeeren alle Schepen en andere Effecten, toebehoorende aan de Burgers, Volkeren, Inwoonders en Onderdaanen van de gemelde vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, of eenige van dien, zynde in haare Havens of Rhéen, of op de { 271 } Zeén naby haare Landen, Eilanden, Steden of Plaatseu; en wederom te bekomen en te doen restitueeren aan de regte Eigenaars, hunne Agenten of Gevolmagtigden, alle zodanige Schepen en Effecten, die onder haare Jurisdictie zullen genoomen worden: en haare Oorlogschepen of eenige Convoyers zeilende onder der zelver anthoriteit, zullen by alle geleegentheeden onder haare protectie neemen alle Schepen, toebehoorende aan de Onderdaanen, Volkeren of Inwoonders van de gemelde vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, of eenige der zelve, houdende dezelve cours, of gaande dezelve weg, en zullen zodanige Schepen defendeeren, zoo lang als zy dezelve cours houden, of dezelve weg gaan, tegens alle aanvallen, magt en geweld, op dezelve wys als zy zouden moeten beschermen en defendeeren de Schepen toebehoorende aan de Onderdaanen der vereenigde Staaten van America.
VII.21hn55
Het zal wettig en vyr zyn voor Kooplieden en andere, zynde Onderdaanen, of van de gemelde zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, of van de voorgemelde vereenigde Staaten van America, by Testament of eenige andere dispositie, gemaakt ten tyde van ziekte, of ten eenigen { 272 } tyde bevoorens, of even voor het overlyden, te verdeelen of weg te geeven aan zodanig Persoon of Persoonen, als zy zullen goedvinden, hunne Effecten, Koopmanschappen. Gelden, Schulden of Goederen, roerende of onroerende, dewelke zy hebben of behoorden te hebben ten tyde van hun overlyden, of eenigen tyd bevoovrens, in de Landen, Eilanden, Steden, Plaatsen of Dominien, behoorende aan ieder van de voornoemde contracteerende Parthyen. Nog meer, het zy dezelve komen te overlyden, hebbende getesteert of abintestato, derzelver wettige Erfgenaamen, Executeurs of Administrateurs, resideerende in de Dominien van ieder der contracteerende Parthyen, ofkomende van eenig ander gedeelte, ofschoon dezelve niet zyn genaturaliseert, en zonder hun Regt gecontesteerd of betwist te worden onder praetext van eenige Regten of byzondere Persoonen, zullen vryelyk en vreedsaam ontfangen en bezitting neemen van alle de gemelde Goederen en Effecten hoedanige ook, in gevolge de Wetten van ieder Land respectivelyk in zodanig geval, nogtans zoo, dat de laaste wil, en regt van Erven, van Luyder abintestato overlydende, beweezen moeten morden, in gevolge de Wetten van die Plaatsen, alwaar ieder Persoon mag komen te overlyden, zoo wel door de Onderdanen van { 273 } de eene, als van de andere der contracteerende Parthy, niettegenstaande eenig Wet, Statut, Edict, Placaat, Costume, Ordonnantie of Regt, hoe genaamt, ter contrarie.hn56
VIII.22hn57
Het zal wettig en vry zyn aan de Onderdaanen van iedere Parthye, zodanige Advocaaten, Procureurs, Notariffen, Solliciteurs of Factoors te employeeren, als zy zullen goedvinden, ten welken einde de voorsz Advocaaten en andere hoven gemeld, mogen werden benoemt door de ordinaris Regters, als ’t nood is, en de Regters daar toe vereischt worden.
Kooplieden, Schippers, Eigenaars, Bootsgezellen, Lieden van a derhande soort, Schepen en Vaartuigen, en alle Koopmanschappen en Goederen in ’t generaal, en Effecten van ieder der Bondgenooten, of van der zelver Onderdaanen, zullen niet mogen worden in beslag genomen of aangehouden in eenige der Landen, Gronden, Eilanden, Steden, Plaatsen, Havens, Stranden of Dominien, hoe genaamt, van den anderen Bondgenoot, tot algemeen (1)hn59 gebruik, Oorlogs-Expeditien, of byzonder gebruik van iemand, door arrest, geweld, of eenigzints daar na gelykende.
{ 274 }
Noch te meer zal het onwettig zyn voor de Onderdaanen van iedere Parthy iets te neemen, of door geweld te ontvreemden, van de Onderdaanen van de andere Parthy, zonder bewilliging van den Persoon die het toebehoord: het geen egter niet te verstaan is van die aanhaalingen en detentien (2)hn60 welke (3)hn61zal worden gedaan op bevel en authoriteit van de Justitie, en volgens de ordinaire wegen, ten opzigte van schulden of misdaaden, waar omtrent de Procedures moeten geschieden by wege van Regten, in gevolge de form van Justitie.
Verders is overeengekomen en besloten, dat het volkomen vry zal staan aan alle Kooplieden, Bevelhebbers van Schepen, en andere Onderdaanen van haar Hoog Mog. de Staaten (1)hn63van de zeven vereenigde Nederlansche Provincienhn64, in alle Plaatsen gehoorende onder het Gebied en Jurisdictie van de voorsz vereenigde Staaten van America, hunne eigen zaaken zelfs te verrigten, of daar toe te employeeren wien het hun zal behaagen, noch zullen zy verpligt zyn gebruik te maaken van eenige Tolk of Makelaar, noche eenige Salaris of Foyen te betaalen, ten zy zylieden verkiezen om deselve te gebruiken. Voorts zullen de Schippers van Schepen { 275 } niet verpligt zyn, by het laaden of ontlaaden hunner Schepen, gebruik te maaken van de Werklieden, die tot dien einde by publique authoriteit gestelt mogten zyn, maar het zal hun gcheellyk vry staan, en hunne Schepen met hun eigen Volk te laaden of te lossen, (2)hn65of gebruik te maaken van zulke Persoonen in het laaden of lossen der zelve, als zy zullen goedvinden, zonder eenige Foyen of Salaris aau iemand anders, wien ook, te betaalen: Noch zullen zy gedwongen worden eenige soort van Koopmanschappen (3) te lossen, het zy in andere Schepen, of dezelve in hunne eigene te ontfangen, of naar hunne Laading langer te wagten, als hun zal behaagen. En alle en een ieder der (4) Burgers, Volkeren en Inwoonders van de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van America, zal reciproquelyk hebben en genieten dezelfde Privilegien en Vryheeden in alle Plaatsen, welke ook, gehoorende onder het Gebied en Jurisdictie van haar Hoog Mog. de Staaten (5) van de zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien.
De Koopvaardyschepen van een ieder der Parthyen, (1) { 276 } hn67gaande naar een Haven van een der Vyanden van den anderen Bondgenoot, (2) en omtrent welke reize en de soort van Goederen aan Boord van dezelve, eenige regte grond van suspicie zal zyn, zullen verpligt zyn, zoo wel op de open Zee, als in de Havens, niet alleenlyk haare Pasporten te exhibeeren, maar insgelyks Certificaaten expresselyk aantoonende, dat haare Goederen niet zyn van het getal dier geene, dewelke als Contrabande verboden zyn., (3)hn68
XII.26hn69
Indien, by het (1)hn70exhibeeren der bovengemelde Certificaaten, de andere Parthy ontdekt, dat ’er eenige van die soort van Goederen zyn, dewelke verboden en Contrabande gedeclareert zyn, en geconsigneert naar een Haven, onder de gehoorzaamheid van den Vyand, zal het niet geoorloft zyn Luyken van zodanig Schip op te breeken, of eenige Kist, Koffers, Pakken, Kassen of ander Vaatwerk, daar in gevonden wor• { 277 } dende, te openen, of het geringste gedeelte van haare Goederen te verplaatsen, het zy zodanige Schepen toebehooren aan de Onderdaanen van haar Hoog Mog. de Staaten (2)hn71van de zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, (3)hn72of aan de Burgers en Ingezeetenen van de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van America, ten zy de Laading aan Land gebragt worde in presentie van de Officieren van het Admiraliteits Hof, en een Inventaris van dezelve gemaakt, dog zal niet worden toegelaaten om dezelve op eenigerhande wyze te verkopen, verruilen of veralieneeren, (4)hn73ten zy daar na behoorlyke en wettige Procedures tegens zodanige verbodene (5)hn74 Goederen zullen zyn gehouden, en het Admiraliteits Hofby een gepronouncieerde Sententie dezelve zal hebben geconfisqueert, daar van altoos vry laatende, zoo wel het Schip zelve, als eenige andere Goederen daar in gevonden wordende, welke voor vry werden gehouden, nochte mogen dezelve worden opgehouden, onder vorgeeven dat die, als ’t ware, door de geprohibeerde Goederen zouden zyn geinfecteert, veel min zullen dezelve als wettige Prys worden geconfisqueert: (6)hn75doch by aldien niet de geheele Laading, maar alleenlyk een gedeelte van dezelve, zal bestaan uit verbodene { 278 } of Contrabande Goederen, en de Bevelhebber van het Schip gereed en gewillig zal zyn dezelve over te leeveren aan den Neemer, die dezelve ontdekt heeft, in zodanig geval, zal den Neemer, dezelve Goederen ontfangen hebbende, het Schip dadelyk ontslaan, en het zelve op geenerbande wyze verhinderen de reis te vervolgen, waar toe het bestemt was. Doch, in gevalle de Contrabande Koopmanschappen niet alle kunnen worden ontslagen aan Boord van het Schip van den Neemer, alsdan vermag den Neemer niettegenstaande het aanbod van hem, de Contrabande Goederen over te leeveren, het Schip te brengen in de naaste Haven, agtervolgens het geene hier boven is vastgestelt.
XIII28hn76
In tegendeel is overeengekomen, dat al het geen bevonden zal worden gelaaden te zyn door de Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen van een der beide Parthyen, { 279 } in eenig Schip de Vyanden van den anderen, of aan desselfs Onderdaanen toebehoorende, geheel, ofschoon niet zynde van de soort van verbodene Goederen, mag worden geconfisqueert, op dezelve wys als of het den Vyand toequam, uitgezondert zodanige Goederen en Koopmanschappen, als aan Boord van zodanig Schip gedaan waren voor de Oorlogs-Declaratiehn77, of (1) zelfs na die Declaratie, indien zulks geschied was, zonder kennis gehad te hebben van dezelve Declaratie; zoo dat de Goederen van de Onderdaanen en Volk van een der beide Parthyen, het zy dezelve zyn van de natuur der verbodene, of anderzints, dewelke als boven gemeld waren gelaaden aan Boord van eenig Schip den Vyand toebehoorende, voor den Oorlog, of na de Declaratie van dezelve, indien de Laaders daar van geen kennis hebben gehad, in geenen deele confiscatie zullen onderhevig zyn, maar zullen wel en getrouwelyk, zonder uitstel, aan de Eigenaars, (2)hn78dezelve te rug vraagende, worden gerestitueert, (3) dog zo dat, indien de gemelde Koopmanschappen Contrabande zyn, het geenzints geoorloft zal zyn dezelve naderhand te vervoeren na eenige havens, de Vyanden toebehoorende.
De twee controctreerende Partyen koomen over een, dat den { 280 } termyn van twee maanden verloopen zynde na de Oorlogs-Declaratie, hunne respective Onderdaanen, van welk gedeelte der Waereld zy komen, de onweetentheid, in dit Articul gemeld, niet zullen mogen voorwenden.
XIV.30hn79
En ten einde de best mogelyke zorg mag worden gedraagen voor de securiteit van de Onderdaanen, en het Volk van een der beide Partyen, dat dezelve geen overlast komen te lyden van wegens de Oorlogschepen of Kapers van de andere Parthy, zullen alle de Bevelhebbers van Oorlogschepen en gewapende Vaartuigen van de voorsz Staaten (1)hn80der zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, en van de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van (2)hn81 America, mitsgaders alle der zelver (3)hn82 Onderdaanen en Volk, verboden worden eenige beleediging of schaade, aan die van de andere zyde, toe te brengen, en zoo zy dien contrarie handelen, zullen zy (4)hn83 gestraft worden, en daarenboven verpligt (5)hn84zyn satisfactie te geeven voor alle schaade, en den interest daar van, door vergoeding, onder pœne en verbintenis van hunne Persoonen en Goederen.
{ 281 }
Alle Schepen en Koopmanschappen, van wat natuur dezelve ook zyn, die hernoomen zullen worden uit handen van Piraten en Zeerovers (1)hn87op de open Zee, zullen gebragt worden in eenige Haven van eene der beide Staaten, en zullen aan de bewaaring der Officieren van die Haven worden overgeleevert, ten einde geheel gerestitueert te worden aan den regten Eigenaar, zoo dra als behoorlyk en genoegzaam bewys wegens den eigendom der zelve, zal gedaan zyn.<(2)>33hn88
{ 282 } { 283 }
XVI.34hn89
Indien eenige Schepen of Vaartuigen, toebehoorende aan een van beide de Parthyen, hunne Onderdaanen of Volk, op de Kusten of Dominien van den anderen zullen komen te stranden, vergaan, of eenige andere (1)hn90 schaade te lyden, zal alle vriendelyke assistentie en hulp worden gegeeven aan de Persoonen Schipbruek geleeden hebbende, of die zig in gevaar daar van zullen bevinden; (2)hn91 zullende insgelyks Brieven van Vrygeley aan hun worden gegeeven, voor hunne vrye en geruste passage van daar, en retour van een ieder na zyn eigen Land.
XVII.35hn92
In gevalle de Onderdaanen of het Volk van een der beide Partyen, met hunne Schepen, het zy publique en ten Oorlog vaarende, of byzondere en ter Koopvaardy uitgerust, door onstuimig Weer, najaaging van Zeerovers of Vyanden, of eenige { 284 } andere dringende nood, gedwongen zullen worden, ter bekoming van een Schuylplaats en Haven, zig te retireeren en binnen te loopen in eenige der Rivieren, Creeken, Baayen, Havens, Rheeden of Stranden, toebehoorende aan de andere Parthye, zullen dezelve met alle menschlieventheid en goedwilligheid werden ontfangen, en alle vriendelyke protectie en hulp genieten, en zal hun worden toegestaan zig te ververschen en proviandeeren tegens reedelyke prysen, met Victuaille, en alle dingen benoodigt tot onderhoud van haare Persoonen, of reparatie van hunne Schepen, en zy zullen op geenerley wys worden opgehouden, of verhindert, uit de gemelde Havens of Rheeden te vertrekken, maar mogen verzeylen en gaan, wanneer en waar het hun behaagt, zonder eenig belet of verhindering.
XVIII.36hn93
Tot des te beeter voortzetting der wederzydsche Commercie, is overeengekoomen, dat indien een Oorlog mogt komen te ontstaan tusschen (1) de voornoemde twee Natien, zes maanden zal worden vergunt na de Proclamatie van Oorlog, aan de Kooplieden in de Steden en Plaatsen alwaar zy woonen, tot het verkoopen en transporteeren hunner Goederen en Koop– { 285 } manschappen; en indien iets van hun genoomen mogt zyn, of eenige beleediging hun weezen aangedaan, binnen dien termyn, door een der beide Partyen, of het Volk of Onderdaanen van een van beide, zal daar voor volkemene satisfactie gegeeven worden.
{ 286 }
XIX.37hn94
Geen Onderdaanen van haar Hoog Mogende de Staaten (1)hn95van de zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, zullen mogen verzoeken of aanneemen eenige Commissien, of Lettres de Marque, tot het wapenen van eenig Schip of Schepen, ten einde als Kapers te ageeren tegens de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van (2)hn96 America, of eenige der zelve, of tegens de Onderdaanen, (3)hn97Volk of Inwoonders der gemelde vereenigde Staaten, of eenige der zelve, of tegens den eigendom der Ingezeetenen van eenige der zelve, van eenige Prins of Staat, met wien de voorsz vereenigde Staaten van (4)hn98 America in Oorlog mogten zyn; nochte zal eenige Burger, Onderdaan of (5)hn99Inwoonder van de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van (6)hn100 America, of eenige der zelve, eenige Commissie of Lettres de Marque verzoeken of aanneemen, tot het wapenen van eenig { 287 } Schip of Schepen, om ter Kaap te vaaren tegens (7)hn101 de Onderdaanen (8) van gemelde haar Hoog Mog., of eenige van dezelve, of den eigendom van eenige der zelve, van eenige Prins of Staat, met wien de voorsz (9)hn102Staat in Oorlog (10) zal zyn, en indien eenig Persoon van een beide de Natien, zodanige Commissie of Lettres de Marque zal aanneemen, zal dezelve als een Zeerover worden gestraft.38hn103
De Schepen der Onderdaanen of Ingezeetenen van een van beide de Partyen, komende aan eenige Kust, toebehoorende aan de een of andere der gemelde Bondgenooten, doch niet voorneemens zynde in een Haven binnen te loopen, of binnen geloopen zynde, en niet begeerende hunne Laadingen te lossen, of Last te breeken, (1)hn105zullen behandelt worden volgens de generaale reegelen, met opzigt tot het geval in quaestie gestelt, of nog te stellen.
{ 288 }
De twee contracteerende Partyen vergunnen over en weder aan elkanderen de vryheid, om ieder in de Havens van den anderen, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, Agenten en Commissarissen van hunne eigen aanstelling te hebben, welkers functien gereguleert zullen worden by particuliere overeenkomst, wanneer ooit eene der beide Partyen goedvind zodanige aanstelling te doen.
XXII.41hn107
Het is vastgestestelt tusschen de twee contracteerende Parthyen, dat geen Clausul, Articul, materie of zaak hier in begreepen, het zy voor het tegenswoordige of toekomende, zal worden begreepen of verstaan, contrarie aan de Clausulen, Articulen, Overeenkomsten en Stipulatien in twee Tractaaten, een van Vriendschap en Commercie en het andere van Alliantie, tusschen de voorsz vereenigde Staaten van America, en den Allerchristelyksten Koning, gesloten te Parys op den zesden dag van February een duizend zeven honderd acht en zeventig, of eenige van dezelve, maar dezelve zullen worden begreepen en verstaan, bestaanbaar met en overeenkomsteg de gemelde Tractaaten.
{ 289 }
XXIII.
Het is voorts overeengekomen tusschen de twee contracteerende Partyen, dat aan zyn Catholique Majesteit den Koning van Spagne, het regt zal gereserveert zyn, om te accedeeren in de gemelde twee Tractaaten, tusschen zyne Allerchristelykste Majesteit en de voorsz vereenigde Staaten van America, het eene van Vriendschap en Commercie, en het andere van Allantie, gesloten te Parys op den zesden dag van February een duizend zeven honderd acht en zeventig, met zodanige veranderingen, niet derogatoir aan dit Tractaat, als wederzyds zullen worden overeengekomen, tusschen zyn gemelde Catholique Majesteit en de voorsz vereenigde Staaten; en dat geen Clausul, Articul, materie of zaak hier in vervat, zal worden begreepen of verstaan, het zy voor het tegenwoordige of toekomende, strydig aan de Clausulen, Articulen, Overeenkomsten en Stipulatien, in zodanige Tractaaten gemaakt of nog te maaken, tusschen gemelde zyn Catholique Majesteit en de voorsz vereenigde Staaten.
XXIV.43hn108
Haar Hoog Mog. de Staaten van de zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, zullen hunne goede officien en interpositie aanwenden by den Koning { 290 } of Keizer van Marocco of Fez, de Regeering van Algiers, Tunis of Tripoli, of by eenige van dezelve; als meede by eidere Prins, Staat of Mogentheid, op de Kust van Barbaryen in Africa, en de Onderdaanen van den voornoemden Koning, Keizer, Staaten en Mogentheeden, en ieder van dezelve; ten einde, zoo volleedig en nadrukkelyk als mogelyk is, te zorgen, voor de welvaart, geryf en veiligheid van de gemelde vereenigde Staaten, en ieder van dezelve, hunne Onderdaanenm Volk en Inwoonderen, en hunne Schepen en Goederen tegens alle violentien, insultes, aanvallen of plonderingen van wegens de voornoemde Princen of Staaten van Barbaryen of hunne Onderdaanen.
Contrabande.
XXV.44hn109
De vryheid van Navigatie en Commercie zal zig uitstrekken tot alle soorten van Koopmanschappen, uitgezondert alleen deeze, welke onderscheiden zyn onder den naam van Contrabande of verbodene Goederen: en onder deeze benoeming van Contrabande of verbodene Goederen zullen (1)hn110 begreepen zyn (2)hn111 Wapenen, (3)hn112grof Geschut, (4) Bomben met haare Buysen, en andere dingen tot dezelve behoorende, Vuurballen, Buskruit, Lonten, Kanon-kogels, Pieken,
{ 291 }
(5) Deegens en Houwers, Lancien, Speeren, Helbaarden, (6) Mortieren, Petarden, Granaden, Salpeeter, Musquetten, Musquetkogels, Helmetten, Hoostplaaten, Borstplaaten, Malie-Rokken en diergelyk soort van Tuyg, geschikt tot het wapenen van Soldaaten, Draagbanden of Port-Epées, Paarden met haar toebehooren, en alle andere Instrumenten van Oorlog, hoe genaamt.
(7)hn113De volgende<Koopmanschappen> (8) <zullen niet gereekent worden onder de Contrabande of verbodene Goederen>, te weeten alle soorten van Lakenen, Lynewaaten en alle andere Manufactuuren, gemaakt van Wolle, Vlas, Hennip, Zyde, Katoen of eenige andere Stoffen, hoe genaamt. Alle soorten van Kleederen, nevens de Specien waar van dezelve doorgaans gemaakt worden: Goud en Zilver, zoo wel gemunt, als ongemunt, Tin, Yzer, Loot, Kooper, als meede Tarw en Gerst, en alle andere soorten van Graan en Peulvrugten, Tabak, gelyk meede allerhande Speceryen, gezouten en gerookt Vleesch, Zoutenisch, Kaas en Booter, Bier, Oly, Wyn, Cyder, Suikeren, Syroopen en alle soorten van Zout, en in het generaal allerhande Provisien die tot voedzel van den Mensch, en tot onderhoud van bet leeven dienen; voorts alle soorten van { 292 } Katoen, Hennip, Vlas, Teer, Pek, Terpentyn, Touwerk, Kabels, Zeylen, Zeyldoeken, Ankers en eenige gedeeltens van Ankers, gelyk meede Scheeps-Masten, Planken, Deelen en Balken, van wat Boomen, hoe genaamt, en alle andere dingen, geschikt, het zy tot het bouwen of repareeren van Schepen, en andere Goederen, hoe genaamt, welke niet verwerkt zyn in de form van eenig Instrument of Tuyg bereid tot den Oorlog te Land of ter Zee, zullen voor geen Contrabande werden gehouden, veel minder zodanige die reeds verwerkt en tot andere eindens gebruikt zyn; alle dewlke geheel<(9) onder fe vrye Goederen>hn114zullen<worden gereekent te behooren>; gelyk meede alle andere Koopmanschappen en dingen welke niet begreepen en particulier gemeld zyn in de voornoemde opnoeming van Contrabande Goederne, <zoo dat dezelve mogen werden getransporteert en vervoert> in alle vryheid door de Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen van beide Bondgenooten, (<10>[9])hn115zelfs na Plaatsen aan den Vyand toebehoorende, zodanige Steden of Plaatsen alleen uitgezondert, welke op die tyd beleegert, geblocqueert of geinvesteert zyn. (<11>[10])hn116
{ 293 }
XXVI.46hn117
Ten einde alle diffentie en twist aan beide zyden mag werden vermyd en voorgekomen, is overeengekomen, dat in geval een van beide de Parthyen in Oorlog mogt komen te geraaken, de Schepen en Vaartuigen, toebehoorende aan de Onderdaanen of Ingezeetenen van de andere Geallieerde, met Zeebrieven of Pasporten moeten werden voorzien, expresseerende den naam, eigendom en de groote van het Schip of Vaartuig, als meede den Naam, Plaats of Wooninge van den Schipper of Bevelhebber van het gemelde Schip of Vaartuig, ten einde daar by mag blyken, dat het Schip reeel en in waarheid aan de Onderdaanen of (1)hn118Burgers van eene der Parthyen toebehoord, welk Pasport zal worden opgemaakt en uitgegeeven volgens het Formulier agter dit Tractaat gevoegt. Dezelve zullen (2)hn119insgelyks ieder jaar moeten werden ingetrokken, te weeten, indien het Schip of Vaartuig binnen den tyd van een jaar weer t’huis mogt komen te retourneeren. Het is insgelyks vastgestelt, dat zodanige Schepen of Vaartuigen gelaaden zynde, moeten (3)hn120worden voorzien niet alleen met Pasporten, (4)hn121als boven gemeld, maar ook met { 294 } Certificaaten, inhoudende de onderscheidene gedeeltens derLaading, de Plaats van waar het Schip gezeilt is, en waar heen het zelve is gedestineert; op dat dus geweeten kan worden, of eenige verbodene of Contrabande Goederen aan Boord van het zelve zyn; welke Certificaaten zullen worden opgemaakt door de Officieren van de Plaats van waar het zelve Schip of Vaartuig vertrekt, in de gewoone form. En by aldien iemand goeddunkt of raadzaam vind, om in de gemelde (5)hn122Certificaaten uit te drukken de Persoonen aan wien de aan Boord zynde Goederen toekomen, vermag hy zulks vryelyk te doen. (6)hn123
XXVII.49hn124
De Schepen of Vaartuigen der Onderdaanen of Burgers van een { 295 } van beide de Parthyen, komende aan eenige Kust, toebehoorendeaan de eene of andere der gemelde Bondgenooten, doch niet willens zynde de Haven in te loopen, of ingeloopen zynde, en niet begeerende hunne Laading te lossen, of Last tebreeken, zullen niet verpligt zyn een opgave van haare Laading te doen, ten zy dezelve door eenige haarblykelyke tekenen verdagt mogten zyn, van eenige verbodene Goederen onder de benoeming van Contrabande, aan den Vyand van den anderen Geallieerden te voeren. En in geval van zulke gegroude suspicie, zullen de Onderdaanen en Burgers van een van beide de Parthyen verpligt zyn, in de Havens haare Pasporten en Certificaaten te vertoonen, in maniere hier boven gespecificeert.
XXVIII.50hn125
Indien de Schepen of Vaartuigen van de gemelde Onderdaanen of Volk van een van beide de Parthyen, zeylende langs de Kusten, of in de open Zee, ontmoet zullen worden door eenig Schip van Oorlog, Kaper of gewapend Vaartuig van de andere Parthy, zullen de gemelde Oorlogschepen, Kapers, of gewapende Vaartuigen, tot vermyding van alle disordre, buiten bereik van het Geschut blyven, dog hunne Booten mogen zenden aan Boord van het { 296 } Koopvaardyschip, welke zy op die wys zullen ontmoeten, en op het zelve mogen overgaan ten getalle alleen van twee a drie Man, aan wien de Schipper of Bevelhebber van zodanig Schip of Vaartuig zyn Pasport zal vertoonen, inhoudende den eigendom van het Schip of Vaartuig, ingevolge het Formulier agter dit Tractaat gevoegt; en zal het Schip of Vaartuig, na de vertooning van dusdanig Pasport, (1)hn126 vry en liber zyn om desselfs reis te vervolgen, zoo dat niet geoorloft zal zyn het zelve op eenigerhande wyze te molesteeren of doorzoeken, noch jagt op haar te maaken, of het zelve te forceeren haare voorgenomen Cours te verlaaten.
XXIX.51hn127
Het zal geoorlooft zyn aan Kooplieden, Capiteins en Bevelhebbers van Schepen, het zy publicque en ten Oorlog, of particuliere en ter Koopvaardy vaarende, toebehoorende aan de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van America, of eenige van dezelve, of aan de Onderdaanen, Burgers en Ingezeetenen van eenige der zelve, vryelyk in hunne dienst aan te neemen en aan Boord van haare gemelde Schepen te ontfangen, in iedere der Havens of Plaatsen onder de Jurisdictie van voornoemde haar Hoog Mogende, eenige Botsgezellen of anderen, zynde Inboorlingen, { 297 } Burgers of Inwoonders van eenige der gemelde Staaten, opzulke voorwaarden als zal werden overeengekomen, zonder daar voor aan eenige boete, pœne, straffe, Proces of berisping, hoe genaamt, onderheevig te zyn.
En zullen reciproquelyk alle Kooplieden, Capiteinen en Bevelhebbers van Schepen, behoorende tot de voorsz zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien, in alle de Havens en Plaatsen, onder het gebied van de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van America, het zelve voorregt genieten tot aanneeming en ontfangen van Bootsgezellen of anderen, zynde Inboorlingen, Burgers of Ingezeetenen van eenige der Domeynen van de gemelde Staaten Generaal<.>hn128
{ 298 }
De toeleg voor refractie, <&c.>hn130
Formulier van het Pasport dat gegeeven zal worden aan de Schepen of Vaartuigen, in gevolge het dertigste Articul van dit Tractaat.54hn131
Aan alle de geene die deeze tegenwoordige zullen zien, salut: doen te weeten, dat by deezen vryheid en permissie gegeeven word aan[]Schipper en Bevelhebber van het Schip (of Vaartuig) genaamt[]van de[]van[]groot[]Tonnen of daar omtrent, leggende tegenswoordig in de Haven van[]gedestineert naar[]en belaaden met[] , om te vertrekken en met zyn Schip of Vaartuig desselfs gemelde reize voort te zetten, zodanig Schip of Vaartuig gevisiteert zynde, en de voornoemde Schipper of Bevelhebber, ouder eede, voor den daar toe gestelden Officier, verklaart hebbende, dat het gemelde Schip of Vaartuig aan een of meer der Onderdaa { 299 } nen, Volk of Ingezeetenen van[]toebehoord, en aan hem (of hun) alleen; In getuigenis waar van, wy deeze tegenswoordige met onse Naamen hebben onderteekent, en bet Zeegel van ons Wapen daar aan gehegt, en het zelve doen contrasigneeren door[]Tot[]deezen dag[]van het jaar onses Heeren Christi.
Formulier van het Certificaat, het welk aan de Schepen of { 300 } Vaartuigen zal worden gegeeven, in gevolge het dertigste Articul van dit Tractaat.
Wy de Magistraat (of Officieren der Convoyen) van de Stad of Haven van[]certificeeren en attesteeren, dat op den[]dag van[]in het jaar onzes Heeren[]C. D. van[]in Persoon voor ons is gecompareert, en onder solemneelen Eede heest verklaart, dat het Schip of Vaartuig genaamt[]van[]Tonnen, of daar omtrent, waar van[]van[]tegenswoordig Schipper of Bevelhebber is, geregtelyk en behoorlyk aan hem (of hun) alleen is toebehoorende. Dat het zelve thans gedestineert is van de Stad of Haven van[]na de Haven van[]gelaaden met Goederen en Koopmanschappen hier onder particulier gespecificeert en opgenoemt, als volgt.
In getuigenis waar van wy dit Certificaat hebben onderteekent en met het Zeegel van ons Officie bekragtigt, deezen[]dag van[]in het jaar onses Heeren Christi.
{ 301 }
Remarques en nadere Propositie.
hn1. (1) der vereenigde Nederlanden.
hn2. (Het Tractaat met Vrankryk heeft)
(2) Staaten van Noord-America.
(3) Massachusetts Baay.
(4) de Graafschappen van Newcastle, Kent en Sussex aan de Delaware.
hn3. (1) der vereenigde Nederlanden
hn4. (2) van Noord-America (als in het Tractaat met Vrankryk)
hn5. (3) bepaalen
hn6. (4) Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen
hn7. (5) te stellen
hn8. (6) met vermyding van
hn9. (7) aan
hn10. (8) verder zulke
hn11. (9) gronden
hn12. (10) aan
hn13. (11) hebben
hn14. (12) der vereenigde Nederlanden benoemt de Heeren. . . .
Uit het midden der Vergadering van hun Hoog Mog. gedeputeert.
hn15. (13) Noort
hn16. (13) Noort
hn17. (14) dewelke zyn overeengekomen en geaccordeert
Art. I
hn19. (1) Heeren (2) Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden.
hn20. (3) Noord
hn21. (4) Nederlanden.
hn22. (5) derselver Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen
(Het Tractaat van Vrankryk heest, en schynt ook gevoeglyker)
hn23. (6) en Plaatsen.
II
hn24. (Genomen uit het 25 Articul van bestand met Portugal in ’s Hage den 12 Juny 1641, en voorts het 10 Art. van ’t Tractaat met Vrankyrk.)11
Wederzydsche Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen van wat Natie, conditie, geleegentheid of Religie deselve zouden mogen weezen, geene uitgezondert, het zy dan of dezelve Ingezeetenen onder der eens of der anders gebied zouden mogen zyn geboren of hebben gewoond, zullen vermogen te frequenteeren, vaaren en handelen met allerhande soorten van Waaren en Koopmanschappen, waar van den invoer en uitvoer niet algemeen is verboden, in alle elkanders Provincien, Landen en Eilanden in Europa en Noord-America en elders in gelykheid met de meest gefavoriseerde Natien van Europa.
III.
hn26. (1) Generaal der vereenigde
hn27. <(2) van Europa>13
hn28. ([2]<3>) aldaar
hn29. ([3]<4>) vreemde
hn30. ([4]<5>) Insgelyks zullen
hn31. ([5]<6>) Ingezeetenen
hn32. ([6]<7>) Nederlanden
hn33. ([7]<8>) gefavoriseerde
<(9) van Europa.>
(als in het Tractaat met Vrankryk)15 ([8]<10>) aldaar
hn34. ([9]<11>) vreemde
hn35. ([10]<12>) meest gefavoriseerde
hn36. <(12) van Europa>
hn37. ([11]<13>) En zullen de vereenigde Staaten van Noord-America haare Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen, die van haar Hoog Mog. de Staaten Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden laaten het gerust genot van haare Rechten omtrent de Landen, Eilanden en Zeeën in Oosten West-Indiën, zonder haar daar in eenig belet of hindernis te doen.16
IV.
hn38. <(Art. IV. als onnut en in het Tractaat met Vrankryk niet gevonden wordenende, geheel overte slaan of te veranderen als volgt:)>
hn39. (1) en Ingezeetenen
hn40. (2) en zal niemand ter zaake van den Godsdienst worden gemolesteert, mits hem omtrent publique demonstratie onderwerpende aan de Wetten van het Land.
hn41. (3) en Ingezeetenen.
hn42. (4) de gewoone Begraafplaatfen, of
hn43. [En zal by Hoogstgedagte vereenigde Staaten van America de nodige voor zeening binnen de dertien neyre Colonien, en daar zulks verder zoude mogen worden vereischt, gedaan worden, ten einde Ingezetenen dezer Landen18 van behoorlyke bewyzen van sterfgevallen, waar by dezelve zyn geinteresseert, voortaan zullen kunnen worden gediend.]
V.
hn45. (1) Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden, en de vereenigde Staaten van Noord-America
hn46. (2) wederzydsche
hn47. (3) en Ingezeetenen
hn48. (4) binnenlandsche Zeén, Stroomen, Rivieren, en zoo verre haare Jurisdictie Zeewaard strekt.
hn49. (5) convoyeerende Oorlogschepen zullen voor zoo zy eenen gemeenen Vyand mogen hebben
hn50. (6) elkanders Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen, dewelke geene Contrabande Goederen, volgens de beschryving hier na daar van te doen, zullen hebben ingelaaden naar Plaatsen, waar meede de eene Parthy in Vreede en de andere in Oorlog is, en na geen geblocqueerde Plaats gedestineert zyn, en zullen houden
hn51. (7) gaan
hn52. (8) van den gemeenen Vyand
hn53. (9) wederzyds eigen
hn54. (Art. VI. kan vervallen, wanneer Art. V. zoo als boven verandert is, reciproque word gestelt)
VI.
hn55. (In de plaats van dit Articul te stellen het 39 Articul van het Tractaat van Napels van 1753, luidende)
hn56. De Onderdaanen der contracteerende Parthyen zullen over en weeder in wederzysche Landen en Staaten, van hunne Goederen, by Testamente, Donatie of anderzints mogen disponeeren, en hunne Erfgenaamen, zynde Onderdaanen van een der Parthyen, in de Landen van de anderen, of wel elders woonagtig, zullen dezelve Nalaatenschappen ontfangen, zelfs abinteslato, het zy in Persoon, het zy by hun Procureur of Gemagtigde, schoon zy geen Brieven van naturalisatie zouden mogen hebben geobtineert, zonder dat het effect van die Commissie hun zal kunnen worden betwist, onder praetext van eenige Rechten of Voorregten van Provintien, Steden of Particulieren: En zoo de Erfgenaamen, aan welke de Erfenissen mogten vervallen zyn, minderjaarig waren, zullen de Voogden of Curateurs by den domiciliarien Rechter der genoemde Minderjaarige aangestelt, kunnen regeeren, bestieren, administreeren, verkoopen en veralieneeren de Goederen, welke de gemelde Minderjaarigen by Ersenissen zullen zyn te beurt gevallen; en generalyk met opzigt tot de voorsz Successien en Goederen waarneemen alle Rechten en Functien, die aan Voogden en Curateurs na dispositie der Wetten competeeren, behoudens nogtans, dat deeze dispositie geen plaats zal kunnen hebben, dan in gevalle, als wanneer de Testateur by Testament, Codicil of ander wettig Instrument geen Voogden of Curateurs zal hebben genomineert.
VII.
hn57. (Om de dubbelzinnigheid, de onderhaalde woorden uit te laaten; terwyl het van zelve spreekt, dat de Rechters Advocaaten &c. kunnen benoemen, maar niet ieder Persoon op requisitie van iemand, wie het ook zy, de faculteit geeven, daar hy anders niet bevoegt toe is.)
VIII.
hn59. (1) publicq
hn60. (2) en Arresten
hn61. (3) zullen
IX.
hn63. (1) Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden
hn64. (Al het met Curcyf Letter gedrukte uit te laaten, zynde het niet onbillyk, dat, als andere willen employeeren, zy employeeren de geene die de Wetdaar toe heest geprivilegieert.)
hn65. (En tot vermyding van confusie by te voegen)
(2) mits onderworpen blyvende aan de ordres op het laaden en lossen en het inslaan en vervoeren van Goederen en Waaren van en na de Schepen en van de eene Plaats na de andere, by de Wetten tot voorkoming van fraudes als anderzints gestelt.
(3) tegens hun wil te lossen, maar met haar ongebrooke Laadingen wederom over Zee mogen uitvaaren; ook zullen zy niet gedwongen worden eenige Goederen tegens hun wil in hunne Schepen te ontfangen, of naar hunne Laading langer te wagten, als hun zal behaagen; maar vrywillig lossende of laadende subject zyn aan de betaaling van de Rechten, daar gebrooke Laadingen aan onderhevig zyn.
(4) Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen
(5) Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden, dewelke zy volgens het tweede en derde Articul van dit Tractaat zullen bevaaren.
X.
hn67. (1) komende zoo wel van een vyandelyke, als eigen of neutrale Haven zullen vry mogen vaaren. (2) dog verpligt zyn, zoo dikwyls het gevordert word haare Zeebrieven en verdere Bescheiden, in het 26 Articul beschreeven.
hn68. (3) en geene Contrabande gelaaden hebbende na een vyandelyke Haven haar reize vryelyk en onverhindert mogen vervolgen; dogzal geen visitatie van Papieren gevergt worden van Schepen onder Convoy der Oorlogschepen, maar geloof worden gegeeven aan het woord van den Officier het Convoy leidende.
XI.
hn70. (1) vertoonen der Zeebrieven en andere Bescheiden by het 26 Art. van dit Tractaat nader beschreeven.
hn71. (2) Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden
hn72. (3) of aan Onderdaanen
hn73. (4) dan na dat
hn74. (5) Contrabande
hn75. (6) (Het met Curcyf Letter gedrukte schynt nuttig tegens het opbrengen van Schepen, maar het dient zeer tot rovery, en daarom uit te laaten, en in de plaats te stellan uit het 26 Art. van het Tractaat met Vrankryk van 11 April 1713, als volgt:)27
Maar in tegendeel wanneer by de visitatie aan Land word bevonden, dat ’er geen Contrabande Waaren in de Schepen zyn, en uit de Papieren niet bleek, dat de Neemer en Opbrenger het daar uit niet had kunnen ontdekken, zal dezelve moeten worden gecondemneert in alle de kosten en schaaden die hy de Eigenaaren der Schepen of de Eigenaars en Inlaaders der Goederen waar meede de Schepen belaaden zullen zyn, voor zyne rukeloose aanhouding en opbrenging der Schepen zal hebben veroorzaakt, met de interessen van dien; wordende wel expresselyk verklaart, dat een vry Schip zal vry maaken de Waaren daar in gelaaden, en dat die vryheid zig ook zal uitstrekken over de Persoonen die haar zullen bevinden in een vry Schip, dewelke daar uit niet geligt zullen mogen worden, ten zy het waren Oorlogsluiden, in effectiven dienst van den Vyand.
XII.
hn77. (Liever om alle discussie over de onweetendheid of kennis dier declaratie te vermyden) (1) binnen <drie>[ses]29 maanden na dezelve, welke Goederen
hn78. (2) die dezelve voor de confiscatie en verkoop zullen te rug vraagen, of doen vraagen in natura zullen
(3) gelyk meede het provenu daar van, indien de reclame binnen acht maanden na de verkooping dewelke publicq zal moeten worden gedaan, eerst konde geschieden,
XIII.
hn80. (1) Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden.
hn81. (2) Noord
hn82. (3) Officieren.
hn83. (4) op de eerste klagte daar over te doen na behoorlyk onderzoek schuldig bevonden wordende, door haar eigen Rechters
hn84. (5) worden
XIV.31
hn85. Tot meerder verklaaring van het geen voorsz is, zullen alle Kaper Capiteinen of Rheeders van Schepen, op particuliere bestelling en Commissie ten Oorlog uitgerust, voor dezelve gehouden zyn, voor der zelver vertrek, goede en suffisante cautie te stellen voor de competente Rechters, of in het geheel te verantwoorden de malversatien die ze in haare coursen, of op haare reizen zouden mogen begaan, en voor de contraventien van haare Capiteinen en Officieren tegen het tegenwoordig Tractaat, en de Ordonnantien en Edicten die gepubliceert zullen worden, in kragte en conform de dispositie van dien, op pœne van verval en nulliteit der voorschreeve Commissien.
XV.
hn87. (1) zonder behoorlyke Commissie op de open Zee vaarende.
hn88. <(2) Maar omtrent het opbrengen van Pryzen door de Oorlogschepen en Commissievaarders van wederzyds contracteerende Parthyen op der zelver gemeene Vyanden genoomen, en omtrent de Schepen van elkanders Onderdaanen door den Vyand genoomen, en by de Oorlogschepen en Commissievaarders van wederzyden hernoomen, zullen worden agtervolgt het geen dien aangaande tusschen zyne Majesteit den Koning van Vrankryk en hun Hoog Mog. de Staaten Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden, op den 1 Mey 1781 is geconvenieert, waar aan Parthyen zig wedwezyds refeeren, wordende de voorsz Conventien alhier gehouden voor geinsereert, terwyl tot wegneeming van allen twyffel daar omtrent, Copien daar van, en van de Reglementen daar toe behoorende aan dit Tractaat zullen worden gehegt.>
[Werd in bedenking gegeeven, om den inhoud der Conventie van den 1 Mey 1781 tusschen Vrankryk en de Republicq alheer woordelyk te insereeren, zonder egter de Conventie te noemen.]
[En voorts zal het nodig zyn, in aan merking van de verdere distantie van America en vergelyking van de van Vrankryk to stipuleeren.]
[Dat in allen gevallen de restitutie der Prysen op den Vyand hernoomen onver Suffisante Cautie zal werden gearmitteert.]
XVI.
hn90. (1) Zee-
(Meest uit het 35 Art. van voorsz Tractaat van 1713, als volgt:)
hn91. (2) En de Schepen, Goederen en Koopmanschappen, en het geen daar van geborgen zal zyn, of het provenu van dien, by aldien die Goederen verderfelyk zynde, zullen weezen verkogt, alle door de Schippers of door de Eigenaars of van haare Gelaste of Volmagt hebbende, binnen jaar en dag gereclameert wordende, zonder form van Proces worden gerestitueert; mits betaalende alleen de reedelyke onkosten en het geen voor Bergloon door de eigen Onderdaanen in het zelve geval zynde betaald moet worden,
XVII.
XVIII.
hn93. (Het is duister of de byvoeging in dit 18 Art., het welk, zoo veel de Luiden zig binnen ’s Lands bevinden, uit verscheide oude Tractaaten genoomen is, in de woorden, en indien iet van hun genoomen mogt zyn, denoteert Prysen in Zee genoomen; zoo ja, schynt het geen executie te zullen hebben; word daarom voorgestagen, het eerste lid behoudende, het tweede lid klaarder te stellen, en meer uitvoerlyk zo het voorkomt, en te leezen volgens het 41 Art. van voornoemde Tractaat van 1713, als volgt:)
(1) Haar Hoog Mogende de Staaten Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden, en de vereenigde Staaten van Noord-America, altyd aan de Onderdaanen van de eene of andere zyde zal worden gegeeven den tyd van negen maanden na dato van de rupture, of proclamatie van Oorlog, om haar te mogen retireeren met haare Effecten, en dezelve te vervoeren waar het haar believen zal, het welk haar geoorlooft zal zyn te mogen doen; als meede te mogen verkoopen of transporteeren haare Goederen en Meubilien in alle vryheid, zonder dat men haar daar in eenig belet zal doen; ook zonder geduurende den tyd van de voorsz negen maanden te mogen procedeeren tot eenig arrest van haare Effecten, veel min van haare Persoonen, maar zullen in tegendeel voor haare Schepen en Effecten die zy zullen willen meedevoeren, worden gegeeven Pasporten van vrygeleide tot de naaste Havenen in elkanders Landen voor den tyd tot de reize nodig. Ook zullen geen Pryzen op Zee genoomen voor wettig genomen gehouden mogen worden, ten ware de Oorlogs-Declaratie bekent was geweest of had kunnen zyn, in de Haven die het genome Schip het laatst heeft verlaaten; maar zal vooral het geene aan de Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen van wederzyden binnen de voorsz termynen ontnoomen mogt zyn, en de beleedigingen die hun aangedaan zouden mogen zyn, volkome satisfactie gegeeven worden.
XIX.
hn95. (1) Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden.
hn96. (2) Noord
hn97. (3) en Ingezeetenen
hn98. (4) Noord
hn99. (5) Ingezeeten
hn100. (6) Noord
hn101. (7) de Hoog Mog. Heeren Staaten Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden, of tegens
(8) of Ingezeetenen.
hn102. (9) Staaten
(10) zullen
hn103. [werd geproponeert dit Art. te amplieeren met een gelyke reciproque voorziening, als door haar Ho: Mog. by Placaat van 3 Novb: 1756 is gestatueert]
XX.
hn105. (1) of by te laaden, zullen volgens Art. 9., niet gehouden zyn voor haare Schepen of Laadingen eenige inkomende of uitgaande Rechten te betaalen, nog eenig rekenschap van haare Laadingen te geeven, ten ware dat ’er [wettig] vermoeden was; dat zy aan elkanders Vyanden toevoerden Koopmanschappen van Contrabande.
XXI.
hn107. <(Dit XXII. en het volgende Articul schynen te moeten worden uitgelaaten; Het is vry aan een ieder geen Articulen voor te slaan of aan te neemen, die contrarieeren aan zyn Tractaaren met andere Mogentheeden; maar de gemaakte Conventien moeten niet worden losgemaakt door contrarie stipulatien met derdens.)>
[In de plaats van Art: 22 en 23 te substitueeren het navolgende 22 Art.]
Art: 22
[dit Tractaat zal in geenley opzigte verstaan worden te derogeeren aan de 9e. 10e 17e and 22 Articulen42 van het Tractaat van Commercie in den Jaar 1778 tusschen Vrankryk en meergem. Staaten van America aange gaan en geslvoten; en sal mede niet beletten, dat zyne Catholique Majesteit aan ’t zelve zoude accedeeren en van het beneficie der gemelde veer articulen joúisseeren]
hn108. (Dit Art. XXIV. schynt geëxcuseert te moeten worden wegens het bezwaar daar van, de geleegentheid voor andere waar meede haar Hoog Mog. in Vreede en Vriendschap zyn, om het zelve te vergen, en van geen weezentlyk nut te zyn, terwyl het Hof van Vrankryk zig daar meede gechargeert heest)
XXII.
hn110. (1) alléén
hn111. (2) de Oorlogs-Ammunitien of
hn112. (3) als Mortieren (4) met zyne Vuurwerken en het geen daar toe behoort, Geweeren, Pistoolen, Bomben, Granaden, Buspulver, Salpeter, Zwavel. (5) Zwaarden (6) Casquetten, Cuirassen, en diergelyk soort van Wapentuig, ook Soldaaten, Paarden, Zadels en toerusting van Paarden.
hn113. (7) Alle andere Goederen, <Waaren>, en
(8) <hoe ook genaamt>[Koopmanschappen, hier boven niet uitdrukkelyk gespecificeert; ja zelfs alle zoor ten van Scheeps materialen, hoe zeer dezelven ook zouden mogen zyn geschikt tot het bouwven of Equipeeren van Oorlog Scheepen, of tot het maken van eenig ander Oorlogstuig te Water of te Lande, zullen mitsdien, nog volgens den Letter, noch volgens eenige voor te wenden interpretatie van dezelve hoe ook genaamt, onder verbodene of Contrabande goederen begreepen kunnen of mogen worden: zo dat alle dezelve goederen, en Koopmanschappen hier boven niet uitdruk kelyk genoemt, zonder eenig onderscheid zullen mogen worden getransporteert en vervoert.]45
hn114. <(9) maar>
hn115. (<10>[9]) van en
hn116. (<11>[10]) waar voor alleenlyk worden gehouden dezulke, die door een der Oorlogvoerende Mogentheeden van naby ingestloten worden gehouden.
XXIII.
hn118. (1) Ingezeetenen
hn119. (2) ieder reize dat het Schip t’huis is geweest, op nieuw verleent moeten zyn, of ten minsten niet ouder mogen zyn als <een>[twee]47 jaar voor de tyd dat het Schip laatst is t’huis geweest.
hn120. (3) wesen
hn121. (4) of Zeebrieven boven gemeld; maar ook met een generaal Pasport of particuliere Pasporten, of Manifesten of andere publique Documenten die in de Havenen van waar de Schepen laatst gekomen zyn, gewoonlyk gegeeven worden aan de uitgaande Schepen, inhoudende een Specificatie van de Laading, de Plaats van waar het Schip gezeilt is, en waar heenen het gedestineert is, of by gebreeke van alle dezelve met Certificaaten van de Magistraaten of Gouverneurs der Steden, Plaatsen en Colonien van waar het Schip vertrokken is, in de gewoone form gegeeven, op dat geweeten kan worden of eenige verbode of Contrabande Goederen aan Boord van de Schepen zyn, en of zy daar meede naar ’s Vyands Landen gedestineert zyn of niet.
hn122. (5) bescheiden
hn123. (6) zonder egter daar toe gehouden te zyn of dat gebrek van die uitdrukking gelegentheid tot confiscatie kan of mag geeven.
[(7) 2 wel verstaande, dat aan de dispositie van dit Art: niet onder heevig zullen zyn zodanige Scheepen, die na de Oorlogs verklaring in het geheel nog niet thuis geweest zynde buiten de mogelykheid zyn geweest zig van de vereischte Pasporten of zee brieven te voorzien:]48
hn124. (Art XXVII. schynt geömitteert te kunnen worden, aangezien het, of het zelve is als Art. XX., of door de geprojecteerde byvoeging aan het zelve vervangen word.)
XXIV.
hn126. (1) Zeebrief en verdere Bescheiden.
hn127. <(Dit Articul kan zoo generaal niet geadmitteert worden: in tyd van Vreede zal apparent niet geweigert worden voor Dooden, Deserteurs, als anderzints, recruteering te permiteeren; maar men kan geen generaale permittie tot werving van Oorlogschepen accordeeren)>
hn128. [, met dien verstande, dat men noch aan de eene, noch aan de andere zÿde zig zal mogen bedienen van zodanige zyner Landsgenooten, die zig reeds in dienst van de andere der Contracteerende Partye, het zÿ ten Oorlog, het zy op Koop vaardy Scheepen heeft geengageert, het zÿ men dezelve aan de vaste Wal, dan wel in Zee zoude mogen ontmoeten, ten zÿ de Capitein of Schipper, onder wiens bevel zodanige persoonen zig mogten bevinden dezelve vrywillig52 uit hunnen dienst wilden ontslaan op pœne, dat dezelve anderszins op den voet van Weglopers zullen worden behandeld en gestraft.]
hn129. <(Dit behoord tot geen Commercie-Tractaat, eer toe een Tarif, en is de refractie geschikt na de meeste dienst van de Commercie)>
hn130. [zal in alle reedelyk heid en billykheid worden gereguleert bÿ de Magistraten der respective Steden, alwaar men oordeeld, dat eenige bezwaren deswegens plaats hebben.]
Formulier van Zeebrief.
hn131. Alder-Doörluchtichste, Doorluchtigste, Doorluchtige, Grootmachtighste, Grootmachtige hoogh ende Welgeboorne, Wel-Edele, Erentfeste, Achtbare, Wyse, Voorsienige Heeren Keyzeren, Koningen, Republiquen, Princen, Fursten, Hertogen, Graven, Baronnen, Heeren, Burgermeesteren, Schepenen, Raden, mitsgaders Rechteren, Officieren, Justicieren, ende Regenten aller goede Steden ende Plaatsen, het zy Geestelycke ofte Wereldtlycke, die dese opene Letteren sullen sien ofte hooren lesen: Doen Wy Burgermeesteren ende Regeerders der Stadt [] te weeten, dat Schipper [] van [] (voor Ons compareerende) by solemnelen eede verklaart heeft, dat het Schip, genaamt [] groot omtrent [] Lasten, ’t welk hy althans voert, in de Geunieerde Provincien t’huys behoort, en dat geen Onderdanen van den Vyandt daar in, direct of indirect, eenige portie of deel hebben, soo waarlyck moest hem Godt Almachtigh helpen. Ende want Wy den voorschreven Schipper gaerne gevordert sagen in syne rectvaerdige saken: Soo is Ons versoeck allen voornoemt, ende yeder in het bysonder, daer den voornoemden Schipper met syn Schip ende ingeladen Goederen komen sal, dat de selve gelieven den voornoemden Schipper goedelycken te ontfangen en gehoorlyck te tracteren, gedogende hem op sijne gewoonlycke Tollen ende Ongelden, in het door- ende voorby-varen, Havenen, Stroomen en Gebiedt te passeren, varen en frequenteeren omme sijne Negotiete doen, daar en soo hy te rade vindensal, het welck Wy gaarne willen verschuldigen. Des t’oirkonde deser Stede Zegel ter oorsaake hier aan hangende den
(In margine stond)
hn132. Ter ordonnanatie van de Hooge ende Mogende Heeren Staten General der Vereenighde Nederlandsche Provincien.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0003-0002-0002

Author: Adams, John
Author: Netherlands, States General of
Recipient: Adams, John
Recipient: Netherlands, States General of
Date: 1782-04-23
Date: 1782-08-22

John Adams’ Reconstructed Draft and Translation of the Dutch Proposals

[Reconstruction]
A Treaty1 of Amity and Commerce between their High Mightinesses, the States General (1)hn1 of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands2and the United States (2) of America,3to wit, New Hampshire, (3) Massachusetts, Rhode Island,4Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, (4)hn2 Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Their High Mightinesses, the States General (1)hn3of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands and the United States (2)hn4of America, to wit, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantation, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia desiring to (3)hn5 fix in a permanent and equitable manner the rules to be observed relative to the commerce and correspondence which they intend to establish between their respective states, countries, (4)hn6citizens,5and subjects have judged that the said end could not be better attained than by (5)hn7the establishment of the most perfect equality and reciprocity as the basis of their agreement (6)hn8by carefully avoiding all those burthensome preferences which are usually the sources of debate, embarrassment, and discontent (7)hn9by likewise leaving each party at liberty to make, respecting commerce and navigation, { 302 } (8)hn10such interior regulations as it shall find most convenient to itself; and (9)hn11by founding the advantage of commerce solely upon reciprocal utility and the just rules of free intercourse, reserving withal to each party the liberty of admitting at its pleasure other nations to a participation (10)hn12of the same advantages.6
On these principles (11)hn13 their said High Mightinesses the States General (12)7hn14of the seven United Provinces have appointed and constituted as their plenipotentiaries:
And the said United States of (13)hn15 America on their part have furnished with full powers Mr. John Adams, late commissioner of the United States of (14)hn16 America at the Court of Versailles, heretofore delegate in Congress from the State of Massachusetts Bay,8 and chief justice of that state.
(14)hn17The aforementioned plenipotentiaries after exchanging their powers and after full deliberation have concluded and resolved on the following articles.
There shall be a firm, inviolable, and universal peace and sincere friendship between their High Mightinesses the (1)hn19 States (2) of the seven United Provinces of the Netherlands and the United States of (3)hn20 America, and the subjects, citizens, and inhabitants of the said parties and between the countries, islands, cities, and towns situated under the jurisdiction of the said United (4)hn21Provinces of the Netherlands and the United States of { 303 } America and the (5)hn22citizens and people of every degree without exception of persons (6)hn23or places.10
The subjects of the said States (1)hn26of the Netherlands shall pay in the ports, havens, roads, countries, islands, cities, or places of the United States of America or any of them, no other nor greater duties or imposts of whatever nature or denomination they may be, than those which the nations <(2)>hn27 the most favored are or shall be obliged to pay (2<3>)hn28, and they shall enjoy all the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities, and exemptions in trade, navigation, and commerce, whether in passing from one port in the said states to another or in going to and from the same from and to any (3<4>)hn29 port of the world which the said nations do or shall enjoy. (4<5>)hn30
{ 304 }
III14
The subjects and (5<6>)hn31citizens of the said United States of America shall pay in the ports, havens, roads, countries, islands, cities, or places of the said United (6<7>)hn32Provinces or any of them, no other nor greater duties or imposts of whatever nature or denomination they may be, than those which the nations the (7<8>)hn33most favored<(9)> are or shall be obliged to pay (8<10>), and they shall enjoy all the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities, and exemptions in trade, navigation, and commerce, whether in passing from one port in the said states to another or in going to and from the same from and to any (9<11>)hn34port of the world which the (10<12>)hn35said favored nations <(12)>hn36 do or shall enjoy. (11<13>)hn37
There shall be a full perfect and entire liberty of conscience allowed to the citizens and subjects (1)hn39 of each party and to their families (2)hn40as to matters of religion and a full and entire liberty to worship in their own way without any kind of molestation. Moreover liberty shall be given to the citizens and subjects (3)hn41 of either party who die in the territories of the other to be interred in (4)hn42 convenient and de• { 305 } cent places to be appointed for that purpose as occasion shall require; neither shall the dead bodies of those who are buried be any wise molested.hn43
Their High Mightinesses the States (1)hn45of the seven United Provinces of the Netherlands shall endeavor by all the means in their power to protect and defend all vessels and other effects belonging to the (2)hn46citizens, people, residents, or subjects (3)hn47of the said United States of America or any of them, being in their ports, havens, or roads (4)hn48or on the seas near to their countries, islands, cities, or towns, and to recover and cause to be restored to the right owners, their agents, or attorneys all such vessels and effects as shall be taken within their jurisdiction. And their (5)hn49ships of war or any convoyssailing under their authority shall upon all occasions take under their protection all vessels belonging to (6)hn50the subjects, people, or inhabitants of the said United States of America or any of them, holding the same course or going the same way, and shall defend such vessels as long as they hold the same course or (7)hn51go the same way, against all attacks, force, and violence (8)hn52 in the same manner as they ought to protect and defend { 306 } vessels belonging to (9)hn53the subjects of their said High Mightinesses.
The United States of America shall endeavor by all the means in their power to protect and defend all vessels and other effects belonging to the citizens, people, residents, or subjects of the said United Provinces of the Netherlands or any of them, being in their ports, havens, or roads or on the seas near to their countries, islands, cities, or towns, and to recover and cause to be restored to the right owners, their agents, or attorneys all such vessels and effects as shall be taken within their jurisdiction. And their ships of war or any convoys sailing under their authority shall upon all occasions take under their protection all vessels belonging to the subjects, people, or inhabitants of the said United Provinces of the Netherlands or any of them, holding the same course or going the same way, and shall defend such vessels as long as they hold the same course or go the same way against all attacks, force, and violence in the same manner as they ought to protect and defend vessels belonging to the subjects of the said United States of America.
hn56It shall be lawful and free for merchants and others being subjects of the seven United Provinces of the Netherlands or the United States of America by will, or any other disposition made either during the time of sickness or at any other time before or at the point of death, to devise or give away to such person or { 307 } persons as to them shall seem good their effects, merchandizes, money, debts, or goods, moveable or immoveable, which they have or ought to have at the time of their death or at any time before within the countries, islands, cities, towns, or dominions belonging to either of the said contracting parties. Moreover whether they die having made their wills or intestate, their lawful heirs, executors, or administrators residing in the dominions of either of the contracting parties or coming from any other part although they be not naturalized and without having their right contested or impeded under pretext of any rights or prerogatives of provinces, cities, or private persons shall freely and quietly receive and take possession of all the said goods and effects whatsoever according to the laws of each country respectively in such manner however that the wills and right of entering upon the inheritances of persons dying intestate must be proved according to the law in those places where each person may happen to die as well by the subjects of one as of the other contracting party, any law, statute, edict, custom, ordinance, or right whatsoever notwithstanding.
VIII22hn57
It shall be lawful and free for the subjects of each party to employ such advocates, attorneys, notaries, solicitors, or factors as they shall think fit, to which end the said advocates and others abovementioned may be appointed by the ordinary judges if it be needful and thejudges be thereunto required.
{ 308 }
Merchants, masters of ships, owners, mariners, men of all kinds, ships and vessels, and all merchandise and goods in general and effects of one of the confederates or of the subjects thereof shall not be seized or detained in any of the countries, lands, islands, cities, towns, ports, havens, shores, or dominions whatsoever of the other confederate for (1)hn59public use, warlike expeditions, or the private use of anyone by arrests, violence, or any color thereof. Moreover it shall be unlawful for the subjects of either party to take anything or to extort it by force from the subjects of the other party without the consent of the person to whom it belongs, which however is not to be understood of that seizure and detention (2)hn60 which (3)hn61shall be made by the command and authority of justice and by the ordinary methods on account of debt or crimes in respect whereof the proceedings must be by way of law according to the forms of justice.
It is further agreed and concluded that it shall be wholly free for all merchants, commanders of ships, and other subjects of their High Mightinesses the States (1)hn63of the seven United Provinces of the Netherlandshn64 in all places subject to the dominion and jurisdiction of the said United States of America to manage their own business themselves or to employ whomsoever they please to manage it for them nor shall they be obliged to make use of any interpreter or bro• { 309 } ker norto pay any salary or fees unless they choose to make use of them. Moreover masters of ships shall not be obliged in loading or unloading their ships to make use of those workmen that may be appointed by public authority for that purpose, but it shall be entirely free for them to load or unload their ships by themselves or to make use of such persons in loading or unloading (2)hn65the same as they shall think fit without paying any fees or salary to any other whomsoever. Neither shall they be forced to unload any sort of merchandises (3) either into other ships or to receive them into their own or to wait for their being loaded longer than they please. And all and every one of the (4) citizens, people, and residents of the said United States of America shall reciprocally have and enjoy the same privileges and liberties in all places whatsoever subject to the dominion and jurisdiction of their High Mightinesses the States (5) of the seven United Provinces of the Netherlands.
The merchant ships of either of the parties (1)hn67which shall be making into a port belonging to the enemy of the other ally and (2) concerning whose voyage and the species of goods on board her there shall be just grounds of suspicion shall be obliged to exhibit as well upon the high seas as in the ports { 310 } and havens not only her passports but likewise certificates expressly showing that her goods are not of the number of those which have been prohibited as contraband. (3)hn68
If by (1)hn70exhibiting the above said certificates the other party discover there are any of those sort of goods which are prohibited and declared contraband and consigned for a port under the obedience of his enemy, it shall not be lawful to break up the hatches of such ship or to open any chest, coffers, packs, casks, or any other vessels found therein or to remove the smallest parcel of her goods whether such ship belongs to the subjects of their High Mightinesses the States (2)hn71of the seven United Netherlands provinces (3)hn72orthe citizens or inhabitants of the said United States of America unless the lading be brought on shore in the presence of the officers of the court of admiralty and an inventory thereof made, but there shall be no allowance to sell, exchange, or alienate the same in any manner (4)hn73until after that due and lawful process shall have been had against such prohibited (5)hn74 goods, and the court of admiralty shall by a sentence pronounced have confiscated the same, saving always as well the ship itself as any other goods found { 311 } therein which are to be esteemed free; neither may they be detained on pretence of their being as it were infected by the prohibited goods, much less shall they be confiscated as lawful prize. (6)hn75But if not the whole cargo but only part thereof shall consist of prohibited or contraband goods and the commander of the ship shall be ready and willing to deliver them to the captor who has discovered them, in such case the captor having received those goods shall forthwith discharge the ship and not hinder her by any means freely to prosecute the voyage on which she was bound. But in case the contraband merchandises cannot be all received on board the vessel of the captor, then the captor may, notwithstanding the offer of delivering him the contraband goods, carry the vessel into the nearest port agreeably to what is above directed.
XIII28hn76
On the contrary, it is agreed that whatever shall be found to be laden by the subjects and inhabitants of either party on any ship belonging to the enemies of the other or to their subjects, the whole, although it be not of the sort of pro• { 312 } hibited goods, may be confiscated in the same manner as if it belonged to the enemy, except such goods and merchandises as were put on board such ship before the declaration of war (1)hn77or even after such declaration, if so be it were done without knowledge of such declaration so that the goods of the subjects and people of either party, whether they be of the nature of such as are prohibited or otherwise, which as is aforesaid were put on board any ship belonging to an enemy before the war or after the declaration of the same without the knowledge of it, shall no wise be liable to confiscation but shall well and truly be restored without delay to the proprietors (2)hn78demanding the same but (3) so as that if the said merchandises be contraband, it shall not be any ways lawful to carry them afterwards to any ports belonging to the enemy.
The two contracting parties agree that the term of two months being elapsed after the declaration of war, their respective subjects from whatever part of the world they come shall not plead the ignorance mentioned in this article.
And that more effectual care may be taken for the security of the subjects and people of either party that they do not suffer any injury by the men of war or privateers of the other party, all the commanders of the ships of war and the armed vessels of the said States (1)hn80of the seven United Provinces of the Netherlands and of the said United States of (2)hn81 America and all their (3)hn82 subjects and peo• { 313 } ple shall be forbid doing any injury or damage to the other side, and if they act to the contrary they shall be (4)hn83punished and shall moreover be bound to (5)hn84 make satisfaction for all matter of damage and the interest thereof by reparation under the pain and obligation of their persons and goods.
All ships and merchandise of what nature soever which shall be rescued out of the hands of any pirates or robbers (1)hn87on the high seas shall be brought into some port of either state and shall be delivered to the custody of the officers of that port in order to be restored entire to the true proprietor as soon as due and sufficient proofs shall be made concerning the property thereof. (2)33hn88
{ 314 }
If any ships or vessels belonging to either of the parties, their subjects, or people shall within the coasts or dominions of the other stick upon the sands or be wrecked or suffer any other (1)hn90 damage, all friendly assistance and relief shall be given to the persons shipwrecked or such as shall be in danger thereof, (2)hn91 and letters of safe conduct shall likewise be given to them for their free and quiet passage from thence and the return of everyone to his own country.
{ 315 }
XVII35hn92
In case the subjects or people of either party with their shipping, whether public and of war or private and of merchants, be forced through stress of weather, pursuit of pirates or enemies, or any other urgent necessity for seeking of shelter and harbor to retreat and enter into any of the rivers, creeks, bays, havens, roads, ports, or shores belonging to the other party, they shall be received and treated with all humanity and kindness and enjoy all friendly protection and help, and they shall be permitted to refresh and provide themselves at reasonable rates with victuals and all things needful for the sustenance of their persons or reparation of their ships, and they shall no ways be detained or hindered from returning out of the said ports or roads but may remove and depart when and whither they please without any let or hindrance.
XVIII36hn93
For the better promoting of commerce on both sides, it is agreed that if a war should break out between (1) the said two nations, six months after the proclamation of war shall be allowed to the merchants in the cities and towns where they live for selling and transporting their goods and merchandizes; and if anything be taken from them or any injury be done to them within that term by either party or the people or subjects of either, full satisfaction shall be made for the same.
{ 316 }
No subjects of their High Mightinesses the States (1)hn95of the seven United Provinces of the Netherlands shall apply for or take any commission or letter of marque for arming any ship or ships to act as privateers against the said United States of (2)hn96 America or any of them or the subjects, (3)hn97people, or residents of the said United States or any of them or against the propple• { 317 } erty of the inhabitants of any of them from any prince or state with which the said United States of (4)hn98 America shall happen to be at war. Nor shall any citizen, subject, or (5)hn99residents of the said United States of (6)hn100 America or any of them apply for or take any commission or letters of marque for arming any ship or ships to act as privateers against (7)hn101 the subjects (8) of their said High Mightinesses or any of them or the property of any of them from any prince or state with which the said (9)hn102 state (10) shall be at war. And if any person of either nation shall take such commission or letters of marque, he shall be punished as a pirate.38hn103
The ships of the subjects and inhabitants of either of the parties coming upon any coast belonging to either of the said allies but not willing to enter into port or being entered into port and not willing to unload their cargoes or break bulk (1)hn105they shall be treated according to the general rules prescribed or to be prescribed relative to the object in question.
The two contracting parties grant to each other mutually the liberty of having each in the ports { 318 } of the other consuls, vice consuls, agents, and commissaries of their own appointing whose functions shall be regulated by particular agreement whenever either party chooses to make such appointment.
It is agreed between the two contracting parties that no clause, article, matter, or thing herein contained shall be taken or understood, either in present or future, contrary to the clauses, articles, covenants, and stipulations in two treaties, one of Amity and Commerce and the other of Alliance, between the said United States of America and the most Christian King executed at Paris on the sixth day of February one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, or any of them but the same shall be taken and understood consistently with and conformably to the said treaty.
XXIII
It is further agreed between the two contracting parties that to his Catholic Majesty the King of Spain is reserved the right to accede to the two abovementioned treaties between his most Christian Majesty and the said United States of America, one of amity and commerce and the other of alliance, concluded at Paris on the sixth day of February one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, with such changes, not derogating from this treaty, as shall be mutually agreed upon between his above mentioned Catholic Majesty and the said United States; and that no clause, article, matter, or thing herein contained, shall be { 319 } taken or understood, either in the present or the future as contrary to the clauses, articles, covenants, and stipulations in such treaties made or still to be made, between his Catholic Majesty and said United States.
Their High Mightinesses the Estates of the Seven United Provinces of Holland will employ their good offices and interposition with the King or Emperor of Morocco or Fez, the regency of Algiers, Tunis, or Tripoli, or with any of them, and also with every other prince, state, or power on the coast of Barbary in Africa, and the subjects of the said king, emperor, states, and powers and each of them in order to provide as fully and efficaciously as possible for the benefit, conveniency, and safety of the said United States and each of them, their subjects, people, and inhabitants, and their vessels and effects against all violence, insult, attacks, or depredations on the part of the said princes or states of Barbary or their subjects. Contraband
This liberty of navigation and commerce shall extend to all kinds of merchandises excepting those only which are distinguished by the name of contraband or prohibited goods; and under this name of contraband or prohibited goods (1)hn110 shall be comprehended (2)hn111 arms, (3)hn112great guns, (4) bombs with their fuzees and other things belonging to them, fire balls, gunpowder, match, cannon balls, pikes, (5) swords and broadswords, lances, spears, halberds, (6) mortars, pe• { 320 } tards, grenades, saltpeter, muskets, musket ball, helmets, head pieces, breast-plates, coats of mail, and the like kinds of arms proper for arming soldiers, musket-rests, belts, horses with their furniture, and all other warlike instruments whatever.
(7)hn113These <merchandises> which follow (8) <shall not be reckoned among contraband or prohibited goods,> that is to say, all sorts of cloths and all other manufactures made of wool, flax, hemp, silk, cotton, or any other materials whatever; all kinds of wearing apparel together with the species whereof they are used to be made; gold and silver as well coined as uncoined, tin, iron, lead, copper, brass; as also wheat and barley, and every other kind of corn and pulse, tobacco and likewise all manner of spices, salted and smoked flesh, salted fish, cheese, butter, beer, oils, wines, cider, sugars, syrups, and all sorts of salt; and in general all provisions which serve to the nourishment of mankind and the sustenance of life; furthermore all kinds of cotton, hemp, flax, tar, pitch, turpentine, ropes, cables, sails, sailcloths, anchors, and any parts of anchors; also ship masts, planks, boards and beams of what trees soever, and all other things proper either for building or repairing ships, and all other goods whatsoever which have not been worked into the form of any instrument or thing prepared for war by land or by sea shall not be reputed contraband, much less such as have already been wrought and made up for any other use; all which shall <(9) be wholly reckoned among free goods, as>hn114 likewise all other merchandises and things which are not comprehended { 321 } and particularly mentioned in the foregoing enumeration of contraband goods; so that they may be transported and carried in the freest manner by the subjects and citizens of both confederates (10)hn115even to places belonging to an enemy, such towns or places being only excepted as are at that time besieged, blocked up, or invested (11)hn116.
To the end that all manner of dissention and quarrels may be avoided and prevented on both sides, it is agreed that in case either of the parties hereto should be engaged in war, the ships and vessels belonging to the subjects or (1)hn118citizens of the other ally must be furnished with sea letters or passports expressing the name, property or bulk of the ship or vessel as also the name, place or habitation of the master or commander of the said ship or vessel that it may appear thereby that the ship really and truly belongs to the subjects or citizens of one of the parties; which passport shall be made out and granted according to the form annexed to this treaty. (2)hn119They shall likewise be recalled every year, that is, if the ship or vessel happens to return home within the space of a year. It is likewise agreed that such ships or vessels being laden (3)hn120are to be provided not only with passports (4)hn121as abovementioned, but also with certificates containing the several particulars of the cargo, the place from whence { 322 } the ship sailed and whither she is bound, that so it may be known whether any forbidden or contraband goods be on board the same; which certificates shall be made out by the officers of the place whence the ship or vessel set sail in the accustomed form, and if any shall think it fit or advisable to express in the said (5)hn122certificates the persons to whom the goods on board belong, he may freely do so. (6)hn123
XXVII49hn124
The ships or vessels of the subjects or citizens of either of the parties coming upon coasts belonging to either of the said confederates but not willing to enter into port, or being entered into port and not willing to unload their cargoes or break bulk, shall not be obliged to give an account of their lading unless they should be suspected or some manifest tokens of carrying to the enemy of the other ally any prohibited goods called contraband: { 323 } and in case of such manifest suspicion the said subjects and citizens of either of the parties shall be obliged to exhibit in the ports their passports and certificates in the manner before specified.
XXVIII50hn125
If the ships or vessels of the said subjects or people of either of the parties shall be met with sailing along the coasts or on the high seas by any ships of war, privateers, or armed vessels of the other party, for the avoiding of any disorder, shall remain out of cannon shot, and may send their boats aboard the merchant ship which they shall so meet with and may enter her to the number of two or three men only, to whom the master or commander of such ship or vessel shall exhibit his passport concerning the property of the ship or vessel made out according to the form annexed to this present treaty, and the ship or vessel after such passport (1)hn126 has been shown shall be free and at liberty to pursue her voyage, so as it shall not be lawful to molest or search her in any manner, to give her chase, or force her to quit her intended course.
It shall be lawfull for merchants, captains, and commanders of vessels, whether public and of war, or private and of merchants, belonging to the said United States of America or any of them, or to their subjects, citizens, and inhabitants, to take freely into their service and receive on board of their vessels, in any port or place in the jurisdiction of their High Mightinesses aforesaid, { 324 } seamen or others, natives, citizens, or inhabitants of any of the said states upon such conditions as they shall agree on, without being subject for this to any fine, penalty, punishment, process, or reprehension whatsoever.
And reciprocally, all merchants, captains, and commanders belonging to the said seven United Provinces of the Netherlands shall enjoy in all the ports and places under the obedience of the said United States of America the same privilege of engaging and receiving seamen or others, natives, citizens, or inhabitants of any country of the denomination of the said States General<.>hn128
{ 325 }
The affair of the refraction<&c.>53hn130
Form of the passporthn131 which shall be given to ships and vessels in consequence of the 30th article of this treaty.54
To all who shall see these presents, greeting. Be it known that leave and permission are hereby given to[]master or commander of the ship or vessel called[]of the[]of[]burden[]tons or thereabouts, lying at present in the port or haven of[]bound for[]and laden with[]to depart and proceed with his said ship or vessel on his said voyage, such ship or vessel having been visited, and the said master and commander having made oath before the proper officer that the said ship or vessel belongs to one or more of the subjects, people, or inhabitants of[]and to him or them only. In witness whereof we have subscribed our names to these presents and affixed the seal of our arms thereto and caused the same to be countersigned by[]at[]this day of[]in the year of our Lord Christ[] .hn132
{ 326 }
Form of the certificate which shall be given to ships or vessels in consequence of the 30th article of this treaty.
We Magistrates (or officers of the customs) of the city or port of[]do certify and attest that on the[]day of[]in the year of our Lord[] , c.d. of[]personally appeared before us and declared by solemn oath that the ship or vessel called[]of[]tons or thereabouts, whereof[]of[]is at present master or commander, does rightfully and properly belong to him or them only. That she is now bound from the city or port of[]to the port of[]laden with goods and merchandises hereunder particularly described and enumerated as follows:
In witness whereof we have signed this certificate and sealed it with the seal of our office this [] day of [] in the year of our Lord Christ.
Remarks and Further Propositions
hn1. (1) of the United Netherlands
hn2. (The treaty with France has)
(2) States of North America
(3) Massachusetts Bay
(4) The Counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex on the Delaware
hn3. (1) of the United Netherlands
hn4. (2) of North America (as in the treaty with France)
hn5. (3) determine
hn6. (4) subjects and inhabitants
hn7. (5) establishing
hn8. (6) with avoidance of
hn9. (7) by
hn10. (8) such ulterior
hn11. (9) to found
hn12. (10) in
hn13. (11) have
hn14. (12) of the United Netherlands named the Lords . . . From the midst of the meeting of their High Mightinesses deputed:
hn15. (13) North
hn16. (13) North
hn17. (14) who have agreed and concluded
I
hn19. (1) Lords (2) General of the United Netherlands
hn20. (3) North
hn21. (4) Netherlands
hn22. (5) their subjects and inhabitants (The treaty with France has, and appears to be also more suitable)
hn23. (6) and places
II
hn24. (Taken from the 25th article of the truce with Portugal done at The Hague, 12 June 1641, and also the 10th of the treaty with France)11
The mutual subjects and inhabitants irrespective of their nation, condition, state, place, or religion who have been born or have lived in either territory shall be allowed to visit, sail, and trade in all sorts of merchandise and commerce of which the import and export has not been generally forbidden, in all of each other’s provinces, countries, and islands in Europe and North America and elsewhere as with the most favored nations of Europe.
III
hn26. (1) General of the United
hn27. <(2) of Europe>13
hn28. (2<3>) there
hn29. (3<4>) foreign
hn30. (4<5>) Likewise shall
hn31. (5<6>) inhabitants
hn32. (6<7>) Netherlands
hn33. (7<8>) favored
<(9) of Europe>
(as in the treaty with France)15
(8<10>) there
hn34. (9<11>) foreign
hn35. (10<12>) most favored
hn36. <(12) of Europe>
hn37. (11<13>) And the United States of North America, with their subjects and inhabitants, will leave to those of their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands the peaceable enjoyment of their rights in the countries, islands, and seas in the East and West Indies without any hindrance or molestation.16
IV
hn38. <(IV unnecessary, and because it cannot be found in the treaty with France, it is to be skipped or to be changed as follows:)>
hn39. (1) and inhabitants
hn40. (2) and no one shall be molested in regard to his worship, provided he submits, as to the public demonstration of it, to the laws of the country.
hn41. (3) and inhabitants
hn42. (4) the usual burial places, or
hn43. [And will be permitted for the abovementioned high United States of America in the thirteen respective colonies, and whenever it will later be necessary, that the inhabitants of those countries18 may henceforward obtain the requisite certificates in cases of deaths in which they shall be interested.]
V
hn45. (1) General of the United Netherlands, and the United States of North America
hn46. (2) mutual
hn47. (3) and inhabitants
hn48. (4) inland seas, streams, rivers and as far as their jurisdiction extends at sea
hn49. (5) vessels of war and convoys, in cases when they may have a common enemy shall
hn50. (6) the subjects and inhabitants of either party which shall not be laden with contraband goods, according to the description of them hereafter, for places with which one of the parties is in peace and the other at war, nor destined for any place blocked and which shall hold
hn51. (7) go
hn52. (8) of the common enemy
hn53. (9) their own respective
hn54. (VI can be omitted if V is changed as above and phrased reciprocally.)
VI
hn55. (Instead of this article, use the 39th article of the Treaty of Naples of 1753, which is as follows:)
hn56. The subjects of the contracting parties may, on one side and on the other, in their respective countries and states, dispose of their effects by testament, donation, or otherwise; and their heirs, subjects of one of the parties, residing in the country of the other, or elsewhere, shall receive such successions, even ab intestato, whether in person or by their attorney or substitute, even although they shall not have obtained letters of naturalization, without having the effect of such commission contested under pretext of any rights or prerogatives of any province, city, or private person. And if the heirs to whom such successions may have fallen shall be minors, the tutors or curators established by the judge domiciliary of the said minors may govern, direct, administer, sell, and alienate the effects fallen to the said minors by inheritance, and, in general, in relation to the said successions and effects, use all the rights and fulfill all the functions which belong by the diposition of the laws to guardians, tutors, and curators, provided nevertheless that this disposition cannot take place, but in cases where the testator shall not have named guardians, tutors, curators by testament, codicil, or other legal instrument.
VII
hn57. (Because of the ambiguity, omit the underlined words; while it speaks for itself that the judges can appoint lawyers etc., but not just any person upon the demand of someone else, and, whoever it might be, give the power, because he would otherwise not be allowed to do this.)
VIII
hn59. (1) public
hn60. (2) and arrests
hn61. (3) will
IX
hn63. (1) General of the United Netherlands
hn64. (All the words printed in italics should be omitted, it not being unreasonable that if others want to use it, they use the one which the law thereto prefers.)
hn65. (And to avoid confusion, add)
(2) As long as one obeys the orders of loading and unloading and the supplying and transporting of goods and wares from and to the ships and from the one place to the other according to the laws so as to prevent frauds unless otherwise stated.
(3) unload against their will, but with their unbroken cargoes to be allowed to sail out to sea again; they will not be forced either to receive any goods against their will into their ships, or wait longer for their cargo than they would like to; but the loading or unloading which are done voluntarily will be subject to the payment of the rights which broken cargoes are subject to.
(4) subjects and inhabitants
(5) General of the United Netherlands, which they will navigate according to the second and third article of this treaty.
X
hn67. (1) coming from the port of an enemy or from their own or a neutral port may navigate freely (2) they shall be nevertheless held whenever it shall be required to exhibit . . . their sea letters and other documents described in the 26th article
hn68. (3) and not having any contraband goods for an enemy’s port, they may freely and without hindrance proceed. Nevertheless, it shall not be required to examine the papers of vessels convoyed by vessels of war, but credence shall be given to the word of the officer who shall conduct the convoy.
XI
hn70. (1) exhibiting the sea letters and other documents described more particularly in the 26th article of this treaty
hn71. (2) General of the United Netherlands
hn72. (3) or to subjects
hn73. (4) then after that
hn74. (5) contraband
hn75. (6) (That which is printed in italics appears to be useful against the seizure of ships, but it leads to piracy and therefore should be omitted, and in its stead should be written the following from the 26th article of the treaty with France of April 11th, 1713.)27
But, on the contrary, when by the visitation on land it shall be found that there are no contraband goods in the vessel, and it shall not appear by the papers that he who has taken and carried in the vessel has been able to discover any there, he ought to be condemned in all the charges, damages, and interests of them which he shall have caused to the owners of vessels, and to the owners and freighters of cargoes with which they shall be loaded, by his temerity in taking and carrying them in; declaring most expressly the free vessels shall assure the liberty of the effects with which they shall be loaded, and that this liberty shall extend itself to persons who shall be found in a free vessel, who may not be taken out of her, unless they are military men actually in the service of the enemy.
XII
hn77. (Rather to avoid all discussion about the ignorance or knowledge of the declaration)
(1) or within six <three>29 months after it, which effects
hn78. (2) who shall claim them or cause them to be claimed before the confiscation and sale and be restored in nature
(3) as also their proceeds, if the claim could not be made, but in the space of eight months after the sale, which ought to be public
XIII
hn80. (1) General of the United Netherlands
hn81. (2) North
hn82. (3) officers
hn83. (4) upon the first complaint which shall be made of it, being found guilty after a just examination, punished by their proper judges
hn84. (5) obtain
XIV31
hn85. For further determining of what has been said, all captains of privateers, or fitters-out of vessels armed for war, under commission and on account of private persons, shall be held before their departure to give sufficient caution before competent judges, either, to be entirely responsible for the malversations which they may commit in their cruises or voyages, as well as for the contraventions of their captains and officers against the present treaty, and against the ordinances and edicts which shall be published in consequence of and conformity to it, under pain of forfeiture and nullity of the said commissions.
XV
hn87. (1) navigating the high seas without requisite commissions
hn88. (2) <But concerning the recapture of prizes belonging to each other’s subjects from the common enemy by the warships and commissioned vessels of the mutual contracting parties, reference will be made to the convention of 1 May 1781 between His Majesty the King of France and the States General of the United Netherlands, which being inserted here will remove all doubt regarding this. Copies of this convention and of the rules contained in it shall be attached to this treaty.>
[Would it not be possible to insert here, word for word, the content of the convention of 1 May 1781 between France and the Republic, without, however, naming the convention itself?]
[It will also be necessary, in view of the much greater distance from America compared with that from France, to stipulate that in all cases the restitution of prizes retaken from the enemy will be admitted under sufficient surety.]
XVI
hn90. (1) sea-
hn91. (Mostly taken from the 35th article of aforementioned treaty of 1713 as follows:)
(2) and the vessels, effects, and merchandises, or the part of them which shall have been saved, or the proceeds of them if, being perishable, they shall have been sold, being claimed within a year and a day by the masters or owners or their agents or attorneys, shall be restored paying only the reasonable charges and that which must be paid in the same case for the salvage by the proper subjects of the country.
XVII
XVIII
hn93. (It is unclear whether the addition made in this 18th article, as far as people who find themselves within the country, was taken from several old treaties, in the words if anything be taken from them, which would denote the taking of prizes at sea. If yes, it appears to have no effect. It is hereby proposed to keep the first section and clarify the second section, making it more elaborate as is found in the 41st article of aforementioned treaty of 1713, which reads as follows:)
(1) their High Mightinesses, the States General of the United Netherlands and the United States of North America, there shall always be granted to the subjects on each side the term of nine months after the date of the rupture or the proclamation of war, to the end that they may retire with their effects and transport them where they please, which it shall be lawful for them to do; as well as to sell or transport their effects and goods in all freedom and without any hindrance, and without being able to proceed, during the said term of nine months, to any arrest of their effects, much less of their persons; on the contrary, there shall be given them, for their vessels and effects which they would carry away, passports and safe conducts, for the nearest ports of their respective countries, and for the time necessary for the voyage. And no prize made at sea shall be judged lawful, at least if the declaration of war was not or could not be known in the last port which the vessel taken has quitted. But for whatever may have been taken from the subjects and inhabitants of either party, and for the offenses which may have been given them in the interval of the said terms, a complete satisfaction shall be given them.
XIX
hn95. (1) General of the United Netherlands
hn96. (2) North
hn97. (3) and inhabitants
hn98. (4) North
hn99. (5) inhabitants
hn100. (6) North
hn101. (7) their High Mightinesses States General of the United Netherlands, or against (8) or inhabitants
hn102. (9) states
(10) will
hn103. [It is proposed to amplify this article with a reciprocal regulation similar to that which has been enacted by their High Mightinesses in their placard of 3 November 1756.]
XX
hn105. (1) or take in any cargo, according to Art. 9, they shall not be obliged to pay, neither for the vessels nor the cargoes, any duties of entry in or out, nor to render any account of their cargoes, at least if there is not just cause to presume that they carry to an enemy merchandises of contraband.
XXI
hn107. <(XXIInd and the following apparently should be omitted; anyone is at liberty to propose or adopt articles, but not articles that go against treaties with other powers; existing conventions cannot be undone by contrary stipulations with third parties.)>
[For articles 22 and 23 substitute the following article 22.]
Article 22.
This treaty will not be understood to derogate in any way from articles 9, 10, 17, and 2242 of the treaty of commerce in the year 1778 between France and said states of America and shall not hinder in any way his Catholic Majesty from acceding to it and of enjoying the advantages of the said four articles.
hn108. (One should be excused from XXIV because it would be onerous and would be the occasion for others with whom her High Mightinesses are in peace and amity to require the same, and to be of no essential use, while the Court of France has taken it up.)
XXII
hn110. (1) only
hn111. (2) warlike stores or
hn112. (3) as mortars (4) with their artifices and appurtenances, fusils, pistols, bombs, grenades, gunpowder, saltpeter, sulphur (5) swords
(6) casques, cuirasses, and other sorts of arms, as also soldiers, horses, saddles, and furniture for horses.
hn113. (7) All other goods, <wares>, and
(8) <whatever named> merchandises, not before specified expressly, and even all sorts of naval matters, however proper they may be for the construction and equipment of vessels of war or for the manufacture of one or another sort of machines of war by land or sea, shall not be judged contraband, neither by the letter nor according to any pretended interpretation whatever ought they or can they be comprehended under the notion of effects prohibited or contraband, so that all effects and merchandises which are not expressly before named may, without exception, be transported.45
hn114. <(9) but>
hn115. (10) from and
hn116. (11) and those places only shall be held for such which are surrounded nearly by one of the belligerent powers.
XXIII
hn118. (1) inhabitants
hn119. (2) each time that the vessel shall return, she should have such her passport renewed, or at least they ought not to be of more ancient date than two47<one> years before the vessel has been returned to her own country.
hn120. (3) are to be
hn121. (4) or sea letters mentioned above, but also with a general passport, or with particular passports or manifests or other public documents which are ordinarily given to vessels outward bound in the ports from whence the vessels have set sail in the last place, containing a specification of the cargo, of the place from whence the vessel departed, and that of her destination, or instead of these, certificates from the magistrates or governors of cities, places, and colonies from whence the vessel left, given in the usual form, to the end that it may be known whether there are any effects prohibited or contraband on board of the vessels, and whether they are destined to an enemy’s country or not.
hn122. (5) records
hn123. (6) without, however, being bound to do it; and the omission of such expression cannot or ought not to cause a confiscation.
[(7) 2 Be it understood that the disposition made in this article will not subject such vessels which, having been unable to return home after the declaration of war, have been been unable to procure the required passports and sea letters.]48
hn124. (XXVII apparently can be omitted because it is the same as XX, particularly after the addition proposed to be made to that article.)
XXIV
hn126. (1) sea letter and other records
hn127. <(This article cannot be admitted in this general form. In peacetime recruiting likely will not be refused for deaths, desertion, or other causes, but one cannot accord a general permission for the recruiting of warships.)>
hn128. [, provided that neither on one side nor the other, they may not take in to their service such of their countrymen who have already engaged in the service of the other party contracting, whether in war or trade, and whether they meet them by land or sea; at least if the captains or masters under the command of whom such persons may be found will,52 of his own consent, discharge them from their service, upon pain of being otherwise treated and punished as deserters.]
hn129. <(This does not belong to a treaty of commerce, rather to a tariff, and the refraction is appropriate for the greater service of commerce.)>
hn130. [shall be regulated, in all equity and justice, by the magistrates of cities, respectively, where it shall be judged that there is any room to complain in this respect.]
Form of the Sea Letter
hn131. Most serene, serene, most puissant, puissant, high, illustrious, noble, honorable, venerable, wise and prudent lords, emperors, kings, republics, princes, dukes, earls, barons, lords, burgomasters, schepens, councillors, as also judges, officers, justiciaries, and regents of all the good cities and places, whether ecclesiastical or secular, who shall see these patents or hear them read: We, burgomasters and regents of the city of [] make known, that the master of [] of [] appearing before us has declared upon oath that the vessel called [] of the burden of about [] lasts, which he at present navigates, is of the United Provinces, and that no subjects of the enemy have any part or portion therein, directly nor indirectly, so may God almighty help him. And as we wish to see the said master prosper in his lawful affairs, our prayer is to all the abovementioned, and to each of them separately, where the said master shall arrive with his vessel and cargo, that they may please to receive the said master with goodness and to treat him in a becoming manner, permitting him, upon the usual tolls and expenses in passing and repassing, to pass, navigate, and frequent the ports, rivers, and territories to the end to transact his business, where and in what manner he shall judge proper, whereof we shall be willingly indebted.
In witness and for cause whereof, we affix hereto the seal of this city.
hn132. (In the margin)
By ordinance of the High and Mighty Lords, the States General of the United Netherlands.
MS not found. Reprinted from “Extract uit het Register der Resolutien van de Hoog Mogende Heeren Staaten Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden,” 21 May 1782, with written insertions in an unknown hand (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Treaty proposed to me by the Comtee: of their H. M. the 22 of August. 1782”; cover sheet in CFA’s hand: “N.B. Project of a Treaty presented by the authorities of Holland for the consideration of John Adams, the Envoy of the United States 22 August 1782.” This document is filmed at 22–29 Aug. 1782 Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 357. Another copy of the 21 May printed extract is in the Adams Papers and was filmed at 21 May (same). The two documents differ in that the copy that JA received on 22 Aug. consists of pages 3 through 24. The leaf containing pages 1 and 2 may not have been included with the copy submitted to JA on 22 Aug. because page 1 consisted of the instrument by which the States General sub• { 327 } mitted the draft treaty to the various Provincial States, containing a brief account of preliminary meetings with JA and the States General’s consideration of the draft to that point, while page 2 was blank. For an explanation of the editors’ decision to reconstruct JA’s draft rather than simply translate the Dutch text, see the Editorial Note to the group document, above. For the sources of the particular articles see the annotation below.
Printed Copy (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Remarks of Amsterdam in Dutch”; accompanied by a French translation by C. W. F. Dumas. All of the handwritten passages on the copy of the draft and suggestions for revisions submitted to JA on 22 Aug. were derived from Amsterdam’s remarks adopted on 9 August. For those passages, as well as Amsterdam’s other comments on JA’s draft, see notes 13, 17–18, 24, 29, 33, 38, 41, 45, 47–48, 51, and 53. Note that the handwritten passages are underlined and have been placed in the right-hand column regardless of where they appeared on the page.
1. The remainder of the title was set in italics so that, unlike in the remainder of the draft, passages intended to be changed were in roman type and the proposed changes were in italics.
2. JA appropriated the title from the Lee-Neufville Treaty (Adams Papers; printed: Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:789–798), but where the formula to describe the Netherlands was “the seven United Provinces of the Netherlands.” According to his response to the Dutch proposals for changes, JA changed it to “the Seven United Provinces of the Low Countries” (No. III, below). That was in accord with Congress’ Treaty Plan of 1780 (vol. 10:451), which referred to “the United Provinces of the low Countries.” JA used the revised formula throughout the draft and, as they do here, the Dutch demanded that it be changed to “the United Netherlands” wherever it appeared.
3. When the Dutch considered JA’s draft they clearly compared it to the 1778 Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce. Their objections here and elsewhere to JA’s references to the United States and to the individual states were because the forms used here were different from those used in the treaty with France (Miller, Treaties, 2:3), but Congress’ Treaty Plan of 1780 also referred to the United States of North America (vol. 10:451–457). See JA’s response to the Dutch objections in No. III, below.
4. This should have continued “and Providence Plantation,” an error that neither JA nor the Dutch caught until the last moment, for which see the first paragraph of the draft’s preamble and No. VIII, below.
5. The word “Burgeren” (citizens) appears throughout the draft and was inserted by JA, but it was objected to in every case by the Dutch, who preferred “Ingezeetenen” (inhabitants), the form that appears in the final treaty. The Lee-Neufville Treaty and the treaty plan use the word “people.”
6. With minor variations, the draft’s preamble is identical to that in the Lee-Neufville Treaty. The preamble in the treaty plan, however, is also similar and probably was based on the form in the Lee-Neufville Treaty. See also the Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Miller, Treaties, 2:3–4).
7. From this point the italicized passage was replaced in the final treaty, but the new text was considerably different from that proposed here. In fact, this and the following two paragraphs, the first of which was largely retained in the final treaty (No. VIII, below), dealing with the plenipotentiaries authorized to sign the treaty, are JA’s work, for neither the Lee-Neufville Treaty nor Congress’ treaty plan have a comparable section. JA may have used the corresponding sections in the Franco-American treaties of 1778 as a model, although their text is not identical to that in the draft.
8. JA presumably referred to “Massachusetts Bay” because it was the state’s official name when he was a delegate to the Congress and chief justice. But see his objections to the Dutch proposals to change “Massachusetts” to “Massachusetts Bay” in the title and preamble of the draft in No. III, below.
9. This article corresponds to Art. 1 of both Congress’ treaty plan (vol. 10:451) and the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
10. The Dutch are making two changes here. The first corrects what was likely an inadvertence by the translator, for “geslagten” would usually be defined as “genders” or { 328 } “families.” The second brings the draft into accord with the official French text of Art. 1 in the 1778 Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce, which reads at this point “et de lieux,” which should be translated as “and places.” The unofficial English text, however, translated this phrase as “or places,” and that usage was repeated in Art. 1 of Congress’ treaty plan (Miller, Treaties, 2:5; vol. 10:451).
11. For Art. 25 of the Dutch-Portuguese truce of 1641 and Art. 10 of the Franco-Dutch Treaty of Navigation and Commerce signed at Utrecht on 11 April 1713, from which the proposed Art. 2 was derived, JA likely consulted Jean Dumont’s compilation, Corps universel diplomatique du droit des gens; contenant un recueil des traitez d’alliance, de paix, de trève, de neutralité, de commerce, d’échange (Amsterdam, 1726–1739; 14 vols. in 15, folio, 6:217; 8:378). JA purchased Dumont’s work in 1780, and it is in his library at MB (JA, D&A, 2:438; Catalogue of JA’s Library). JA rejected the article, which does not appear in the final treaty, because it failed to confer any rights not already contained in Arts. 2 and 3 of the draft (No. III, below). The Dutch proposal was not included in the final treaty.
12. This article corresponds to Art. 2 of both Congress’ treaty plan (vol. 10:451) and the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
13. The deletion of “van Europa” or “of Europe,” here and later is owing to Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. recommendation that it was unnecessary to add the qualifier to identify the most favored nations.
14. The italicized article number and the continuation of the numbering of the proposed changes indicate that the Dutch intended for Arts. 2 and 3 to be combined, but they remained separate in the final treaty (No. VIII, below). Congress’ treaty plan includes an Art. 3, but provides no separate text, noting that it was “the converse of article second” (vol. 10:451).
15. This probably refers to the 1778 Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce and pertains to the insertion of “aldaar,” meaning “there” or “at that place.” But no equivalent phrasing appears there. JA agreed to the insertion, and it appears in the Dutch text of the final treaty, but no change was made in the English text.
16. This addition to the end of Art. 3 was included in the final treaty (No. VIII, below), but see JA’s comments regarding it in his response to the Dutch proposals and in his 8 Oct. letter to Robert R. Livingston (Nos. III and XI, below).
17. This article corresponds to Art. 4 of both the treaty plan (vol. 10:451–452) and the final treaty (No. VIII, below). But the deletion of the objection to the article and the proposed addition at the end, including the reference to the thirteen colonies, were owing to Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. recommendations. The decision to accept the article as revised mooted JA’s expression of support for the article in his first response, but the references to the high United States and the thirteen colonies produced a vigorous protest in his second (No. III, below). The question of how the proposed addition would read was not settled until 29 Aug., when the Grand Pensionary, Pieter van Bleiswyck, offered language that JA found acceptable (No. VI, below).
18. The remainder of Amsterdam’s proposal was retained in Art. 4 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
19. This article corresponds to Art. 5 of both the treaty plan (vol. 10:452) and the final treaty (No. VIII, below), but see note 20.
20. This article does not appear separately in either the treaty plan or the final treaty. The treaty plan at this point reads “ <Ar. VI> A reciprocal Stipulation” (vol. 10:452). Congress may have expected, as the Dutch suggested, that both parts be included in a single article, which was done in Art. 5 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
21. As drafted, this article corresponds to Art. 6 in the treaty plan (vol. 10:452–453), but in Art. 6 of the final treaty, the draft text was replaced, as suggested by the Dutch, with that of Art. 39 of the commercial treaty between the Netherlands and the Two Sicilies signed at The Hague on 27 Aug. 1753 (The Consolidated Treaty Series, ed. Clive Parry, 231 vols., Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1969–1981, 40:133–134; No. VIII, below).
22. This article corresponds to Art. 7 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:453) and of the final treaty (No. VIII, below). In its final form the passage marked for deletion was removed.
23. This article corresponds to Art. 8 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:453) and of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
24. As drafted, this article corresponds to Art. 9 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:453–454), but as JA’s replies to the Dutch proposals for changes indicate (No. III, below), it occasioned considerable controversy. The issue { 329 } was not resolved until 29 Aug. when a new, much shorter article, Art. 9 in the final treaty, was proposed and accepted (Nos. VII and VIII, below). This was in line with Amsterdam’s comments of 9 Aug., the crux of which was that the original article and the proposed changes brought unwonted complexity to a relatively simple issue.
25. This article corresponds to Art. 10 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:454) and of the final treaty, where it incorporated the Dutch proposals with one addition, likely a clarification to the third suggestion, for which see No. VIII, and note 11, below.
26. This article corresponds to Art. 11 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:454) and of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
27. The proposed addition to Art. 12 is an accurate rendition of Art. 26 of the Franco-Dutch Treaty of Navigation and Commerce signed at Utrecht on 11 April 1713. It was incorporated virtually unchanged into Art. 11 of the final treaty (Dumont, comp., Corps universel, 8:380; No. VIII, below).
28. This article corresponds to Art. 12 of the Treaty Plan (vol. 10:454–455) and of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
29. This reflects Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. suggestion of five or six months as an alternative.
30. This article corresponds to Art. 13 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:455) and of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
31. This article, as drafted by the Dutch, was incorporated almost verbatim as Art. 14 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
32. This article corresponds to Art. 14 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:455) and Art. 15 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
33. Both the deletion of the proposal to refer to the Franco-Dutch convention on recaptures of 1 May 1781 and its replacement with the suggestion that the text of the convention be inserted verbatim reflect Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. recommendation. JA responded (No. III, below) that he did not oppose dealing with recaptured vessels but lacked any power or instructions to settle the issue in the treaty. He proposed as an alternative that it be included in a separate convention. The resulting convention (No. IX, below) is a virtually verbatim rendering of the Franco-Dutch convention but with references to France removed. JA had sent Congress an English translation of the convention in his letter of 25 May 1781 (calendared, vol. 11:336).
34. This article corresponds to Art. 15 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:455) and Art. 16 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below). The proposed addition to the article is an accurate rendition of Art. 35 of the Franco-Dutch Treaty of Navigation and Commerce signed at Utrecht on 11 April 1713 and was incorporated virtually unchanged into the article in the final treaty (Dumont, comp., Corps universel, 8:380–381; No. VIII, below).
35. This article corresponds to Art. 16 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:456) and Art. 17 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
36. This article corresponds to Art. 17 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:456) and Art. 18 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below). The proposed addition to the article is an accurate rendition of Art. 41 of the Franco-Dutch Treaty of Navigation and Commerce signed at Utrecht on 11 April 1713 and was incorporated virtually unchanged into the article as it appears in the final treaty (Dumont, comp., Corps universel, 8:381).
37. This article corresponds to Art. 18 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:456) and Art. 19 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
38. For JA’s rejection of this proposal, which was one of Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. recommendations, see his response of 27 Aug. (No. III, and note 5, below).
39. This article corresponds to Art. 19 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:456–457) and Art. 20 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below). The proposed addition to the article was included in the final treaty, but the reference to Art. 9 was removed.
40. This article corresponds to Art. 20 of the treaty plan (vol. 10:457) and Art. 21 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
41. The most contentious issue during the negotiations, or at least the one that provoked the most discussion, involved Dutch objections to Arts. 22 and 23 and their deletion or replacement with a new article. For a detailed explanation from the Dutch perspective of the issues involved, see Adriaan van Zeebergh’s 25 July commentary on the two articles (above). The deletion of the proposal to remove the two articles entirely and the proposed replacement stem from Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. recommendations, and the substitute article is an accurate rendering of Amsterdam’s proposal. But see also JA’s comments in his responses (No. III, below), another suggested replacement that was not used (No. IV, below), and Art. 22 in the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
{ 330 }
The Dutch objections to the two articles and their initial request that they be removed altogether have substance. This is because neither JA’s draft nor the changes suggested by the Dutch contained anything that would have put the Dutch-American Treaty in any obvious conflict with the 1778 Franco-American treaties of amity and commerce or alliance. And if a conflict did develop, the law of nations required that the earlier treaty take precedence over the later one. Article 22 is identical to Art. 21 of Congress’ Treaty Plan of 1780 except that where Congress referred to “a treaty,” JA identified the two treaties specifically (vol. 10:457). But Art. 23 was wholly JA’s work, for it does not appear in the treaty plan, and in drafting it, he went beyond the terms of Congress’ treaty plan and his instructions. Neither mentioned Spain or its right to accede to the treaty of alliance under the terms of Art. 10 of that treaty or, more specifically, to both treaties according to the “Acte Séparé et Secret” that had also been signed on 6 Feb. 1778 (Miller, Treaties, 2:39, 45–47). In fact, Art. 23 was likely the product of JA’s 16 Aug. 1781 commission and instructions, which he had not disclosed to the Dutch, to conclude a tripartite alliance between the United States, France, and the Netherlands or a quadruple alliance should Spain wish to join under the terms of the Franco-American Treaty (vol. 11:453–456). Indeed, unless the Dutch were aware of the secret provision, Art. 23 must have seemed a very odd article to include in a treaty with the Netherlands because the Franco-American commercial treaty made no mention of any Spanish right of accession.
42. The articles are numbered according to their order in the ratified treaty, following the deletion of the original Arts. 11 and 12. For the clarification of which articles were being referred to, see Art. 22 of the final version of the treaty (No. VIII, below).
43. This article corresponds to Art. 10 of the Lee-Neufville Treaty (Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:791) and Art. 23 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below). For the revised article as it appeared in the final treaty, see No. V, below.
44. As drafted, this article corresponds to Art. 29 of the Lee-Neufville Treaty (Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:796–797) and appears, much altered, as Art. 24 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below). The changes that JA accepted to the article enumerating contraband represent a significant departure from his instructions from Congress for negotiating a Dutch-American treaty and also from the Lee-Neufville Treaty and the 1778 Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce (vol. 10:448; Miller, Treaties, 2:21–23). Instead of a long catalog of items that were not to be considered contraband, the Dutch proposed that any merchandise not specifically designated as contraband be considered free. This was in line with Russia’s 19 May 1780 ordinance concerning commerce and navigation that formed the basis for the Armed Neutrality of which the Netherlands was a member. It should also be noted that the proposal was less detailed, and thus less restrictive, than the provisions of the 26 Jan. 1781 Dutch ordinance concerning commerce and navigation (Scott, Armed Neutralities of 1780 and 1800, p. 291, 359).
45. This insertion is an accurate rendering of Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. proposal and was incorporated into the article as it appears in the final treaty.
46. This article corresponds to Art. 30 of the Lee-Neufville Treaty (Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:797) and Art. 25 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below). The article as it finally appeared was much longer because of the inclusion of the Dutch proposals, but see notes 47 and 48.
47. This change is derived from Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. proposals and appears in the final treaty.
48. This statement reflects the sense of Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. recommendation regarding Art. 26.
49. This article corresponds to Art. 31 of the Lee-Neufville Treaty (Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:797) and, as the Dutch proposed, was omitted from the final treaty.
50. This article corresponds to Art. 32 of the Lee-Neufville Treaty (same, 2:797–798) and Art. 26 of the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
51. JA’s source for this article is unknown. The removal of the objection was owing to Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. recommendations and resulted in its inclusion in the final treaty as Art. 27. There it incorporated the proposed addition, which is, with minor changes, an accurate rendering of Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. recommendation (No. VIII, below).
52. At this point in the final treaty the word “niet” (not) was inserted (No. VIII, below).
53. JA apparently intended that the text of Art. 30 would be determined during the { 331 } negotiations and did not draft a formal article, but see No. III, and note 6, below. The removal of the objection to the article stemmed from Amsterdam’s 9 Aug. proposals, and the proposed text, which follows Amsterdam’s suggestion, appears Art. 28 in the final treaty (No. VIII, below).
54. The forms for the passport and certificate, with some minor changes, are taken from the Lee-Neufville Treaty (Adams Papers). The italics seem to indicate that the Dutch wished them deleted and replaced by the form for a sea letter, but in the final version of the treaty the passport and certificate were retained and the sea letter was added (No. VIII, below).

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0004

III. John Adams’ Replies to the Dutch Remarks on and Suggested Changes to His Draft Treaty of Amity and Commerce

DocGroupNo:

[ante 22 August 1782] and [ca. 27 August 1782]

Editorial Note

John Adams wrote two point-by-point responses to the Dutch proposals for changes to his draft treaty of amity and commerce. The first appears in the left column below and probably was done sometime between 21 May and mid-June. On 21 May the States General printed a document for the consideration of the provinces and other interested parties containing a Dutch translation of Adams’ draft in the left column and the “Remarques en nadere Propositie” (Remarks and Further Proposals) in the right column (see descriptive note, No. II, above). John Adams noted this publication in his letter of 9 June to Robert R. Livingston and on 15 June informed Livingston that he was discussing the Dutch proposals (both above).
The second response appears in the right column below and was done after negotiations formally opened on 22 August. At that time the Dutch negotiators presented Adams with a document identical to the 21 May publication noted above, except that it contained additional handwritten proposals and some deletions, stemming from recommendations and proposals adopted by Amsterdam on 9 August (Adams Papers). In his new response, which he presented to the Dutch on 27 August, Adams revised some of his earlier comments and also responded directly to the new proposals.
For the nature of the two documents presented here, see the descriptive notes below, and for the draft treaty accompanied by the “Remarques en nadere Propositie,” see No. II, and its descriptive note, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0005

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Netherlands, States General of
DateRange: 1782-05-21 - 1782-08-22

John Adams' First Reply to the Dutch Remarks on and Suggested Changes to His Draft Treaty of Amity and Commerce

1. is a just Amendment. and it is readily agreed to Substitute { 332 } the Words “dervereenigde Nederlanden” in the Place of the Words “Van de zeven vereenigde Nederlandsche Provincien.” And in English “of the United Netherlands” instead of “of the Seven United Provinces of the Low Countries.”2
2. The only legal Style and Title is “The United States of America.” As appears by the Declaration of Independence the Articles of Confederation, and in general by the Proceedings of Congress. The Word “North” is Superfluous, and it was by Inaccuracy only, that it was inserted in the Treaty with France. inserting the Word “North” Seems to imply that there are United States in “South America,” which there are not.
3. Under the Royal Government, and indeed under the temporary Form of Government assumed Since the Revolution, the Word “Bay” was annexed to that of “Massachusetts.” But by the new, and permanent form of Government instituted by that People, they have dropped the Word “Bay,” and preserved only that of “Massachusetts.”
4. Under the Royal Government, and perhaps, for Some Short time Since the Revolution this State was called by the Name of “The three Counties of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex, on Delaware.” But under the new and permanent Govern• { 333 } ment instituted, by that People, they have preserved only the Name of “Delaware.”
1 Agreed, as a judicious and necessary Amendment.3
2. The Word “North” is no Part of the legal Title of the United States of America.
3. a proper Correction no doubt of the Translation, into the Dutch Language.
4. The Dutch Word “Burgeren,” does not, perhaps, express precisely, the Idea of the Word “Citizen,” which Americans are fond of. But as the Meaning is the Same the Words onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen “Subjects and Inhabitants,” are readily, agreed to.
5. a grammatical Correction, as it is Supposed, of the Translation.
6. Dto.
7. Dto.
8. Agreed to add the Word “Verder” farther.
9. Agreed to the Word “Fundeeren” or “Gronden,” as their High Mightinesses shall juge most proper.
10. a grammatical Correction.
11. Dto.
12. Agreed. as their High Mightinesses, judge most proper.
13. The Word “Noort,” is improper.
13. Dto.
{ 334 }
14. Agreed, as their High Mightinesses, judge most proper.
Article 1.
1. Agreed,4 without demanding upon the Principle of Reciprocity that the Word “Heeren” be placed before the “Staten Van America,” as the Americans do not wish ever to see the Words Heeren, Seigneurs, Nobles, or Lords, ever Admitted into any of their Style or Titles.
2. Agreed.
3. The Word North, is a Redundance, not admissable.
4. Agreed.
5. Agreed.
6. Agreed.
The Article proposed to be added from the Treaty with Portugal 12 June 1641. &c cannot be admitted. All of it that is admissible, is already very clearly expressed in the Second and third Articles of the Treaty as proposed.
Articles 2. & 3.
1. agreed.
2. not admitted. Van Europa
3. agreed
4. the Same thing
5. Ingelyks zullen
6. agreed
7. agreed
8. agreed
9. not admitted.
10. agreed
{ 335 }
11. the Same thing
12. not admitted.
13. agreed, though, unnecessary.
Article. 4.
Liberty of Conscience, is So Sacred, and prescious a Thing that it is much to be wished, that an Article in favour of it could be inserted, in all Treaties. Such an Article could not be expected in the Treaty with France, at the Time when it was made.
1. en Ingezeetenen. Agreed
2. It is Submitted, whether it is not better to omit the Article than, insert this alteration.
3. agreed
4. agreed.
Article 5.
1. Agreed, to all this Amendment, except the Word “Noord”
2. agreed
{ 336 }
3. agreed.
4. agreed.
5. agreed
6 agreed
7 agreed
8 agreed
9 agreed.
Article 6. may be omitted.
Article 7.
Agreed to Substitute, the Article as quoted from a Treaty with Naples, in Place of that proposed by Mr Adams.
Article 8.
Agreed to omitt the Words, underscored.
Article 9.
1. agreed to the Word “publicq.”
2. agreed to the Words “en Arresten.”
3. agreed to the Word “Zullen.”
Article 10.
1. agreed.
The other Passage, in this Article, italicised, to be omitted Seems to be of great Importance to the Americans because that Dutch Subjects in america, will enjoy this Priviledge probably without the Article, but American subjects in Holland, will not.
2. The Words proposed to be added, not agreed to
{ 337 }
3. This proposed alteration not agreed to.
4. agreed
5. agreed
Article 11.
1
2 agreed.
3
{ 338 }
Article 12.
1. agreed.
2. agreed.
3. agreed.
4.
5 agreed
6. agreed to Substitute the Art 26 of the Treaty with France of 11 April 1713 in place of the Paragraph italicised
Article 13.
1. agreed.
2. agreed.
3. agreed.
Article 14.
1. agreed.
2. improper.
3. agreed
4. agreed.
5. agreed.
Agreed also to admit the Article projected and numbered 14. beginning Tot meerder &c.
Article 15.
1. agreed, tho perhaps not an Amelioration for either nation.
2. This is a Matter of great Consideration, and perhaps mutual Utility: but as I have no particular Instructions, upon this { 339 } Head, I should choose to leave it, to the Choice of Congress, to ratify this Article with the rest or, to ratify the rest without it. I must also examine, more attentively than I have hitherto done, the Convention of 1. May. 1781.
Article. 16.
1. Agreed
2. Agreed.
Article 17 no Objection or Remark.
Article 18.
1. Agreed, to adopt the Substitute, excepting the Word “North” in the Title of the United States.
Article 19.
1. Agreed.
{ 340 }
2. improper.
3. agreed.
4 improper
5. Agreed
6. improper.
7. Agreed. The High Mightinesses are Supream and infallible Judges of their own Title. So are the United States of theirs.
8. agreed.
9. agreed. a grammatical Correction
10. Dto.
Article 20.
1. Agreed.
Article 21. No Objection or Observation.
Article 22.
This Article is not <perhaps> necessary, to be Sure, in order to render the Treaty with France obligatory in Preference to this. Yet it can do no harm, and may Serve to shew the good Faith of the United States, as well as Serve for an Explanation of the following Article, which is indispensible, besides, without this Article it will be neces• { 341 } sary, to make Several alterations in other Articles in order to conform them to the Treaty with France.
Article 23.
The Grounds and Motives of this Insertion are not necessary to be enlarged on, and perhaps another Article to the Same Effect, might be prepared, with better Expression, but the Substance of it, cannot be omitted, whatever might be, the Inclination of the “Redacteur.”
Article 24. Barbary Powers.
As this Article, binds their High Mightinesses to no particular Expence and to no particular Service, it is rather a general Expression of Benevolence, like the Same Article in the Treaty with France, than any Thing more. As Mediterranean Passes must Sometime or other be had for American Vessells, the Countenance and Good Will, or in other Words the good offices of their High Mightinesses added to those of his most Christian Majesty, might Still, facilitate the Negotiation, whenever it may be begun.
Article 25. Contrabande.
1. agreed.
2. agreed.
3. agreed
4. agreed
5. agreed
{ 342 }
6. agreed
7. agreed
8. agreed.
9. agreed
10. agreed
11. agreed.
Article 26.
1. agreed.
2 agreed.
3. agreed
4. agreed
5. agreed
6. agreed.
Article 27. may be omitted.
Article 28.
1. agreed.
Article 29.
This Article appears to be founded in Such Principles of Equity Humanity and Patriotism, that it Should seem impossible to refuse it. As the Right of recruiting, is here confined to American Seamen &c in Holland, and to Dutch Seamen &c in America. it would be hard indeed, upon a Dutch Master of a Vessell, if he could not receive on board his Vessell his Country men, who wished to go home with him. and so Vice versâ.
{ 343 }
Article 30.6
The American Merchants and Masters of Vessells, have often complained to me of Injuries they have Suffered, in the Weigh House at Amsterdam &c by a discretionary Power that is exercised by Some officer, of deducting a Proportion, for Supposed Damaged Tobacco. &c and have requested me to insert an Article for a Remedy, in the Treaty. They complain of great Abuses and Injustice, in this matter. It is Submitted to Consideration whether it is not mutually beneficial to have Something done. The more facilities the Americans find in the Ports of the Republick, the more of American Commerce will come here.
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Adamss Reply to the Remarks of the Admiralty.”; notation by CFA on a cover sheet: “First Draught of reply. J.A.” This manuscript is composed of a cover sheet and seventeen sheets folded in half. On the first page of each folded sheet is a portion of JA’s reply; on the fourth page is C. W. F. Dumas’ French translation of JA’s remarks. Filmed at [post 21 May 1782], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 357. This document was likely done soon after the Dutch text of the draft accompanied by the “Remarques en nadere Propositie” was published on 21 May because it is a point-by-point response to that document.
1. Both of JA’s replies refer to the articles as he originally numbered them in his draft, rather than as revised by the Dutch when they considered it and proposed changes. In addition to keying his replies to the specific articles and to the numbered proposals, JA indicated the pages on which they appeared in the printed Dutch text of the draft. Since the page references are irrelevant to the documents as printed here, they have been omitted.
2. JA’s response to the Dutch objection to his formula for referring to the Netherlands { 344 } in the treaty is almost the only instance in which the exact language that he used in the draft can be verified and is a clear indication that at some point he possessed an English copy of the draft.
3. The preceding four proposals concerned the formulas to be used when referring to the parties to the treaty. This item and the following fourteen items—the number 13 appears twice—apply to the preamble.
4. Presumably JA deleted this comment from his second response because it was gratuitous; the Dutch had not suggested that “Heeren” or “Lords” be placed before the United States of America.
5. C. W. F. Dumas’ French translation of the 3 Nov. 1756 placaart, or placard, is in the Adams Papers and was done, according to a note on the document, at JA’s behest on 20 Aug. (filmed at [post 21 May], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 357). There is no indication that JA sent Congress a copy of the placard, but one is in the (PCC, probably sent by C. W. F. Dumas in 1779 during the controversy over the admission of John Paul Jones’ squadron into Dutch waters (PCC, No. 93, I, f. 324–327). That copy is endorsed: “On the terms of this Ordinance the American Squadron has been admitted.” For an English translation of the placard, see Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 3:368–369.
6. Compare JA’s explanation for wanting an article dealing with the issue of refraction with Francis Dana’s comments in his letter of 22 Oct. 1781 (vol. 12:36–37) and those of Nicolaas & Jacob van Staphorst in their letter of 13 Aug., above. His approval of the amended article probably says more about the impossibility of reforming an entrenched practice than anything else, for the article provided no substantive relief for the issues JA raised.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0006

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Netherlands, States General of
DateRange: 1782-08-22 - 1782-08-27

John Adams' Second Reply to the Dutch Remarks on and Suggested Changes to His Draft Treat of Amity and Commerce

Mr Adams's Reply to the "Remarques en nadere Propositie."

(1) Is a just Amendment, and it is readily agreed to Substitute the Words “Der vereenigde Nederlanden” in the Place of the Words “Van de Zeven vereenigde Provincien.” and in English “of the United Netherlands” instead of “of the Seven United Provinces of the Low Countries.”
(2). The only legal Style and Title is “The United States of America,” as appears by the Declaration of Independance, the Articles of Confederation and in general by the Proceedings of Congress. The Word “North” is Superfluous, and it was by Inaccuracy only, that it was inserted in the Treaty with France. inserting the Word “North,” Seems to imply that there are United States in South America, which there are not.
(3) Under the royal Government, and, indeed under the temporary Form of Government instituted Since the Revolution, the Word “Bay” was annexed to that of “Massachusetts.” But by the new and permanent Form of Government, instituted by that People, they have dropped the Word “Bay” and preserved only that of “Massachusetts.”
(4) Under the royal Government, and, perhaps for some short time Since the Revolution, this State was called by the Name of “The Three Counties of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex, on Delaware.” But under the new and permanent Government instituted by that People they have preserved only the Name of “Delaware.”
(1) Agreed. a judicious and necessary Amendment.
(2) The Word “North” is no Part of the legal Title of the “United States of America.”
(3) A proper Correction, no doubt of the Translation into the Dutch Language.
(4) The Dutch Word “Burgeren” does not, perhaps, express precisely the Idea of the Word “Citizen” which Americans are fond of. But as the Intention is the Same, the Words “onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen” “Subjects and Inhabitants” are readily agreed to.
(5) A grammatical Correction, as it is Supposed, of the Translation.
(6) Another.
(7) Another.
(8) Agreed to add the Word “Verder” “Farther.”
(9) Agreed to the Word “Fundeeren” or “Gronden” as their High Mightinesses Shall judge most proper.
(10) A grammatical Correction.
(11) Another.
(12) Agreed. As their High Mightinesses, judge most proper.
(13) The Word “Noort,” is superfluous and improper.
(13) Dto.
(14) Agreed, as their High Mightinesses, judge most proper.
Art. 1.
(1) Agreed.
(2) Agreed.
(3) The Word “Noord” is a Redundance, and inadmissable.
(4) Agreed
(5) Agreed
(6) Agreed.
The Article proposed to be added, from the Treaty with Portugal 12. June 1641. &c cannot be admitted. All of it that is admissible, is already very clearly expressed, in the Second and third Articles of the Treaty as proposed, which are as much as is in the Treaty with France.
Art. 2. 3.
(1) Agreed
(2) aldaar. Agreed
(3) Agreed.
(4) The Same Thing.
(5) Ingezeetenen. Agreed
(6) Agreed.
(7) Agreed
(8) Aldaar. Agreed.
(9) Agreed.
(10) meest gefavoriseerde
(11.) The Necessity of this Addition is not perceived: but as it cannot do any Injury, it is agreed to, if insisted on, excepting the Word “Noord.”
Art. 4.
(1.) En Ingezeetenen. Agreed.
(2) Agreed.
(3) Agreed.
(4) Agreed.
The Clause, proposed to be added at the End of this Article is unnecessary because Such Provision is already made by Law in each of the States. But if it is never the less thought proper to insert it, another Analogous to it should be inserted, in favour of Americans in the Dominions of their High Mightinesses. In this Case however the Word “Colonies” cannot be admitted. The Word “Staaten” Should be used instead of it.
Art. 5.
(1) Agreed to all this Amendment, except the Word “Noord”
(2). Wederzydsche. Agreed.
(3) Agreed.
(4.) Agreed.
(5.) Agreed.
6. Agreed
7 Agreed
8. Agreed
9. Agreed.
Art. 6. may be omitted—the Article 5. being conceived and agreed to reciprocally.
Art. 7.
Agreed to Substitute the Article as quoted from a Treaty with Naples, in Place of Art. 6. in the Project.
Art 8.
Agreed to omit the Words underscored
Art. 9.
Agreed. 1. to the Word “publicq.”
2. Agreed to the Words “En Arresten.”
3. Agreed to the Word “Zullen.”
Art. 10.
(1.) Agreed.
The other Clause in this Article italicised, to be omitted, Seems to be of great Importance to the Americans, because that Dutch Subjects in America, will enjoy this Priviledge, probably, without the Article but American Subjects in Holland will not.
(2.) There are very forcible Objections to this addition. There is no doubt but American Vessells, their Officers and Crews, will be Subject to the Orders, for the Loading and Unloading, Storage, and Transportation of Effects and Merchandizes, from Vessells, to the Shore and from the Shore, on board Vessells, and from one Place to another, established by Law, for preventing Frauds &c: And the Government of this Country will have always the Power as well as the Right to inforce Obedience to these Laws and Orders. But it seems to be improper, that the public Faith of the Sovereign Should be pledged for the good and prudent Conduct, of its Subjects, at Such a Distance and when out of its reach, So as to subject it to the Reproach of Violation of Treaties in Consequence of Such Indiscretions, or Disobedience.
(3.) These Words of this Addition are liable to the Same Objection. to witt “But loading or Unloading at their Pleasure, they Shall be Subject to pay the Duties to which Cargoes, begun to be loaded or unloaded, are Subject.”
(4) Agreed.
(5) Agreed.
Article 11.
(1) Agreed.
(2.) Agreed.
(3) Agreed.
Art. 12
(1) Agreed.
(2) Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden. Agreed.
(3.) of aan Onderdaanen. Agreed.
(4) Agreed.
(5) Agreed.
(6) Agreed to Substitute the Art. 26 of the Treaty with France of 11 April 1713 in Place of the Paragraph italicised.
Article 13.
(1) Agreed
(2) Agreed.
(3) Agreed.
Article 14.
(1) Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden. Agreed.
(2) Noord. improper and inadmissable.
(3) Officieren. Agreed.
(4.) Agreed.
(5) Agreed. Agreed also to admit the Article projected and numbered 14 beginning with the Words “Tot meerder verklaaring” and ending with the Words “en nulliteit der voorschreeve Commissien.”
Article 15.
(1) Agreed
(2) This is a matter of great Consideration and perhaps mutual Utility, but as Mr Adams has no particular Instructions" concerning it, and as it is not usually made a Part of a Treaty of Commerce he would choose to make it the Subject of a Seperate Convention, So that Congress might be at Liberty to ratify the Treaty of Commerce alone, or that and the Convention both as it Should judge proper.
Article 16.
(1) Zee. Agreed.
(2) Agreed. excepting the Words “Zonderform van Proces.”
Article 17. No Objection or Remark.
Article 18.
(1) Agreed, to adopt the Substitute, excepting the Word “North” in the Title of the united States.
Article 19.
1. Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden. Agreed.
As to the Placaart of 3 Nov. 1756. It is, no doubt a wise Law: but it seems to be improper and dangerous, for the Sovreign, to Stipulate by Treaty that his Subjects Shall observe the Laws of another when they are in the Dominions of that other. That other has in such Case the Power to inforce his own Laws. It will be very proper however to transmit this Placaart to Con•gress, for them to publish it, for the Information and Government, of all Americans who may come here, and they must and ought to obey it at their Peril.5
2. Noord. improper and inadmissable.
3. En Ingezeetenen. Agreed.
4. Noord. improper and inadmissable.
5. Ingezeetenen. Agreed.
6. Noord. improper and inadmissable.
7. Agreed. Their High Mightinesses are Supream Judges of their own Titles So are the United States of theirs.
8. of Ingezeetenen. Agreed.
9. Staaten. Agreed
10. Zullen. Agreed.
Article 20.
(1) Agreed excepting the Words “Volgens Art. 9.”
Article 21. No Objections or Remark
Articles 22 or 23.
Agreed to the Article proposed as a Substitute for these two, but the year 1778 Should not be mentioned, because by an agreement made in 1779, two Articles of the Treaty of 1778 were annulled; the 11. and 12 Articles; and the 17 and 22 Articles referred to, are numbered, after the omission of those two Articles, and as The Treaty now Stands between the United States and the Crown of France.
Article 24. Barbary Powers
As this Article, binds their High Mightinesses to no particular Expence, and to no particular Service, it is rather a general Expression of Benevolence, like the Same Article in the Treaty with France, than any Thing more. As Mediterranean Passes, must Sometime or other be had for American Vessells, the Countenance and good Will, or in other Words the good offices of their High Mightinesses, added to those of his most Christian Majesty, might Still, facilitate the Negotiation, whenever it may be begun.
Article 25. Contrabande
(1) Agreed.
(2.) Agreed.
(3) Agreed.
(4) Agreed.
(5) Agreed.
(6) Agreed
(7) Agreed to the Substitute for that which is effaced.
(9) van en. Agreed.
(10) waar voor &c. Agreed
Article 26.
(1) Ingezeetenen. Agreed.
(2) Agreed.
3. Wesen. Agreed.
4. Agreed.
5. Bescheiden. Agreed.
6. Agreed.
7. Agreed.
Article 27. This article may be omitted.
Article 28.
1. Zeebrief en verdere Beschieden. Agreed.
Article 29.
Agreed to insert the whole of this Article 29 with the Addition proposed beginning “Net dien verstande” and ending “behandeld en gestrast.”
Article 30.
This Article as amended, is agreed.
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Reply to the Remarques en nadere Propositie.” MS, French translation of the English text with portions by JA and C. W. F. Dumas (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Replique aux Remarques en nadere Propositie.” Both filmed at [post 21 May 1782], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 357. These documents were done after 22 Aug., the day on which the Dutch formally presented the Dutch text of the draft with the “Remarques en nadere Propositie” as amended and expanded by Amsterdam’s recommendations of 9 Aug., above.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0007

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Netherlands, States General of
Date: 1782-08-22

IV. Proposed Article in Place of Articles 22 and 23

A Substitute for Articles 22 and 23.

It is agreed between the two contracting Parties that no Clause, Article, matter or Thing, herein contained Shall be taken or understood, contrary or derogatory to the Ninth, Tenth, Seventeenth and twenty Second Articles of the Treaty of Commerce between the United States and the Crown of France, or to prevent the Said United States from Admitting his Catholick Majesty the King of Spain to acceed to the said Treaty in whole or in Part and enjoy the full Benefit of the Said Ninth Tenth, seventeenth and twenty Second Articles.
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Substitute in French.” The English text in JA’s hand is preceded by a French translation by C. W. F. Dumas. Filmed at [22–29 Aug.], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 357.
1. The absence of any Dutch text accompanying this proposal suggests that JA drafted it, but there is no solid evidence of when he might have done so. One possibility is that he acted after reading Adriaan Van Zeebergh’s 25 July observations on Arts. 22 and 23 (above), but before he learned of the new article proposed by Amsterdam on 9 Aug. (No. II, at note 41, above). Since Amsterdam’s suggestion, which was included in the Dutch proposals for changes presented to JA on 22 Aug., is closer to the text of the article in the final treaty (No. VIII, below) than is JA’s “Substitute,” it would seem to follow that JA drafted it before seeing Amsterdam’s proposal.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0008

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0008-0001

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Recipient: Adams, John
DateRange: 1782-08-22 - 1782-08-29

V. Proposed Amendment to Article 24

Het 24e: Artikel zoude in deezer voege veranderd konnen worden.
By aldien de Vereenigde Staaten van America t’eeniger tyd nodig mogten vinden, om by den Koning of Keizer van Marocco of Fez, mitsgaders by de Regeeringen van Algiers,1 Tunis of Tripoli, of by eenige van dezelve, Negotiatien te entameeren tot het verkrygen van Paspoorten ter beveiliging van hunne Navigatie op de Middelandsche Zee, zoo belooven Haar Hoog Mog., op het aanzoek van Hoogstgedagte Vereenigde Staaten, die Negotiatien door middel van hunne by den voorsz Koning of Keizer en Regeeringen resideerende Consuls op de favorabelste wyse te zullen Secondeeren.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0008-0002

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Recipient: Adams, John
DateRange: 1782-08-22 - 1782-08-29

V. Proposed Amendment to Article 24: A Translation

Article 24 would be changed in the following manner.
If at any time the United States of America shall judge necessary to commence negotiations with the King or Emperor of Morocco and Fez and with the Regencies of Algiers,1 Tunis, or Tripoli or with any of them to obtain passports for the security of their navigation in the Mediterranean Sea, their High Mightinesses promise that upon the requisition which the United States of America shall make of it, they will second such negotiations in the most favorable manner, by means of their consuls residing near the said King, Emperor, and Regencies.
Consenti avec l’Addition D’Algiers.2
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Article 24. Puissances barbaresques.” The Dutch text is followed by a French translation by C. W. F. Dumas. Filmed at [22-29 Aug.], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 357.
1. This word was written in the left margin.
2. This passage, “agreed with the addition of Algiers,” is in JA’s hand. The article was included verbatim as Art. 23 in the final version of the treaty (No. VIII, below).

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0009

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0009-0001

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-08-29

VI. Amendment to Article 4

De byvoeging in het Slot van Artikel 4 zoude in diervoegen gesteld konnen worden.
En zullen de beide contracteeren de Mogenheeden iederonder hun gebied de nodige voorziening doen, ten einde de respective Onderdaanen en Ingezeetenen van behoorlyke bewysen van Sterfge• { 346 } vallen, waar by dezelve zyn geinteresseerd, voortaan zullen konnen werden gedient.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0009-0002

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-08-29

VI. Amendment to Article 4: A Translation

The addition at the end of Article 4 should be done in the following manner.
And the two contracting parties shall provide, each one in his jurisdiction, that their respective subjects and inhabitants may henceforward obtain the requisite certificates in cases of deaths in which they shall be interested.
Consenti.1
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Amendment of the 4. Article proposed to me, by the grand Pensionary Bleiswick 29. Aug. 1782 & agreed to the Same day.” Beside the Dutch text is a French translation by C. W. F. Dumas. Filmed at [22–29 Aug.], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 357.
1. This word is in JA’s hand, and the amendment was incorporated verbatim into Art. 4 of the final version of the treaty (No. VIII, below).

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0010

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0010-0001

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-08-29

VII. Proposed Amendment to Article 9

Het 9e: Artikel zoude tot wegneeming van alle difficulteiten op deeze wy se verandert konnen werden.
Voorts is overeengekomen en beslooten, dat het volkomen vry zal staan aan alle kooplieden, bevelhebbers van Scheepen en andere Onderdaanen of Ingezeetenen der beide contracteerende Mogendheeden in alle plaatsen, respectivelyk gehoorende onder het gebied en de jurisdictie der welderzyd se Mogendheeden, hunne eige zaaken zelfs te verrigten; zullende dezelve wyders omtrend het gebruik van Tolken of Makelaars, mitsgaders met opzigt tot het laden of ontladen hunner Scheepen, en al het geen daar toe betrekkelyk is, over en weeder op den voet van eyge Onderdaanen en in gelykheid met1 de meest gefavoriseerde Natie geconsidereerd en gehandelt werden.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0010-0002

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-08-29

VII. Proposed Amendment to Article 9: A Translation

Article 9, in order to remove all difficulty, should be changed in the following manner.
It is further agreed and concluded that it shall be wholly free for all merchants, commanders of ships, and other subjects and inhabitants of the contracting parties in every place, subjected to the jurisdiction of the two powers respectively, to manage themselves, their own business. And moreover, as to { 347 } | view { 348 } the use of interpreters or brokers, as also in relation to the loading or unloading of their vessels and everything which has relation thereto, they shall be, on one side and on the other, considered and treated upon the footing of natural subjects, or at least1 upon an equality with the most favored nation.
Agreed with this Amendment. to wit—insert the Words “ou au moins” in Place of the Word “et” between “Pays” and “en” in the French Translation.2
Consenti, avec cette Correction viz. inserer les Mots “Ou, au moins” a la place de “et” entre “Pays” et “en,” in la Traduction françoise.
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Amendment of the 9th Article, proposed to me by the Pensionary Bleiswick 29 Aug. 1782 & agreed to the Same day.” Beside the Dutch text is a French translation by C. W. F. Dumas. Filmed at [22–29 Aug.], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 357.
1. The preceding three words were inserted at JA’s request; see note 2.
2. This paragraph and the French translation that follows are in JA’s hand. The article, with JA’s addition, was included verbatim in Art. 9 of the final version of the treaty (No. VIII, below).

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0011

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0011-0001

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Date: 1782-09-06

VIII. Final Text of the Dutch-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce

Tractaat van Vriendschap en Commercie, tusschen haar Hoog Mogende, de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en de Vereenigde Staaten van America, te weeten New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island2 en Providence Plantations, Connecticutt, New-York, New-Jerseÿ, Pensÿlvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Noord-Carolina, Zuid-Carolina en Georgia.
Haar Hoog Mogende de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en de Vereenigde Staten van America, te weeten New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island en Provi• { 349 } dence Plantations, Connecticutt, New-York, New-Jerseÿ, Pensylvanien, Delaware, Marÿland, Virginien, Noord-Carolina, Zuid-Carolina en Georgien, geneegen zynde, op een bestendige en billÿke wyze te bepalen de regelen, die in acht genomen moeten worden, ten opzigte van de Correspondentie en Commercie welke zy verlangen vast te stellen tusschen haare respective Landen, Staaten, Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen, hebben geoordeelt, dat het gezegde einde niet beeter kan worden bereikt, dan door te stellen tot een bazis van haar Verdrag, de volmaakste egaliteit en reciprociteit, en met vermÿding van alle die lastige praeferentien, dewelke doorgaens de bronäders zÿn van twist, verwarring en misnoegen; door aan iedere Party de vryheid te laten, om wegens de Commercie en Navigatie verder zulke Reglementen te maken, als die voor zig zelven het gevoeglykst zal oordeelen; en door de voordeelen van Commercie eeniglyk te gronden op wederzÿts nut, en de juiste regels van vrye handel over en weer; reserveerende by dat alles aan iedere Parthÿ de Vrÿheid, om, na deszelfs goedvinden, andere Natien te admitteeren tot het participeeren aan dezelsde voordeelen.
{ 350 }
Op deeze grondbeginzelen, hebben voorgemelde haar hoog mogende de Staaten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, benoemd de Heeren . . .
. . .
uit het midden der Vergadering van Hun Hoog Mogende Gedeputeert.3
En de gemelde vereenigde Staaten van America, van hunne zÿde met Volmagt voorsien, den Heer John Adams, laatst Commissaris van de Vereenigde Staaten van America aan het Hof van Versailles, geweezen Atgevaardigde op het Congres weegens de Staaten van Massachusetts Baaÿ, en Opper-Regter van den gemelden Staat, dewelke zÿn overeengekomen, en geaccordeert.
Art 1.
Daar zal een vaste, onverbreekelyke, en Universeele Vreede, en opregte Vriendschap zÿn, tusschen Haar Hoog Mogende de Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en de Vereenigde Staten van America, en de Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen van de voornoemde Parthÿen, en tusschen de Landen, Eilanden, Steeden en Plaatzen, geleegen onder de Jurisdictie van de gemelde Vereenigde Nederlanden, en de gemelde Vereenigde Staaten van America, en derselver Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen, van al• { 351 } lerleÿ Staat, zonder onderscheid van Persoonen en plaatzen.
2.
De Onderdanen van de gemelde Staaten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, zullen in de Havens, Rheeden, Landen, Eilanden, Steeden of plaatzen van de Vereenigde Staaten van America, of eenige van dezelve, geen andere of grootere Regten of Impositien, van wat natuur die ook mogen zÿn, of hoedanig dezelve ook genoemt mogen werden, betaalen, dan die welke de meest gefavoriseerde Natien zÿn, of zullen worden verpligt aldaar te betaalen. En zÿ zullen genieten alle de Regten, Vryheeden, Privilegien, Immuniteiten en Exemptien in Handel, Navigatie, en Commercie, het zÿ in het gaan van eene Haven in de gemelde Staaten na eene andere, of gaande na en van dezelve, van en na eenige vreemde Haven van de Weereld,4 welke de gemelde Natien reeds genieten of zullen genieten.
3.
Insgelyks zullen de Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen van de gemelde Vereenigde Staaten van America, in de Havens, Rheeden, Landen, Eilanden, Steeden of plaatsen van de gemelde Vereenigde Nederlanden, of eenige van dezelve, geen andere, of { 352 } grootere Regten of Impositien, van wat natuur die ook mogen zÿn, of hoedanig deselve ook genvemt mogen worden, betaalen, dan die, welke de meest gefavoriseerde Natien, zÿn, of zullen worden verpligt aldaar te betalen. En zÿ zullen genieten alle de Regten, Vryheeden, Privilegien, Immuniteiten en Exemptien in Handel, Navigatie en Commercie, het zÿ in het gaan van eene haven in de gemelde Staaten na een andere, of gaende na en van dezelve, van en na eenige vreemde Haven van de Weereld, welke de meest gefavoriseerde Natien reeds genieten of zullen genieten. En zullen de Vereenigde Staten van America, benevens haare Onderdanen, en Ingezeetenen aan die van Haar Hoog Mogende laten het gerust genot van haare regten, omtrent de Landen, Eilanden en Zeeën in Oost, en West Indien, sonder haar daar in eenig belet, of hindernis te doen.
4.
En zal eene volle, volkomene en geheele vrÿheid van Conscientie worden toegestaen aan de Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen van iedere Parthÿ, en aan der zelver Familien, en zal niemand ter zake van den Godtsdienst, worden gemolesteert, mits hem omtrent publique demonstratie onderwerpende aan de Wetten { 353 } van het Land. Daar en boven zal vryheid worden gegeeven aan de Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen van iedere Parthÿe, die in des anderen’s Territoir overlyden, om begraven te worden in de gewoone begraasplaetzen, of gevoeglyke en decente plaatsen, daar toe te bepaalen, zoo als de geleegendheid zal vereisschen; nogte zullen de doode Lighaamen van die geene die begraven zÿn, eenigzints werden gemolesteert. En zullen de beide Contracteerende Mogendheeden, ieder onder hun gebied, de nodige voorsieninge doen, ten einde de respective Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen van behoorlyke bewÿzen van Stersgevallen, waar bÿ dezelve zÿn geinteresseert, voortaan zullen kunnen worden gedient.
5
Haar Hoog Mogende de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en de Vereenigde Staaten van America, zullen tragten, zoo veel eenigzints in haar vermogen is, te beschermen en defendeeren alle Scheepen en andere Effecten, toebehorende aan wederzÿdsche Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen, of eenige van dezelve, zÿnde in haare Havens of Rheën, binnenlandsche Zeeën, Stroomen, Rivieren, en zoo verre haare Jurisdictie Zeewaards strekt, en wederom te bekomen en te { 354 } doen restitueeren aan de regte Eigenaars, hunne Agenten of Gevolmagtigden, alle zodanige Scheepen en Effecten, die onder haare Jurisdictie zullen genomen worden: en haare convoÿeerende Oorlog Scheepen zullen, voor zoo verre zÿ eenen gemeenen Vÿand mogen hebben, onder haare protectie neemen alle Scheepen, toebehoorende aan elkanders Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen, dewelke geene Contrabande goederen, volgens de beschrÿving hier na daar van te doen, zullen hebben ingeladen naar plaetsen, waar meede de eene partÿ in Vreede, en de andere in Oorlog is, en na geen geblocqueerde plaats gedestineert zÿn, en zullen houden dezelve Cours, of gaan dezelve weg, en zullen zodanige Scheepen defendeeren, zoo lang als zÿ dezelve Cours houden, of dezelve weg gaan, teegens alle aanvallen, magt en geweld van den gemeene Vÿand, op dezelve wÿs als zÿ zouden moeten beschermen en defendeeren de Scheepen toebehoorende aan weedersÿds eigen Onderdanen.
6.
De Onderdanen der Contracteerende Parthÿen zullen over en weeder, in weedersÿdsche landen en Staten, van hunne goederen by Testamenten, Do• { 355 } natien, of andersints, mogen disponeeren; en hunne Ersgenamen, zÿnde Onderdanen van een der Parthÿen, in de Landen van de andere, of wel elders woonagtig, zullen dezelve Nalatenschappen ontfangen, selfs ab intestato, het zÿ in persoon, het zÿ by hun Procureur, of gemagtigde, schoon zÿ geen brieven van Naturalisatie zouden mogen hebben geobtineert, sonder dat het effect van die Commissie hun zal kunnen worden betwist, onder praetext van eenige regten, of voorregten van Provincien, Steeden, of particulieren Persoon: en soo de Ersgenamen, aan welke de Erstenissen mogten vervallen zÿn, minderjarig waren, zullen de Voogden of Curateurs by den Domiciliairen Regter der genoemde Minderjarigen aangestelt, kunnen regeeren, bestieren, administreeren, verkoopen en veralieneeren de goederen, welke de gemelde Minderjarigen bÿ ersenissen zullen zÿn te beurt gevallen; en generalyk met opsigt tot de voorsez: successien en goederen waarneemen alle regten, en functien, die aan Voogden en Curateurs, na dispositie der Wetten competeeren, behoudens nogtans, dat deeze dispositie geen plaats zal kunnen hebben, dan in gevalle, als wanneer de Testateur by Testament, Codicille, of ander wettig Instrument, geen { 356 } Voogden, of Curateurs zal hebben genomineert.
7.
Het zal wettig en vrÿ zÿn aan de Onderdanen van iedere Parthÿe, zodanige, Advocaten, Procureurs, Notarissen, Solliciteurs of Factoors te emploÿeeren, als zÿ zullen goedvinden.
8.
Kooplieden, Schippers, Eigenaars, Bootsgezellen, Lieden van alderhande Soort, Scheepen en Vaartuigen, en alle Koopmanschappen en Goederen in t’Generaal, en Effecten van ieder der Bondgenooten, of van derselver Onderdanen, zullen niet mogen worden in beslag genoomen of aangehouden in eenige der Landen, Gronden, Eilanden, Steeden, Plaatsen, havens, Stranden of Dominien, hoe genaamt, van den anderen Bondgenoot, tot publicq gebruik, Oorlogs Expeditien, of bÿsonder7 gebruik van iemand, door arrest, geweld, of eenigsints daar na gelÿkende.
Noch te meer zal het onwettig zÿn voor8 de Onderdanen van iedere Parthÿ iets te neemen, of door geweld te ontvreemden, van de Onderdanen van de andere Parthy, zonder bewilliging van den Persoon die het toebehoord: het geen egter niet te verstaen is van die aanhalingen detentien en arresten, { 357 } welke zullen worden gedaen op bevel en authoriteit van de Justitie, en volgens de ordinaire weegen, ten opzigte van schulden of misdaden, waar omtrent de Procedures moeten geschieden by wege van Regten, ingevolge de form van Justitie.
9
Verders is overeengekomen en beslooten, dat het volkomen vrÿ zal staan aan alle Kooplieden, Bevelhebbers van Scheepen, en andere Onderdanen of Ingezeetenen der beide Contracteerende Mogendheeden in alle plaatsen, respectivelyk gehoorende onder het gebied en de Jurisdictie der Wederzydsche mogend heeden hunne eige Saaken, zelfs te verrigten; zullende dezelve wÿders omtrent het gebruik van Tolken, of Makelaars, mitsgaders met opsigt tot het laaden, of ontladen hunner Scheepen, en al het geen daar toe betrekkelÿk is, over en weeder, op den voet van eige Onderdanen, en ten minsten, in gelykheid met de meest gefavoriseerde Natie geconsidereert, en gehandelt te worden.
10.
De Koopvaardÿschepeen van een ieder der Parthÿen, komende, soo wel van een Vyandelyke, als eige of neutrale haven, zullen vrÿ mogen vaaren { 358 } naar een Haven van een der Vyanden van den anderen Bondgenoot, dog verpligt zÿn, soo dikwils het gevordert word, haare Zeebrieven, en verdere Bescheiden, in het 24ste.10 Artic: beschreeven, zoo wel op de open Zee, als in de Havens te exhibeeren, expresselyk aantonende, dat haare goederen niet zÿn van het getal dier geene, dewelke als Contrabande verbooden zÿn, en geene Contrabande geladen hebbende na een vÿandelÿke Haven,11 haare reize vryelyk, en onverhindert mogen vervolgen; dog zal geen visitatie van Papieren gevergt worden van Scheepen onder Convoÿ der Oorlogscheepen, maar geloof worden gegeeven aan het woord van den Officier, het Convoy leidende.
11.
Indien by het vertoonen der Zeebrieven, en andere bescheiden, by het 24e. Art: van dit Tractaat nader beschreeven, de andere Parthÿ ontdekt, dat er eenige van die soort van goederen zÿn, dewelke verbooden en Contrabande gedeclareert zÿn, en geconsigneert naar een Haven, onder de gehoorsaemheid van den Vÿand, zal het niet geoorloft zÿn de Luÿken van zodanig Schip op te breeken, of eenige Kist, Koffers, Pakken, Kassen of ander vaatwerk, daar in gevonden wordende, te ope• { 359 } nen, of het geringste gedeelte van haare goederen te verplaatsen, het zÿ sodanige Scheepen toebehooren aan de Onderdanen van haar Hoog Mogende de Staaten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, of aan Onderdanen, en Ingezeetenen van de gemelde Vereenigde Staaten van America, ten zÿ de Lading aan Land gebragt worde in presentie van de Officieren van het Admiraliteits hotf, en een Inventaris van deselve gemaekt, dog zal niet worden toegelaten om dezelve op eenigerhande wÿze te verkoopen, verruilen of veralieneeren, dan, na dat behoorlyke en wettige Procedures tegens zodanige Verbodene Contrabande Goederen zullen zÿn gehouden, en het Admiraliteits hof bÿ een gepronuntieerde Sententie dezelve zal hebben geconfisqueert, daar van altoos vry latende, zoo wel het Schip zelve, als eenige andere goederen daar in gevonden wordende, welke voor vry werden gehouden, nochte mogen dezelve worden opgehouden, onder voorgeeven dat die, als t’ ware, door de geprohibeerde Goederen zouden zÿn geinfecteert, veel min zullen dezelve als wettige Prÿs worden geconfisqueert: Maar in teegendeel, wanneer by de visitatie aan land word bevonden, dat er geen Contrabande Waaren in de Scheepen zÿn, en uit de pa• { 360 } pieren niet bleek, dat de neemer en opbrenger het daar uit niet had konnen ontdekken, zal deselve moeten worden gecondemneert, in alle de kosten en Schaden, die hÿ zoo aan de Eigenaren der Scheepen, als aan de Eigenaars, en Inlaaders der goederen, waar meede de Scheepen beladen sullen zÿn, door zÿne rukelvoze aanhouding, en opbrenging der Scheepen zal hebben veroorzaekt, met de interessen van dien; wordende wel expresselyk verklaert, dat een vrÿ Schip zal vrÿ maken de Waaren daar in gelaaden, en dat die Vryheid zig ook zal uÿtstrekken over de personen, die haar zullen bevinden in een vrÿ Schip, dewelke daar uit niet geligt zullen mogen worden, ten zÿ het waaren oorlogsluiden, in effectiven dienst van den Vÿand.
12.
In tegendeel is over eengekomen, dat al het geen bevonden zal worden geladen te zÿn door de Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen van een der beide Parthÿen, in eenig Schip de vyanden van den anderen, of aan deszelfs Onderdanen toebetworende, geheel, of schoon niet zÿnde van de soort van verbodene goederen, mag worden geconfisqueert, op dezelve wÿs als of het den Vÿand toequam, uitgezondert zodanige goederen en { 361 } Koopmanschappen, als aan Boord van zodanig Schip gedaen waren voor de Oorlogs-Declaratie, of binnen Ses maanden na dezelve, welke goederen in geenen deele confiscatie zullen onderheevig zÿn, maar wel en getrouwelÿk, zonder uitstel, aan de Eigenaers, die dezelve voor de confiscatie, en verkoop zullen te rug vragen of doen vragen, in natura zullen worden gerestitueert, gelÿk meede het provenu daar van, indien de reclame binnen agt Maenden12 na de Verkoping, dewelke publicq zal moeten worden gedaan, eerst konde geschieden, dog zoo, dat, indien de gemelde Koopmanschappen Contrabande zÿn, het geenzints geoorlost zal zÿn dezelve naderhand te vervoeren na eenige Havens, de vÿanden toe behoorende.
13.
En ten einde de best mogelÿke zorg mag worden gedragen voor de Securiteit van de Onderdanen, en het volk van een der beide Parthÿen, dat deselve geen overlast komen te lyden van wegens de Oorlog Scheepen of Kapers van de andere Parthÿ, zullen alle de Bevelhebbers van Oorlog Scheepen en gewapende Vaartuigen van de voorsiz: Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en van de gemelde Vereenigde { 362 } Staten van America, mitsgaders alle derselver Officieren, Onderdanen en Volk, verbooden worden eenige beleediging of Schade, aan die van de andere zÿde, toe te brengen, en zoo zÿ dien contrarie handelen, zullen zÿ op de eerste klagten, daar over te doen, na behoorlyk ondersoek schuldig bevonden wordende, door haar eige Regters gestrast worden, en daar enboven verpligt worden satisfactie te geeven voor alle Schade, en den Interest daar van, door vergoeding, onder pœne en verbintenis van húnne personen en goederen.
14.
Tot meerder verklaring van het geen voorscz: is, zullen alle Kaper-Capiteinen, of Rheeders van Scheepen op particuliere bestelling en Commissie ten Oorlog uitgerust, voor dezelve gehouden zÿn, voor derselver vertrek, goede en suffiçante Cautie te stellen voor de Competente Regters, of in het geheel te verantwoorden de malversatien, die ze in haare Courssen, of op haare reisen zouden mogen begaan, en voor de Contraventien van haare Capiteinen en Officieren, teegen het teegenwoordig Tractaat en de Ordonnantien, en Edicten, die gepubliceert zullen worden, in kragte, en conform de dispositie van dien, op poene van verval, { 363 } en nulliteit der voorscz: Commissien.
15.
Alle Scheepen en Koopmanschappen, van wat natuur dezelve ook zÿn, die hernomen zullen worden uit handen van Piratten en Zeerovers, sonder behoorlyke Commissie op de open Zee varende, zullen gebragt worden in eenige Haven van eene der beide Staten, en zullen aan de bewaring der Officieren van die Haven worden overgeleevert, ten einde geheel gerestitueert te worden aan den regten Eigenaar, zoo dra als behoorlyk en genoegsaam bewÿs, wegens den eigendom der zelve, zal gedaan zÿn.
16.
Indien eenige Scheepen of Vaartuigen, toebehoorende aan een van beide de Parthÿen, hunne Onderdanen of Ingezeetenen, op de Kusten of Dominien van den anderen zullen komen te stranden, vergaan, of eenige andere Zee Schade te lÿden, zal alle vriendelyke assistentie en hulp worden gegeeven aan de persoonen Schipbreuk geleeden hebbende, of die zig in gevaar daar van zullen bevinden, En de Scheepen; Goederen en Koopmanschappen, en het geen daar van geborgen zal zÿn, of het provenu van dien, by { 364 } aldien die goederen verdersselyk zynde, zullen weezen verkogt, alle door de Schippers, of door de Eigenaers, of van haare gelaste, of Volmagt hebbende, binnen Jaar en dag gereclameert wordende, worden gerestitueert; mits betalende alleen de redelyke onkosten, en het geen voor bergloon door de eige Onderdanen, in het selve geval, betaalt moet worden; zullende insgelyks Brieven van Vrygeleÿ aan hun worden gegeeven, voor húnne vrÿe en geruste passage van daar, en retour van een ieder na zÿn eigen Land.
17.
Ingevalle de Onderdanen of Ingezeetenen van een der beide Parthÿen, met hunne Scheepen, het zÿ publique en ten Oorlog varende, of byzondere en ter Koopvaardy uitgerust, door onstuimig Weêr, najaaging van Zee rovers of Vyanden, of eenige andere dringende nood, gedwongen zullen worden, ter bekoming van een Schuilplaats en Haaven, zig te retireeren en binnen te loopen in eenige der Rivieren, Creeken, Baaÿen, Havens, Rheeden of Stranden, toebehoorende aan de andere Parthye, zullen dezelve met alle menschlievendheid en goetwilligheid werden ontfangen, en alle vriendelÿke protectie en hulp genieten, en zal hun worden toegestaen zig te verver• { 365 } schen en proviandeeren teegens reedelyke prÿzen, met Victuaille, en alle dingen benodigt tot onderhoud van haare persoonen, of reparatie van hunne Scheepen, en zÿ zullen op geenerley wÿs worden opgehouden, of verhindert, uit de gemelde Havens of Rheeden te vertrekken, maar mogen verzÿlen en gaan, wanneer en waar het hun behaagt, zonder eenig belet of verhindering.
18.
Tot des te beeter voortzetting der wederzÿdsche Commercie, is overeengekomen, dat indien een Oorlog mogt komen te ontstaan tusschen Haar Hoog Mogende de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en de Vereenigde Staaten van America, altÿd aan de Onderdanen van de een of andere zÿde sal worden gegeven den tÿd van neegen maanden, na dato van de rupture, of proclamatie van Oorlog, om haar te mogen retireeren met haare effecten, en deselve te vervoeren, waar het haar believen zal, het welk haar geoorloft zal zÿn te mogen doen; als meede te mogen verkoopen of transporteeren haare goederen en meubilen in alle vrÿheid; sonder dat men haar daar in eenig belet zal doen; ook, sonder geduurende den tÿd van de voorcz: neegen maenden te mogen procedeeren tot eenig { 366 } arrest van haare effecten, veel min van haare personen, maar zullen in teegendeel voor haare Scheepen, en effecten, die zÿ zullen willen meede voeren, worden gegeeven Pasporten van Vrÿgeleide, tot de naaste Havenen, in elkanders Landen voor den tÿd, tot de reisen nodig. Ook zullen geen Prÿzen op zee genomen voor wettig genomen gehouden mogen worden, ten waare de Oorlogs-declaratie bekend was geweest,14 of had kunnen zÿn, in de Haven, die het genoome Schip het laast heest verlaten; maar zal voor al, het geen aan de Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen van weederzÿde binnen de voorscz: termÿnen ontnomen mogt zÿn, en de beleedigingen, die hun aangedaen zouden mogen zÿn, volkomen Satisfactie gegeeven worden.
19.
Geen Onderdaan van haar Hoog Mogende de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, zullen mogen versoeken of aanneemen eenige Commissien, of Lettres de Marque, tot het wapenen van eenig Schip of Scheepen, ten einde als Kapers te ageeren teegens de gemelde Vereenigde Staten van America, of eenige der zelve, of tegens de Onderdanen en15 Ingezeetenen der gemelde Vereenigde Staaten, of eenige der zelve, of tee• { 367 } gens den Eigendom der Ingezeetenen van eenige der zelve, van eenige Prins of Staat, met wien de voorscz: Vereenigde Staaten van America in Oorlog mogten zÿn; nochte zal eenige Onderdaan of Ingezeeten van de gemelde Vereenigde Staaten van America, of eenige derzelve eenige Commissie of Lettres de Marque versoeken of aanneemen, tot het Wapenen van eenig Schip of Scheepen, om ter Kaap te vaaren tegens de Hoog Mogende Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, of teegens de Onderdanen of Ingezeetenen van gem[elde]: Haar Hoog Mogende, of eenige van dezelve, of den eigendom van eenige der zelve, van eenige Prins of Staat, met wien de voorscz: Staaten16 in Oorlog zullen zÿn, en indien eenig Persoon van een van beide zodanige Commissie of Lettres de Marque zal aanneemen, zal dezelve als een Zeerover worden gestrast.
20.
De Scheepen der Onderdanen of Ingezeetenen van een van beide de Partÿen, komende aan eenige Kust, toebehoorende aan de een of andere der gemelde Bondgenooten, doch niet voorneemens zÿnde in een Haven binnen te loopen, of binnen geloopen zÿnde, en niet begeerende hunne Ladingen te los• { 368 } sen, of Last te breeken, of bÿ te laden, zullen niet gehouden zÿn voor haare Scheepen of Ladingen eenige inkomende, of uitgaende regten te betalen, nog eenige reekenschap van haare Ladingen te geeven, ten ware, dat er wettig vermoeden was, dat zÿ aan elkanders Vÿanden18 toevoerden Koopmanschappen van Contrabande.
21.
De twee contracteerende Partÿen vergunnen over en weeder aan elkanderen de vrÿheid, om ieder in de Havens van den anderen, Consuls, Vice Consuls, Agenten en Commissarissen van húnne eigen aanstelling te hebben, welkers functien gereguleert zullen worden bÿ particuliere overeenkomst, wanneer ooit eene der beide Partÿen goedvind zodanige aanstelling te doen.
22.
Dit Tractaat zal in geenerhande opsigten verstaan worden te derogeeren aan de 9e. 10e. 14e.19 en 24ste. Articulen van het Tractaat met Vrankrÿk, soo als die genummert zÿn geweest in het zelve Tractaat den 6 Februarÿ 1778 geslooten, zÿnde de 9e. 10e. 17e. en 22ste. Articulen, van het Tractaat van Commercie, soo als het nu in kragt is tusschen de Vereenigde Staten van America, en de Kroon van { 369 } Vrankrÿk: en zal meede niet beletten, dat Sÿne Catholicque Majesteit aan t’selve zoude accedeeren, en van het beneficie der gemelde Vier Articulen Jouïsseeren.
23.
By aldien de Vereenigde Staaten van America, t’eeniger tyd, nodig mogten vinden, om by den Koning of Keizer van Marocco of Fez, mitsgaders by de Regeeringen van Algiers, Tunis, of Tripoli, of by eenige van dezelve, Negotiatien te entameeren tot het verkrygen van Pasporten ter beveiliging van hunne Navigatie op de Middelandsche Zee, zoo beloven Haar Hoog Mogende, op het aanzoek van Hoogstgedagte Vereenigde Staaten, die Negotiatien, door middel van hunne by den voorscz: Koning of Keizer en Regeeringen resideerende Consuls op de favorabelste wyze te zullen Secondeeren.
Contrabande.
24.
De vrÿheid van Navigatie en Commercie zal zig uitstrekken tot alle zoorten van Koopmanschappen, uitgezondert alleen deeze, welke onderscheiden zÿn onder den Naam van Contrabande of Verbodene goederen: en onder deeze benoeming van Contrabande of verbodene goederen zullen alleen begreepen { 370 } zÿn de Oorlogs Ammunitien, of Wapenen, als Mortieren, geschut, met zÿne Vuurwerken, en het geen daar toe behoort; geweeren, Pistoolen, Bomben, Granaden, Buspulver, Salpeeter, Swavel, Lonten, Kogels, Pieken, zwaarden, Lancien, Helbaarden, Casquetten, Cuirassen, en diergelÿke soort van Wapentuig, ook Soldaten, Paarden, Zadels, en toerusting van paarden.
Alle andere goederen, en Koopmanschappen, hier boven niet uitdrukkelyk gespecisiceert, jaa selfs alle Soorten van Scheeps Materialen, hoe zeer dezelve ook zouden mogen zÿn geschikt, tot het bouwen of equipeeren van Oorlog Scheepen, of tot het maken van het een of ander Oorlogstuig, te water of te Lande, zullen mitsdien, nog volgens den Letter, nog volgens eenige voor te wende interpretatie van dezelve, hoe ook genaemt, onder verboodene, of Contrabande goederen begreepen kunnen of mogen worden: zoo dat alle dezelve goederen, waaren, en Koopmanschappen, hier boven niet uitdrukkelyk genoemt, sonder eenig onderscheid, zullen mogen worden getransporteert, en vervoert in alle vrÿheid door de Onderdanen en Ingezeetenen van beide Bondgenooten, van en na Plaatsen aan den Vÿand toebehoorende, zodanige Steeden of plaatsen alleen uitgezondert, { 371 } welke op die tyt beleegert, geblocqueert of geinvesteert zÿn, waar voor alleenlyk worden gehouden de zulke, die door een der Oorlog voerende Mogend heeden van nabÿ ingeslooten worden gehouden.
25.
Ten einde alle dissentie en twist ann beide zÿden22 mag werden vermÿd en voorgekomen, is overeengekomen, dat in geval een van beide de Parthÿen in Oorlog mogt komen te geraken, de Scheepen en Vaartuigen, toebehoorende aan de Onderdanen of Ingezeetenen van de andere Geallieerde, met Zeebrieven of Pasporten moeten werden voorsien, expresseerende den naam, eigendom en de groote van het Schip of Vaartuig, als meede den Naam, plaats of Wooninge van den Schipper of Bevelhebber van het gemelde Schip of Vaartuig, ten einde daar bÿ mag blyken, dat het Schip reëel en in waarheid aan de Onderdanen of Ingezeetenen van eene der Parthÿen toebehoord, welk Pasport zal worden opgemaekt en uitgegeeven volgens het Formulier agter dit Tractaat gevoegt. Dezelve zullen ieder reise, dat het Schip thuÿs is geweest, op nieuw verleent moeten zÿn, of ten minsten niet ouder mogen zÿn, als twee Jaar, voor de tÿd, dat het Schip laast is thuÿs ge• { 372 } weest. Het is insgelyks vastgestelt, dat zodanige Scheepen of Vaartuigen gelaaden zÿnde, moeten weezen voorsien niet alleen met Pasporten of Zeebrieven bovengemeld; maar ook met een generaal pasport, of particuliere Pasporten, of Manifesten, of andere publicque Documenten, die in de Havenen, van waar de Scheepen laast gekomen zÿn, gewoonlyk gegeeven worden aan de uitgaende Scheepen, inhoudende een Specificatie van de Lading, de plaets van waar het Schip gezeilt is, en waar heenen het gedestineert is, of bÿ gebreeke van alle deselve, met Certificaten van de Magistraten, of Gouverneurs der Steeden, plaatsen, en Colonien, van waar het Schip vertrokken is, in de gewoone form gegeeven, op dat geweeten kan worden, of eenige verboode, of Contrabande goederen aan boord van de Scheepen zÿn, en of zÿ daar meede na’s Vÿands Landen gedestineert zÿn, of niet. En by aldien iemand goeddunkt, of raadsaem vind, om in de gemelde bescheiden uit te drukken de persoonen, aan wien de aan boord zÿnde goederen toekomen, vermag hy sulks vrÿelyk te doen; sonder egter daar toe gehouden te zÿn, of dat gebrek van die uitdrukking geleegenheid tot confiscatie kan of mag geeven.
{ 373 }
26.
Indien de Scheepen of Vaartuigen van de gemelde Onderdanen of Ingezeetenen van een van beide de Parthÿen, zeilende langs de Kusten of in de open Zee, ontmoet zullen worden door eenig Schip van Oorlog, Kaper of Gewapend Vaartuig van de andere Parthy, zullen de gemelde Oorlog Scheepen, Kapers, of gewapende Vaartuigen, tot vermÿding van alle disordre, buiten bereik van het Geschut blyven, dog hunne Booten mogen zenden aan boord van het Koopvaardÿ Schip, welke zÿ op die wÿs zullen ontmoeten, en op het zelve mogen overgaan ten getalle alleen van twee a drie Man, aan wien de Schipper of Bevelhebber van zodanig Schip of Vaartuig zÿn Pasport zal vertoonen, inhoudende den eigendom van het Schip of Vaartuig, ingevolge het formulier agter dit Tractaat gevoegt; en zal het Schip of Vaartuig, na de vertooning van dusdanig Pasport, Zeebrief en verdere bescheiden, vrÿ en liber zÿn om deszelfs reis te verrolgen, zoo dat niet geoorloft zal zÿn het selve op eenigerhande wÿze te molesteeren of doorsoeken, nog jagt op haar te maken, of het zelve te forceeren haare voorgenomen Cours te verlaaten.
{ 374 }
27.
Het zal geoorloft zÿn aan Kooplieden, Capiteins en Bevelhebbers van Scheepen, het zÿ publicque en ten Oorlog, of particuliere en ter Koopvaardy vaarende, toebehoorende aen de gemelde Vereenigde Staaten van America, of eenige van dezelve, of aan de Onderdanen, en Ingezeetenen van eenige derzelve, vryelyk in hunne dienst aan te neemen, en aan Boord van haare gemelde Scheepen te ontfangen, in iedere der Havens of Plaatsen onder de Jurisdictie van voornoemde haar Hoog Mogende, eenige Bootsgezellen of anderen, zÿnde Inboorlingen of Ingezeetenen van eenige der gemelde Staaten, op zulke voorwaarden als zal worden overeengekomen, zonder daer voor aen eenige boete, pœne, Strasse, Proces of berisping hoe genaemt, onderheevig te zÿn.
En zullen reciproquelÿk alle Kooplieden, Capiteinen en Bevelhebbers van Scheepen, behoorende tot de voorscz: Vereenigde Neederlanden, in alle de Havens en plaatsen, onder het gebied van de gemelde Vereenigde Staaten van America, het zelve voorregt genieten tot aenneeming en ontfangen van Bootsgezellen of anderen, zÿnde inboorlingen of Ingezeetenen van eenige der Domeinen van de gemelde Staten Generaal, { 375 } met dien verstande, dat men nog aen de eene, nog aan de andere zÿde zig sal mogen bedienen van sodanige zÿner landsgenooten, die zig reeds in dienst van de andere Contracteerende parthÿe, het zÿ ten Oorlog, het zÿ op Koopvaardÿ Scheepen heest geëngageert, het zÿ men dezelve aan de vaste Wal, dan wel in Zee zoude mogen ontmoeten, ten zÿ de Capitein of Schipper,24 onder wiens bevel zodanige Persoonen zig mogten bevinden, deselve25 vrÿwillig uit hunnen dienst wilde ontslaen, op pœne, dat deselve andersints op den Voet van Weglopers zullen worden behandelt, en gestrast.
28.
De toeleg voor refractie, sal in alle reedelykheid en billykheid worden gereguleert, bÿ de Magistraten der respective Steeden, alwaar men oordeelt, dat eenige bezwaaren desweegens plaats hebben.
29.
Het tegenwoordig Tractaat zal worden geratificeert en geapprobeert by hoogstgem: Staaten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en hoog gem. Vereenigde Staaten van America, en zullen de Acten van Ratificatien van de eene ende de andere zÿde, in goede ende behoorlyke forme, werden overge• { 376 } leevert binnen den tÿt van zes maenden, of te eerder, zoo het zelve kan geschieden, te reekenen van den Dag van de Onderteekeninge.
Ten oirkonde deezes hebben wy Gedeputeerden en Plenipotentiarissen van de Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en Minister Plenipotentiaris der Vereenigde Staten van America, uit kragt van Onze respective Authorisatie, en Pleinpouvoir, deeze Onderteekent, en met Onze gewoone Cachellen bekragtigt.
Gedaan in’s Hage den26
Formulier van het Pasport dat gegeeven zal worden aan de Scheepen of Vaartuigen, ingevolge het 25e.—Articul van dit Tractaat.
Aan alle de geene die deeze tegenwoordige zullen zien, Salut: doen te weeten, dat by deezen vrÿheid en permissie gegeven word aan [] Schipper en Bevelhebber van het Schip (of Vaartuig) genaamt [] van de [] van [] groot [] Tonnen of daar omtrent, leggende tegenswoordig in de Haven van [] gedestineert naar [] en beladen met [] , om te vertrekken en met zÿn Schip of Vaartuig deszelfs gemelde reize voort te zetten, zodanig Schip of { 377 } Vaartuig gevisiteert zÿnde, en de voornoemde Schipper of Bevelhebber, onder Eede, voor den daar toe gestelden Officier, verklaart hebbende, dat het gemelde Schip of Vaartuig, aan een of meer der Onderdanen, Volk of Ingezeetenen van [] toebehoord, en aan hem (of hun) alleen; In getuigenis waer van, wÿ deeze tegenswoordige met Onze Naamen hebben Onderteekent, en het Zeegel van Ons Waapen daar aan gehegt, en het zelve doen contrasigneeren door [] Tot [] deezen [] dag van het Jaar onses Heeren Christi
Formulier van het Certificaat, het welk aan de Scheepen of Vaartuigen zal worden gegeeven, ingevolge het 25e.—Articul van dit Tractaat.
Wy [] de Magistraat (of Officieren der Convoÿen) van de Stad of Haven van [] Certificeeren en Attesteeren, dat op den [] dag van [] in het Jaar onzes Heeren [] C.D. van [] in Persoon voor ons is gecompareert, en onder solemneelen Eede heest verklaart, dat het Schip of Vaartuig genaamt [] van [] Tonnen, of daar omtrent, waar van [] van [] tegenswoordig Schipper of Bevelhebber is, geregtelÿk en behoorlÿk aan hem (of hun) alleen is toebehoorende. Dat het zelve thans { 378 } gedestineert is van de Stad of Haven van [] na de Haven van [] gelaaden met goederen en Koopmanschappen hier onder particulier gespecisiceert en opgenoemt, als volgt.
In getuigenis waar van wÿ dit Certificaat hebben onderteekent en met het Zeegel van Ons Officie bekragtigt, deezen [] dag van [] in het Jaar Onzes Heeren Christi:
Formulier van Zee-brief.
Alder-Doorluchtichste, Doorluchtigste, Doorluchtige, Grootmachtighste, Grootmachtige hoogh ende Welgeboorne, Wel-Edele, Erentseste, Achthbare, Wÿse, Voorsienige Heeren Keizeren, Koningen, Republicquen, Princen, Fursten, Hertogen, Graven, Baronnen, Heeren, Burgermeesteren, Scheepenen, Raden, mitsgaders Rechteren, Officieren, Justicieren, ende Regenten aller goede Steeden ende Plaatzen, het zÿ Geestelÿcke of Wereldtlÿcke, die deeze opene Letteren zullen zien oste hooren leezen: Doen Wÿ Burgermeesteren ende Regeerders der Stadt [] te weeten, dat Schipper [] van [] (voor Ons compareerende) bÿ solemneelen eede verklaart heest, dat het Schip, genaamt [] groot omtrent [] Lasten, ’t welk hy althans voert, in de Geunieerde Provincien t’huys be• { 379 } hoort, en dat geen Onderdanen van den Vÿandt daar in, direct of indirect, eenige portie of deel hebben, Soo waarlyk moest hem Godt Almachtig helpen. Ende want Wÿ den voorschreiven Schipper gaerne gevordert zagen in Syne rechtvaerdige Saken; Soo is Ons versoek allen voornoemt, ende yeder in het bÿsonder, daar den voornoemden Schipper met zÿn Schip ende ingeladen goederen komen zal, dat dezelve gelieven den voornoemden Schipper goedelÿcken te ontfangen en gehoorlyck te tracteeren, gedogende hem op syne gewoonlÿcke Tollen ende Ongelden, in het door-ende voorby-varen, Havenen, Stroomen en Gebiedt te passeeren, varen en frequenteeren omme syne Negotie te doen, daar en soo hÿ te rade vinden sal, het welk Wÿ gaarne willen verschuldigen. Des t’ Oirconde dezer Stede Zegel ter oorsake hier aan hangende den.
(In margine stond)
Ter Ordonnantie van de Hooge ende Mogende Heeren Staten Generael der Vereenighde Nederlanden.
MS in a clerk’s hand (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Last Project. agreed to. Signed 8th. Octr. 1782.” Filmed at ([8 Oct. 1782], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 358).

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0011-0002

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Author: Adams, John
Date: 1782-09-06

VIII. Final Text of the Dutch-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce: A Translation

Treaty of Amity and Commerce, between their High Mightinesses, the States General of the united Netherlands, and the United States of America, to wit New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island,2 and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York New Jersey, Pensilvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Their High Mightinesses, the States General of the United Netherlands, and the united States of America, to wit New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey Pensilvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, desiring to ascertain, in a permanent and equitable manner, the Rules to be observed, relative to the Commerce, and Correspondence which they intend to establish, between their respective States Countries and Inhabitants, have judged, that the said End cannot be better obtained than by establishing the most perfect Equality and Reciprocity, for the Basis of their Agreement, and by avoiding all those burthensome Preferences, which are usually, the Sources of Debate, Embarrassment and Discontent; by leaving also each Party, at Liberty to make respecting Commerce and Navigation Such ulteriour Regulations, as it shall find most convenient to itself: and by founding the Advantages of Commerce, Solely, upon reciprocal Utility, and the just Rules, of free Intercourse: reserving, withall, to each Party, the Liberty of admitting at its Pleasure, other Nations to a Participation of the same Advantages.
On these Principles, their said High Mightinesses, the States General of the United Netherlands, have named, <Messieurs> for their Plenipotentiaries, from the midst of their Assembly, Messieurs thier Deputies for the foreign Affairs <from the midst of the Assembly of their High Mightinesses,>3 And the said United States of America, on their Part, have furnished with Full Powers, Mr John Adams late Commissioner of the United States of America at the Court of Versailles, heretofore Delegate in Congress from the State of Massachusetts Bay, and Chief Justice of the said State, who have agreed and concluded, as follows, to wit
Article 1.
There shall be a firm, inviolable and universal Peace, and sincere Friendship, between their High Mightinesses, the Lords the States General of the united Netherlands, and the United States of America; and between the Subjects and Inhabitants of the Said Parties, and between the Countries, Islands, Cities and Places, Situated under the Jurisdiction of the Said united Netherlands, and the said United States of America, their Subjects and Inhabitants, of every Degree, without Exception of Persons or Places.
Article 2.
The Subjects of the said States General, of the United Netherlands, shall pay, in the Ports, Havens, Roads, Countries, Islands, Cities or Places of the United States of America, or any of them, no other, nor greater Duties, or Imposts, of whatever nature or Denomination they may be, than those which the Nations the most favoured are, or shall be obliged to pay: And they shall enjoy, all the Rights, Liberties, Priviledges, Immunities and Exemptions in Trade, Navigation and Commerce, which the Said Nations do or shall enjoy, whether in passing from one Port to another in the Said States, or in going from any of those Ports to any foreign Port of the World, or from any foreign Port of the World to any of those Ports.
Article 3.
The Subjects and Inhabitants of the said United States of America, shall pay in the Ports, Havens, Roads, Countries, Islands, Cities or Places of the said united Netherlands, or any of them, no other, nor greater Duties or Imposts of whatever nature or Denomination, they may be, than those, which the Nations the most favoured, are, or shall be obliged to pay: and they shall enjoy, all the Rights, Liberties, Priviledges, Immunities and Exemptions, in Trade, Navigation and Commerce, which the said Nations do or shall enjoy whether in passing from one Port to another in the said States, or from any one towards any one of those Ports, from or to any foreign Port of the World. And the United States of America, with their Subjects and Inhabitants Shall leave to those of their High Mightinesses, the peaceable Enjoyment of their Rights, in the Countries, Islands, and Seas in the East and West Indies, without any hinderance or Molestation.
Article 4.
There shall be an entire and perfect Liberty of Conscience, allowed to the Subjects and Inhabitants of each Party and to their Families; and no one shall be molested, in regard to his Worship, provided to Submits as to the publick Demonstration of it, to the Laws of the Country. There Shall be given, more•over, Liberty, when any Subjects or Inhabitants of either Party, Shall die, in the Territory of the other, to bury them, in the usuall burying Places, or in decent and convenient grounds, to be appointed for that Purpose, as occasion shall require; and the dead Bodies of those who are buryed, shall not in any wise be molested. And the two contracting Parties, shall provide, each one in his Jurisdiction that their respective Subjects and Inhabitants, may, henceforward obtain, the requisite Certificates in Cases of Deaths in which they Shall be interrested.
Article 5.
Their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands, and the United States of America, shall endeavour, by all the means in their Power, to defend and protect all Vessells and other Effects, belonging to their Subjects and Inhabitants respectively, or to any of them, in their Ports Roads, Havens, internal Seas, Passes, Rivers and as far as their Jurisdiction extends at Sea, and to recover, and cause to be restored to the true Proprietors, their Agents or Attorn•ies, all Such Vessells and Effects, which Shall be taken under their Jurisdiction: and their Vessells of War and Convoys, in Cases when they may have a common Ennemy, Shall take under their Protection, all the Vessells belonging to the Subjects and Inhabitants of either Party, which shall not be laden with contraband Goods, according to the Description, which Shall be made of them here after, for Places, with which one of the Parties is in Peace and the other at War, nor destined for any Place, blocked, and which shall hold the same Course, or follow the same rout, and they shall defend such Vessells as long as they shall hold the same Course follow the same rout, against all Attacks, Force and Violence of the common Enemy, in the same manner, as they ought to protect and defend the Vessells belonging to their own respective Subjects.
Article 6.
The Subjects of the contracting Parties, may, on one Side and on the other, in the respective Countries and States, dispose of their Effects, by Testa•ment, Donation, or otherwise; and their Heirs, Subjects of one of the Parties and residing in the Country of the other, or elsewhere, shall receive Such Successions, even Ab Intestato, whether in Person, or by their Attorney, or Substitute, even although they shall not have obtained Letters of Naturalisation, without having the Effect of such Commission contested under Pretext of any Rights or Praerogatives of any Province, City or private Person: and if the Heirs, to whom such Successions may have fallen, shall be Minors, the Tutors or Curators, established by the Judge Domiciliary of the said Minors, may govern, direct, administer, Sell, and alienate the Effects fallen to the said Minors by Inheritance, and in general, in relation to the said Successions and Effects, Use all the Rights, and fullfill all the Functions, which belong by the Disposition of the Laws to Guardians, Tutors and Curators: provided, nevertheless, that this Disposition cannot take Place, but in Cases where the Testator shall not have named Guardians Tutors or Curators, by Testament, Codicil, or other legal Instrument.
Article 7.
It Shall be lawfull and free, for the Subjects of each Party, to employ such Advocates, Attorneys, Notaries, Solicitors or Factors, as they shall judge proper.
Article 8.
Merchants, Masters and Owners of Ships, Mariners, Men of all Kinds, Ships and Vessells, and all Merchandises and Goods in general, and Effects, of one of the Confederates, or of the subjects thereof, shall not be seized or detained, in any of the Countries, Lands, Islands,5 Islands, Cities, Places, Ports, <Rivers>6 Shores or Dominions whatsoever of the other Confederate, for any military Expedition, public or private Use of any one, by Arrests, Violence or any Colour thereof. Much less shall it be permitted to the Subjects of either Party to take, or extort by Force any Thing, from the Subjects of the other Party, without the Consent of the owner: which, however, is not to be understood of Seisures, Detentions and Arrests which Shall be made by the Command and Authority of Justice, and by the ordinary Methods, on Account of Debts or Crimes, in respect whereof, the Proceedings must be, by Way of Law, according to the Forms of Justice.
Article 9.
It is further agreed and concluded, that it shall be wholly free for all Merchants, Commanders of Ships and other Subjects <of their High Mightinesses>9 and Inhabitants, of the contracting Parties, in every Place Subjected to the Jurisdiction of the two Powers respectively, to manage themselves their own Business: and moreover, as to the Use of Interpreters or Brokers as also in Relation to the Loading or Unloading of their Vessells, and every Thing which has Relation thereto, they shall be, on one side and on the other, considered and treated upon the Footing of <with> natural Subjects, or, at least, upon an Equality with the most favoured Nation.
Article 10.
The Merchant Ships of either of the Parties, coming from the Port of an Ennemy or from their own or a neutral Port, may navigate freely towards any Port of an Ennemy of the other Ally: They shall be nevertheless held, whenever it shall be required, to exhibit, as well upon the high Seas, as in the Ports, their Sea Letters and other Documents described in the twenty fourth10 Article, stating expressly, that their Effects are not of the Number of those, which are prohibited as Contrabande; and not having any Contraband goods for an Ennemy’s Port, they may freely and without Hindrance pursue their Voyage, towards the Port of an Ennemy. Nevertheless, It shall not be required to examine the Papers of Vessells convoyed by Vessells of War, but Credence shall be given to the Word of the officer, who shall conduct the Convoy.
Article 11.
If by exhibiting, the Sea Letters and other Documents, described more particularly in the Twenty fourth Article of this Treaty, the other Party shall discover there are any of those Sorts of Goods which are declared prohibited and Contrabande, and that they are consigned for a Port, under the Obedience of his Ennemy, it shall not be lawfull to break up the Hatches of such Ships nor to open any Chest, Coffer, Packs, Casks, or other Vessells found therein, or to remove the Smallest Parcell of her Goods, whether the said Vessell belongs to the Subjects of their High Mightinesses, the States General of the united Netherlands, or to the Subjects or Inhabitants of the said United States of America, unless the Lading be brought on Shore, in Presence of the officers of the Court of Admiralty, and an Inventory thereof made, but there shall be no allowance to sell, exchange or alienate the same, untill, after that due and lawfull Proscess, shall have been had, against such prohibited Goods of Contraband, and the Court of Admiralty, by a Sentence pronounced, shall have confiscated the same, Saving always, as well the Ship itself, as any other Goods found therein, which are to be esteemed free and may not be detained on Pretence of their being infected, by the prohibited Goods, much less shall they be confiscated as lawfull Prize. But on the contrary, when by the Visitation, at Land, it shall be found, that there are no Contraband Goods in the Vessell, and it shall not appear by the Papers, that he who has taken and carried in the Vessell, has been able to discover any there, he ought to be condemned in all the Charges, Dammages and Interests of them, which he shall have caused, both to the owners of Vessells, and to the owners and Freighters of Cargoes, with which they shall be loaded, by his Temerity in taking and carrying them in. Declaring most expressly the free Vessells, shall assure the Liberty of the Effects with which they shall be loaded, and that this Liberty shall extend itself equally to the Persons who shall be found in a free Vessell, who may not be taken out of her unless they are Military Men, actually in the Service of an Ennemy.
Article 12.
On the contrary, it is agreed, that whatever shall be found to be laden, by the Subjects and Inhabitants, of either Party, on any Ship belonging to the Enemies of the other, or to their Subjects, although it be not <be> comprehended under the Sort of prohibited Goods, the whole may be confiscated, in the same manner, as if it belonged to the Ennemy, except, nevertheless, such Effects and Merchandizes as were put on board such Ves•sel, before the Declaration of War, or in the Space of Six months after it, which Effects shall not be, in any manner Subject to Confiscation, but shall be faithfully, and without delay, restored in nature, to the owners who shall claim them, or cause them to be claimed, before the Confiscation and Sale, as also, their Proceeds, if the Claim could not be made, but in the Space of <Six>12 Eight months, after the Sale, which ought to be publick: provided, nevertheless, that if the said Merchandizes are Contraband, it shall by no means be lawfull, to transport them afterwards to any Port belonging to Ennemies.
Article 13.
And that more effectual Care may be taken, for the Security of Subjects and People of either Party, that they do not Suffer Molestation, from the Vessells of War or Privateers of the other Party, it shall be forbidden to all Commanders of Vessells of War, and other armed Vessells of the said States General of the United Netherlands, and the said United States of America, as well as to all their Officers, Subjects and People to give any Offence, or do any Damage to those of the other Party; and if they act to the contrary, they shall be, upon the first Complaint, which shall be made of it, being found guilty, after a just Examination, punished by their proper Judges, and, moreover, obliged to make satisfaction for all Damages and Interests thereof, by Reparation under Pain and Obligation of Persons and Goods.
Article 14.
For further determining of what has been said, all Captains of Privateers, or Fitters out of Vessells armed for War, under Commission, and on Account of private Persons, shall be held, before their Departure, to give Sufficient Caution, before competent Judges, either to be entirely responsable, for the Malversations which they may commit in their Cruises or Voyages, as well as for the Contraventions of their Captains and Officers against the present Treaty, and against the Ordonnances and Edicts which shall be published, in Consequence of and Conformity to it, under Pain of Forfeiture and Nullity of the said Commissions.
Article 15.
All Vessells and Merchandizes, of whatsoever Nature, which shall be rescued out of the Hands of any Pirates or Robbers <on the High Seas shall be brought>13 navigating the high Seas without requisite Commissions shall be brought into some Port of one of the two States, and deposited in the Hands of the Officers of that Port, in order to be restored entire to the true Proprietor, as soon as due and Sufficient Proofs shall be made concerning the Property thereof.
Article 16.
If any Ships or Vessells, belonging to either of the Parties, their Subjects or People shall within the Coasts or Dominions of the other, stick upon the Sands, or be wrecked or suffer any other Damage, all friendly Assistance and Relief shall be given to the Persons shipwrecked, or such as shall be in danger thereof; and the Vessells, Effects and Merchandizes, or the Part of them which shall have been saved, or the Proceeds of them, if, being perishable they shall have been Sold, being claimed within a Year and a day, by the Masters or owners, or their Agents or Attorneys, shall be restored; paying only the reasonable Charges, and that which must be paid, in the same Case, for the Salvage, by the proper Subjects of the Country: There shall also be delivered them, Safe Conducts or Passports, for their free and Safe Passage from thence, and to return, each one, to his own Country.
Article 17.
In Case the Subjects or People of either Party with their Shipping, whether public and of War or private and of Merchants, be forced, through Stress of Weather, Pursuit of Pirates or Ennemies, or any other Urgent Necessity for seeking of Shelter and Harbour, to retreat and enter into any of the Rivers, Creeks, Bays, Ports, Roads, or Shores, belonging to the other Party, they Shall be received with all Humanity and Kindness, and enjoy all friendly Protection and Help, and they Shall be permitted to refresh and provide themselves, at reasonable Rates, with Victuals and all Things needfull for the Sustenance of their Persons, or Reparation of their Ships, and they Shall no Ways be detained, or hindered from returning out of the said Ports, or Roads, but may remove and depart, when and whither they please, without any Let or Hindrance.
Article 18.
For the better promoting of Commerce, on both Sides, it is agreed that, if a War should break out, between their High Mightinesses, the States General of the United Netherlands, and the United States of America, there Shall always be granted, to the Subjects on each Side, The Term of Nine Months, after the Date of the Rupture, or of the Proclamation of War, to the End that they may retire, with their Effects, and transport them, where they please, which it shall be lawfull for them to do, as well as to Sell or transport their Effects and Goods, in all Freedom, and without any Hindrance, and without being able to proceed, during the said Term of Nine Months, to any Arrest of their Effects, much less of their Persons; on the contrary, there shall be given them, for their Vessells, and for the Effects, which they would carry away, Pass Ports and Safe Conducts, for the nearest Ports of their respective Countries, and for the time necessary for the Voyage. And no Prize made at Sea, shall be adjudged lawfull, at least if the Declaration of War was not or could not be known, in the last Port which the Vessell taken has quitted. But for whatever may have been taken from the Subjects and Inhabitants of either Party, and for the Offences which may have been given them, in the Interval of the said Terms, a compleat Satisfaction shall be given them.
Article 19.
No Subject of their High Mightinesses, the States General of the United Netherlands shall apply for or take any Commission or Letter of Marque, for arming any Ship or Ships, to act as Privateers, against the said United States of America or any of them, or the Subjects and15 Inhabitants of the said United States or any of them, or against the Property of the Inhabitants of any of them, from any Prince, or State, with which the said United States of America may happen to be at War: Nor shall any Subject or Inhabitant of the said United States of America, or of any of them, apply for or take any Commission, or Letters of Marque, for arming any Ship or Ships to act as Privateers against the High and Mighty Lords the States General of the United Netherlands, or against the Subjects of their High Mightinesses, or any of them, or against the Property of any one of them from any Prince or State, with which their High Mightinesses may be at War: And if any Person of either Nation shall take such Commission, or Letters of Mark, he shall be punished as a Pirate.
Article 20.
If the Vessells of the Subjects or Inhabitants of one of the Parties, come upon the Coast belonging to either of the said Allies, but not willing to enter into Port, or being entered into Port and not willing to unload their Cargoes or break bulk, or take in any Cargoe they shall <be treated>17 not be obliged to pay, neither for the Vessells nor Cargoes, any Duties of Entry in or out, nor to render any Account of their Cargoes, at least if there is not just Cause to presume, that they carry to an Ennemy Merchandizes of Contraband.
Article 21
The two contracting Parties grant to each other mutually the Liberty of having each in the Ports of the other, Consuls, Vice Consuls, Agents and Commissaries of their own appointing, whose Functions shall be regulated by particular Agreement, whenever either Party chuses to make such Appointment.
Article 22.
This Treaty shall not be understood, in any manner to derogate from the Ninth Tenth, Nineteenth19 and Twenty fourth Articles of the Treaty <of Commerce>20 with France, as they were numbered in the same Treaty concluded the Sixth of February 1778 and which make the Articles Ninth, Tenth, Seventeenth and twenty Second of the Treaty of Commerce now Subsisting, between the United States of America and the Crown of France: Nor shall it hinder his Catholic Majesty, from acceeding to that Treaty, and enjoying the Advantage of the said four Articles.
Article 23.
If at any Time the United States of America, shall judge necessary, to commence Negotiations, with the King or Emperor of Morocco and Fez, and with the Regencies of Algiers, Tunis or Tripoli, or with any of them, to obtain Passports for the Security of their Navigation in the Mediterranean Sea, their High Mightinesses promise that upon the<ir> Requisition which the United States of America shall make of it, they will Second such Negotiations, in the most favourable manner, by means of their Consulls, residing near the said King Emperor and Regencies.
Article 24. Contraband
The Liberty of Navigation and Commerce Shall extend to all sorts of Merchandizes, excepting only those which are distinguished under the Name of Contraband or Merchandizes prohibited: And under this Denomination of Contraband and Merchandizes prohibited, shall be comprehended only Warlike Stores and Arms, as Mortars, Artillery with their[]21 and Appurtenanes, Fusils, Pistols, Bombs Grenades, gun Powder, Salt Peter, Sulphur, Match, Bullets and Balls Pikes, Sabres, Lances, Hallebards, Casques, Cutlaces, and other Sorts of Arms; as also Soldiers, Horses, Saddles, and Furniture for Horses. All other Effects and Merchandizes, not before Specified expressly, and even all sorts of naval Matters, however proper they may be, for the Construction and Equipment of Vessells of War, or for the Manufacture of one or another Sort of Machines of War, by Land or Sea, shall not be adjuged Contraband, neither by the Letter, nor according to any Pretended interpretation whatever ought they, or can they be comprehended, under the Notion of Effects prohibited or Contraband: So that all Effects and Merchandizes, which are not expressly before named, may, without any Exception, and in perfect Liberty be transported, by the Subjects and Inhabitants of both Allies, from and to Places belonging to the Ennemy; excepting only the Places, which at the same Time Shall be besieged blocked or invested; and those Places only shall be held for such, which are Surrounded, nearly, by some of the belligerent Powers.
Article 25
To the End that all Dissention, and Quarrell may be avoided, and prevented, it has been agreed, that in Case that one of the two Parties happens to be at War, the Vessells belonging to the Subjects or Inhabitants of the other Ally, shall be provided with Sea Letters or Passports, expressing the Name, the Property and the Burthen of the Vessell, as also the Name and the Place of abode of the Master or Commander of the said Vessell; to the End that, thereby, it may appear, that the Vessell really and truly belongs to Subjects or Inhabitants of one of the Parties; which Passeports Shall be drawn and distributed, according to the Form annexed to this Treaty. Each Time that the Vessell, shall return, she should have such her Passports renewed, or, at least, they ought not to be of more ancient Date than two years before the Vessell, has been returned to her own Country. It has been also agreed, that such Vessells being loaded, ought to be provided <also> not only with the Said Pass Ports or Sea Letters; but also with a general Passport, or with particular Passports, or Manifests, or, other publick Documents, which are ordinarily given to Vessells which[]23 in the Ports from whence the Vessells have set sail in the last Place, containing a Specification of the Cargo, of the Place from whence the Vessell departed; and of that of her Destination, or, instead of all these <of> Certificates from the Magistrates or Governors of Cities, Places, and Colonies from whence the Vessell came, given in the usual Form, to the End that it may be known, whether there are any Effects prohibited or Contraband on board the Vessells, and whether they are destined to be carried to an Ennemies Country or not. And in Case, any one judges proper, to express, in the said Documents, the Persons to whom the Effects on board belong, he may do it freely, without however being bound to do it; and the omission of such Expression cannot and ought not to cause a Confiscation.
Article 26.
If the Vessells of the said Subjects or Inhabitants of either of the Parties, Sailing along the Coasts, or on the high Seas, are met by a Vessell of War, or Privateer or other armed Vessell of the other Party, the said Vessells of War, Privateers or armed Vessells, for avoiding all Disorder, shall remain, without the Reach of Cannon, but may send their Boats on board the Merchant Vessell, which they Shall meet in this manner, upon which, they may not pass more than two or three Men, to whom the Master or Commander Shall exhibit his Pass Port, containing the Property of the Vessell, according to the Form annexed to this Treaty: And the Vessell after having exhibited Such a Pass Port, Sea Letter, and other Documents, shall be free to continue her Voyage, so that it shall not be lawfull to molest her, or Search her in any manner, nor to give her Chace, nor to force her to alter her Course.
Article 27.
It shall be lawfull, for Merchants, Captains and Commanders of Vessells whether publick and of War, or private and of Merchants, belonging to the Said United States of America, or any of them, or to their Subjects and Inhabitants, to take freely into their Service, and receive on board of their Vessells, in any Port or Place in the Jurisdiction of their High Mightinesses aforesaid, Seamen or others, Natives or Inhabitants of any of the Said States, upon such Conditions, as they shall agree on, without being Subject, for this, to any Fine, Penalty, Punishment, Proscess or Reprehension, whatsoever.
And reciprocally, all Merchants, Captains and Commanders, belonging to the said United Netherlands, shall enjoy, in all the Ports and Places under the obedience of the said United States of America, the same Priviledge of engaging and receiving, Seamen or others Natives or Inhabitants of any Country of the Domination of the said States General: provided that neither on one side nor the other, they may not take into their Service such of their Countrymen, who have already engaged in the Service of the other Party contracting, whether in War or Trade, and whether they meet them by Land or Sea; at least if the Captains or Masters, under the Command of whom such Persons may be found, will not of his own Consent discharge them from their service: upon Pain of being otherwise treated and punished as Deserters.
Article 28.
The Affair of the Refraction shall be regulated, in all Equity and Justice, by the Magistrates of Cities respectively, where it shall be judged That there is any room to complain, in this Respect.
Article 29.
The present Treaty shall be ratified and approved, by their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands, and by the United States of America; and the Acts of Ratification Shall be delived, in good and due form on one Side and on the other in the space of Six Months, or sooner if possi•ble, to be computed from the Day of the Signature.
In Faith of which, We, the Deputies and Plenipotentiaries of the Lords the States General, of the United Netherlands, and the Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, in Virtue of our respective Authorities and full Powers, have Signed the present Treaty and apposed thereto the Seals of our Arms.
Done at the Hague.26
Form of the Passport which shall be given to Ships and Vessells in Consequence of the Twenty fifth Article of this Treaty.
To all who shall see these Presents, Greeting. Be it known that leave and Permission, are, hereby given to [] Master and Commander of the Ship or Vessell, called [] of the Burthen of [] Tons, or thereabouts lying at present in the Port or Haven of [] bound for [] and laden with [] to depart and proceed with his said Ship or Vessell on his said Voyage Such Ship or Vessell having been visited and the said Master and Commander having made Oath before the Proper officer, that the said ship or Vessell, belongs to one or more of the Subjects, People, or Inhabitants of [] and to him or them only; In Witness whereof, We have subscribed our Names to these Presents, and affixed the Seal of our Arms thereto, and caused the same to be countersigned by [] at [] this [] Day of [] in the year of our Lord Christ
Certificate
Form of the Certificate, which shall be given to Ships or Vessells in Consequence of the Twenty fifth Article of this Treaty.
We [] Magistrates, or Officers of the Customs of the City or Port of [] do certify and Attest that on the [] Day of [] in the year of our Lord [] C.D.—of . . . . personally appeared, before Us, and declared by solemn oath, that the Ship or Vessell called [] of [] Tons, or thereabouts whereof [] of [] is at present Master or Commander, does, rightfully and properly belong to him or them only. That She is now bound, from the City or Port of [] to the Port of []laden with Goods and Merchandizes, hereunder particularly discribed and enumerated as follows.
In Witness whereof We have signed this Certificate, and sealed it with the Seal of our office, this [] Day of [] in the year of our Lord Christ.
Sea Letter.
Form of the Sea Letter.
Most Serenest, Serenest, Serene, Most Puissant, Puissant high, illustrious, Noble, honourable, venerable, wise, and prudent Lords, Emperors, Kings, Republicks, Princes, Dukes, Earles, Barons Lords, Burgomasters, Schepens, Councillors, as also Judges Officers, Justiciaries, and Regents of all the good Cities and Places, whether ecclesiastical or Secular, who shall See these Patents or hear them read
We, Burgomasters and Regents of the City of [] make known that the Master of [] appearing before Us, has declared upon oath, that the Vessell called [] of the Burthen of about [] Lasts, which he at present navigates is of the United Provinces, and that no Subjects of the Ennemy, have any Part or Portion therein, directly nor indirectly; So May God Almighty help him. And as We wish to See, the said Master prosper, in his lawfull Affairs, our Prayer is to all the beforementioned, and to each of them Seperately, where the said Master shall arrive with his Vessell and Cargo, that they may please to receive the said Master with goodness, and to treat him in a becoming Manner, permitting him, upon the usual Tolls and Expences, in passing and repassing, to pass, navigate and frequent the Ports Passes and Territories, to the End to transact his Business, where, and in what manner, he Shall judge proper: whereof We shall be willingly indebted. In Witness, and for Cause whereof, we affix hereto the Seal of this City.
in the Margin
By ordinance of the high and mighty Lords the States General of the United Netherlands.
MS in JA’s hand (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Treaty In English.” Filmed at [8 Oct. 1782], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 358.
1. This date is derived from the States General’s resolution of 17 Sept. (No. X, below), which indicates that the final version of the treaty was given to JA on 6 September. Except for variations in spelling, punctuation, and capitalization, there are virtually no differences between the English text printed here and the treaty signed on 8 October. { 380 } This is not the case with the Dutch text. While the endorsement indicates that it was the last version of the treaty agreed to by the negotiators, and its text, except for variations in spelling, punctuation, and capitalization, largely conforms to the treaty signed on 8 Oct., there are differences. Some (see notes 2 and 3) apparently reflect last minute negotiations, but most changes were made to make the Dutch text conform to the treaty’s English text. The most likely reason for the differences between the two documents may be that since JA was the American negotiator he knew precisely what he had negotiated and kept a record of the progressive changes to his draft so that when he copied out the final version of the treaty he was able to produce an accurate text. The clerk who copied out the Dutch version of the treaty was most likely not one of the Dutch negotiators and either was given or used incomplete or earlier versions of the agreed-upon articles. In any event, the final Dutch text is included in the notes and is taken from the signed treaty as printed in Miller, Treaties, 2:59–88. It should also be noted that when a note applies to both the English and the Dutch texts the note number is repeated in both versions, but when it applies to only one of the texts, the number appears only there.
2. On both the Dutch and the English copies JA interlined the reference to “Providence Plantations.” This made the list of state names in the title conform to the list in the preamble and corrected a mistake that JA had made in his draft.
3. Originally both the Dutch and the English texts of this paragraph followed the draft and included the revisions suggested by the Dutch and agreed to by JA. The intent apparently was to include, after “Heeren” in the Dutch text and “Messieurs” in the English text, the names of the individual Dutch negotiators. Then, after negotiations were completed, it was decided simply to indicate that the negotiators were the deputies of the States General responsible for foreign affairs and to omit their names. JA then, after canceling the two passages indicated in the paragraph, interlined the new text, with the exception of the retained “Deputies,” but the corresponding changes were not made in the Dutch text in the Adams Papers. In the treaty signed on 8 Oct. the alteration was made, and there the Dutch text reads “Op deeze grondbeginzelen, hebben voorgemelde haar Hoog Mogende de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, tot hunne Plenipotentiarissen, uit het midden hunner Vergadering benoemd, de Heeren derselver Gedeputeerden tot de buitenlandsche Saaken” (Miller, Treaties, 2:60–61). In the treaty of 8 Oct. this and the following paragraphs were combined.
4. From this point to the end of the article the Dutch text retained the language of Art. 2 of the draft, which included changes suggested by the Dutch and agreed to by JA. In the treaty signed on 8 Oct., it was revised to read “of van eenige vreemde Havenvan de Wereld na eenige van deeze Havens, welke de gemelde Natien reeds genieten of zullen genieten” and thereby bring it into agreement with the English text (same, 2:62). Here and elsewhere reference is made to the articles in the draft as numbered by JA.
5. JA inadvertantly wrote “Islands” twice and then presumably underlined the first to indicate that it should be deleted.
6. This word was presumably an inadvertence since it did not appear in the draft.
7. In the Dutch text the previous six words were retained from Art. 9 of the draft and included a change proposed by the Dutch and accepted by JA. In the treaty signed on 8 Oct. the passage was replaced by “eenige Militaire Expeditie, publicq of privaat” to bring it into conformity with the English text (same, 2:66).
8. The passage from the beginning of the paragraph to this point followed the text of Art. 9 of the draft, but in the 8 Oct. treaty it was deleted and replaced with “veel minder zal het gepermitteert zyn aan” to reflect the change made in the English text. In addition, the paragraph was closed up to “gelÿkende,” which was followed by a colon (same, 2:66).
9. This is an inadvertence. The passage appears in Art. 10 of the draft and, in fact, is an insertion suggested by the Dutch and accepted by JA. There it was followed by a reference to the United States of America. Both references had been removed during the negotiations when it was decided to refer to the “contracting parties” to the treaty.
10. In both the Dutch and English texts this and the following article should have referred to Art. 25. The error was corrected in the 8 Oct. treaty (same, 2:68).
11. The preceding six words, which followed the text of Art. 11 of the draft as revised by the Dutch and accepted by JA, were deleted and replaced by “Goederen voor een { 381 } Vyandelyke Haven gelaaden hebbende, na de Haven van een Vyand” to reflect the change made in the English text (same, 2:68).
12. An inadvertence probably owing to the reference to six months earlier in the article. Eight months was the term given in Art. 13 of the draft as altered by the Dutch and approved by JA, and it is eight months in the Dutch text.
13. An inadvertence. JA copied the original language of Art. 15 of the draft rather than the change proposed by the Dutch, accepted by him, and incorporated in the Dutch text.
14. From the previous comma, the Dutch text retained the language of Art. 18 of the draft as altered by the Dutch and accepted by JA. In the treaty signed on 8 Oct., the passage was changed to bring it into accord with the English text and there reads “ten minsten indien de Oorlogs-Declaratie niet bekent was geweest” (same, 2:75).
15. At this point the English and Dutch texts agree, but in the Dutch text of the treaty signed on 8 Oct., “en” was changed to “of.” That should have made the English text read “subjects or inhabitants,” but the “subjects and inhabitants” was retained in the English version (same, 2:76).
16. The Dutch text retained the previous three words from Art. 19 of the draft. In the treaty signed on 8 Oct. they were deleted and replaced with “Haar Hoog Mogende” to bring the English and Dutch texts into agreement (same, 2:77).
17. An inadvertence. JA began copying the original language of Art. 20 of the draft, before it had been revised according to the Dutch request agreed to by JA.
18. The preceding eleven words followed the text of Art. 20 of the draft as revised by the Dutch and accepted by JA. In the treaty signed on 8 Oct. they were replaced with “minsten indien er geen wettig vermoeden is dat zy aan een Vyand” to make it conform to the English text (same, 2:77).
19. In the margin and keyed to this point in the Dutch text JA wrote “14. Moet weezen 19.” That is, 14 should be 19. The discrepancy between the article numbers referred to here and later in the article (19–17 and 24–22) is owing to Congress’ deletion of Arts. 11 and 12 from the ratified treaty of commerce (same, 2:10–11).
20. An inadvertence. Although this article was the most controversial in the treaty and underwent numerous changes, the words “of commerce” or, in Dutch, “van commercie” appeared at this point in Art. 22 of the draft and in a revised article proposed prior to 22 Aug. (No. IV, above). It was apparently removed as redundant because of the reference to the treaty of commerce later in the article.
21. Blank in MS. In the treaty signed on 8 Oct., it reads “Artifices” (same, 2:79). The omission of a word here may be owing to a translation problem because the alteration to the text of Art. 25 of the draft that was proposed by the Dutch and accepted by JA contained the same language as in the Dutch text.
22. The previous three words followed the text of Art. 26 of the draft, but in the treaty signed on 8 Oct. they were deleted to make the passage conform to the English text (same, 2:80).
23. Blank in MS. It is unclear why JA wrote “which” and then left a blank rather than “outward bound,” the words appearing in Art. 26 of the draft, which were proposed by the Dutch, accepted by JA, and included in the treaty signed on 8 Oct. (same, 2:81).
24. The previous five words followed the text of Art. 29 of the draft as revised by the Dutch and accepted by JA. In the treaty signed on 8 Oct. the passage was replaced with “minsten indien de Capiteinen of Schippers” to make the passage conform to the English text (same, 2:84).
25. The Dutch text followed that of Art. 29 of the draft as revised by the Dutch and approved by JA, but in the treaty signed on 8 Oct. the word “niet” (not) was inserted to make the passage conform to the English text (same, 2:84). The insertion probably corrected an omission in the original text of the draft.
26. In both the Dutch and English texts of the treaty signed on 8 Oct. this passage was deleted. In the Dutch text it was replaced by “In den Hage den Agtsten October, Een duysent Seeven hondert twee en tagtig” and is followed by the seals and names of the Dutch plenipotentiaries: George van Randwyck, Bartholomeus van den Santheuvel, Pieter van Bleiswyck, Willem Carel Hendrik van Lynden van Blitterswyck, Derk Jan van Heeckeren van Brandsenburg, Joan van Kuffeler, Frederick Gysbert van Dedem tot den Gelder, and Herman Tjassens. The revised English text reads “Done at the Hague the Eight of October, One Thousand Seven Hundred Eighty Two” and is followed by JA’s seal and signature (same, 2:85).

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0012

{ 382 }

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0012-0001

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Author: Adams, John
Date: 1782-09-06

IX. Final Text of the Dutch-American Convention on Recaptures

Conventie tusschen de Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en Vereenigde Staten van America, rakende de hernomen Scheepen.
De Heeren Staten Generaal der vereenigde Nederlanden, en vereenigde Staten van America, geneegen synde, eenige gelykvormige grondbeginselen vast te stellen, omtrent het opbrengen van Prÿsen, door de Oorlog Scheepen en Commissievaarders van Weedersyds contracteerende Parthyen, op derselver gemeene Vyanden genomen, en omtrent de Scheepen van elkanders Onderdanen, door den Vyand genomen, en by de Oorlog Scheepen en Commissie-vaarders van weederzÿden hernomen, zÿn met den anderen overeengekomen, omtrent de navolgende Articulen.
Art: 1.
De Scheepen van eene der beide natien door Kapers van den anderen hernomen, zullen aan den eersten Eigenaar wedergegeeven worden, indien die Scheepen nog geen Vier en twintig Uuren in de magt van den Vyand geweest zÿn; mits door den Eigenaar van het hernoome Schip daar voor betaald { 383 } werde een derde van de waarde van het Schip, mitsgaders van de Lading, Canons, en Scheepstoerustingen, welk derde in der Minne begroot zal worden door de geinteresseerde Parthÿen; of andersints, en zoo zÿ desweegens niet over een konden komen, zullen zÿ zich adresseeren aan de Bedienden der Admiraliteit van de plaats alwaar de Kaper die het Schip hernomen heest, het zelve zal hebben opgebragt.
Art: 2.
Indien het hernomen Schip langer dan vier en twintig Uuren in’s Vyands magt geweest is, zal het in’t geheel aan den Kaper, die het zelve hernomen heest, toebehooren.
Art: 3.
In gevalle een Schip zal hernomen geweest zÿn door een Oorlog Schip of Vaartuig, toebehoorende aan de Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, of aan de Vereenigde Staten van America, zal het zelve aan den eersten Eigenaar wedergegeeven worden, mits betalende een dertigste gedeelte van de waarde van het Schip en deszelss Laading, Canons en Scheepstoerustingen, bÿ aldien het binnen de Vier en twintig Uuren hernomen is, en het tiende gedeelte zoo het naa de Vier en twintig Uuren herno• { 384 } men is: welke Sommen als een Gratificatie verdeeld zullen worden onder de Equipagien van de Scheepen die het zelve hernomen zullen hebben.
De begrooting der bovengemelde dertigste, en tiende gedeeltens sal gereguleerd worden naar luÿd van het eerste Articul der jegens woordige Conventie.
Art: 4.
De restitutie der Prÿzen, het zÿ door Oorlog Scheepen of Kapers hernoomen, zal ondertusschen en tot dat behoor-lyk en voldoende bewÿs vanden eigendom der hernomen Scheepen gegeeven kan worden, onder suffisante cautie wegens het nakomen der bovenstaende Articulen binnen een reedelyken tÿd,2 geadmitteert werden.
Art: 5.
De Oorlog—en Kaper Scheepen van de eene en de andere der beide Natien zullen wederzÿds, zoo in Europa als in de andere Weerelds deelen in elkanders respective havens toegelaten worden met hunne Pryzen, welke aldaar zullen mogen ontladen en verkocht worden, naar de formaliteiten gebruikelyk in den Staat, alwaar de prÿs zal weesen opgebragt, soo ver het bestaanbaar is met het 22dste. articul van het Tractaat van Commercie,3 met dien ver• { 385 } stande, dat de wettig heid der prÿzen door Nederlandsche Scheepen gemaekt zal beslist worden, naar luid der wetten en Reglementen, te deezer zake in de Vereenigde Nederlanden vast gesteld, gelyk ook die der Pryzen door Americaansche Scheepen gemaekt, zal beoordeeld worden volgens de Wetten en Reglementen by de Vereenigde Staten van America bepaald.
Art: 6.
Voor het overige zal het aan de Staaten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden als meede aan de Vereenigde Staten van America, vrÿstaan, zodanige Reglementen te maken als zÿ zullen oordeelen te behooren; met betrekking tot het gedrag ’t geen hunne Scheepen en Kapers weederzÿds verpligt zullen weezen te houden, ten opzigt der Scheepen die zÿ genomen, en opgebracht zullen hebben in de Havens der beide Mogendheeden.
Ten oirkonde deezes hebben Wÿ Gedeputeerden en Plenipotentiarissen van de Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden, en Minister Plenipotentiaris der Vereenigde Staten van America, uit kragt van Onze respective Authorisatie, en Plein pouvoir, deeze Onder• { 386 } teekent, en met Onze gewoone Cachetten bekragtigt.
Gedaan in’s Hage den4
MS in a clerk’s hand (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Conventie tuschen de Staaten Generall en vereenigde Staaten van America.” Filmed at ([8 Oct. 1782], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 358).

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0012-0002

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Author: Adams, John
Date: 1782-09-06

IX. Final Text of the Dutch-American Convention on Recaptures

Convention between the Lords the states general of the united Netherlands, and the United States of America concerning Vessells recaptured.
The Lords the States General of the United Netherlands, and the united States of America, being inclined to establish some uniform Principles, with Relation, to Prizes made, by Vessells of War and commissioned by the two contracting Powers, upon their common Ennemies, and to Vessells of the Subjects of either Party captured by the Ennemy, and recaptured by Vessells of War, commissioned by either Party, have agreed, upon the following Articles.
Article 1.
The Vessells of either of the two Nations, recaptured by the Privateers of the other, shall be restored to the first Proprietor, if such Vessells have not been Four and Twenty hours in the Power of the Ennemy; provided the owner of the Vessell recaptured pay therefor, one Third of the value of the Vessell, as also of that of the Cargo, the Cannons and Apparrell, which Third shall be valued by Agreement between the Parties interrested; or, if they cannot agree, thereon, among themselves, they shall address themselves to the officers of the Admiralty of the Place, where the Privateer, who has retaken the Vessell shall have conducted her.
Article 2.
If the Vessell recaptured has been more than Twenty four hours in the Power of the Ennemy, she shall belong entirely, to the Privateer who has retaken her.
Article 3.
In case, a Vessell shall have been recaptured, by a Vessell of War, belonging to the States General of the united Netherlands or to the united States of America, she shall be restored to the first owner, he paying a Thirtieth Part of the Value of the Ship, her Cargo, Cannons and <Appurtenances> Apparell, if she has been recaptured, in the Interval of Twenty four hours and the Tenth Part, if she has been recaptured, after the Twenty four Hours: which Sums shall be distributed in form of Gratifications to the Crews of the Vessells which shall have retaken her.
The Valuation of the said Thirtieth Parts, and Tenth Parts shall be regulated, according to the Tenour of the first Article of the present Convention.
Article 4.
The Restitution of Prizes, whether they may have been retaken by Vessells of War, or by Privateers, in the mean time and untill requisite and Sufficient Proofs can be given of the Property of Vessells recaptured, shall be admitted, in a reasonable time,2 under Sufficient Sureties for the Observation of the aforesaid Articles.
Article 5.
The Vessells of War and Privateers, of one and of the other of the two Nations, shall be, reciprocally, both in Europe, and in the other Parts of the World, admitted, in the respective Ports of each, with their Prises, which may be unloaded and Sold, according to the formalities used in the State, where the Prise shall have been conducted, as far as may be consistent with the 22d. Article of the Treaty of Commerce:3 Provided always, that the Legality of Prises by the Vessells of the Low Countries, shall be decided conformably to the Laws and Regulations established, in the United Netherlands; as likewise that of <American Vessells> Prises made by American Vessells, shall be judged, according to the Laws and Regulations determined by the United States of America.
Article 6.
Moreover, it shall be free for the States General of the United Netherlands as well as for the United States of America, to make such Regulations as they shall judge necessary, relative to the Conduct; which their respective Vessells and Privateers ought to hold, in Relation to the Vessells which they shall have taken and conducted into the Ports of the two Powers.
In Faith of which We the Deputies and Plenipotentiaries of the Lords the States General of the United Netherlands, and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, have, in Virtue of our respective Authorities and Full Powers, Signed these Presents and confirm•ed the Same, with the Seal of our Arms.
Done at the Hague the.4
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Convention concerning Recaptures in English.” Filmed at ([8 Oct. 1782], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 358).
1. This date is derived from the States General’s resolution of 17 Sept. (No. X, below) where it is stated that the final version of the convention was given to JA on 6 September. This convention is virtually identical to the Franco-Dutch Convention of 1 May 1781, with references to France replaced by those to the United States. Indeed, a copy of the Franco-Dutch convention, in French and endorsed “Convention entre la France & La Republieque concernant les Reprises,” is in the Adams Papers and filmed at [8 Oct. 1782], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 358. For an English translation of the Franco-Dutch convention, which JA had sent to Congress in his letter of 25 May 1781, see Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 4:435–436. Except for variations in capitalization and punctuation, there are no significant differences between the texts published here and the convention signed on 8 Oct. (Miller, Treaties, 2:91–95).
2. In both the Dutch and the English texts JA interlined the passage from the previous comma.
3. In the Dutch text JA wrote the passage from the previous comma in the left margin. In the English text he interlined it.
4. In the signed treaty the Dutch text continued “Agtsten October, Een duysent Seeven hondert twee en tagtig,” below which were the names of the Dutch plenipotentiaries and their seals. The English text continued “Eight of October, One Thousand Seven Hundred Eighty Two,” below which was JA’s signature and seal (same, 2:95). For the Dutch signatories, see No. VIII, note 26, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0013

X. Resolution of the States General Authorizing the Signature of the Dutch-American Treaty and Convention on Recaptures, with a Contemporary Translation

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0013-0001

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Author: Borsselert, W. Z., van
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-09-17

Resolution of the States General Authorizing the Signature of the Dutch-American Treaty and Convention on Recaptures

SecreetExtract uyt het Register der Resolutien Van de Hoog Moge. Heeren Staaten Generaal der Vereenigde Neederlanden
De Heeren van Randwijk, en andere Haer Hoog Moge: Gedeputeerden tot de buijtenlandsche Saaken, ingevolge en ter Voldoeninge van derserlver Resolutie Commissoriael van den 23 April deezes jaers, in conferentie getreeden Synde met den Heere Adams Minister Plenipotentiaris der Vereenigde Staten van America over het aangaan van een Tractaat van Vriendschap en Commercie met wel• { 387 } gem: Staaten, hebben ter Vergaderinge gerapporteert dat gemelde Heer Adams op den 26. daer aan volgende aan haer had overgegeeven een Project van Zodanig een Tractaat, met versoek van het zelve te willen examineeren en daerbij te voegen zodanige punten als meest dienstig Souden vinden:
Dat zij Heeren Gedeputeerden, na ingenomen te hebben de Consideratien en het advijs van Gecommitteerden uyt de respve. Collegien ter Admiraliteyt op het voersz. Project gemaakt hadden eenige Remarques, en die beneevens eenige nadere Propositien op den 22 Aúgústús laastleeden aangem: Heer Adams hadden ter hand gestelt, maar op gem: Heer Adams deszelfs andwoord op den 27e. daer aen volgende aen haar Heeren Gedeputeerden hadde gecommuniceert. Dat zij het een en ander vergeleeken hebbende bevonden hadden, dat door het laastgemelde Andwoord alle oneffenheeden waaren uyt den weg geruymt en zij vervolgens een nieuw Concept Tractaat als meede een Concept Conventie weegens de hernomen prijzen, in die forme, als Zij oordeelden, dat dezelve behoorden te weezen en so als die hier na geinsereert sijn hadden geconcipieert, en op den 6e. deeze loopende Maend aen gem: Heer Adams ter hand gesteld, met welke beijde Concepten dien Heer Zeedert verklaard heeft volkomen genoegen teneemen. Zoo dat zij Heeren Gedeputeerden aan Haer Hoog Mogende in bedenken moesten geeven, oft Haar Hoog Mogende thans hun niet Zouden kunnen en behooren te authoriseeren om het voorsz. Tractaat en Conventie met geme: Heer Adams te sluijten ente teekenen.
Waar op gedelibereerd Sijnde is goedgevonden en verstaan, dat het voorschreeve Tractaat en Conventie op den bovengemelden voet afgeschreven, en in het net gestelt Sullen worden, om de laaste hand daer aanteleggen; en wordende welgemelde Heeren van Randwyk, en andere Haer Hoog Mogende Gedeputeerden tot de buijtenlandsche Zaaken mitz deezen versogt en gecommitteert om het voorsz. Tractaat en Conventie met gemelde Heere Adams te sluijten en te teekenen.
[signed] W: Z: Van Borsselert
[signed] Accordeert met voorsz. Register H. Fagel
{ 388 }

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0013-0002

Author: Netherlands, States General of
Author: Borsselert, W. Z. van
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-09-17

X. Resolution of the States General Authorizing the Signature of the Dutch-American Treaty and Convention on Recaptures: A Contemporary Translation

Copy
SecretExtract from the records of the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses, the States General of the United Netherlands.
The Lord van Randwyk and others, Deputies of their High Mightinesses for the Department of foreign Affairs, in Obedience to and in Compliance with their Resolution of the 23d. April of this present Year, having conferred with Mr. Adams, Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America, respecting the entering into a Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the said States, reported to this Assembly, that the said Mr. Adams on the 26th. of April thereafter, did deliver to them a Plan of such a Treaty, requesting the same might be examined, and that such Articles might be added as might be deemed most serviceable. That the said Gentlemen, Deputies, after having consulted and advised with the Committees of the respective Colleges of Admiralty upon the said Plan or Sketch of a Treaty, made sundry Observations thereon and also sundry separate Propositions, all which on the 26th. [i.e., 22d.] August last they communicated to the said Mr. Adams, who on the 27th. following returned his Answer thereto; which having compared with the said Propositions and finding the same in Substance conformable thereto, and all Difficulties that had occurred entirely removed, they drew up a new Treaty and also a new Convention on the Subject of retaken Prizes, in conformity to the Determination that had been previously adopted and resolved on, and the Treaties so prepared they handed to Mr. Adams on the 6th. of this current Month, who since has declared himself perfectly satisfied therewith.
Wherefore the said Gentlemen, Deputies for foreign Affairs, submit it to the Consideration of their High Mightinesses to determine, whether it would not be proper and necessary to authorize them to conclude and sign with Mr. Adams the Treaty and Convention aforesaid.
Whereupon having deliberated it is found and judged right, that the said Treaty and Convention be drawn out afresh and fair Copies thereof made, in Order that the finishing Hand may be put thereto; { 389 } and the said Lord van Randwyk and others, their High Mightinesses Deputies for foreign Affairs, are hereby requested and authorized to conclude and sign the said Treaty and Convention with the aforesaid Mr. Adams.
[signed] W: Z: Van Borsselert
[signed] Compared with the Record H. Fagel
Translated from the Original by Henry Remsen2
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Full Power to Mr Van Randwick and others to Sign the Treaty of Commerce & Convention 17 Sept. 1782.” MS translation by Henry Remsen (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 201–203). JA enclosed a copy of the resolution (same, f. 197–199) with his letter of 8 Oct. to Robert R. Livingston (No. XI, below), and Remsen did his translation from that copy.
1. This resolution chronicles the progress of the negotiations from JA’s first formal proposal of a treaty of amity and commerce on 23 April and formally authorizes the plenipotentiaries to sign the treaty and convention. In effect it endorsed a decision already made, for in his diary entry for 14 Sept. JA wrote that “Mr. Boreel, The Baron de Linden de Hemmen, and the President of the grand Committee, all Members of the Assembly of their H M told me, that five Copies of the Treaties would be made out, according to my Desire, the English and Dutch Side by Side upon every Page, and the Treaty would be signed next Week” (JA, D&A, 3:6).
2. Henry Remsen Jr. was chief clerk of the Department of Foreign Affairs and later chief clerk of the Department of State (Washington, Papers, Presidential Series, 2:272–273).

Docno: ADMS-06-13-02-0162-0014

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1782-10-08

XI. To Robert R. Livingston

[salute] Sir

At 12. oClock today I proceeded, according to appointment, to the State-House, where I was received, with the usual formalities, at the head of the Stairs, by Mr: Van Santheuvel, a Deputy from the Province of Holland, and Mr: Van Linden, the first Noble of Zealand and a Deputy from that Province; and by them conducted into the Chamber of Business (Chambre de besogne,) an apartment adjoining to the Truce-Chamber (Chambre de Treve) where were executed the Treaty of Commerce, and the Convention concerning Re-captures, after an Exchange of Full Powers.
The Treaty and Convention are both enclosed, or at least, an authentic Copy of each. If the Copy should arrive before the Original, which I shall reserve to be sent by the safest opportunity I can find, it will be a sufficient foundation for the Ratification of Congress.2
I hope the Treaty will be satisfactory to Congress. It has taken up much time to obtain the Remarks and the Consent of all the Mem• { 390 } bers of this complicated Sovereignty. Very little of this time has been taken up by me, as Congress will see by the Resolution of their High-Mightinesses containing the power to the Deputies to conclude and sign the Treaty: for, altho’ all Communications were made to me in Dutch, a language in which I was not sufficiently skilled to depend upon my own knowledge, Mr. Dumas was ever at hand and ever ready to interpret to me every thing in french, by which means I was always able to give my answers without loss of time.
The Papers, in which the whole progress of this Negotiation is contained in Dutch, French and English; make a large bundle, and, after all, they contain nothing worth transmitting to Congress. To copy them would be an immense labor to, no purpose, and to send the Originals, at once, would expose them to loss.3
Several Propositions were made to me, which I could not agree to, and several were made on my part, which could not be admitted by the States. The final result, contained in the Treaty, is as near the Spirit of my Instructions as I could obtain, and I think it is, in nothing, materially variant from them.4
The Lords the Deputies proposed to me to make the Convention a part of the Treaty. My answer was, that I thought the Convention, which is nearly conformable with that lately made with France, would be advantageous on both sides; but as I had no special Instructions concerning it, and as Congress might have objections that I could not foresee, it would be more agreable to have the Convention seperate, so that Congress, if they should find any difficulty, might ratify the Treaty without it—This was accordingly agreed to.
It seemed at first to be insisted on, that we should be confined to the Dutch Ports in Europe, but my friend Mr: Van Berckel and the Merchants of Amsterdam came in aid of me, in convincing all that it was their interest to treat us upon the footing Gentis amicissima in all parts of the world.
Friesland proposed that a Right should be stipulated, for the Subjects of their Republic to purchase lands in any of our States: But such Reasons were urged as convinced them that this was too extensive an object for me to agree to—1st. It was not even stipulated for France—2d. If it should be now introduced into this Treaty, all other nations would expect the same, and altho’, at present, it might not be impolitic to admit of this, yet nobody would think it wise to bind ourselves to it forever—3d. What rendered all other Considerations unnecessary was, that Congress had not Authority to do this, it { 391 } | view { 392 } being a matter of the interior policy of the Seperate States—This was given up.
A more extensive Liberty of engaging Seamen in this Country, was a favorite Object; but it could not be obtained.
The Refraction, as they call it, upon Tobacco in the Weigh-houses, is a thing that enters so deeply into their commercial Policy, that I could not obtain any thing, more particular or more explicit, than what is found in the Treaty.
Upon the whole, I think the Treaty is conformable to the Principles of perfect Reciprocity, and contains nothing that can possibly be hurtfull to America, or offensive to our Allies, or to any other Nation, except Great-Britain, to whom it is indeed, without a speedy peace, a mortal blow.
The Rights of France and Spain are sufficiently secured by the 22d. Article, altho’ it is not in the very words of the Project, transmitted me by Congress: It is the same in substance and effect. The Duc de la Vauguyon was very well contented with it, and the States were so jealous of unforseen Consequences from the words of the Article,5 as sent me by Congress and as first proposed by me, that I saw it would delay the Conclusion, without end. After several Conferences, and many Proposals, we finally agreed upon the Article, as it stands, to the satisfaction of all Parties.
The Clause, reserving to the Dutch their Rights in the East and West-Indies, is unnecessary, and I was averse to it, as implying a Jealousy of us. But as it implies too a Compliment to our Power and Importance; was much insisted on; and amounted to no more than we should have been bound to, without it, I withdrew my Objection.
The Proviso of conforming to the Laws of the Country, respecting the external shew of public worship, I wished to have excluded; because I am an Enemy to every appearance of restraint in a matter so delicate and sacred as the Liberty of Conscience; but the Laws here do not permit Roman Catholics to have Steeples to their Churches, and these Laws could not be altered.
I shall be impatient to receive the Ratification of Congress, which I hope may be transmitted within the time limited.

[salute] I have the honor to be, Sir, Your Most Obedt. humble. Servt.

[signed] J. Adams
RC and enclosure in Charles Storer’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 193–196); endorsed: “Letter Oct 8. 1782 J. Adams with Copy of treaty of Amity & Commerce & of Convention respecting recaptured Vessels between the States general of the Netherlands & the United States of America Read Jany. 21. 1783 Referred to Mr Madison Mr Hamilton Mr Ellsworth.” The only enclosure with this letter in the PCC is a copy of the States General’s resolution of 17 Sept. (No. X, above), but see note 2 below.
1. This letter constitutes JA’s only account of the negotiations leading to the treaty of amity and commerce and to the convention on recaptures and his only explanation of the reasons for accepting provisions that might be seen as running counter to his instructions. His description of the signing ceremony in the first paragraph should be compared with that in his diary entry for 8 Oct., but see also John Thaxter’s comment on the signing in his 9 Oct. letter to AA (JA, D&A, 3:16; AFC, 5:8–10).
2. Besides this copy, JA sent a duplicate and triplicate of this letter (PCC, Misc. Papers, Reel 1, f. 695–700, 701–707). Congress apparently received signed originals of the treaty and convention and at least two sets of attested copies of the two agreements, but which documents went with this 8 Oct. copy of the letter or with the duplicate and triplicate is unknown. Indeed Congress’ journal for 21 Jan. 1783 states that “a letter of 8 October, 1782, from the honourable J. Adams, was read, accompanied with a certified copy of a treaty of amity and commerce, and of a convention respecting re-captured vessels” (JCC, 24:50). This seems to indicate that Congress first received attested copies of the treaty and the convention and that it was those documents, rather than the signed originals, that Congress ratified on 23 Jan. (same, p. 66–82). None of the copies, either original or attested, enclosed by JA with his letters are in the (PCC, but see Miller, Treaties, 2:89.
3. For the consequences of JA’s failure to send Congress the materials relating to the negotiations and the apparent absence of at least a portion of them from the Adams Papers, see the editorial note to the group document, above.
4. In its report to Congress, the committee to which JA’s letter and the treaty and the convention had been referred agreed with JA. While it noted that Arts. 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 18, and 22 were different from what had been proposed in the Treaty Plan of 1780, it declared “that on a comparison of the former [the treaty] with the instructions given to the said Minister Plenipo: on the subject, they find that no variations have taken place which affect the substance of the plan proposed by Congress” and thus “the Committee are of opinion that the Treaty ought to be immediately and fully accepted and ratified.” Regarding the convention on recaptures, mentioned by JA in the following paragraph, the committee noted “that although no express authority has been delegated by Congress on that subject,” it “is adapted to the mutual advantage of the parties, and ought also to be forthwith ratified” (JCC, 24:65). At JA’s behest, C. W. F. Dumas exchanged the instruments of ratification on 23 June 1783 (Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 6:502). Copies of the instruments signed by Elias Boudinot and Robert R. Livingston that include the text of Congress’ resolutions of 23 Jan. 1783 and the texts, in both Dutch and English, of the treaty and convention are in the Adams Papers and filmed at 23 Jan. (Microfilms, Reel No. 360).
5. For the consequences that the Dutch foresaw from the article as originally proposed, see Adriaan van Zeebergh’s commentary of 25 July, above.
Cite web page as: Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses, ed.C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2014.
http://www.masshist.org/apde2/