The Adams Papers Digital Edition is undergoing active maintenance while we work on improvements to the system. You may experience slow performance or the inability to access content. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. We will endeavor to return to full capabilities as soon as possible.
. The words “and season” were added after “manner,” a change that perhaps made Sundays
less exclusively the major day for worship. The use of the term “subject” here and
in Arts. III, XI, XII, and XIV is unique to the Massachusetts declaration. Other bills
of rights use “man,” “person,” or “freeman” everywhere. It may be that “subject” was
an inadvertent retention of old usage. Before the Revolution all Americans were subjects
of the crown, that is, owed allegiance to the king of Great Britain. The term lingered
on and came to mean a person subject to the laws as distinct from a citizen, who enjoyed
political rights. But this distinction seems not to have been made by JA
, for in Art. X he uses the term “individual” and in Arts. XV and XXVI, “man.”
Cite web page as: Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses, ed.C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2014.