. The resolution, adopted on 20 Nov., had been reported in the Gazette de Leyde
of 24 November. The five provinces voting affirmatively were Holland, Utrecht, Friesland,
Overijssel, and Groningen; the two remaining provinces, Zeeland and Gelderland, acquiesced
in the decision (Edler, Dutch Republic and the American Revolution
, p. 158). The purport of the resolution was that the Dutch representatives at St.
Petersburg could, with minor modifications, accede to the conventions already concluded
by Russia with Denmark and Sweden on 9 July and 1 Aug. respectively. The formal accession
took place at St. Petersburg on 4 Jan. 1781, a significant date in terms of the operation
of the armed neutrality with regard to the Dutch, for Britain declared war against
the Netherlands on 20 December. For the Dutch resolution of 20 Nov., the conventions
of 9 July and 1 Aug., and the Dutch accession of 4 Jan. 1781, see James Brown Scott,
ed., The Armed Neutralities of 1780 and 1800
, N.Y., 1918, p. 325–328, 299–304, 311–316, 346–349; see also JA
's letters to the president of Congress, 25 Dec.
, No. 29, and note 3
; 28 Dec.
, No. 33, and note 2