. For the Massachusetts court, see Act of 1 Nov. 1775, 5 A&R
436, 438–441, as amended, Act of 13 April 1776, 5 A&R
474. The jurisdiction was later extended to certain traditional maritime causes such
as seamen's wages, salvage, and disputes between part-owners, as well as to offenses
against a law prohibiting the exportation of naval stores, but the jury was retained.
Act of 29 April 1778, 5 A&R
806; Act of 19 Feb. 1779, 5 A&R
930. For a summary of legislation in other states, see Davis, “Federal Courts Prior
to the Adoption of the Constitution,” 131 U.S.
, Appendix xx—xxii (1889); Hampton L. Carson, The Supreme Court of the United States
44–47 (Phila., 1892). For the work of these courts, which did much to pass on the
Admiralty tradition to the courts of the United States, see Wiener, “Notes on the
Rhode Island Admiralty, 1727–1790,” 46 Harv. L. Rev.
44, 59–62 (1932); Hough, Reports
243–254; Ubbelohde, Vice Admiralty Courts
195–201. For JA
's later comments on the Massachusetts act, see his letter to Elbridge Gerry, 14 April
1813, 10 JA, Works