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Browsing: Adams Family Correspondence, Volume 10

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0263

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Smith, Abigail Adams
Date: 1795-04-15

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams Smith

[salute] My Dear Sister.

By the arrival of Mr: Van Rensselaar, I am favoured with your letter of Novr: 29.1 I have not yet seen that Gentleman, who is still at Amsterdam, but proposes visiting this place in a few days; you well know what a pleasure we always derive in foreign Countries merely from the sight of one of our own Countrymen, and in this instance I { 409 } shall be still more gratified in meeting a person, who comes recommended from my best friends.
You have doubtless been informed long before this, that the french are in Possession not only of Amsterdam, but of this whole Republic. You will have learnt also at the same time, that our personal security has never been for a moment endangered; indeed we never had occasion for an instant of apprehension on our own Account, as we knew, we were under a protection which at any rate would be respected. But the principles proclaimed and observed by the French since their arrival, have extended personal safety to every individual, and private property has been equally inviolate.
They came as the Enemies only of the Government, but as the friends of the People. They have hitherto uniformly discovered this character in both its parts, and the probability seems to be that they will continue to preserve it.
Since the Revolution in France, which put an end at once to the power, and the life of Robespierre, the french councils have assumed a very different aspect from that which had for so long a time presented, a constant violation of every principle of Justice, and every Sentiment of Humanity. They have thrown off the burden of oppression which had become intolerable; they have recovered from the political fanaticism, which during one period had an influence among them, which they are now the first to lament; and nothing now remains for them but to settle into a state that may relieve them from the violent agitations which they still experience.
The greatest inconvenience that I have suffered in consequence of their success in this Country, has been the interruption of communication, with almost all Europe, as well as with America. It prevents me from hearing from, and from writing to my friends, so often as I should wish; and this privation is but partially balanced, by a free communication with France itself which enables us to observe more particularly the interesting occurrences which are daily taking place in that Country.
It gives me great pleasure to be informed by your letter, that our Parents, and our friends in general were well when it was written. The news of Mr Shaw’s death was equally painful and unexpected to us. The loss of a good Man, is always a misfortune to Society, but in this instance I fear it will be distressing in its consequences to his family. Our amiable Aunt especially, will need all her fortitude, and all her resignation, and I hope they will not be without their reward.
{ 410 }
We are indeed once more scattered about the world as you observe, and our destiny from our childhood, has been that of wanderers, beyond the common lot of men. But in the pursuit of no improper purposes distance of space and difference of clime, by temporary deprivations can only enhance the pleasure we derive from the Society of one another, and the hopes of meeting again all together which can never abandon us always affords some consolation against the tediousness of long absence and distant separation.
I would request you to present my compliments of Congratulation to your Sister Charity upon her marriage, were it not for the presumption that by the time my Letter will reach you, it will be an old Story. However, though I have not the pleasure of an acquaintance with Mr Shaw, I have such an opinion of the Lady’s taste and judgment, as well as her disposition, that I am perswaded the marriage is one of those the anniversary of which will admit of congratulation.
Thomas is well, and writes you by the present opportunity;2 he will give you perhaps a detail of his observations in a Country which presented to him an aspect altogether new. As yet he has not seen it in the most favourable point of view. A Revolution, a Conquest, and a Winter severe beyond a parallel combining all together cannot present the most agreeable scenes to the imagination or the Senses; but we have seen nothing so afflictive to humanity as might be expected from such Events, and at present we have a promising prospect of political tranquility, which will enable us to enjoy the beauties of the Season, which has already assumed its most pleasing forms.
Remember me affectionately to your children, and be assured of the invariable Sentiments with which I am your friend and brother.
[signed] John Q. Adams.3
RC (MHi:Adams Papers, All Generations); addressed by TBA: “Mrs: A Smith / New York”; internal address: “Mrs: A. Smith.”; docketed: “Mrs Smith New York.” LbC (Adams Papers); APM Reel 128.
1. The letter has not been found but was carried by Robert S. Van Rensselaer, son of Philip and Maria Sanders Van Rensselaer of New York, when he traveled to Europe in late 1794 or early 1795. JQA and TBA would meet Van Rensselaer on 8 and 9 May 1795 (Maunsell Van Rensselaer, Annals of the Van Rensselaers in the United States, Albany, N.Y., 1888, p. 61, 181; M/TBA/2, APM Reel 282).
2. Not found.
3. On this same day JQA wrote WSS a brief acknowledgment of WSS’s letter of introduction for Robert Van Rensselaer, 1 Dec. 1794, not found, that also suggested American commerce to Dutch ports could proceed without interference (Lb/JQA/3, APM Reel 128).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0264

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Charles
Date: 1795-04-16

John Quincy Adams to Charles Adams

[salute] My dear Brother

I have to thank you for your favour of Decr: 1st: sent me a few days since by Mr Van Rensselaar.1 It is the first direct communication we have had from any part of our own family, since we left our Country, and it was an article which wanted no stimulus of scarcity to make it valuable.
Your political information was very acceptable, and I hope you will not fail to continue it by every future oportunity; that is, if there is to be any more communication between this Country and ours. If our merchants had continued their commercial speculations without any suspension, they would have made some of their best voyages at this time, and their property, would not have been a moment insecure.
Thomas takes care to send you very punctually the Leyden Gazette, and from thence you will collect the political news as early and as accurate as I can inform you. It is a subject, with which I find myself so much obsédé from necessity, that I am glad to escape from it occasionally, and have a little sociable chat with my particular friends.
We have had occasion to see and converse repeatedly with the french Representatives here in mission, and with the Generals who command the armies. We are also constantly in the midst of the troops, who are quartered in considerable numbers through all the Cities of this Country.
The national character discovers itself in the most unequivocal manner, and in its most aimiable forms. It becomes the more conspicuous from the comparison with that of this people, and affords a speculation equally interesting to the philosopher and the Philanthropist. It is almost inconceivable that characters so opposite and in such relative situations to one another, should harmonize so well as they do. The gaiety, the good humor, the vivacity and the vanity of the french never abandon them, and with so much reason to be vain as those at present here have, it would indeed be surprizing if they had taken this for the moment of reformation in that respect.
This vanity, which scarcely any of them has the art to conceal, is the only circumstance that can in the smallest degree balance the laudable part of their conduct. The discipline of the troops is { 412 } accurate and unexceptionable. We scarcely have heard of an instance of pillage or of violence; the soldiers have nothing like insolence in their manners, and the officers in high rank, have all the politeness and urbanity that ever distinguished that extraordinary people. The Representatives are members of the Convention who follow the armies, and have an authority almost unlimited over them. The Command of the Generals is merely military. They are all men remarkably young, I have scarcely met with a man of 40 years old among them.
Pichegru was the General in chief at the time of their arrival. He is since removed to the command of the armies of Rhine & Moselle. He is equally esteemed by the army, and by the Convention, who as you will see by the papers gave him a very confidential command, on an occasion lately critical to themselves. His popularity appears to be unmingled with the Jealousy, which has been so fatal to all his predecessors, and his removal from this army was rather the effect of confidence than of fear, as it was for the purpose of placing him in a more active situation than that in which he must have remained in Holland.
His personal appearance has nothing remarkable. His manners are pleasing, and his conversation particularly distinguished by a modesty, which is the more striking; because it is so uncommon. With many others, I, is the hero of each tale, and you hear of nothing but their courage, their sufferings, their victories, their humanity, their truimphs and their moderation; all which though certainly well founded, would come with a better grace from other mouths than their own. But nothing of this kind escapes from Pichegru, who appears to prefer any other conversation to that, the subject of which is himself, his army, or his nation, and who when they are introduced, speaks of them with moderation and simplicity.
We have had as you may well suppose a tolerably dull winter. When we arrived here the last of October, The Country was invaded— The Government at that time … but peace be to its ashes; its virtues and its frailties are now gone to sleep with their fathers, and it would not become me, to pronounce their funeral Eulogy. But when we arrived, they had discovered the inefficacy of their carnal weapons, and as an instrument of deliverance had addicted themselves to prayer. They fared none the better for it. Their enemies represented it as a kind of repentance in articulo mortis2 better calculated to prove guilt than to obtain remission. The effect { 413 } however was an universal gloom and sadness, which was augmented by the prohibition of all public diversions.
The winter came on, it was the severest season ever known; for eleven weeks the canals and rivers were frozen over, and in the midst of its most rigorous extremity, a singular political operation, half conquest, half revolution, toppled down headlong the Government and Constitution of the Country— Since that time the theatres have been opened. A few Concerts, Balls public dinners, fetes &ca have been given, but except among the french guests, very little cheerfulness and gaiety have been visible.
In the mean while, our time has not hung heavy upon our hands— The magnitude of events following one another in such rapid Succession around us—the novelty and importance of the political scenes of which we were witnesses, together with the attention to our own concerns, and the use of some valuable books, served as a full employment for our time, and if we had not been almost entirely deprived of communication from our friends, we should have had no reason to complain of tediousness.
Amid the din of arms, the muses meet with the same fate as the laws— The penury of Literature, Science and the arts throughout Europe—is as great as that of provisions.— In france, the objects in which all genius and talents are concentered are those of Government or of war. Their Generals have had the merit of introducing a new mode of warfare, and the brilliancy of their success proves the superiority of their system. In the National Convention since the fall of Robespierre and his tyranny, Eloquence has been cultivated and improved; the interests of the European nations, the laws and customs resulting from their intercourse, and the principles of negotiations, have commanded the attention of many members, whom the Revolution alone has brought into action. The admiration, which the People are always inclined to bestow upon the declamatory style of oratory, still perverts the taste of their speakers, and in the numerous discourses, which are pronounced in the Assembly, scarce a single exception can be found to their general character, which substitutes, epigrams instead of arguments, fine turn’d periods instead of reasoning, and poetry, instead of demonstration.
An enthusiastic attachment to the arts and siences, is however one of the fashionable professions of the day. Among the former, Music, among the latter Natural Philosophy, and in particular Chemistry, enjoy the most extraordinary favour. Every thing in that { 414 } Country has some relation with their Revolution. Their excessive fondness for music arises from their opinion of its powerful operation as an instrument upon the popular passions. Its effects upon them have given credibility to the story of Tyrtaeus, and almost realized the fables of Orpheus and Amphion.3 Their Chemical pursuits have had an application no less important to the necessities of their situation and enabled them to convert substances before deemed the most worthless into weapons of war. The passion for theatrical representations is also stronger than it ever was, at any preceding period. But their Dramatic Genius, has always been fettered with the shackles of occasional popular opinions, and their Stage instead of animating the productions of Poets, destined to immortality, has been a mere echo of the momentary sounds, which the perpetual variations of the public frenzy, have emitted under the name of public opinion. The Vandalism of political intolerance has extended its proscriptions to the models of the modern Drama, and the High-Priests of the scenic muses have been ignominiously driven from their temple, as seducers to aristocracy, and provokers to Royalism.
I finish, having neither paper nor time to continue, / your brother—
LbC in TBA’s hand (Adams Papers); internal address: “Charles Adams Esqr: New York”; APM Reel 128.
1. Not found.
2. At the point of death.
3. Tyrtaeus was a Spartan elegiac poet of the seventh century B.C. whose poems addressed soldiers as if on the battlefield. Orpheus, a famed musician of Greek myth, could use his voice to create magic. Similarly, Amphion, the son of Zeus and Antiope, had been given a magical lyre, with which he charmed the stones used to wall the city of Thebes (Oxford Classical Dicy.).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0265

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1795-04-21

John Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My Dear son

I have but lately received your kind Letters of the 3d and 21. of Decr.1 They were like cold Water to a thirsty soul.— While I acknowledge your and your Brothers goodness in writing to me, I am afraid I ought to make an Apology to both, for having written so seldom to You.
The late Elections to Congress have gone in general in favour of the Fœderal Government, in the Senate especially. The Town of Boston has made an Exertion, and have Elected Mr Jones to the Senate of the State in the Place of Mr Austin, and Theophilus { 415 } Cushing instead of Charles.2 This is thought to be a great Event in favour of Peace, Order and Virtue. Some of the Representatives of that Town are in danger.
The Banks begin to excite Controversies with each other, and Seem to be aware that they have gone rather too far in discounting, and continuing &c. They certainly have Sent abroad too much of their Paper.
Although I have Knowledge enough of your Wisdom to be willing to trust you, in the critical Circumstances of the Country in which you reside, I am a little anxious to hear from you, Since the Revolution. You were soon relieved from Fitzherberts Impertinence by his precipitatd flight,3 and the French I presume both of the Army and of the civil state will behave towards you with Civility and Kindness.
Our Country, in this “piping Time of Peace” affords no News but of Marriages, Shipbuilding, House building, canal digging Bridge making &c &c. I hope to make my farm shine against your return.—
The inclosed Pamphlet, I wish you to translate and publish in Holland—or Perhaps our magnificent Friend Luzac will Save you the Trouble.4
I pray you my dear son not to think hard of your Father, if you do not receive Letters so often as you wish—and if the Letters when you receive any are not so particular as they might be— I write in great Pain and under Embarrassments. I am however not the / less affectionately your obliged and approving / Father
[signed] John Adams
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “J. Q. Adams.”
1. In his letter to JA of 3 Dec. 1794, JQA reported rumors of impending peace negotiations between the Dutch and the French, popular discontent toward British protection, and the diplomatic posturing of the British ambassador. JQA’s letter of 21 Dec. offered more extensive commentary on the impediments to Franco-Dutch peace negotiations and the poor state of the Dutch economy. He also predicted that the increasingly cold weather might soon make possible a French invasion. JQA further suggested that JA subtly push the Dutch minister at Philadelphia to write favorably to his government about the United States (both Adams Papers).
2. Theophilus Cushing (1740–1820) of Hingham rose to the rank of brigadier general during the Revolutionary War and then served as a local selectman and member of the Mass. house of representatives prior to his election to the state senate. He joined Thomas Dawes, John Coffin Jones, and Oliver Wendell as the four senators representing Suffolk County for the 1795–1796 term (George Thomas Little, Genealogical and Family History of the State of Maine, 4 vols., N.Y., 1909, 4:1756; Mass., Acts and Laws, 1794–1795, p. 459).
3. Alleyne Fitzherbert had been appointed ambassador at The Hague on 25 March 1794 but returned to England after the French invasion (DNB).
4. Enclosure not found.

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0266

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1795-04-22

Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams

No. 4

[salute] My Dear Son

I received your very excellent Letter No 4 written from the Hague, dated 11 of November. accept my thanks. Your Letters are a source of consolation for your absence and do honor to the Hand which indites & the Heart which dictates them.
I hope you have received those which I have written to you. my last No 3 was sent by way of Hambugh1
Mr W Cunningham has a vessel going immediatly to Amsterdam. your Father writes by it, and I hope many of your other Friends will. we presume you are Still at the Hague, equally safe under the protection of our Allies the French as our Friends the Dutch, tho the Chronical was pleasd to make a matter of uncertainty of it, whether the American Minister was gone to England with the Stadtholder, or remaind under the protection of General Pichegrue. he however confessd that he heard nothing of him.2
As it will not be proper for me to write freely upon publick affair, I shall confine myself to such domestick occurences as relate to our own State and Country, and I know of none more important than the Election of mr Coffin Jones into the State Senate, in the place of Honestus, and this by a majority of four hundred votes. the Represeentitives stiled Jacobins are like to be displaced at the ensuing Election, and mr Codman & otis are talkd of to Succeed them.3 Should this be the case, the Boston Seat may again become respectable.
I am sorry to damp your pleasureable feelings, by informing you that mr Dexter after three trials has lost his Election in the National Representation, & Varnum Succeeds him, who to use an expression of your favorite Shakspears—[“]is no more to Dexter, than I to Hercules”4 Jarvis may be said to have Districted Dexter out of his Election, and for this he ought himself to fall
I inclose you the Jacobiniad,5 from which I wrote you some extracts in my last, and hope it will reach you as safely as the Jew did me, a play I was much gratified with. it had Several escapes the vessel in which you sent it was cast away and lost upon the Irish Coast. the Letter No 2 which you mention having wrote from England has never come to Hand. the last to your Father which he has received were No 3. & 4. dated in December.6
{ 417 }
upon the 8 of June the Senate are convened to consider the Treaty. I shall embrace that opportunity to visit your sister, and see my young Grandaughter, Carolina Emelia I have proposed a Treaty of Marriage, merely for the Names between Frederick Adolphus Packard & carolina Emelia Smith.7
our two Cousins William & Lucy Cranch were married the week before last. I was at both the weddings— they are gone on a visit to Haverhill. Your Aunt is left as Clergymens widows usually are in low circumstances. I wish you would write to her she would receive it very kindly—and if you think your circumstances will allow you to make her a small present of Nine or ten pounds, it would assist her and I know gratify the natural Benevolence of your Heart You can direct Dr Welch to do it in your Name. her Friends have been kind to her, or She could not have lived & have discharged to every one their full & just dues—
Dr Appleton dyed last week after a lingering illness of many Months.8
I hope to have frequent opportunities of writing immediatly to Holland. be assured that none of them will be omitted by your / ever affectionate
[signed] A Adams
1. AA to JQA, 10 Feb., above.
2. In its commentary on the French invasion of Amsterdam, the Boston Independent Chronicle, 30 March, reported, “There is no account of the American Ambassador in this explosion; whether he has retired with the Stadtholder to the Court of St. James, or whether he has gone over to Gen. Pichegru to congratulate him on the signal success of the French Democrats.” For JQA’s response, see his letter to AA of 29 June, below.
3. John Codman Jr. was not a candidate for a seat in the Boston delegation to the Mass. house of representatives in the May election. Harrison Gray Otis was nominated but tallied eighth in voting for seven seats on 11 and 13 May. All seven seats would go to Federalists in May 1796, among them both Codman and Otis (Boston Federal Orrery, 14 May 1795; Samuel Eliot Morison, Harrison Gray Otis 1765–1848: The Urbane Federalist, Boston, 1969, p. 95; Boston Columbian Centinel, 14 May 1796).
4. “But no more like my father / than I to Hercules” (Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act I, scene ii, lines 152–153). For the race between Samuel Dexter and Joseph Varnum, see Thomas Welsh to JA, 15 Dec. 1794, and note 1, above.
5. Not found.
6. JQA’s only letter to AA from London, 25 Oct. 1794, above, was numbered one and enclosed The Jew. Letter no. 2, from The Hague, was dated 11 Nov., above, and was acknowledged by AA with this letter. His letters to JA of 3 and 21 Dec. were his fourth and fifth in number, respectively (Adams Papers).
7. Frederick Adolphus Packard, born 26 Sept. 1794, was the son of Rev. Asa Packard and Nancy Quincy (DAB). Preparations for the marriage of George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales, to Caroline of Brunswick on 8 April 1795 were widely reported in the American press; see, for example, Massachusetts Mercury, 17–21 April.
8. Dr. Nathaniel Walker Appleton, for whom see vol. 3:118, was 39 years of age when he died on 15 April. Public tribute for the respected physician included a published funeral sermon and a lengthy obituary that extolled, “In the various relations of { 418 } husband, son, parent, brother, and friend, his conduct was most exemplary. With an uncommon gentleness of manners, he united an exalted firmness of character. And to the close of life, his moral and political virtues, reflected new lustre, because he was a Christian from inquiry, and a Patriot from principle” (John Clarke, A Discourse, Delivered … after the Interment of Nathaniel W. Appleton, M.D., Boston, 1796, Evans, No. 30199; Boston Columbian Centinel, 18 April).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0267

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, Thomas Boylston
Date: 1795-04-23

Abigail Adams to Thomas Boylston Adams

[salute] Dear Thomas—

I did not receive any Letters from You when your Brother wrote last to me the 11 of Novbr.
I suppose you felt quite out of Sorts at not having received any Letters from Your Friends here. you must not however judge that your Friends have not written to you this is the fourth Letter which I have written, and your Friend Quincy I trust has written to you. I know he has received several Letters from You1
Much freedom of communication cannot be expected tho the contrast between America, and the Nations of Europe is so peculiarly Striking at this period, that it is next to impossible for our Hearts to be Sufficiently gratefull to the Supreme Arbiter and Govenour of the World, who maketh us to differ.2
In the full enjoyment of Health, Peace and competance, which Pope tells us, “is Reasons whole pleasure and all the Joys of Sense”3 we have great reason to pray, as the President directs in his Proclamation for a National Thanksgiving “that we may be preserved from the Arrogance of Prosperity”
Pope undoubtedly meant Peace of mind, yet a state of Peace is unquestionably as necessary for the happiness of a Nation, as Peace of mind to an individual.
The Clergy of this & some other of the states have distinguishd themselves in Support of the National Government on the late National Thanksgiving. I should like to make a collection of several of those Sermons which have been Printed, & send them to you. since the first settlement of the Country, upon no occasion have so many sermons been publishd none of them however have obtaind so great celebrity as one preachd by mr osgood of Medford upon our Annual Thanksgiving, which passd through three Editions in Boston, Six in new york & three in Philadelphia. the Sermon is a very good one, but its greatest merrit consisted in the Critical Moment of Publication, whilst the western Rebellion was just Subsiding, the Jacobine interest declining the Presidents Speach at the opening of Congress, the reply of the Senate, and the Debates in the House of { 419 } Representitives, all assisted in giving a currency to the Sentiments containd in the Sermon it was the first attempt from the pulpit to check the formidable combination of the self constituded Authorities, and embolden others to come forward. I have heard however of one Judas amongst the Apostles, and he is like to lose his Parish in concequence of it.
The people of Haverhill are like soon to settle an other minister a mr Abbot of Andover, perhaps a classmate of yours— he has received and Accepted a call.
I am anxious for your Dear & amiable Aunt who has many difficulties to struggle with her Friends are kind to her, and I hope will continue so. she has had 3 Boarders Gentlemen, now she must quit the House, which breaks her up for the present, but so good a woman can never be forsaken. her Friends have enabled her to continue her son at Cambridge— the funds of the university will assist him an other year4
I inclose you the Hartford News Boys address—said to be written by a dr Hopkins.5 write as often as possible / to Your ever affectionate Mother
[signed] Abigail Adams
1. In his Diary, TBA mentions receiving several letters from Josiah Quincy III; however, only his letter to TBA of 26 Dec. has been found (M/TBA/2, 28 July, 8 Oct., 12 Nov. 1795, APM Reel 282; TBA, Journal, 1798, p. 7; Adams Papers).
2. I Corinthians, 4:7.
3. Alexander Pope, An Essay on Man, Epistle IV, line 79.
4. Following his father’s death, William Smith Shaw received two forms of financial assistance from Harvard. In May 1795 the Harvard Corporation awarded Shaw a direct grant from the legacy of William Pennoyer, a bequest that amounted to $127 per year and was distributed equally among four students. He continued to receive the award in 1796 and 1797. The college faculty also employed Shaw as a waiter in the school’s dining hall. This other form of aid was awarded first in July 1795 and renewed in 1796 and 1797 (MH-Ar:Corporation Records, 3:470; 4:488, 528; MH-Ar:Faculty Records, 6:281, 303, 341).
5. Enclosure not found. Dr. Lemuel Hopkins (1750–1801), a Hartford physician and one of the so-called Connecticut Wits, is credited with several carriers’ addresses, which annually appeared in the Hartford Connecticut Courant in early January (DAB; Charles W. Everest, ed., The Poets of Connecticut; with Biographical Sketches, Hartford, Conn., 1844, p. 51). For extracts from the 1795 address, see AA to JA, 21 Jan., and note 2, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0268

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-04-25

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams

N. 5.

[salute] My dear Madam.

Your favour of Novr: 26. Was not quite five months in reaching me. I received it about a week since, and as the first direct { 420 } communication from you, since we sailed it was peculiarly acceptable, though it had been so long on the way.
You have received before this time I presume, my letter of Feby: 12. at least you are informed of the great changes which have taken place in the Government of this Country since our arrival.
The public tranquility has not been for a moment interrupted. The order and discipline of the french troops is above all praise. The parties within are more bitter than ever against each other, and but for a little superintendance, they would have been at work long ago. But as the friends and Allies of the Batavian People, have a very particular regard for them, they advise them in the most persuasive manner not to come to any extremities among themselves. So that in truth the greatest partizans of the Old Government, are those who are under the greatest obligations to the French.
It has not been without difficulty that the ardour of the popular Societies has been suppressed by the superior energy of their new Ally’s friendly counsels. These popular Societies, seem destined every where to grow as a monstrous wen upon the body of Liberty. In this Country there is scarce a town or village ever so small in which they have not sprung up since the Revolution; but hitherto they have been harmless, because they have been impotent. When the french armies entered the Province of Holland the Commissioners of the Convention published a proclamation promising to respect the Independence of the Batavian People; but declaring at the same time, that they would repress all excesses between the inhabitants. The only occasions upon which they have been obliged to carry this determination into effect has been furnished by the popular Societies.
It has been more than once proposed to me, and even urged upon me, to become a member of that which has been formed in this place. I have excused myself upon the ground of being a stranger, and of the impropriety which I should commit, in taking any part personally in the politics of the Country. This answer has been sufficient, but not satisfactory. The Patriots here say they are our only friends: That the Orange party detest us, and therefore that we are not equitable in preserving a neutrality between them.
As to the dispositions of the Orangists, there is too much truth in the assertion of their adversaries. The Court party, and all the former governing party here, never look upon the United States but with eyes of terror and aversion sometimes shaded with a veil of affected indifference, and sometimes attempted to be disguised under { 421 } a mask of respect and veneration.— I speak not of an universal sentiment. There are exceptions, among the thinking and respectable part of the Faction; but my reference is to the general sentiment of that class. I have had repeated opportunities of observing it, and if the situation of the whole party had been such as to admit of any sentiment relative to them, but compassion, I believe I should have been disposed before this to return them all their gall, and to exult in the foundation of their fears. But their humiliations from the time when I arrived to this day, have been such as would disarm any enmity but that of party. I have therefore invariably avoided every act that could be charged with partiality favourable to the patriots or against the others: not from regard to them, but to my own Duty.
It was therefore unnecessary for me to look for motives to justify my refusal, to the principles upon which I have an aversion to political popular Societies in general. To destroy an established power these Societies are undoubtedly an efficacious instrument. But in their nature they are fit for nothing else; and the reign of Robespierre has shewn, what use they make of power when they obtain its exercise.
While I am writing I receive your favour of January 10th: and am somewhat surprized that you had then received no letters from us. Indeed we have been informed that one of the vessels by which we wrote from England, was soon after she sailed wrecked upon the English coast, and we suppose our letters must have been lost.
Your short extracts from the poem published in the Orrery gave me much gratification. It did not assuredly proceed from the same pen as the few sketches which were communicated to you just before we sailed. I am suspicious however that the conjectures respecting the author (or authoress) are erroneous. And if there are no traces of discovery but mere conjecture, I am very confident that the writer will remain unknown. If I mistake not it is a person upon whom the public suspicion would not easily fall.
To write constantly about the news of the day is always tedious, and in all probability I can tell you nothing, but what will be known to you before the receipt of my Letter. The Peace between France and Prussia, which has already taken place, and that with Spain, said to be on the point of conclusion are the most important events of the present time.1 Luxemburg & Mentz are besieged by the french, but the action of the armies is languishing, and it is supposed that Italy is to become the most important seat of war.
The scarcity of provisions is excessive in almost every part of { 422 } France. And this circumstance is the cause or pretext of constant commotions and agitations in many of the departments and in Paris. The Convention as yet however stand their ground; the Jacobin party apparently weakens from day to day. They may be restored however by an explosion. Our American Jacobins I imagine will be puzzled to fix upon their creed as to french affairs. I question whether they will give at full length the debates in the Convention of the present time. If they do, you will perceive that Jacobin Clubs, Sans culottism, Démagogie, (if we have no word to express this idea, it is not for want of the thing) and all the madness and all the hypocrisy, which it was so long a fashion to profess and to admire, are now rated at their true value. There is however one fundamental political error, from which France has not yet recovered; It is the unqualified submission, and the unwise veneration for the opinion publique, which is in its nature inconsistent with any regular permanent system of government or of policy. Until they have the courage to explode this doctrine, they will not only be without a constitution, but totally destitute of the means of forming one.
I have not yet received a line from my father since we left America. I have written to him repeatedly, and hope that in general my letters in going having been more expeditious than those which have been coming to me. Hitherto we have been here in a kind of imprisonment, which has secluded us from the intercourse of our friends. In future we hope to be more fortunate.
Your affectionate Son
[signed] John Q. Adams.
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs: A. Adams.”; endorsed: “J Q Adams April / 25 1795.” LbC (Adams Papers); APM Reel 128. Tr (Adams Papers).
1. On 5 April France and Prussia signed a peace treaty at Basel, Switzerland. In return for control of the west bank of the Rhine, France ceded possessions on the river’s east bank. The treaty also established a zone of neutrality in northern Germany, which would be controlled by Prussia.
The treaty between Spain and France would be signed at Basel on 22 July with the only significant condition being Spain’s cession of its territory on Hispaniola (Paul W. Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848, N.Y., 1994, p. 151–153).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0269

Author: Adams, John
Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1795-04-26

John Adams and Abigail Adams to
John Quincy Adams

[salute] My dear Son

I have received your Letters Numbers 1. 2. 3. 4. and 5. but not in the order, in which they were written— Number one, was the last recd as it came to hand by the last Post.1
{ 423 }
Never was a Father more Satisfied, or gratified, than I have been with the kind Attention of my sons Since they went abroad. I have no Language to express to you the Pleasure I have recd from the Satisfaction you have given to The President and Secretary of State, as well as from the clear, comprehensive, & masterly Accounts in your Letters to me of the public Affairs of Nations in Europe whose Situation and Politicks it most concerns Us to know— Go On, my dear son, and by a dilligent Exertion of your Genious and Abilities, continue to deserve well of your Father but especially of your Country. The more faithfully you have discharged and fulfilled your Duty to me, the more anxious I have been least I may not have fulfilled mine to you with so much Punctuallity. It is painful to the Vanity of an Old Man to acknowledge the Decays of Nature: but I have lost the habit of Writing, from the Want of a Clerk, from weak Eyes and from a trembling hand, to such a degree, that a Pen is as terrible to me, as a sword to a Coward, or which is perhaps a more suitable comparison, as a rod to a Child.
The Revolution in Holland as We generally call it, though some call it a Conquest, will probably have an Influence in Europe, and eer long produce a Peace. All Nations must be nearly exhausted.
Of France I presume not to predict any Thing except their Success in their military Operations, untill there is more tranquility and more toleration of political Opinions and discussions. Untill they discover, that a Bridle is necessary to the Horse whoever is the Rider, they will be in danger of Stumbling, Starting and being run away with.
In Politicks We enjoy a Serene sky— The Season is rainy beyond almost any Example in my Memory. This fair Weather in Public affairs and foul Weather in private Concerns is a Coincidence in favour of our Happiness which I pray may continue, and then blessed shall We be indeed. Pacific and Foederal Politicks prevail, even to the Overthrow of Mr Austin for the present. Mr Dexter however is supposed to have lost his Election to the great Regret of the best Men. The Clergy have loaded the Press with sermons in favour of Government.
Our Friends are generally well—extreamly anxious to read your Letters and your Brothers and highly delighted with them.
I am happy that Mr Jay communicated to you his Progress. I presume his Labours will be rewarded. I doubt not, though I know not the Contents of the Treaty, that the Same Honour, Candour, { 424 } Equity, Magnanimity, Address and Penetration which he has shewn on former Occasions will appear on this.
In the inclosed I have corrected a foolish Error of the Press, and put delighted for delightful and his for the. I wish you to have it translated and published in French—2
My Love to your Brother. I consider myself as writing to both when I write to one, being to / both an Affectionate Father
[signed] John Adams

[salute] My dear Son

I add a line to your Fathers Letter to inform you that I wrote to you and your Brother last week by a vessel going direct to Amsterdam belonging to W Cunningham, & I wrote you by an other vessel going to Hamburgh a month since.3 We are anxious to hear from you both. I feel the freedom of communication so curtaild that I can only add, what cannot suffer a Revolution, the fervent affection / of your Mother
[signed] A Adams
RC (Adams Papers); internal address by JA: “John Quincy Adams Esqr / American Minister in / Holland”; endorsed by TBA: “The Vice President / 26 April 1795 / 23 June Recd / 2 July Answd.” Tr (Adams Papers).
1. JQA to JA, 23 Oct., 9, 17 Nov., 3, 21 Dec. 1794 (all Adams Papers).
2. The enclosure has not been found but was likely “Dr. Belknap’s Letter to Dr. Kippis, Author of Biographia Brittanica,” MHS, Colls., 1st ser., 4:79–86 (1795). From 2 Jan. to 15 April 1795 JA corresponded with Jeremy Belknap regarding Andrew Kippis’ The Life of Captain James Cook, London, 1788, in which Kippis erroneously charged Congress with ordering Cook’s seizure if encountered by ships under commission to the United States in 1779. Both JA and Belknap corresponded with members of Congress in 1779 and 1780, and Belknap printed this correspondence with his letter, including JA’s original response to Belknap of 16 Jan. 1795, in which JA wrote, “I have been often a delighted Hearer of Dr Kippis in the Pulpit” (MHi: Kippis Papers). In his response to JA of 27 June, JQA makes no mention of the enclosure or of having had it published (Adams Papers).
3. The letters sent via Hamburg were AA to JQA, 10 Feb., and to TBA, 11 Feb., both above.

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0270

Author: Adams, John
Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, Thomas Boylston
Date: 1795-04-26

John Adams and Abigail Adams to
Thomas Boylston Adams

[salute] My Dear Thomas

Your kind Letters of Nov. 2. and Decr 20 are before me. You will Soon learn the meaning of the Word Ennui, among others in the French Language, which have no parallel Expression in English. I Suffered more from this Dæmon in Europe than I can express; more for what I know than from all the other Pains of my whole Life. had I not found in Books a relief from it, I should have perished under it.
{ 425 }
Your Brother as well as Yourself, in your purchases of Books, will I hope be more judicious and OEconomical than I was.— Purchase none but the best— I purchased every Thing with too little discrimination.
The French Language will soon be yours— You cannot avoid it in that Country. I wish however you could have learned to Speak it in Paris, where it is Spoken with greater Accuracy and Elegance. Indeed it is probable by this time there are at the Hague So many Officers and other Gentlemen from France, who Speak their Language in Perfection, that you may learn it there as well as any where.
I am glad to find you attentive to your health. My daily Practice was to Cross the Barrier beyond The Maison [du] Bois with my Walking stick every day. If every night when you [. . . .] to rest you can recollect that you have performed this Ceremony in the Course of the day, your Conscience may serenely say that you have not entirely failed of your duty to yourself for that day.— Walk before dinner from 12 to 2.
My Curiosity is quite awake to see the new Dutch Constitution. But I fear Franklinianism and Turgotism will prevail there and if they should they will do more Mischief, than Mammonism and Devilism of every other Species I think. Indeed I have named it wrong.— It is Nedhamism and I think it has been found in Practice the most detestable form of Government, for the time it lasts, which God Almighty in his Anger ever permitted to chastise Mankind for their Sins.1
I hope there will not appear in Holland a Spirit of Intollerance in political Discussions— If there should, Chance and Passion will give them their Government— if there should not Reason may have a share in its Composition.
I long to hear of Peace in France that the Learning Ingenuity, Sagacity and sensibility of that Nation may have time to exert themselves in the formation of a Constitution for themselves.
I am my dear Child your / affectionate Father
[signed] John Adams

[salute] Dear Thomas

I wrote you at the same time I did your Brother and have only now to add, that all the fine Girls in Phyladelphia are marrying off Hitty Morris is married to a mr Marshall of virginia miss Anthony to a mr Polock of N york, and miss Wescot to—to Nobody that I hear of2 I find you were Susceptable in England. miss Copley was a fine Girl when I was there. You must take care & not get fascinated. be { 426 } carefull of your Health. the Air of Holland is as liable to Agues & Rehumatism as Penssylvania
adieu ever your affectionate / Mother
[signed] A Adams
RC (PWacD:Sol Feinstone Coll., on deposit at PPAmP); internal address by JA: “T. B. Adams Esqr”; endorsed: “The Vice President / 26 April 1795 / 23 June Recd / 13 July Answd.” Some loss of text due to a torn manuscript.
1. Following the French invasion, the new Batavian Republic had no overarching governing body. Instead revolutionary committees were established at the local level and then loosely federated into provincial assemblies, deemed “Provisional Representatives of the People,” which dismantled the Dutch constitution. A new one would not be enacted until May 1798. By invoking the seventeenth-century British journalist and propagandist Marchmont Needham, JA suggested the mercurial allegiances among the new and often overlapping governing committees and assemblies (DNB; Schama, Patriots and Liberators, p. 212, 217–219, 321).
2. On 9 April 1795 Esther (Hetty) Morris (1774–1816), the daughter of Philadelphia financier Robert Morris, married Virginia land proprietor and lawyer James Markham Marshall (1764–1848). Martha Anthony, whose father was Philadelphia merchant Joseph Anthony, married New York merchant Hugh Pollock, also on 9 April (DAB; Philadelphia Gazette of the United States, 10 April; Washington, Diaries, 5:326). The announcement of both marriages was reprinted in the Boston Columbian Centinel, 22 April.
For Elizabeth Wescott, see AA to TBA, 10 Jan., and note 3, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0271

Author: Adams, Thomas Boylston
Recipient: Read, John
Date: 1795-05-02

Thomas Boylston Adams to John Read

[salute] My dear Sir.

It has long been my intention to commence the Correspondence, which I had the pleasure to propose to you by letter a few days previous to my departure from America, but like many other good resolutions; which suffer by procrastination, I have never before proceeded to the execution.1 I can promise you but little entertainment however, & though I should make frequent drafts of this kind upon your fund of good sense, you must expect to be a looser in the court of Exchange. I have but one correspondent in the City of Philadelphia vizt J Smith Esqr.2 and as I feel a particular interest in the affairs of that City and the State of Pennsylvania, by permitting me to add your name to the list, you will sensibly oblige me.
I have been in Europe between 6 & 7 months, during which period events of great consequence have followed each other in quick succession; and though an humble spectator of some of the most important, I cannot say but that I have taken some interest in them. The most prominent of these events are the foreign Conquest which french bravery & perseverance has atchieved of this Country, and the internal Revolution of Government; by the former of which an important member has been loppd off from the coalition, & by the latter, or by means of it, will be added to the Republican body.
{ 427 }
The fate of another Country, which in order of time should have been mentioned first, has caused many a sigh in the breast of suffering humanity. The Conquest & total dismemberment of Poland, which took place shortly after my arrival in this Country, caused many apprehensions lest the example of savage barbarity, which the Slaves of Catherine had given in their treatment towards the conquered in that unhappy Country, should be immitated by the then invaders of this, in case a similar success should attend their arms.
The result however has proved no less honorable to the latter than disgraceful to the former, and it now demonstrates that the very suspicion was injurious, no less to the courage than the generosity of the Republican Armies. The contrast was so striking, that the two examples will be transmitted to posterity as the light & shade of an historical picture, equally retentive of their coloring, and doubtless productive of opposite effects upon their mental vision. It cannot be denied however that in both cases it is Conquest, and the final decision of this Country’s future rank may be unfriendly to Sovereignty & Independence, though the faith of the french Government stands pledged to support the Batavian People in both.
The future prospects of Europe are gloomy to an excess that borders upon total darkness. The most dreadful in contemplation is that of famine which at this moment threatens every part of it. The scarcity & consequent dearness of provisions is complained of in England, Spain, Portugal, Prussia & the Empire, and in short there is no corner where it is not seriously apprehended. Above all the scarcity is alarming in France and though this circumstance has been used as a political engine by the Jacobins and Royalists against the Convention, yet at this time it is supposed to amount to something more real than fictitious.3 Peace with Prussia has not brought them plenty, nor yet much facilitated the means of procuring a supply. A Peace with Spain, which is supposed to be near at hand, may add a few Ships to the french Navy, but will not make them masters of the Sea—until which event, the scarcity must continue, though the approaching harvest may afford a temporary Supply.
American Commerce will reap essential benefit from the imperious necessities of the old world, provided our flag is respected. But the inveterate jealousies of the most powerful Maritime Nation, though curbed by Treaties, and checked by recent stipulations, may again insult & plunder our defenceless navigation under new { 428 } pretences. Better things are to be hoped however, as the impulse of fear may operate more in our favour, than a principle of justice, or a respect for our rights. Our Country has happily & wisely avoided a war, and I am well perswaded that no American, who knows the calamities to which the nations of Europe are reduced by it, would derive consolation in such company, from being but one among the miserable.
Hitherto I have had little opportunity of making remarks upon the natural and artificial curiosities of this Country. The chief Cities of the Province of Holland, I have occasionally visited. But till within a few weeks past the season has been so severe, that travelling was rather to be dreaded than desired. Perhaps at a future day I may amuse you with a detail of Dutch elegance.
I expect that the communication between this Country and America will be more frequent and direct in future than it has been since my residence here— I hope you will not fail to give me occasionally the state of the political thermometer among you. Not forgetting the little stories of domestic occurrences, nor yet the flux & reflux—of the polemic Ocean— Who among the bretheren are rising, who stationary, and who declining. Ask yourself only this question when any thing interesting occurs— “Were I three or four thousand miles from this scene, would this give me pleasure in relation”? and you cannot fail to find matter of amusement & gratification for him, who with all the cordiality of friendship & esteem, subscribes himself / your’s
[signed] TB Adams.
PS. I beg you to present my best remembrance to your brother Wm: if he should be with you when this comes to hand—also to Messrs Plumsted & Chs Ross—4 As these are all Merchants, tell them if you please that the best Voyage they can make, will be a trip to Amsterdam.
RC (DLC:Read Family Papers); addressed: “John Read Esqr: / Counsellor at Law / Philadelphia. / United States of America.”; internal address: “John Read Esqr:.”
1. Letter not found. John Read (1769–1854), Princeton 1787, was the son of Gertrude Ross and Delaware lawyer George Read. A lawyer himself who settled in Philadelphia during the early 1790s, Read was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1792 (DAB).
2. John Rhea Smith (1767–1830), Princeton 1787, was a classmate and intimate friend of John Read. The son of Susannah Bayard and Philadelphia merchant Jonathan Bayard Smith, he practiced law after being admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1791 (Princetonians, 4:227–232).
3. The harsh winter of 1794 to 1795 resulted in increasing prices and decreasing food supplies, especially grain, throughout Europe. In France, these shortages were { 429 } extreme and were exacerbated by the lifting of the maximum, a price ceiling on foodstuffs, which further increased prices and resulted in bread riots during the spring (Bosher, French Rev., p. 234; Schama, Citizens, p. 852).
By summer, bread continued to be in short supply, but JQA and TBA both noted the availability of other provisions and the prospect for a plentiful harvest (JQA to JA, 27 June, Adams Papers; M/TBA/2, 19 May 1795, APM Reel 282).
4. William Read (1767–1846), a Philadelphia merchant, later served as vice-consul for Naples and Sicily (Gregory B. Keen, The Descendants of Jöran Kyn of New Sweden, Phila., 1913, p. 207–208).
The Messrs. Plumsted are likely Clement (1758–1800) and George (1765–1805), sons of Philadelphia merchant and politician William Plumsted and his second wife Mary McCall (Eugene Devereux, Chronicles of the Plumsted Family, Phila., 1887, p. 34–35, 39–42).
Charles Ross (1772–1817) was the only son of Clementina Cruikshank and Philadelphia merchant John Ross. Entering the mercantile business, Ross later became active in U.S. trade with China (Jean Gordon Lee, Philadelphians and the China Trade 1784–1844, Phila., 1984, p. 61).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0272

Author: Adams, Thomas Boylston
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1795-05-08

Thomas Boylston Adams to John Adams

[salute] My dear Sir.

Your favor of the 11th: Feby reached me on the 29th: ulto:; being the first direct communication from you since my residence in Europe, the receipt of it was peculiarly acceptable; it also had another merit, that of giving the latest intelligence from our Country and friends. Mr Wilcocks has not yet visited this Country; when he does I shall certainly pay him every attention, which his own merit, no less than your recommendation can demand in his behalf.
Europe is indeed a “new world” to me. But hitherto I have witnessed only its convulsions, & the prospect of a more tranquil State of affairs is partial, if not obscure. Instructive lessons however may be learnt from its present Condition; and a very short residence is sufficient to suggest the reflection that of all the sciences, that of Government is the least understood. The Feudal System, which is more or less incorporated with all the Governments that remain upon the old establishment, and which has hitherto “resisted the rudest shocks of time,”1 appears to have lost all its amiable traits, and has left behind it, only the dependence of vassalage, without the reciprocity of protection. It has lost its basis, which was acknowledged superiority, qualified by dignified submission; and its polar principle, which was Justice has given place to systematic fraud. With these essential variations from elementary institutions, it is less surprizing if the people of Europe should be impatient to return to original principles, and to commence their reformation by a total overthrow of existing forms. How long they will submit to present burdens, must depend in a great measure upon the success { 430 } of the experiment which France is making. If any thing favorable to rational freedom should result from it; the example will spread; it will be carefully propagated, however its horrors have given it the complexion of a pestilence. The first transition will be from Despotism to Anarchy, which will probably be organized as it has been in France under the name of Democracy, and the systems which will arise from subsequent variations, will probably add fresh examples to the Catalogue of impracticable Governments. But though the success of these experiments cannot be foretold, the spirit of prophecy is not necessary to predict that they will be made.
A Revolution has taken place in the Government of this Country, since my residence in it. The Ancient Constitution was the first sacrifice; four months have elapsed and no substitute has been found, & the only apology that can be made by the present rulers for the acts of their Administration is, that they call them Revolutionary instead of Constitutional. Rights have been nominally accorded to the people, but the exercise of them has no legal warranty; and the latitude in which some of them are acknowledged, is only harmless, because in execution they have been found impracticable. One of this description I take to be that of universal suffrage, for Christians, (even Democracy denies those who deny the Saviour of Mankind) which has been proclaimed as the basis of the new order of things.2 It is considered of so little value by the great mass of people in this Country, that no anxiety has been discovered by them to put it in force; and when the forms shall be agreed upon & the system organized, which is to afford an opportunity for the experiment, it is yet questionable whether any considerable portion of the community will take advantage of it.
A Government begun in paradox, and maintained by inconsistencies does not promise any essential amelioration of the condition of Man. And so sensible are the present possessors of power that such is the complexion of theirs, that they are willing to refer the question of its continuance rather to the strength of those who conferred it upon them, than to the good dispositions of those who are to be immediately affected by it. It is yet a question of great consequence to the prominent characters of the late Revolution, whether the affections, the passions and the interests of the people of this Country are engaged on their side. The immediate solution would probably be dangerous if not fatal to the cause in which they have embarked. Immense sacrifices are called for from the people; they are made; but with what sort of temper may be inferred from the { 431 } nature of the equivalent they may expect to receive. Obedience is required to the laws; it is given, but the people have sense enough to know that in free Governments the Constitution is the basis of law, and they do not forget to ask for their’s.
The private character of this people presents many peculiar traits. Arguing from their ability in the management of individual concerns, one would not expect to discover so striking deficiencies in the public administration of affairs. The people are industrious, frugal, and temperate; And they have apparently so much natural order & regularity in their dispositions, that one would imagine a small portion of positive law would answer the purpose of Government among them. Their intestine feuds & divisions however, have, ever since their existence as a separate Nation, been productive of continual struggles, which have rendered the victory of party the object of contention instead of the benefit of the Country. Alternate triumphs and defeats among themselves have been so often repeated, that foreign Conquest has no horrors for either faction whose superiority is established by it.
The Alliance does not yet appear to have taken place. Two new deputies have been charged with a secret commission on the part of the National Convention, to make the final arrangements respecting this Country’s future destiny; it is said they have already arrived here. Rewbell & the Abbé Séyés are the members. It is not in the nature of people who take the trouble to Conquer nations to be quite so disinterested as the french have professed to be; the conditions therefore that are said to be required as the price of Liberty & Independence from the people of this Country, amount to something like a complete indemnification for the expences of the last campaign. But the alliance must be purchased at all events, and the dismemberment of a considerable portion of the Dutch territory will be among the sacrifices required on one side and conceded on the other.3
Hitherto my travels in Holland have been very circumscribed. I have been several times at Amsterdam for a few days together, during the severest weather of the winter, and was much gratified with the novelty of the scenes we witnessed. The City in itself unites convenience and ellegance much beyond what my imagination had anticipated. The different inventions for the facilitation of labour, are monuments highly honorable to the ingenuity of the inhabitants, as they are the result of that characteristic œconomy for which they have been always famed. In works of real utility, they { 432 } can scarcely be surpassed by any people, and though they are not inattentive to ornament, it cannot be said to be so peculiarly their fort. Leyden, Haerlem & Delft are handsome Cities; remarkably neat, and wonderfully quiet. But as I have only seen them on the wing, I can yet give no satisfactory account of the particular curiosities of each.4 At Leyden indeed I was gratified with the sight of the Anatomical Theatre, and the Museum. In the Theatre there are a vast number of skeletons, the distortions and unnatural postures of which struck me with horror; but I have since seen so many living forms in conditions equally monstrous & deplorable, that I am no longer surprized that the collection should be so numerous, in an exhibition of that nature.5
The Curiosities of the Museum differed very little from all others I have ever seen; the collection of natural & artificial productions is perhaps larger than that of Peales in Philadelphia, but after having seen his there is not much left to admire in the Cabinet of Leyden.6 The then Rector Magnificus of the University was your friend Mr John Luzac; it was by means of his politeness & civility that we obtained a sight of these places. My brother was vastly pleased with this Gentleman’s politics, and had the hardihood to say, that he was the only rational man he had then met with in the Country. He told us that politic’s had usurped the seat of the Muses in that place; that Orangists & Patriots were as clearly visible within the limits of that institution, as they are in the Country at large, and that the pursuit of Science was often impeded by the influence of private animosities. Since the Revolution several of the Professors have been dismissed from their employment, and their Offices conferred upon adherents of the triumphant faction. The Scholars indeed were the chief Agents in affecting the change of Municipal Officers in that Town.
I shall be careful to purchase the Books you recommend. Cujatius in particular shall be sent you by the first convenient opportunity. There are sales of Books frequently in this place, and many valuable works are commonly found in the collections— The old editions of most all the Latin authors upon the Civil Law, and the Law of Nature & Nations sell cheap; but a fair type & an handsome binding seldom escape the rapacity of the knowing one’s. My Brother’s Library, which he has collected chiefly in this way abounds in Memoirs & Negotiations Diplomatique; it increases gradually, and will in time be respectable; it is already very useful to us.7
{ 433 }
We have been particularly unfortunate as to the Books & Baggage we left behind us in England— They have not yet come to hand, and we begin to despair of ever receiving them. They were shipped on Board a British Vessel in the month of November; but she was prevented from reaching her destination by the sudden frost which closed the River Maese, and she has lay’n all winter at Harwich.
I beg you Sir to present my dutiful remembrance to my Grandmother, & my Uncle’s family, and to accept for yourself the tribute of filial affection & respect from / your Son
[signed] Thomas B Adams
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “The Vice President &ca:”; endorsed: “T. B. Adams / May 8. 1795.”
1. Perhaps a paraphrase of Rev. George H. Spierin, A Sermon Delivered at Newburgh, on Thursday the Twenty-Fourth Day of June, Being the Festival of St. John the Baptist, Goshen, N.Y., 1790, p. 10, Evans, No. 22900.
2. One of the symbolic acts of the new republican leadership was to revoke the restrictions placed upon Catholics and Dissenters by the Synod of Dort, which in 1618 had established the Reformed Church as the true Dutch church. This newfound tolerance, however, did not extend to Jews. Competing interpretations of democracy further complicated the question of suffrage, with conservative republicans, like Nicolaas van Staphorst, endorsing a limited franchise for the wealthy and educated, while the more radical republican faction favored universal suffrage for all but criminals, recipients of public assistance, and the insolvent (Schama, Patriots and Liberators, p. 212, 214–216).
3. Jean François Rewbell (Reubell, 1747–1807) and the Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836), described as a bear and a fox by one Dutch Patriot, were the members of the diplomatic section of France’s Committee of Public Safety dispatched to The Hague to negotiate peace with the Dutch. Diplomatic representatives of the Patriots had been in Paris since mid-Dec. 1794 but had received little formal recognition from the National Convention and no acknowledgment of the Batavian Republic as an independent nation. It was not until Rewbell and Sieyès arrived at The Hague that formal negotiations began on 11 May 1795 and concluded on 16 May with the Treaty of The Hague (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale; Schama, Patriots and Liberators, p. 195–196, 206–207). For more on the treaty, see Descriptive List of Illustrations, No. 9, above.
4. In his Diary, TBA notes three separate trips to Amsterdam. The first, 15–27 Nov. 1794, also afforded his first introduction to Haarlem and Leyden, which he passed through en route to Amsterdam. He made a more extensive excursion through Leyden on the return trip, visiting the city on 27 and 28 November. TBA’s subsequent visits to Amsterdam were made between 18 and 31 Jan. 1795 and from 1 to 3 May. The latter trip also included an excursion to the Haarlem countryside. His impression of Delft was formed on 31 Oct. 1794, during his initial journey to The Hague (M/TBA/2, APM Reel 282).
5. For the anatomical theater at the University of Leyden, see Descriptive List of Illustrations, No. 10, above.
6. In July 1786, American painter and naturalist Charles Willson Peale added a gallery of natural curiosities to his Philadelphia museum. His efforts to display specimens within their natural contexts, through the use of painted backdrops and “classed and arranged according to their several species,” set Peale’s museum apart from many European natural history collections and may have contributed to TBA’s lukewarm response to the Leyden collection. In his Diary, TBA found remarkable only the size of the Leyden collection and its “great variety of Christals, and precious stones, together with different kinds of Oar” but noted that he “had not sufficient time to examine its contents with much accuracy” and hoped “to have a better opportunity some other time” (Pennsylvania Packet, 7 July 1786; Charles Coleman Sellers, Mr. Peale’s Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular { 434 } Museum of Natural Science and Art, N.Y., 1980, p. 19, 23; M/TBA/2, 28 Nov. 1794, APM Reel 282).
7. The Diaries of both TBA and JQA record their attendance at book sales in Nov. and Dec. 1794, and most recently on 29 April 1795 (M/TBA/2, APM Reel 282; D/JQA/22, APM Reel 25; D/JQA/23, APM Reel 26). Upon his departure from Europe in 1801, JQA also compiled an inventory of the books shipped back to the United States, which is further divided into specific titles sent from The Hague in 1797 and then from Berlin in 1801 (M/JQA/52, APM Reel 248).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0273

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-05-16

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams

N: 6.

[salute] Dear Madam.

We seem to be once more restored to some connection with our own Country; for six months after we left it, we might have been almost ignorant of its existence, but for the perpetual admonition of our own Hearts. A few days since I received from Hamburg, your favour of Feby: 10th. The third letter of yours that has reached me, and all within the course of three Weeks. Had you known of the occasion to write by my friend Freeman, I fear very much that your letter would have never reached me. I have heard that the vessel in which he was a passenger foundered on the Coast of France, that the people who took to one of her two boats, were fortunate enough to reach the shore, but that Mr: Freeman was in the other. I have still some hopes that he may have been saved; but my fears of the contrary are greater, and I dread the certainty of having to lament the loss of an amiable & valuable friend.1
I wrote him a letter from London, relative to some papers which he had entrusted to me when I came from America, and which were interesting to him.2 But as I have no acknowledgment from any of my friends in Massachusetts of their having received the letters I wrote them from London, I am apprehensive they must have all miscarried, or at least that Mr: Freeman, had not received that I wrote him, before he sailed himself.
Since I wrote you last (April 25) nothing very material has taken place here. We are very quiet very secure, and in danger of nothing that I know of but hunger. The scarcity of provisions begins to be very alarming here, and it is already severely felt in almost every part of Europe. In some places it amounts to an absolute famine.
Two new members of the french national Convention, and of the Com̃ittee of Public Safety, Rewbell and Syeyes arrived here a few days since and are negotiating with a deputation from the States General. They are both characters of note, but the latter is { 435 } { 436 } particularly famous. He appears to be between 40 and 50 years of age, middling stature, spare person, pale countenance, strong features, and bald head; dress simple but neat; manners cool, approaching to the asperate. A single interview of a quarter of an hour, would not warrant any more particular characteristic observations.
The object of this mission is supposed to be important, from the choice of the members. Syeyes was President of the National Convention, when he was chosen for this errand, and sat out upon it.
France is far from being entirely tranquil. I have repeatedly given you my ideas relative to the practical moderation to be expected from thence. The last accounts contain details of the execution of Fouquier Tinville, and of fifteen Judges and Jurors of Robespierre’s Revolutionary tribunal, condemned by the Judges and Jurors of a succeeding Revolutionary tribunal, to whom one of the present sufferers upon hearing his sentence, foretold, that their turn also would very speedily come.3
At Lyons on the 4th: of this month the people, forced the prisons, and massacred the persons detained to the number of 60 or 70.4 These severities and cruelties are the reaction of the Revolution, and although afflictive to all sentiments of humanity, seem to lose some of their horrors in the consideration that they are exercised upon the people who were the first examples & instruments of the murders without number with and without legal forms, which proved during so long a time the desolation of France.
On the other hand, fairer prospects rise from the complete pacification of the Vendee, said to be at length effected; from the Prussian Peace, negotiated at Basle, and signed on the part of France, by your old acquaintance Barthelemi,5 and from the increasing probability of a general Peace, or at least with the exception of Great Britain alone.
I have just got letters from my brother Charles of March 10.6 and New York papers from whence it appears that the Treaty signed by Mr: Jay had at length arrived, and that the Senate were to meet in June to determine upon the point of Ratification. I am apprehensive it will occasion a tour to Philadelphia in June, which will not be very pleasant to my father, as it will call him at a busy time from the pleasures of his farm. I rejoyce to hear that the next Senate will be so well composed; a little wisdom, and a little moderation is all we want to secure a continuance of the blessings, of which faction, intrigue, private ambition, and desperate fortunes have concurred in exertions to deprive us. The Government of the United States need { 437 } not even appeal to the judgment of posterity, whose benedictions will infallibly follow those measures which were the most opposed. The voice of all Europe already pronounces their justification; the nations which have been grappling together with the purpose of mutual destruction, feeble exhausted, and almost starving, detest on all sides the frantic War they have been waging; those that have had the wisdom to maintain a neutrality have reason more than ever to applaud their policy, and some of them may thank the United States for the example, from which it was pursued.
I know not when we shall have an opportunity to send you the articles for which you commissioned us. The situation of this Country has frightened away, almost all our Commerce, and only one opportunity direct to any part of Massachusetts has occurred since we have been in the Country. How long this state of things will continue it is not easy to anticipate; it is not so agreeable as to make us wish very anxiously for its long duration.
Your miniatures are not forgotten. We were so short a Time in England, and our Time there was so busily employed, that we did not find a moment we could spare for the painter.— We have however accidentally met an Englishman here, who is now about the work, and we believe it will be executed to your satisfaction.
I beg to be remembered in duty and affection to my grandmother, and to all our friends at Quincy, and Weymouth. We sympathize most cordially with the family of our Uncle Shaw, upon the heavy loss they have sustained so suddenly by his Death. I have requested Dr: Welsh to contribute for me a small portion of assistance towards supporting the expence of William’s education. Should that be otherwise provided for it is my wish that he should however appropriate the same sum to the occasions of my Aunt and the family.7 I am sure it will be impossible to make a better application of the money.
I remain, my Dear Mamma, your affectionate Son
[signed] John Q. Adams.8
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs: A. Adams.”; endorsed: “J Q Adams May / 16 1795.” LbC (Adams Papers); APM Reel 128. Tr (Adams Papers).
1. Jonathan Freeman Jr. perished at sea when his vessel, the snow Enterprize, foundered on 20 Feb., just fifteen days out from Boston en route to Hamburg (Frederick Freeman, Freeman Genealogy, Boston, 1875, p. 187; Newburyport Political Gazette, 18 June).
2. RC not found. In the LbC of his letter to Jonathan Freeman Jr., dated 26 Oct. 1794, JQA informed Freeman that he had been unable to deliver documents to William Vans in London but had instead left the documents with John Jay. Vans, who was Freeman’s business partner, had departed for Paris as the new American consul. The two men had had a vessel seized in the West { 438 } Indies, and JQA informed Freeman of a recent Order in Council that would allow the firm to appeal the decision in the English courts (Lb/JQA/2, APM Reel 126; William Vans Jr., A Short History of the Life of William Vans, A Native Citizen of Massachusetts, Boston, 1825, p. ii, 8–9).
3. Antoine Quentin Fouquier Tinville was a public prosecutor on France’s Revolutionary Tribunal with direct power to sentence people to death. He was arrested during the Thermidorian reaction and later guillotined on 7 May 1795 (Bosher, French Rev., p. xxxviii–xxxix).
4. A mob killed 97 prisoners at Lyons on 4 April. The attack was part of the reactionary violence against imprisoned revolutionaries that spread across southeastern France during May and June and was termed the White Terror (Cambridge Modern Hist., 8:387; Bosher, French Rev., p. 238).
5. François Barthélemy, who was the former chargé d’affaires at London and whom the Adamses had known while in London, was appointed the French minister to Switzerland in 1792. He was responsible for negotiating the Treaty of Basel (Repertorium, 3:137). For the Adamses’ social interactions with Barthélemy in 1785 and 1786, see vol. 6:303, 305, 472; 7:40, 153.
6. Not found.
7. In his letter to Thomas Welsh of 26 April, JQA asked that ten dollars be contributed quarterly to William Shaw’s Harvard education (MHi:Adams-Welsh Coll.).
8. JQA had written to JA on 4 May and reported better treatment from the Dutch since the French occupation. He had also reviewed the situation in Europe, including the general state of affairs in France, especially the scarcity of provisions and the internal organization of its government. In a second letter to JA, dated 22 May, JQA commented at length on the recent shifts in European allegiances and their potential implications for the United States, especially in light of the Jay Treaty (both Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0274

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Charles
Date: 1795-05-17

John Quincy Adams to Charles Adams

[salute] My dear Brother.

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your favours dated Feby 16. which Mr: Wilcox sent me from Hamburg, and of March 10th: which came in a Vessel arrived a day or two since at Amsterdam.1 The newspapers came with them, and proved a great entertainment to us. The Herald is a very excellent paper and I wish you by all means to continue sending it by every opportunity.2 But when you send them by any private conveyance, I will thank you to request the bearers not to forward them in Europe by the posts, the charges of which upon such packets are very heavy.
Our brother has regularly sent you the Leyden Gazette by every opportunity to New York since our arrival, and is much surprized to find that you did not receive any thing from him by the Vessel, which carried my Letters.
The fate of this Country hitherto will be seen by the accounts contained in the newspapers I say hitherto, because with respect to futurity it remains not less uncertain than it has been from the time when I came into it. The french have proclaimed, but they have not acknowledged its Independence, and it is from time alone that we { 439 } can be informed, whether it is to continue the humble friend of France, or to return to the allegiance of Britain.
My situation has indeed been as you suspected difficult and embarassing; during the first three months it was unpleasant. But I have not been under any necessity from a dictate of duty to quarrel with any one, and though I have had many temptations, I have as yet found no inducement to discover any partiality towards either of the parties. Each of them has been in its turn, not the pilot, but the rudder of the political ship, and the persons with whom I transacted my first business, are all dismissed, expelled or imprisoned. How long it will be before the course of Revolution will again reverse the scene of political exaltation and debasement, I shall not pretend to say, but it may be observed with truth that it depends upon the policy of others, and not in the minutest particle upon any agency of their own.
The interest and reputation of our Country assuredly has not been advanced by Whiskey rebellions, and Club Resolves, as you express it. But the injury they have caused has been more than counterbalanced by the wise policy, which has hitherto been pursued by the Government. Faction at home may bawl, disappointment may invenom, external influence may cabal and pay, and ambition may declaim, the whole to no purpose, while the administration pursue with firmness the path of neutrality, which they were the first to take, and for the example of which the only Nations of Europe, which have escaped from the general desolation are indebted to them. The consideration and respect in which the American Government is held has been equally strengthened by the manner in which they have conducted their affairs abroad, and pacified their most troublesome dissensions at home.
Those who think or pretend to think that the language or the conduct of a bully is the property style for a public Minister to obtain redress of injuries or to settle differences, may be very proper persons to Command a Regiment or a man of war, but they must be very disingenuous or very ignorant of the most universal propensities of the human heart, as well as of the fundamental principles upon which all pacific negotiations are conducted. They must be therefore characters very improper to manage any negotiation whatever, and incompetent judges of one so complicated and delicate as that with which Mr Jay was Commissioned.
Insolence has within these few years been exhibited more than { 440 } once by public Ministers, but it would be difficult to name an instance in which it has been useful or successful. From the Minister of a powerful natioin it provokes irritation and excites hatred, when it is not backed by formidable power, it can meet nothing but derision.
Your bill for one thousand dollars in favour of William Rogers has not yet been presented to me, but will meet with all due honour when it comes.3 If you can employ the money upon safe security to so much advantage in America, I think with you that it will not be worth your while to keep any of your property here at an interest of five per cent. Unfortunately, owing to various circumstances, but particularly to the interruption of external communication, and the total stagnation of all Commerce, the obligations, which are to supply the fund for the payment of your Bill are at this time uncommonly low in price, and would sell at a loss of eight or ten per cent; when the interest shall be off, which will be on the first of next month, they will no doubt be yet lower, I shall keep your’s however until the time of payment for your Bill shall come, and shall endeavour that the loss upon their disposition may be as little for you as possible. If you conclude to draw the remainder of your property here to America, you can draw on me another Bill for one thousand Dollars. If from the price of the obligations at the time when the respective bills shall become payable the two draughts should excede the value in my hands belonging to you, I shall request you to pay the difference to some body in America; if on the other hand there should be a balance yet remaining in my hands, beyond the two thousand Dollars, (which would be the case, if the obligations should rise to par, but which is not at all probable) I will still keep it, remaining accountable to you for it.
At present the men of property are discouraged from every species of speculation; many of them actually suffer for want of current cash, and have not the means of sporting with superfluous wealth. It is to be observed that the usual payments from great Britain, from the Emperor, from Russia, from the Dutch East India Company, from France from Poland and from the Province of Holland, upon public Loans are all suspended; Commerce is at a stand and numbers of rich individuals are obliged to sell their securities to provide even for their daily expences.
As you say that money may be disposed of to so great advantage in New York, I submit the following proposal to your consideration; if you think proper to accept it, on my part it shall be fulfilled.
{ 441 }
Draw Bills on me to the amount of two thousand dollars, place the money upon safe security to the best advantage you can; you will receive the interest that will accrue from it, and which must be punctually, and at least annually paid, and remit it from me to Dr Welsh at Boston. I leave the employment to your own discretion, requring only that the security shall be unexceptionable, and that the interest shall neat me not less than six per cent on the whole sum, for the management of the business you shall take five per cent upon the Capital, and five percent upon the annual payment of the interest by you to Dr. Welsh. You will keep the securities upon which the principal will rest, subject to my order and disposal, and I should prefer, other things being equal, that it be so placed as to be able at any time to realize the property in specie, in case I should have occasion for it. If you think it worth your while to take this matter in your hands, and your arrangements prove satisfactory, I may perhaps charge you with a further Commission of the same kind. You may draw for the sum as soon as you please after the receipt of this letter. As I place an entire confidence in your integrity and prudence, as well as in your fraternal affection, I presume you will have no occasion to make use of my name in the employment of the money. That however shall be as you think proper.
In the beginning of this letter I told you that France had proclaimed but not acknowledged the future Independence of this Country. I can now inform you that a treaty for this last purpose was signed this morning, and will probably very soon be published. It contracts an Alliance between the two Republic’s, defensive during the remainder of the present war; offensive and defensive from the period of its termination. This event is of the highest importance to the interests of this Country, and of no inconsiderable consequence to the rest of Europe. It is perhaps connected with a more extensive system, which will unfold itself in the course of the present Season.
I am your affectionate Brother.
LbC in TBA’s hand (Adams Papers); internal address: “Charles Adams Esqr:”; APM Reel 128.
1. Letters not found.
2. The New York Herald was a semiweekly newspaper begun by Noah Webster in June 1794 (DAB).
3. For the investment shares JA gifted to each of his sons, see JQA to CA, 20 Nov., above. With his shares entrusted to JQA, CA had to request disbursement from his brother. JQA received the bill from William Rogers, perhaps a London merchant, prior to 7 June 1795 but was unable to remit payment until 26 June (JQA to William Rogers, 7, 26 June, Lb/JQA/4, APM Reel 128; W. Lowndes, A London Directory, London, 1796).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0275

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1795-05-25

Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] my Dear Son

Your Letter of Febry 12th reachd me on the last of April, and gave me Sincere pleasure and satisfaction to learn that both you and your Brother were in good Health and spirits, and that in the midst of such a mighty Revolution as you have been witness too, You have beheld the still greater Phœnomenon of order Peace and tranquility, that they may be durable to our good Batavian Friends, and a free Government Erected upon their base; is the Sincere wish of every benevolent American whilst we implore this rich Blessing for them, we as Sincerely desire it, for our Allies the French, whose late adopted System of Moderation, has interested those Hearts in their favour, which sunk with horror, and recoild agast! whilst Terror was the order of the day, and as Milton expresses it,

[“]Where all life died, death live’d and Nature Bread

Perverse, all monstrous, all Prodigious things

Abominable, inutterable, and worse

Than fables yet have feign’d, or fear conceive’d”1

ah where is the shade dark enough to draw over the dreadfull Scenes, to hide them from future generations, where the Leathean fount oblivious enough to wash them out?2
May that conquering Nation be restored to peace to order and happiness, by what form of Government, or by what means So desirable an event can be accomplishd; is in the Dark Bosom of futurity, and bafels the short sighted ken of Mortals, even in this <enlightened> Boastd Age of Reason.
We enjoy so great a share of tranquility throughout united America, that even the Subterraneous wind of Jacobinism has retired to its cavern and scarcly ruffels the Serenity of its Surface. The discussion of the Treaty between the united States, and great Britain, which is to commence on the 8th of June may possibly rouse Some lurking venom, but I would fain hope that our dangerous crisis has past, and that we are to enjoy Halcion Days;
In this state the only thing which threatned to agitate it, the revision of the constitution, has by a large Majority been considered as too delicate a matter to agitate in this age of renovation and they will not risk a substance, least they grasp a shadow—3
{ 443 }
The Election for Representitives in Boston was not altogether what was wish’d by one Party or the other. Morten is out & Winthorp, Mason Tudor Eustice Jarvis Edwards Little & Goram are chosen, the first three by 19 hundred votes, the rest just came in, having better than 9 hundred votes—4
I hope You have received some of my Letters at least. I have written to you as often as I thought there was a probability of conveyance— The Secretary of state expresses his full satisfaction in Your Dispatches, and Says in a Letter to your Father “That he feels a sincere pleasure in announcing on all proper occasions, your attention penetration and fitness for your present functions.[”]5 he was also kind enough to assure us at an early period, that your instructions did not require You to incur the smallest personal danger—
our Friends here are well. tomorrow morning your Father and I sit out for Philadelphia. I shall remain at N york with your Sister. Mr Jay we are informd is undoubtedly Elected Govenour of N York— he is daily expected to arrive—
if I do not always write to Thomas, it is because you are both together, and will consider it as to each and share it, in common, as you do the Love and affection of / Your Mother
[signed] Abigail Adams
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed by TBA: “Mrs: A Adams / 25 May 1795 / 29 July Recd / 30 Answd.”
1. John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book II, lines 624–627.
2. In Greek mythology, the waters of the Lethe River were reputed to cause forgetfulness in those who drank from them (OED).
3. The Mass. Constitution of 1780 provided for a constitutional convention in 1795 should two thirds of eligible voters approve such a measure. The question was put to the people on 6 May, and while a simple majority of the electorate voted for a convention, the necessary total was not reached (Samuel Eliot Morison, “The Vote of Massachusetts on Summoning a Constitutional Convention, 1776–1916,” MHS, Procs., 3d ser., 50:246–247 [April 1917]).
4. AA was mistaken in naming John Winthrop Jr., who was not returned as a state representative. William Little was a Boston merchant, selectman, and fire warden (Boston Directory, 1796, p. 69, 113; Mass., Acts and Laws, 1794–1795, p. 142, 460; Thwing Catalogue, MHi).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0276

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-08

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My dearest Friend

Through the finest Fields of Wheat Rye, Barley Oats and Clover, but very indifferent Roads We arrived on Saturday all well
{ 444 }
The Senators to the Number of five or six and twenty are in Town and will meet in this Chamber at Eleven O Clock.
I can form no Judgment how long We shall sitt.
I congratulate you and all good People on the favourable decision of the Elections in New York which indicates a Change of sentiment very desirable in that state, and of great Importance to the Union.
We are told that Adet is arrived and De Letombe and that Dudley Rider is to take the Place of Hammond1
The State of Things in Paris arising from Scarcity and from Party is gloomy—but the Particulars you will see in the Papers.
Mr Swan was in my old Lodings but has very politely offered me the saloon as usual—2 He is thought here to have made a great Fortune and to be a very important Man— it is said he has been the most Successfull of any Man in getting his Vessells to Port.
The Want of Bread in France & England will raise flour to 20 Dollars a Barrell—it is now 15.
My Love to all the Family
[signed] JA.
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A”; endorsed: “June 8th 1795.”
1. Pierre Auguste Adet (1763–1834), a French scientist, government official, and diplomat, served as minister to the United States from 1795 to 1796. Philippe André Joseph de Létombe had been recalled as French consul general in 1792 but was reappointed in 1795 (Jefferson, Papers, 28:459; Washington, Papers, Presidential Series, 1:34–35).
JA appears to have confused the brothers Dudley Ryder (1762–1847) and Richard Ryder (1766–1832), both British MPs. In early June 1795, newspapers in New York and then Philadelphia reported that Richard Ryder had been appointed minister plenipotentiary to the United States in place of the recalled George Hammond. Hammond, who departed the United States in August, was succeeded by Robert Liston in Feb. 1796 (DNB; New York Argus, 6 June 1795; Philadelphia American Daily Advertiser, 9 June; New York Daily Advertiser, 18 Aug.).
2. Boston merchant James Swan, for whom see JA, Papers, 3:354, had gone to France in 1787 but returned to the United States in Feb. 1795 to negotiate a payment for the remaining U.S. debt to France (DAB; Philadelphia American Daily Advertiser, 24 Feb.; Madison, Papers, Congressional Series, 15:358).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0277

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-09

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

The Senate are now in Possession of the Budget.— It is a Bone to gnaw for The Aristocrats as well as the Democrats: And while I am employed in attending the Digestion of it, I send you enclosed an Amusement which resembles it only in name.1
I can form no Judgment when the Proscess will be over. We must wait with Patience.
{ 445 }
I dined yesterday in the Family Way with The President— He told me that the American Minister, at the Hague, had been very regular and intelligent in his Correspondence. The whole Family made the usual Inquiries concerning You and Sent you the usual Compliments.
Be very carefull, my dearest Friend, of what you Say, in that Circle and City. The Times are perilous.
[signed] J. A.
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A.”
1. Not found but presumably Part II of A Bone to Gnaw, for the Democrats, Phila., 1795, Evans, No. 28434, in which Peter Porcupine continues his excoriation of the Democrats: “Once more the snarling democratic crew / (To discontent and mischief ever prone) / Show us their fangs, and gums of crimson hue; / Once more, to stop their mouths, I hurl a bone.” For Part I, see JA to WSS, 17 Jan., and note 3, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0278

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1795-06-10

Abigail Adams to John Adams

[salute] my Dearest Friend

I yesterday received yours of June 8th, and am happy to learn that there was like to be no delay from the absence of Senators. I wish and hope that there may be no unnecessary cavils respecting the Treaty. mr Beauma came here last fryday, said he met you at Prince Town on thursday told us mr Fauchett was going to present a memorial againt the Treaty. perhaps Adets arrival may prove a fortunate circumstance. Mr Jays Election Seems to give great satisfaction here. I received a Letter yesterday from Louissa of June 4th1 she says the news of mr Jays arrival was received in Boston with general Joy—desires me to tell her uncle that every thing respecting the Farm went on with great Harmony and allacrity and that it would do his Heart good to see his Farm. she tarried a week after we left home. Mrs smith send duty to you. poor little John has got the Ague and fever to a great degree. I am at present much better in my Health for my Journey. I avoid the Evening air, and take Bark and drink porter & water as an Antidote to the Ague the weather is very Warm here, but I hope we shall not be detaind here longer than the present week—
Yours affectionatly
[signed] A Adams
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “The vice President of the / united States / Philadelphia”; endorsed: “Mrs A. recd & ansd / June 11. 1795.”
1. Not found.

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0279

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-11

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

If I could take a Walk or a Ride to N. Y. in the Evening and come here again in the Morning how clever it would be!— I am Somewhat disappointed in not having recd a Line from you Since I left you—You are not sick I hope—
Mr Jay Spent last Evening with me and let me into the History of the Treaty and Negotiation, explaining his Views of its intent and operation— I can Say nothing upon it at present.
I have read 8 of Mr A’s Dispatches and 14 remain to be read.— Govt is much pleased with them.1
The Newspapers give you all the Public News.
[signed] J. A
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A.”
1. The first eight letters from JQA to Edmund Randolph were dated 22, 25 Oct., 2, 5, 7, 16, 19, and 22 Nov. 1794. The subsequent fourteen letters spanned the period 24 Nov. to 22 Jan. 1795 (Lb/JQA/3, APM Reel 127).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0280

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-11

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

I have recd yours of the 10th and a Cordial it was, for I began to be fearful for your health.
Louisa is a good Girl for writing Such comfortable Accounts from home— I believe the Farm looks well.—
I am grieved for my Dear Johnny. He must go home with Us for northern Air.
My Love to all. When I shall get away from this City is uncertain: but I have no hopes of being excused before the End of next Week. The Treaty is of great Extent and Importance and will not be rejected nor adopted without a thorough Examination. I presume every Member will wish for such an Investigation as will enable him to render a Reason for his Vote whether Pro or Con.
I am as ever
[signed] J. A.1
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A.”
1. On 12 June JA wrote AA another brief note in which he reported that all senators attended the day’s session and that he expected the treaty debate to continue for at least another week (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0281

Author: Shaw, Elizabeth Smith
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-13

Elizabeth Smith Shaw to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dear Sister—

I should be unpardonable if I neglected this Opportunity of writing to you by a private hand, & returning my grateful acknowledgements to my dear Brother Adams & you, for all your kindness—but alas! how inadequate are words to express the feelings of my heart. Upon those occasions I think it my duty to trace mercy’s to there great Source, & look up to heaven with thankfulness that I, & my Children are not left friendless; silently imploring the richest of its Blessings for my Benefactors—
I know your compassionate heart will be grieved to see from whence this Letter is dated— I came to Dr Welsh’s the day week you left me, expecting to spend a day, or two, & then return to Haverhill with my dear little Girl, in the Stage— but O my Sister I was taken sick the next day, & continued much worse than when at your House—till Sabbath Evening. I took nothing but flour milk porrage, & Laudinum at night; the Dr said nature would have its cource, & restringents were of no service—but I really thought it would swiftly carry me down the stream of time, & that I should never see you more, & you may well think what were the Objects of my tenderest Care— poor things thought I, what will become of you—for though your Mother has Enjoyed but feeble health, yet you will miss her when gone— It is an heart sinking disorder— I hope I shall not suffer with it again— I feel very weak, but am geting better as fast as I can— I have sent Abby Adams home in the Stage by Miss Betsy Harrod,1 & Mr Abbot is to come for me next Tuesday— I pray I may not be dissappointed—but patience must have its perfect work— I think sometimes, if I had less sensibility, I should enjoy better health—but I have naturally A cheerfull temper, which I find to be a most Excellent counterballance—against the ineviatable evils of Life—
Sister Cranch is this week again confined by Sister Smith, I fear she will never be able to keep her in the House— I am distressed for her, & the dear Children, I most tenderly compasionate— I very much fear she will come to an untimely end—& watching is but of little service— they will Elude the strictest care, when once the dreadful Idea is infused—
I am glad to hear you have suffered no more upon your Journey you had two hot Days, but upon the whole never finer weather— I long to have Mr Adams read Mr Dwights late Poem— I think it is { 448 } dedicated to him, & has great merit— He has a predilection for his native State, as all great Folks have— in him we deem it just—for it has certainly produced more literary characters than any other— Some parts of it are so descriptive, that if you had the Poem in your carriage, while passing through the well cultivated fields of Connetticut, I think your mind must be absorbed, & ravished with the beautious Scenes, & the justness of his Portrait—2
Before this reaches you, I hope you will have embraced your dear Daughter, & her Children, & are happily enjoying the Society of her amiable family— Please to kiss the sweet Children & tell them Aunt Shaw loves them, for their mothers sake, & wishes she had something to send them—
Dr Welsh & Lady present their regards, & believe me to be with the greatest affection, your ever grateful Sister
[signed] Elizabeth Shaw—
PS— Your Last Letter dwells forcibly upon my mind— the injunctions conincide exactly with my own sentiments, & though I would have no one think I am waiting yet I am willing to say, I am trusting, & that I will assent to whatever my best Friends shall think right, but cannot be precipitated into a State, which shall not appear to be for the interest of my Children— I would act for them, more than for myself— The attention, & disinterestedness of one, really distresses me, he has called at the House every week, since my absence—3
Sophocles being asked what harm, he would wish his enemy, answered, that he might love where he was not liked—4 but I would have said, that they might be beloved by those whom they respected, & esteemed, but could not make those returns which were wished for greater harm cannot befall a person of benevolence, & exquisite sensibility—
I think it is much best (at lest for the present) for me to sit solotary, & like the plaintive Dove in the Song, which so much affected me, coo—coo—coo—alone—& think more of an heavenly paradise, than of an earthly dwelling—5
I should not do justice to our amiable Louisa if I did not tell you she was one of the best of Nurses, for all those Daughters excell in their attention— they present every wish, that is in their power—& I think happy will be those gentlemen who obtain them—6
Dr Welsh & his wife have treated me with fraternal Affection, it is impossble for anybody to be kinder—
{ 449 }
Time, Experience, & a refined companion rubs of all the rough edges, & discovers the intrinsic value within—
Mr Shaw always enjoyed good health, yet no man was ever kinder to others in Sickness. I shall feel the want of his tender care in returning home— he would watched my countenance, & gone softly over every stone—
RC (Adams Papers); addressed by Louisa Catharine Smith: “Mrs Abigail Adams / at Col’l William S Smith’s Courtland Street / New york”; endorsed by WSS: “Mrs E Shaw / June 13th 1795.”
1. Elizabeth Marston Harrod (1776–1862) was a younger sister of AHA (John Harvey Treat, The Treat Family: A Genealogy of Trott, Tratt, and Treat, Salem, 1893, p. 270).
2. Rev. Timothy Dwight’s Greenfield Hill: A Poem, in Seven Parts, N.Y., 1794, Evans, No. 26925, extols the beauty and development of the land surrounding his home on Greenfield Hill in the town of Fairfield, Connecticut. With a bird’s-eye view of the “loveliest village of the west” (Part II, line 1), Dwight describes the landscape: “Unnumber’d farms salute the cheerful eye; / Contracted there to little gardens; here outspread / Spacious, with pastures, fields, and meadows rich; / Where the young wheat it’s glowing green displays, / Or the dark soil bespeaks the recent plough, / Or flocks and herds along the lawn disport” (Part I, lines 23–28). Dedicated to JA, “This Poem is inscribed with Sentiments of the highest Respect for his Private Character, and for the important Services he has rendered his Country.”
3. Although Elizabeth Smith Shaw was also courted by Isaac Smith Jr., her more persistent suitor was Rev. Stephen Peabody of Atkinson, N.H., whom she married on 8 Dec. (Shaw to AA and Mary Smith Cranch, 24 Sept., Adams Papers; William C. Todd, “Rev. Stephen Peabody and Wife, of Atkinson, New Hampshire,” NEHGR, 48:179 [April 1894]).
4. Rather than Sophocles, Shaw appears to be referencing the discourse on justice attributed to Socrates by Plato in Book I of The Republic.
5. Shaw began the postscript at the bottom of the second page, continued it at the bottom of the third page, and after this point completed it at the top of the third page.
6. Of the three daughters of Catharine Louisa Salmon and William Smith Jr., only Elizabeth married. On 15 Nov. 1798 she wed Boston upholsterer James H. Foster (AA to JQA, 15 Nov., Adams Papers; Boston Columbian Centinel, 17 Nov.).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0282

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-14

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My dearest Friend

It is painfull to feel an Impulse to write when there is nothing to Say. I write merely to let you know that I am alive and not Sick.— The Weather has been cold for several days which is more tolerable at least to me, than the heat which We Suffered for a day or two the Beginning of the Week past.
The new French Minister is arrived. Whether he has any Budget to disclose has not yet appeared.
Mr Jay is in fine Spirits and his health improves. I should Suppose he will remain here till the Fate of his Treaty is determined, which We hope, with some doubts however, will happen before the { 450 } End of this Week. 29 Senators attended Yesterday and the 30th is expected tomorrow. We shall meet for the future at an earlier hour in the Morning. The Deliberations have been temperate, grave, decent, and wise, hitherto and the Results judicious.1
I have recd but one Letter from you— I am anxious to hear further from Johnny Smith: whether he is better or not.2
My Absence from home at this season would be less distressing or rather less insipid, if my Presence here was more necessary, or indeed of any Utility: but to the Mortification of Seperation from my family and affairs at a time when they would be most agreable to me, is added the Consciousness that I can do no good to others any more than to myself. I have no Voice, and although the fate of the Treaty will not be justly imputable to me in any degree, yet there is reason to expect that many will suspect me, and other charge me, with a greater share of it that would belong to me if I had a Voice. All these Things terrify me little.—
A Mr Millar, a son of a Professor Millar of Glasgow known by his “Historical View of the English Government” last night brought me a Letter of Introduction & Recommendation from Dr Kippis who desires his “Sincere Respects to every Part of my Family” “In the Midst of the Desolations of Europe, he rejoices in the Prosperity of America and in the Wisdom and Moderation of its two chief Governors”—so much for Compliment.3
Moderation however is approved only by the Moderate who are commonly but a few. The many commonly delight in something more piquant and lively.
I am, with desires rather immoderate / to be going home with you, yours forever
[signed] J. A
Yesterday I dined at Mr Bingham’s with a large Company— While at Table a servant came to me with a Message from Mr Law who desired to speak with me in the Antechamber— I went out to him and found that he wanted to enquire of me concerning a young Lady of amiable manners and elegant Education whom Mr Law and Mr Greenleaf had found in Maryland in great distress and a little disarranged and brought with them to Philadelphia. she is connected with the Families of Col Orne and Col Lee of Marblehead. I knew nothing of her—4 Governor Bradford Says she has been Some Weeks in Rhode Island.5 I Sent Mr Law to Mr Cabot.
Mr Brown came in Yesterday— He keeps with all the Horses at { 451 } The Rising sun, between the 4th & 5th mile Stone in the Country, at Mr John Doves—6 His Horses are in fine order.— But I shall not be in a Condition to Use them this Week I fear.
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A”; endorsed: “June 14 1795.” The postscript was filmed separately at 15 June 1795.
1. By the minimum two-thirds margin of twenty to ten, the Senate voted to consent to the ratification of all but one article of the Jay Treaty on 24 June. The Senate adjourned two days later. The section of the treaty deemed too detrimental to American interests was Art. 12, which opened the West Indies to American trade vessels of seventy tons burden or less but restricted the reexportation of cotton and other important trade goods (Annals of Congress, 3d Cong., special sess., p. 859, 862–863, 868; Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism, N.Y., 1993, p. 409, 412–413).
2. AA to JA, 10 June, above.
3. John Craig Millar (1760–1796) was the son of John Millar (1735–1801), a respected law professor at the University of Glasgow and author of An Historical View of the English Government: From the Settlement of the Saxons in Britain to the Accession of the House of Stewart, London, 1787. Also a lawyer, the younger Millar immigrated to the United States in 1795, where he secured work as a clerk in the state department before his sudden death in 1796 (DNB; Jefferson, Papers, 28:407).
Millar’s letter of introduction from Andrew Kippis was dated 10 March 1795 (Adams Papers). JA’s response, apparently of 14 June, has not been found.
4. The young lady could be a number of women among the interrelated families of Col. Azor Orne and Col. William R. Lee, who had both served in the Revolutionary War and were successful merchants in Marblehead (JA, Papers, 3:48; Thomas Amory Lee, Colonel William Raymond Lee of the Revolution, Salem, 1917, p. 7–8, 19).
5. William Bradford (1729–1808), who had been a doctor before becoming a lawyer and politician, served as Rhode Island’s deputy governor between 1775 and 1778. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1793 and served until 1797 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).
6. John Dover (1754–1821), who rose to the rank of colonel in the Philadelphia militia during the Revolution, had been the proprietor of the Rising Sun Tavern, approximately four miles outside the city at the junction of the Old York and Germantown Roads. By 1795 Dover had relocated to nearby Frankford (W. A. Newman Dorland and others, “The Second Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry,” PMHB, 45:285–286 [1921]; 52:380 [1928]; Philadelphia Gazette, 20 March 1795).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0283

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1795-06-15

Abigail Adams to John Adams

[salute] my Dearest Friend

I have regularly received Your Letters and thank you for them. I have read the pamphlets.1 the Bone has much good natured Witt, contains many painfull facts, & Shows in a strong light what manner of Spirit actuates the pretended Patriots. the writer has in some places taken, a poetical Licence I have not offerd it where I am. Society and Interest and dissapointed ambition will have their influence upon most minds— be assured I am remarkably cautious upon the Subject of Politicks. I am satisfied mine would essentially clash with any one, who could call the Peace System, a milk & water System.
{ 452 }
I hope and trust the decision upon the Treaty will be a wise and candid one. that it should not be Suddenly rejected or accepted will I believe be more acceptable to the people than if it was otherways. I hope however a fortnight at furthest will be found Sufficient. My Health has been much mended by my Journey. Johns Ague after 3 fits of it, terminated by falling into his face.
you mention having read a part of the Dispatches from the Hague. are they made publick to the Senate?
My best respects to the President & mrs Washington. Love to mrs otis Betsy smith &c
most affectionatly / yours
[signed] A Adams
have you read G. Adams Speach to the assembly it is Seasoned a little.2
RC (Adams Papers); addressed by CA: “The Vice President of the United States / Philadelphia”; endorsed: “Mrs A. June 15 / Ansd 17. 1795.”
1. In addition to his letters of 9 and 11 (2) June, all above, JA wrote AA a second letter on 9 June in which he reported that the reading of the treaty and the record of negotiations had begun the previous day and also enclosed for AA a “misterious Poem for your Amusement,” which has not been found (Adams Papers).
2. On 3 June Gov. Samuel Adams addressed both houses of the Mass. General Court in a speech that extolled the virtues of American democracy and advocated for public schooling and increased judicial salaries. The speech was first printed in the Boston press on 6 June and in New York and Philadelphia on 11 June (Mass., Acts and Laws, 1794–1795, p. 609–613; Boston Columbian Centinel, 6 June; New York Argus, 11 June; Philadelphia Aurora General Advertiser, 11 June).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0284

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-15

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dear Madam.

We have very seldom an opportunity of hearing from you; and still more seldom that of writing you by a direct opportunity. An indirect one presents itself, and I cannot let it pass, were it barely for the pleasure of writing you that we are well, and enjoy in profound tranquility the beauties of the Season.
The Peace and Alliance between France and Holland; the violent insurrection against the Convention recently suppressed at Paris; the revolt quelled at Toulon, the war broken out once more in the Vendee, and the surrender of Luxemburg to the french Army, are all, important events that have happened since I wrote you last;1 but this letter will be so long before it can reach you, that it would be idle to dwell upon any article of News.
Not one vessel has sailed for Boston from any port in this { 453 } Country since we have been in it. Not one has arrived from thence. Once in a while I see the face of an old acquaintance, and have recently seen my friend T. H. Perkins of Boston, and Mr Hichborn; they are now both returned to France.2
My latest letters from any part of America are more than three months old. We have however accounts down to the latter end of April.— Full of new complaints against british depredations and rapine.— The Spirit of Rapine is the character of the Nation; they have commenced again the capture of neutral vessels bound to France with provisions. It is some satisfaction to find the cordiality with which they are detested by every body. I am fully convinced that not a breath of air from any quarter of the Heavens over the whole surface of the Earth is wafted along, but is loaded with some malediction against them. For my own part I have always considered the wish of Caligula, as no less atrocious than it was extravagant.3 But reasoning from analogy, I begin to suppose, that it might be dictated by the purest and most refined sentiment of Justice and humanity.
your affectionate Son
[signed] John Q. Adams.
RC (Adams Papers); addressed by TBA: “Mrs: A Adams / Quincy / near / Boston”; internal address: “Mrs: A. Adams.”; endorsed: “J.Q Adams June / 15 1795.” LbC (Adams Papers); APM Reel 128.
1. Since JQA’s letter to AA of 16 May, above, several events had occurred in France and in the war in Europe. On 17 May (An. III, 28 floréal), a Jacobin revolt broke out in Toulon that took two weeks for the revolutionary government to quell. On 20 May (1 prairial), a Parisian mob again stormed the National Convention demanding bread and the reinstitution of the Jacobin Constitution of 1793. Unlike the previous mob of 1 April 1795, for which see TBA to William Cranch, 8 April, and note 2, above, this one became violent, killed one member of the Convention, and paraded his head on a pike. It took three days and the arrival of 20,000 troops in Paris before the mob surrendered.
From La Vendée, rumors emerged that the peace of 15 Feb. between the French government and one of the rebel leaders had been falsely signed by the Vendéens, and the disarmament of the rebels, a condition of the peace treaty, could not be achieved. In fact, terms were reached between the revolutionary government and other Vendéen factions in early May, and the peace, although tenuous, would hold until 1796.
The fortress town of Luxembourg, which had been besieged by the French Army in Nov. 1794, finally surrendered on 7 June 1795 (Cambridge Modern Hist., 8:381–382, 386–387, 388–389, 391, 442; Edward Cust, Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century, 5 vols., London, 1859, 4:291).
In his long letter to JA of 27 June (Adams Papers), JQA further described these events but also questioned the actions of various foreign governments. France’s ill-conceived winter demonstration of its naval presence in the English Channel had left “the fleet so shattered and disabled, that it has not yet been repaired, and will be able to do nothing this Season.” He found in British military strategy that “the pride, pomp and circumstance of their hostility consist, not in the neighing steed, the shrill trump, the spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife, or the royal banner, but in forgery and famine. Their troops have been the terror of their friends and the derision of their enemies; but their artists are inimitable at counterfeiting an assignat, and their frigates and privateers are invincible against the merchant vessels of neutral Nations.” And about the inchoate Batavian Republic, JQA wrote, “The same { 454 } languor and imbecility which characterized the former government is equally discovered by the present. No vigour, no exertions, no public spirit, but abundance of common place about liberty, equality and the rights of man; abundance of invective against the house of Orange and its partizans; abundance of patriotic exultation together with frequent ebullitions of rage restrained, and of revenge repressed but ready to burst forth in all its violence … This spirit of turbulence is preserved and stimulated by the popular societies, as numerous and almost as mischievous here as they are elsewhere.”
2. During an eight-month stay in Europe, the Boston merchant Thomas Handasyd Perkins, for whom see CFA, Diary, 2:151, visited JQA on 31 May and 1 June. Benjamin Hichborn, whom JQA characterized as “more frenchman than ever” after their 12 June visit, was a Boston lawyer and former state representative who had been living in Europe since 1792 (DAB;D/JQA/24, APM Reel 27; Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, 17:41–42).
3. Upon hearing a crowd of spectators applaud a rival competitor, the Roman emperor Caligula reportedly said, “If only the Roman people had a single neck” (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, Lives of the Caesars, transl. Catharine Edwards, Oxford, Eng., 2000, p. 153). Among JQA’s books at MQA is Suetonius, L’histoire de empereurs Romains, Amsterdam, 1699, which he purchased at The Hague on 9 Sept. 1795 (Catalogue of JQA’s Books;D/JQA/24, 9 Sept., APM Reel 27).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0285

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1795-06-18

Abigail Adams to John Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

I received yours of the 12th. I wish congress may rise by the time you mention. a Gentleman reported here yesterday that he had heard that mr Langdon had said he was determind to oppose the Treaty in every article.1 people are very anxious— the col had letters from Halifax which informs him, that without Libeling the vessel, they proceed to unload her & will not permit the Captain nor a single hand belonging to the vessel to be on Board.2 Mr de Latomb came yesterday to see me, & is to Breakfast here this morning. he looks thin, but I believe considers himself a very fortunate Man to be able to return to America with his Head upon his shoulders— he is very communicative respecting the State of France both when he arrived there, & when he left it Says he has dispatches from our Son to the Secretary of state that he inquired after him of the Commissioners from Holland that they informd him, that the Minister & his Secretary were much respected there—
I was glad to hear that you were well. I hope you will be cautious of the Hot Suns, & the reflection from the houses & that you will get an umbrella— I walkt out yesterday a little way near the middle of the day, and felt such a sensation from the Heat of the Sun as I never before experienced— tho I had an umbrella and the distance was short, I was near fainting. mrs Fitch Sent me home in her carriage. I have had the Head ack ever since. I have often heard of the { 455 } Brick and stone reflection, but I never felt the force of the Sun in such a manner before—
Mrs Smith & children are well I have not heard again from Quincy
affectionatly Yours
[signed] A Adams—
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “The vice President of the united / States / Philadelphia”; endorsed: “Mrs A. June 18. ansd 19 / 1795”; notation: “Hond by monssieurr / de La Tombe.”
1. Sen. John Langdon remained steadfast in his opposition to the treaty, including the vote for ratification on 24 June (Annals of Congress, 3d Cong., special sess., p. 861–863).
2. Between 1793 and 1812, the British Navy annually seized about twelve American vessels suspected of carrying contraband for France. A number of these prizes were brought before the vice-admiralty court in Halifax, which then ruled to either clear or condemn the ship, the cargo, or both. While the details of WSS’s specific involvement remain unclear, reports of seized vessels appeared in New York newspapers in the spring of 1795 (Julian Gwyn, Frigates and Foremasts: The North American Squadron in Nova Scotia Waters, 1745–1815, Vancouver, 2003, p. 115–117; New York Weekly Museum, 9 May; New York Argus, 25 May).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0286

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-18

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

Mr Adet was presented to The President on Tuesday and accompanied by The Secretary of State made me a Visit immediately after his Audience. I was not at Home but in Senate. On Wednesday Morning I returned his Visit at Oellers Hotel.1 He is about the Size of Mr shaw, Charitys Husband and looks a little like him: not quite so rosy coloured.
He is not a Friend to Clubbs—announced to The President the entire annihilation of Factions in France. &c
His Excellency Governor Jay returned Yesterday to N. York— He has been very sociable and in fine Spirits. His Health is improving. We have no C. J. as yet nominated.2 It is happy that Mr J. Election was over before the Treaty was published: for the Parties against him would have quarrelled with the Treaty right or wrong that they might give a Colour to their animosity against him.
Some Think We shall rise this Week: but I fear We shall be obliged to sitt some days next Week.
I hope We shall not have many of these Supernumerary sessions.
one of our Senators yesterday, Mr Ross of Pensilvania after walking a great deal about Town went imprudently to a Pump and drank too freely of cold Water in Consequence of which he Was taken { 456 } very ill at Mr Binghams where he was at Dinner and obliged to go home & be bled and vomited. I hope he will be able to go out to day: but he had a nice risque of his Life.
Mr Bingham lives in great Splender and his Lady shines among the Senators as with all the rest of the World.
Mr Morris lives at Lansdown— seeing Mrs Morris in the House in Town I went in and made my Compliments. she made the usual Enquiries about you.
Kid, has bought the Land at 100£ a foot between the Presidents House and Mr Morris’s House and is building a new House there.3
My Love to all
[signed] J. A
Mr Otis’s family goes to their old Lodings in Dorchester after the senate rises
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A.”; endorsed: “June 18 1795.”
1. In 1791 Francophile James Oeller opened a hotel on Chestnut Street that was decorated in the French style, employed a French staff, and became the headquarters for Philadelphia’s Democratic-Republican community (Peter Thompson, Rum Punch & Revolution: Taverngoing & Public Life in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia, Phila., 1999. p. 190, 199).
2. John Jay resigned his post as chief justice effective 29 June 1795 to assume his duties as the new governor of New York. On 1 July George Washington appointed John Rutledge of South Carolina to the interim post; however, Rutledge’s outspoken opposition to the Jay Treaty irked the pro-treaty press and prevented his confirmation by the Senate in December. Another chief justice was not selected until 1796 (Doc. Hist. Supreme Court, 1:13, 17, 96–99, 118).
3. Robert Kid, a perfumer, lived next to the president’s house on Market Street in 1796 and 1797. By 1799 he had become a copper merchant and relocated to a different Market Street location (Philadelphia Directory, 1796, Evans, No. 30571; 1797, Evans, No. 32868; 1799, Evans, No. 36353).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0287

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1795-06-19

Abigail Adams to John Adams

[salute] My dearest Friend

I received yesterday yours of th 14 & 171 I am happy to learn that you are well, and hope the Senate will not be obliged to sit longer than tomorrow. I saw mr Jay last Evening. by the manner of his Speaking I thought he did not expect they would get up so soon. the Antis know not how to contain themselves, at the Secrecy of the Senate. they wish to be clamouring the whole time, and stand with their mouths open ready to sit up the Halloo. we see by the report of Merlin in the Name of the committe of publick Safety, this day publishd in the Gazzet, the declaration of the Essential principals of { 457 } social order, as they are called, every article of which, is to guard against the domination of self created Societies, and incendary publications.2
I rejoice with you in the late receipt of intelligence from our dear Sons— Mrs smith has letters to the 16 of April & Charles to the 9th.3 I would hope you may have some too. I presume the Secreatary of state has dispatches. they give a pleasing account of their Health & of their personal Safety and tranquility. the letters are excellent as usual. you will So soon see them that it is needless to make any extracts from them—
I am glad you wrote me about the Medallion. I did not chuse to ask you. I knew the Subject gave you pain. I think however that you had better see Mead, & shew him the Letter to bar any future Demand.4 General Gates desires his respects to you & says you must go out to Rose Hill & go over his Farm one day before you return home. I presume you will only stop here one day.5 present my kind regards to mrs Washington. I should be happy to see her. John is better I think as Mrs Washington did that it was a Worm Ague— adieu in hopes of seeing you the beginning of the week. I am as ever yours &c
[signed] A Adams—
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mrs A. June 19 / ansd 23. 1795.”
1. In his letter to AA of 17 June, JA described the Senate debate over the treaty as temperate and likely to continue for another week. He also informed AA that JQA’s dispatches had yet to be presented to the Senate and that he had read Gov. Samuel Adams’ speech and found it generally satisfactory (Adams Papers).
2. On 12 April Philippe Antoine Merlin de Douai, a member of the Committee of Public Safety, presented France’s National Convention with a list of twelve principles designed to maintain social order in the republic. The first article declared, “The sovereign people of France, are the collection of the ci[ti]zens from all the Departments, without distinction of condition, profession or fortune. Any section or fraction of the people, any condition or profession, any society, assembly or mob, are not the French people.” The report further proclaimed the right of the government to forcibly suppress such assemblies and prosecute the organizers. Translations of Merlin’s declaration, reprinted from Paris newspapers, appeared in the New York press from 19 June (New York Argus, 19, 20 June).
3. JQA to AA2, 15 April, and likely JQA to CA, 16 April, both above.
4. In his letter to AA of 16 June, JA reported Giuseppe Ceracchi’s recent departure for Hamburg and also that the sculptor had attempted to solicit exorbitant fees from some of his other subjects, including the president. Ceracchi made a similar request to JA on 8 May seeking $250, which he asked to be remitted to the Philadelphia merchant George Meade (both Adams Papers). Meade was apparently acting as Ceracchi’s agent and was designated in the sculptor’s requests for payment to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison (DAB;Jefferson, Papers, 28:347–349; Madison, Papers, Congressional Series, 16:5, 7).
5. For Rose Hill Farm, the estate of Gen. Horatio Gates, see vol. 9:408.

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0288

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-19

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

Last Night the Consul General De la Tombe made me a Visit with your kind Letter of the 18th.
He looks older than When I last saw him and he is indeed a fortunate Man: He gave me many details of affairs in France: a gloomy Picture of the Reign of Terror and a Smiling one of the present Reign of Moderation: but he is not without Inquietude on the subject of a Constitution.
By the Turn which the Debates and Deliberations in senate took Yesterday, We must Sitt next Week and I have now little hope of Liberty till the last day of it. Some Members, perhaps wish to give time to Mr Adet to open his Budget, which it is conjectured may contain Propositions on the Part of France.1
The Sun is terrible here as well as at N. Y. I beg you to be afraid of him and keep out of his Beams. I dread going out to Lansdowne to dinner at Mr Morris’s on sunday according to his invitation.
The News you mention from Hallifax is very disagreable. I wish that Misfortune and Adversity could Soften the Temper and humiliate the Insolence of John Bull: but he is not yet sufficiently humbled. If I mistake not it is to be the Destiny of America one day to beat down her Pride— But the Irksome task will not soon, I hope be forced upon Us.— All this is under the Rose.
My Love to the Family.
[signed] J. A.
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A”; endorsed: “June 19 1795”; docketed: “J A.”
1. During its special session, the Senate neither received nor considered a communication from the newly arrived French minister Pierre Auguste Adet (Annals of Congress, 3rd Cong., special sess., p. 853–868).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0289

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-20

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

I received yesterday two Letters from each of our Sons at the Hague, who were very well and in good Spirits on the 25th of April:1 but the Letters contain So much Information, that I have been obliged to lend them to The Secretary of the Treasury: I shall inclose them to you however on Monday
All the next Week will be taken up, I Suppose in further { 459 } Investigations of the Subject before Senate, and indeed I should be very glad to be ensured that the Decision will be as early as Saturday. If it should be earlier I shall be agreably disappointed. I shall take my Departure as soon as the Business is done, and I hope you will be ready to join me at New York on our Way home without further loss of time.
The Day is at hand when Governor Jay is to take the Reins in New York: may his Administration by easy to himself and happy for the People
That a violent Temper and a weak head should have Said He would combat every Article, is not improbable.
affectionately & ardently yours
[signed] J. A.
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A.”
1. JQA to JA, 1 April, in which JQA described the growing ideological divide between some of the old Dutch Patriots, with whom JA was familiar, and the new Patriots, for whom “the principles are changed, and the sacred Love of Universal Liberty is the only motive which inspires the actors upon the scene.” JQA also reported on the problems of the Dutch Navy and the weakened Dutch economy, which resulted in open commerce to Dutch ports including grains admitted without duty. He concluded his letter with remarks on French politics and the rumored peace between France and Prussia (Adams Papers).
In addition to this letter, JA may have been referring to JQA’s letter to AA of 25 April, above. The letters from TBA have not been found, although TBA recorded writing letters to America on 11 and 24 April (M/TBA/2, APM Reel 282).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0290

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-21

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

The Sun is so bright and augurs Such heat that I am doubtful whether I shall go out to Landsdowne to dinner.
I dined Yesterday at Mr Wolcotts the Secretary of The Treasury with King Elsworth Cabot and a few others.1 The Conversation turn’d upon old times. One of the Company expressed such Inveteracy against my old Friend Gerry that I could not help taking up his Vindication. The future Election of a Governor, in Case of an empty Chair, excites a Jealousy which I have long perceived. These Things will always be so. Gerrys Merit is inferiour to that of no Man in the Massachusetts, except the present Governor, according to my Ideas and Judgment of Merit. I wish he was more enlarged however and more correct in his Views. He never was one of the threads tyed into the Essex knot, and was never popular with that Sett.
I Sent you Yesterday four Letters from our sons, which have been approved by all who have read them. Mr Wolcott thinks that the { 460 } Report of Merlin upon Clubbs as quoted in Tommys Letter ought to be published— Charles may get it inserted in a Paper without Names or any Circumstances which can indicate the source from whence it comes. If you know Mr Webster you may let him read those Letters in Confidence.2
My hopes are to be at N. York by Saturday night— But my fears are Stronger that I shall not get away from Philadelphia before Monday. if senate should finish on Wednesday I shall sett out on Thursday. But this will depend on the Will of others.
I am with unfeigned Affection
[signed] J. A
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A”; endorsed: “June 21 1795.”
1. Oliver Ellsworth (1745–1807), Princeton 1766, was a lawyer, a member of the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1783, and a U.S. senator for Connecticut from 1789 until 1796, at which time he became the third chief justice of the Supreme Court, serving until 1800 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).
2. TBA’s letter has not been found, but he was undoubtedly writing about the declaration presented to France’s National Convention on 12 April, for which see AA to JA, 19 June, and note 2, above. It does not appear that CA had TBA’s letter published by Noah Webster, who instead printed a translation of Merlin’s declaration, which had appeared in the Paris press (New York American Minerva, 22 June).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0291

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1795-06-22

Abigail Adams to John Adams

[salute] My dearest Friend

I was fearfull before I left Home of Such a Seige as has taken place. whatever else may be objected to the Treaty, that of a hasty decision cannot and ought not to be of the Number— as people are all alive upon the Subject, there are no doubt many Speaches put into the mouths of particular senators according to their former sentiments & opinions— one day we here of very warm Debates. an other, that there will be no decision, but the Treaty will be deferd to the next meeting of Congress— but What I fancy is more founded on Truth, is what a Gentleman wrote his Friend from Philadelphia “We know no more about the Treaty here, than if the Senate were sitting in Siberia”
I can have nothing to detain me here after you come. I am anxious to return & dread the Heat, both for you & myself—
Col smith has received Letters from his Agent at Halifax. after unlaiding the vessel clear to the bottom in serch of Some brass cannon which they were informd she had, & finding none nor any Naval stores, they reloaded her & sufferd her to sail after detaining her a Month in the buisness
{ 461 }
I was happy in the receipt of the Letters you sent me, and rejoiced that any of mine had at last got Safe to Hand
Boston Chronical goes on in its accustomed stile of abuse— G Knox has got his share—Lord of Maine &c &c1
We are all Well. I have not any intelligence from home I wrote last week that I was in hopes of sitting out on the wedensday of this
adieu yours affectionatly
[signed] A Adams—
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mrs A. June 22 / ansd 25 1795.”
1. On 16 June a feast honoring Gen. Henry Knox was held in Boston as the former secretary of war paused on his way to his home in Maine. Attended by local merchants, diplomats, and Federalist politicians, the event drew criticism from the Republican press. One satirical “Soliloquy” mocked, “Feast of Gratitude!—I must again inquire, where are the men who claim this exclusive notice? Are they those who revel in affluence, and whose luxury and dissipation have become proverbial? Whose fortune has been encreased a thousand fold. Who have retired from office, in all the splendor of Nabobs—not like Cincinnatus, to ‘till their acres,’ but like Lords of an immense territory” (Boston Independent Chronicle, 18 June).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0292

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-23

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

Some Senators are confident We shall rise tomorrow or next day. if so, I shall be with you on Sunday— But these Conjectures are always uncertain. I shall write you every day so that you will be apprized of the time when you may expect me.
Both the public Dispatches and private Letters of our dear Boys are the delight of all who read them— No public Minister has ever given greater Satisfaction, than Mr Adams has hitherto. His Prudence Caution and penetration are as much approved as the Elegance of his Style is admired. Providence I hope and pray will make him a Blessing to his Country as well as to his Parents.
I went out to Lansdowne on sunday about half a mile on this Side Judge Peters’s where you once dined. The Place is very retired, but very beautiful a Splendid House, gravel Wallks shrubberies & Clumps of Trees in the English style—on the Bank of the Skuylkill— Jona. Williams’s House, which was once McPhersons is over the River.1 It is the first time I have trodden the new Turn pike Road which is a great Improvement.2
I am affectionately your
[signed] J. A3
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Ms A.”
1. Mount Pleasant, built by the privateer John McPherson in 1761, was purchased by the Philadelphia merchant Jonathan Williams in 1792 (Thompson Westcott, The { 462 } Historic Mansions and Buildings of Philadelphia, with Some Notice of Their Owners and Occupants, Phila., 1877, p. 214, 229). For JA’s description of McPherson and his country home, see JA, D&A, 2:176, 183.
2. For the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, see Descriptive List of Illustrations, No. 3, above.
3. JA also wrote to AA on 24 June to inform her of the Senate’s likely adjournment within the next day or two and to express his wish to return immediately to Quincy without taking time to visit friends in New York (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0293

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1795-06-25

Abigail Adams to John Adams

[salute] my dearest Friend

I received yours of 23d. it is reported here that 19 Senators are for a ratification of all but the 12th article of the Treaty. Greenleafs paper contains daily Some weak foolish superficial sausy reflections & abuses upon the senate the President & the supposed Treaty but they cannot make an impression; but upon such minds as are, as weak, foolish, and superficial as the writers.1
Have you read Pelets speach on the 8 of April upon the External and internal situation of the Republick of France. it contains many judicious observations & Reflections. he evidently aims at a balance of power tho he dare not Speak out baldly. “what he observes is the Guarantee in the constitution of 1793 which insures to the Nation a lasting Republican existance? where is the force, where is the protecting institution which shelters the Nation from innovations on the part of the legislators? ought we not to Surround Liberty with more secure formalities and with more Solid barriers? Does Liberty exist in a Country where a power detached from the people, altho sit up by them would enjoy the Strange capacity of giving them arbitrary constitutional Laws; or without consulting them; change their opinions their manners their Character & their Religion according to the convenience or capacity of the Legislators? as long as the political Goverment of the Nation shall be intrusted in the hands of persons who can offer me no other Security but their presumed probity, I shall always fear their ambition. I shall never set confidence in Men. the Law alone must be my security. I have no reliance but upon the Law; I believe only the promises of the Law. of the constitution of 93—he observes that it is the general opinion that its Principles are those of Democracy; but some say it wants a Spring, but I say it wants also wheels and to be set in motion. A constitution ought to include every thing which interests the Liberty of a Country and that of every individual”
read the Whole Speach it is well worth a perusal tho the Speaker { 463 } like all the rest of his countrymen, does not appear to have thought deeply upon the Subject of Govenment, yet he has thrown out many wise & judicious observations.2 I am however of Stuarts (the great Walkers) mind who says he told Tom Paine, that he might as well teach a Hen to Swim, as make a real Republican of a French Man—3
I went on twesday to Breakfast at Rose Hill—General Gates Seat. I am solisitious you should see it. it is the most Beautifull Spot I have seen here, 92 acres of Excellent land, and a House to gratify any moderate ambition for two thousand pounds, was a bargain indeed tho only a Life estate. I walk with the General to his Garden to his Farm house & to his Barns to his Feilds of Grain &c he may literally be said to live in clover. he pointed to a parsnip bed in his garden prhaps a quarter of an Acre, & told me that he made 27 pounds from that spot the last year beside sufficient for his Family & this Years says he from that Spinnage bed about 20 foot, I have taken 20 pounds & My Sparigrass beds neated 3 pounds pr day during the Season of it. the market people go to the Garden & take it so that he has no trouble of sending it to market. one man takes the whole care of it after it is dug in the Spring. the whole Garden is not so large as our lower Garden, but vegitables are very dear in the market, cowcumbers sold at 3 shillings a peice a fort night ago. mr Hammond has a Garden out below where we used to live at Greenwich.4 he told me one day last week that his Gardener Sold in one day 60 dollors worth of vegitables. When Shall We Farm So?
I have past my time very pleasently Since I have been here, but I know our presence is wanted at Quincy tho I hear that every thing goes on well. I shall be ready to return with you as soon as the Senate will give you permission, the sooner the more agreeable to / Your affectionate
[signed] A Adams
P S—
We have a delightfull rain to day. We are engaged to Rose Hill to dinner. I wish I may not covet my Neighbours House & lands. I think my ambition would be bounded by such a situation—just so much Land so productive “but we know not ourselves—[] the General has a Grindstone upon a new construction which I want you to see when sit in motion it will go a quarter of an hour without any assistance so that one person may grind a tool Crugher price was Seven thousand pounds for the fee simple of that place. it would now fetch 15 prhaps 20—
{ 464 }
RC (Adams Papers); docketed by TBA: “Mrs Abigail Adams / 25th: June 1795— N york—”; and by JA: “Mrs. Adams / 1795.”
1. Both of Thomas Greenleaf’s New York newspapers, the daily Argus and the semiweekly New York Journal, adopted strong anti-treaty stances and reprinted the excoriations of the treaty from the Republican press in Boston and Philadelphia. Much of this criticism lambasted the secrecy surrounding the Senate deliberations, and on 24 June both newspapers printed a contribution that challenged, “What are we to infer from this secrecy? No doubt that the treaty will be unacceptable to the public; for if it would prove agreeable to them, it would not be concealed. What are we to infer, if the treaty obtains contrary to the wishes of the people? That the people have not public servants but public masters, and that there exists a tyranny among us.”
2. French politician Jean Pelet de la Lozère (1759–1842) became a member of France’s National Convention in 1792 and briefly served as the body’s president in 1795. On 8 April Pelet addressed the Convention, attacking the Constitution of 1793 (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale). Quoting from a translation printed in the New York Journal on 24 June, AA combines several passages from Pelet’s speech into a single quotation.
3. British writer John Stewart (1749–1822) was known as “Walking” Stewart because of his travels on foot across India, Persia, and much of Europe (DNB).
4. Abijah Hammond (1757–1832) was a New York City merchant (Hamilton, Papers, 15:644).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0294

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Cranch, Mary Smith
Date: 1795-06-25

Abigail Adams to Mary Smith Cranch

[salute] my dear sister:

I yesterday received your Letter giving me an account of the distressd Situation of Sister Smith.1 I fear her disorder will terminate in a setled distraction Burrel Shall have the Room & bed Room for Mrs Smith at 12 Dollors a Year, but he shall have them only for her2 that is he shall not consider himself at Liberty to let them to any one else if she should not continue with him. I mention this because when I let him the House there was a misunderstanding between us, but if she goes there care should be had that she should have a Sufficiency of good & wholesome food. they are poor people and live pretty near. indeed they are obliged to. Mrs smiths place is let at much too small a Rent as produce is—
I was in hopes to have been on my way home by this time, but the Senate are not yet up, and mr Adams does not give me much hopes of its rising till Saturday. the Fate of the Treaty is not yet Known it is however the general opinion that it will be ratified. I say the out door opinion, for the Senate are Secret and Silent.3 it has been discussed with much calmness coolness and deliberation, and considerd in all its various lights and opperations. I hope the decision will be wise & judicious Satisfactory & benificial to the Country. the Grumblers will growl however. party will shew it self, and be bitter. I have had letters from <our> my sons late as 24 April they were well & desire to be particularly rememberd to all Friend’s at Quincy—
{ 465 }
Mrs Smith Sends her duty & Love. She is well & so is Emelia, a lovely Girl I assure you tho She has got red Hair which mortifies her mother not a little. John has the Ague poor fellow—
I hear frequently of Your Son, & from every body the just praises which he merrits. mr Greenleaf drank Tea here last week. he talks of returning to Holland Soon. the Girls here I believe wish his wife dead. he is sufficiently a favorite where ever he goes, & seems too much of an American not to have all his affections, all centerd in this country his manners are more like Nancys than any of the rest of the Family. he looks like her— I askd how Polly was like’d he told me very much & Julia he said was well.— I wishd him to go on to Boston that he enjoy the happiness of his Brother to which he had so much contributed. he said he must rejoice in it at a distance as his buisness would not allow him that pleasure
Remember me affectionatly to all our Friends. tell Brisler the week after next he may look for us— affectionatly yours
[signed] A Adams
RC (MWA:Abigail Adams Letters); endorsed by Richard Cranch: “Letter from Mrs / A Adams (N:Y.) / June 25th. 1795.”
1. Not found.
2. Likely Peter Burrell (1764–1852), originally of Weymouth, who occupied one of the smaller Adams properties when the tax assessment was made in Dec. 1798 (“The Presidents Valluation,” [Dec. 1798], Adams Papers, Wills and Deeds; Sprague, Braintree Families).
3. For the order of secrecy regarding the Senate’s deliberations, see JA to JQA, 29 June 1795, note 1, below.

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0295

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-26

John Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dearest Friend

The Senate is to meet at Ten, this morning and I hope will finish: but it is still uncertain. I shall Sett out this Afternoon, provided the senate rises— But I shall not be able to reach New York by tomorrow night— if I am not restrained from riding on sunday I may arrive on that day: But on Sunday or Monday I think, barring accidents, you may expect me. I have been detained so long, the hot weather advances So rapidly and our Attention at home is so much wanted that We must take Leave the next morning after my Arrival in N. Y.
I shall say nothing of Public affairs because the least Said is soonest amended
[signed] J. A
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mrs A.”

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0296

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1795-06-29

John Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My Dear Son

I arrived here Yesterday from Philadelphia in my Way to Quincy. My little Flock are now all collected, except the two in Holland and all in good health excepting Johnny Smith who has the Ague severely.
The Senate after a Session of 19 or 20 Days compleated their deliberations on the Treaty. The Result is Advice to ratify it except one Article or rather to ratify it all provided a new Agreement is made to suspend one Article. To consent to limit surplues in the Export of our own Productions as Cotton for Example, in short to restrain ourselves from exporting what We please is humiliating, and a mean surrender of a part of our Independence which our senators could not Submit to, no not for an hour. No Part of the Treaty is to be copied till after the Ratification of it, and Exchange of Ratifications.1
I recd last Week your Letter No. 7. and you cannot conceive the Pleasure it gave me. I have shewn it to several Gentlemen, who all expressed their great Satisfaction in the Penetration and discretion of it as well as in the style. The President and his Ministers of state expressed to me their entire Approbation of your Conduct and Correspondence. Mr Jay is to take the Rains of Government in N. York on Wednesday and the 4th of July is to be celebrated with great solemnity. We are kindly invited but my Affairs at home require my immediate Attention.
Your Brother Charles has taken a Second Clerk a son of Mr Henry Cruger formerly Member of Parliament for Bristol.2 Charles’s Reputation is rising and his Business increasing as fast as can be reasonably expected and I hope he will succeed very well— Go on, my Dear sons in the Paths of Honour Virtue and Industry and I pray Heaven to make you all Blessings to your Friends and your Country.
It grieves me that I have not written you oftener but your Father is allmost three score years of Age and has gone through Scænes which have almost worn him out. Your Letters by Captn Boadge have been all received and have done you great honour—so have Thommys.3 We sett out this afternoon for Quincy where I shall remain till the middle of November.
I am, my Dear son, with great satisfaction and / the tenderest affection your Father
[signed] John Adams
{ 467 }
My kind Compliments to all my old Friends
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mr Adams.” Tr (Adams Papers).
1. At the start of the session on 8 June, the president leveled an order of secrecy on the Senate. Several motions to rescind the order were made throughout the two-week session, with an amended motion passing just before the Senate adjourned on 26 June. The adopted resolution removed the original gag order but “enjoined upon the Senators not to authorize or allow any copy of the said communication.” Sen. Stevens Thomson Mason of Virginia, however, ignored the resolution and allowed his copy of the treaty to be reprinted as a pamphlet by Benjamin Franklin Bache on 1 July (Annals of Congress, 3d Cong., special sess., p. 855, 856, 858, 867–868; Stewart, Opposition Press, p. 198; Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, between His Britannick Majesty, and the United States of America, Phila., 1795, Evans, No. 29743).
2. Henry Cruger Sr., for whom see JA, Papers, 2:256, had returned to his native New York after a number of years in England and was elected to the state senate in 1792. John, Cruger’s youngest son by his second wife, Caroline Elizabeth Blair Cruger, clerked for CA (Edward F. De Lancey, “Original Family Records, Cruger,” NYGBR, 6:77–78 [April 1875]; JA, D&A, 3:234).
3. On 17 June 1795 Capt. John Boadge of Portsmouth, N.H., arrived in New York aboard the brig Minerva after a journey of 46 days from Amsterdam (New York Argus, 18 June; New York Daily Advertiser, 20 June). For the letters he likely carried, see JA to AA, 20 June 1795, and note 1, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0297

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Thomas Boylston
Date: 1795-06-29

John Adams to Thomas Boylston Adams

[salute] My Dear son Thomas

I last Week at Philadelphia recd your kind Letter of April by Captn Boadge, and it has been a delicious Morcell to me and to several other of your Friends.
As you are in the best Country of Europe for the study of the civil Law, I hope you will embrace the Opportunity of making yourself acquainted with all the best Writers on that divine Science, as my Master Gridley used to call it.
The French I presume begins to be familiar to you and the Dutch I hope is not wholly neglected. You have many Friends who enquire after you, and who read your Letters with Eagerness and Delight.
We begin to flatter Ourselves with hopes of a general Pacification in Europe: and are all heartily weary of the Noise of war.
Your Mamma will write you every Thing concerning the Ladies and particularly the Marriages of Miss Morris Miss Anthony &c.
You will do well to form some Connections with Gentlemen of Letters as well as Persons in Trade with whom you may correspond hereafter through Life upon subjects of Science as well as Business to your Profit as well as other Advantages.
We expect a great deal of Jacobinical Insolence in the News papers about the Treaty: but no great Impression will be made upon { 468 } the People. There is a great Change of sentiment in America Since you left it in favour of Peace and order. You very early took a decided aversion to disorderly Clubbs and your opinion is now general in this Country as it seems to be in Europe.
My farm begins to shine. a rainy season makes it appear to more Advantage than it has done, in Years past.
Let me know your Views and Prospects from time to time—and whether you intend to return as you proposed at the End of two years.
If you should go to England Go out to see Paines Hill and Osterly House— Stow Hagley The Lessows &c are too far off—But the Gentlemens Seats in England are the greatest Curiosities in it.—
Speculation in Lands goes on rapidly in this Country— other Speculations run now chiefly into foreign Commerce. I am my Dear / Child with a tender Affection your / Father
[signed] John Adams
RC (NAlI:Presidential Autograph Coll., CP547); internal address: “Thomas Boylston Adams Esqr”; endorsed: “The Vice President of the U, S / 29 June 95 / 8 Septr. Recd / 14 Decr. Answd.”

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0298

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1795-06-29

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams


[salute] My Dear Mamma.

Your favour of April 22. marked N. 4. reached me a few days since; I have already acknowledged the receipt of your three preceding letters and have answered them. The sight of a letter from America has lost none of its charms in Europe, and that of one from you can never lose them in any part of the world.
I have just written an encyclopaedia of politics (I mean in point of quantity) to my father, and have indeed so exhausted myself by it, that I shall say nothing more upon the subject to you, at this time.1
Please to accept my best acknowledgments for the little poem enclosed with your letter; the perusal of it gave me great pleasure. It is not without ingenuity, though it is an imitation rather too close of the Rolliad. I could not help applying to the author, a remonstrance of Peter Pindar to one of the Painters, who had borrowed with a similar liberality from Snyders. “But Zounds! friend, do not pilfer the whole dog.”2
{ 469 }
My friend T. H. Perkins, who was here some time since had already informed me of the discomfiture the Jacobinical Heroes had suffered in Boston, by the loss of Honestus’s election.
His Chronicle Printer, the Tom Tit, twittring on this goose’s back, cannot forget it seems his little wish to be malicious against me. He will never forgive me for having put some truth and Justice into his paper. It was such a violence to the personal character of the man, and the political character of the print, as would have made him my enemy forever; if he had dared to be the enemy of any man. The American Minister neither went to England with the Stadtholder, nor remained at the Hague under the Protection of General Pichegru. He remained at his Post under the protection of the laws of Nations; that is of certain usages and principles to the printer and editor of the Chronicle unknown, but which all civilized human beings, hold in singular veneration, and which General Pichegru as well as the other french generals and Representatives of the People who have been in this Country took particular pains, to preserve inviolate. It did not once enter their minds that the Minister of a neutral and friendly Nation, could be a subject of protection to them. But they were anxiously solicitous that none of the rights annexed to the character should suffer the minutest injury from them, and strange as it may seem to the aforesaid Printer and Editor, they universally valued very highly the reputation of being scrupulously observant of the Laws of Nations.3
I have a Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury dated only one day later than the last of those I have from my father. It is in answer to one from me of February 2d: written subsequent to the Revolution here;4 as I wrote a long Letter to my father of the same date I suppose it must have been received within a few days after your last Letters. I have also continued from time to time the relation of public events here since the Revolution, and have written you as frequently as I could with a communication so much interrupted as that with America has been. There is at length one vessel about to sail from Rotterdam for Boston, by which this letter will be conveyed.5 I shall take the same opportunity to send you the bracelets, which I hope will be to your mind.
It gives me great pleasure to hear of the marriages of my Cousins William and Lucy Cranch. I find by Letters from some of my friends in Boston, that every body is married or about to be. The case at Philadelphia is the same it seems. If the market as we left it should fail totally, it is to be hoped there will be new supplies.
{ 470 }
I shall write by this opportunity to my aunt Shaw. I hope Doctor Welsh has ere this time received my letter in which I have anticipated your recommendation6
When we came from England we were in such an hurry, that we were obliged to leave the principal part of our baggage behind. After we came away it was put on board an English vessel coming to Rotterdam. The vessel came from London as far as Harwich, and was there delayed by the wind. The winter came on; the Maes froze up, and the vessel did not venture to come over. The french armies arrived, and the English vessel instead of coming to Rotterdam, as soon as the spring opened returned to London. My baggage was there several months longer, until at length it was put on board an american vessel coming to Rotterdam, and at the end of nine months we have this day received it.7 I expected that my books and cloathing would be very much damaged if not entirely ruined; but I find they have sustained no injury whatever.
Please to make my remembrance of duty and affection acceptable to my grandmother and to all our relations and friends at Quincy and Weymouth, and to be assured of the invariable dutiful Sentiments of your Son
[signed] John Q. Adams.
RC (Adams Papers); addressed by TBA: “Mrs: A Adams.”; internal address: “Mrs: A Adams.”; endorsed: “J Q Adams / 29 June 1795.” LbC (Adams Papers); APM Reel 128. Tr (Adams Papers).
1. For his letter to JA of 27 June, see JQA to AA, 15 June, and note 1, above.
2. “But, z——ds! thou must not smuggle the whole dog” (Peter Pindar, More Lyric Odes to the Royal Academicians, London, 1783, Ode III, line 24).
3. For the gibe leveled at JQA by Thomas Adams, editor of the Boston Independent Chronicle, see AA to JQA, 22 April 1795, and note 2, above.
4. JQA wrote to Alexander Hamilton on 2 Feb. (Lb/JQA/3, APM Reel 127) to inform the treasury secretary that payment of the interest due on the U.S. loan at Antwerp might be necessary, as the French had closed the counting house of the United States’ banking agent in that city. In Oliver Wolcott’s response to JQA of 27 April (Adams Papers), Wolcott empowered JQA to renegotiate the U.S. debt at Antwerp and suggested TBA travel there in order to countersign credit obligations in conjunction with the distressed U.S. banking agent Charles Jean Michel De Wolfe.
5. The bark Ulysses, Capt. Samuel Russell Trevett, sailed from Rotterdam on 20 July and arrived at Marblehead between 8 and 15 Sept. (AA to JQA, 8 Oct., Adams Papers; Salem Gazette, 15 Sept.; Benjamin J. Lindsey, comp., Old Marblehead Sea Captains and the Ships in Which They Sailed, Marblehead, 1915).
6. JQA to Thomas Welsh, 26 April (MHi: Adams-Welsh Coll.), for which see JQA to AA, 16 May, and note 7, above.
7. Possibly a vessel captained by James Scott Jr. that sailed from Rotterdam to London on 24 July. TBA records boarding Scott’s ship in Rotterdam on 29 June, the same day JQA mentions in his Diary dining with the captain and receiving his luggage (Salem Gazette, 15 Sept.; Boston Columbian Centinel, 19 Sept.; M/TBA/2, APM Reel 282; D/JQA/24, APM Reel 27).

Docno: ADMS-04-10-02-0299

Author: Adams, Charles
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1795-06-30

Charles Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My Dear Brother

The last letter I received from you was dated the 16th of April and contained not only the latest but by far the most satisfactory intelligence, we had received. I thought that is was proper to give the most of it to the public, especially, as the accounts from England of the same date were very unfavorable.1 The conduct of the French toward the Batavians, since the conquest of Holland, has given sincere pleasure to true Americans: if anything for a moment restrains their joy, it is the apprehension that this system of lenity may not be permanent.
The direct communication between this Country and Holland, has been stopped for nearly four months. Our merchants, uncertain respecting the power the French might chuse to exert over that Country; have for a while suspended their intercourse. The vessel by which I now write, is the first for a long period that has sailed for Amsterdam. The change of opinion since the suppression of the whiskey insurrection, is very remarkable throughout the United States Democratic Societies in some of the States the most violently Antifederal, have adjourned Sine die. In no one particular State, has there been a greater regeneration than in this; which hitherto has been miserably misguided Clinton’s popularity and that of his adherents, is gone with the days before the flood. In the fairest election we have ever had in this State, Mr Jay was elected Governor by a majority of 1580 votes and in each house of the legislature there is a large majority of Federal members. The weight thrown into the Federal scale by this revolution, will be very important. At the last session an act was passed for taking a census of the inhabitants this will give those of our new Counties which are peopled principally from NewEngland an equal representation, and firmly fix our political concerns in their proper channel.2
After a long discussion the treaty with Great Britain has been ratified. The twelfth article is to be further explained before its adoption. I have read the treaty and beleive it the best we could procure; yet there are many things in it which will give rise to much abuse, both on the Negotiator and the Senate, except the virtuous ten, as your friend Bache calls them, who voted against it.3 Peace to this Country is secured, and that great object must compensate for some inconveniences. The Southern people make many mouths at { 472 } the prospect of being obliged to pay their debts. They never could bear to hear of the subject. but alas they must be honest; or rather must be forced to do justice. There are many people who now wish to raise a jealousy between Mr Jay and our father, but I trust they are aware of it, and know one another too well to flatter the views of so base a Clan. In case of the Death of the President they will endeavour to divide the Federalists and by that manœuvre to put in a person of their own sentiments. You will be at no loss to know whom. Such is the sentiment as drawn from conversations and insinuations preparatory to an event, which God grant may not happen these many years.
We have been happy for three weeks past in the company of my mother She enjoys a tollerable share of health, more I think than for some years past.
The Anniversary of our Independence has passed with more than usual brilliancy. People who are ignorant, are deluded by the Artful into a beleif that the treaty will be ruinous to this Country. Those who are wholly unacquainted with the precarious state of our Commerce here to fore, who never read, and many perhaps who could not read, our treaties with the different nations of Europe, set themselves up as competent judges and without hesitation condemn the late negotiations, and all concerned in them. There will be many Newspaper discussions on this subject and they must tend to enlighten: If those who condemn will state the grounds of their objections, they must be wholly defeated.
I look upon this clamour as the expiring groan of Jacobinism. Col Hamilton has returned to the practice of the Law. he has been for a long time wanting in this City I know of no man better calculated to keep men in the right road His talents are very popular, and very great respect is paid to his opinions; yet it is in vain to hope for unanimity in so motley a mixture of inhabitants as are found throughout the United States.
The Ship by which this goes has not sailed so early as was expected. The inhabitants of the town of Boston have been very hasty in condemning the treaty and have sent the resolutions passed in their town meeting on to The President with a view of preventing { 473 } his signature4 Such a measure, was sufficient to rouse the discontented in this City: accordingly a meeting was called. Those who condemned the treaty, were invited to join with their bretheren in Boston in expressing their execration. on Saturday there was a very large assemblage of the inhabitants at The City Hall. Mr King Col Hamilton and some others were prepared to discuss the treaty with candour; but The Livingstons, who had the Democratic Society embodied directly by them, would not hear a word. Hamilton first endeavored to speak to the people but in vain. They hissed, clamoured, shouted in such a manner that he could not be heard. Col Smith was then appointed chairman: upon his taking his seat one of the Livingstons arose to speak. Hamilton insisted as he was first up he had a prior right upon this there arose such a clamour, that no Speaker could be heard. A proposition was then made, that those who condemned the treaty should go to the left, and those who were friends to a fair discussion, to the right. A separation was made. Hamilton then read a resolution to this effect, That the meeting had a full confidence in the virtue, ability and integrity of The President and that they did not conceive it necessary to give any opinion respecting the treaty. The vote was taken; both sides claimed a majority: but so tumultuous was the assembly that it was impossible to determine. The enemies to discussion then proceeded to the battery and burnt the treaty. The friends to good order retired. When The dissaffected returned, they had the ground to themselves and nominated a Committee to draw up resolutions and forward them to The President; who will pay that attention to them they diserve5
It is remarkable, that those who are most immediately concerned, the Merchants, have at a large meeting of The Chamber of Commerce testified their approbation of the negotiation almost unanimously.6 I never before was witness to a scene to scandalous Hamilton was abused reviled and stoned!— There was a Mr Morris who many years ago went to England to obtain a Charter for some Company in which the Citizens of New York were very much interested; upon his return, having obtained his object; The mob took the horses from his carriage and drew him home amidst the universal huzza’s of the people; as he alighted, he turned and spoke to them thus. Gentlemen I am obliged to you for your kindness, but not in the least elevated. I recollect well, that the same men who one day cried Hosannah to The Son of David, the next exclaimed Crucify { 474 } Crucify him.7 Such are the people of all Countries, and I fear Americans do not grow wiser as they advance.
Adieu my dear brother beleive ever yours
[signed] Charles Adams
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed by TBA: “Charles Adams Esqr / 30 June 1795 – 23 July / 8 Septr Recd / 15 Answd.”
1. With the exception of its opening and closing paragraphs, JQA’s letter was reprinted in the New York American Minerva, 22 June, and countered reports from London, dated 21 April and printed in the same issue, that described the harsh treatment inflicted upon the Dutch populace by the French occupation.
2. On 3 March the New York legislature authorized a state census to be completed by 10 Jan. 1796. Apportionment of the increased population was made on 4 March when 20 new seats were added in the senate and 34 to the assembly, many of which provided increased representation for the state’s western district (Laws of the State of New-York, 18th sess., N.Y., 1795, p. 10–11, Evans, No. 29189; 19th sess., 1796, p. 11–12, Evans, No. 30876; Young, Democratic Republicans, p. 465). For CA’s earlier complaints about inadequate representation in the state’s eastern and western districts, see vol. 9:369–370, 372.
3. The Philadelphia Aurora General Advertiser, 27 June 1795, asked “the virtuous ten that opposed sanctioning a law, in direct hostility to the French Republic, and in diametric opposition to the sovereignty, faith, independence and interests of the American people” to publish the treaty for public scrutiny.
4. Even before the full text of the Jay Treaty was published in a special issue of the Boston Columbian Centinel on 8 July, a town meeting had been called to discuss the treaty and “to petition the President not to ratify, but to reject it wholly” (Boston Columbian Centinel, 8 July). Convened on 10 July, the town meeting was adjourned for three days in order that a committee of fifteen could review the individual articles and draft a resolution for consideration. This resolution, “expressive of the dissatisfaction of the town with the Treaty with Great Britain,” was unanimously adopted at the reconvened town meeting on 13 July and was then forwarded to the president (Boston Federal Orrery, 13 July; Boston Columbian Centinel, 15 July).
5. From the time the Jay Treaty was published in New York on 4 July, Republican groups had been agitating against it. When word of Boston’s town meeting reached the city on 16 July, Republican leaders called for a similar meeting to be held on 19 July, which Federalist supporters unsuccessfully tried to join and then disrupt. Similar to events in Boston, a motion passed nominating a committee of fifteen to draft a resolution opposing the treaty. On 21 July a crowd estimated at 5,000 to 7,000 people reconvened in front of city hall and unanimously approved the resolution’s 28 objections, most of which were made on commercial grounds (Young, Democratic Republicans, p. 445–454).
6. On 22 July approximately seventy members of New York’s chamber of commerce met and with ten dissenting votes adopted a resolution approving the treaty (same, p. 454–455).
7. Lewis Morris (1671–1746) was chief justice of New York and governor of New Jersey. More than once during his years of public service he traveled to England to lodge petitions on behalf of the two colonies. The event to which CA refers possibly occurred in 1736 after Morris petitioned the king to remove the royal governor of New York and New Jersey; on his return he was met by a large group of supporters (DAB; The Papers of Lewis Morris, Governor of the Province of New Jersey, from 1738 to 1746, ed. William A. Whitehead, N.Y., 1852, p. 22, 27).


List of Omitted Documents

The following list includes 85 documents that have been omitted from volume 10 of Adams Family Correspondence and one document that has come to the editors’ attention since the publication of the volume in which it would have appeared. Each entry consists of the date, correspondents, form in which the letter exists (Dft, FC-Pr, LbC, RC, Tr, etc.), location, and publication, if known. All copies that exist in some form in the Adams Papers are noted.
The letters between John Adams and John Quincy Adams in their public roles that have been omitted here from the Family Correspondence will be considered for inclusion in forthcoming volumes of Series III, General Correspondence and Other Papers of the Adams Statesmen.
31 Aug.   Abigail Adams Smith to Elizabeth Cranch, RC (WHi:Caroline Chamberlain Family Papers).  
5 Jan.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
12 Jan.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers); PRINTED:JA, Letters, ed. CFA, 2:138.  
23 Jan.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
26 Jan.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
27 Jan.   John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
{ 478 }
27 Jan.   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
30 Jan.   Abigail Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
30 Jan.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
30 Jan.   George Cabot to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
31 Jan.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
1 Feb.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
9 Feb.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers); PRINTED:JA, Letters, ed. CFA, 2:140–141.  
19 Feb.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
19 Feb.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
[22] Feb.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
25 Feb.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
[Feb.?]   Abigail Adams to George Cabot, Dft (Adams Papers).  
1 March   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
8 March   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
10 March   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
10 March   George Cabot to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
10 March   Samuel Dexter to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
14 March   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
16 March   John Adams to Thomas Boylston Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
18 March   John Adams to Thomas Boylston Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
19 March   John Adams to Thomas Boylston Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
{ 479 }
27 March   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers); PRINTED (in part): JA, Works, 1:469.  
[ca. 5 April]   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
12 April   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
12 April   John Adams to John Quincy Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
13 April   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
14 April   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
15 April   Abigail Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
18 April   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
19 April   Charles Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
20 April   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
22 April   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); PRINTED:JQA, Writings, 1:186–189.  
25 April   Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
27 April   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
27 April   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
April   Charles Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
April   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
5 May   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers); PRINTED:JA, Letters, ed. CFA, 2:158.  
8 May   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
14 May   Charles Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
17 May   Thomas Boylston Adams to William Cranch, RC (OCHP:William Cranch Papers).  
24 May   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
24 May   John Adams to John Quincy Adams; PRINTED (in facsimile): John Jay Smith, ed., American Historical { 480 } and Literary Curiosities; Consisting of Fac-Similes, 2d series, N.Y., 1860, plate 62.  
15 June   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
20 July   John Adams to John Quincy Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
13 Sept.   Thomas Boylston Adams to William Cranch, RC (OCHP:William Cranch Papers).  
15 Sept.   Thomas Boylston Adams to William Cranch, RC (OCHP:William Cranch Papers).  
23 Oct.   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 126; PRINTED:JQA, Writings, 1:201–209.  
9 Nov.   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 126; printed (in part): JQA, Writings, 1:224–227.  
13 Nov.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
15 Nov.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
17 Nov.   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 126.  
18 Nov.   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 126.  
3 Dec.   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 126; PRINTED:JQA, Writings, 1:246–247.  
11 Dec.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
11 Dec.   John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams, LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 126.  
18 Dec.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
21 Dec.   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 126; printed (in part): JQA, Writings, 1:254–255.  
[1794–1798]   Thomas Boylston Adams to [John Adams?], RC (Adams Papers).  
4 Jan.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
9 Jan.   Abigail Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
10 Jan.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
15 Jan.   Joseph Cranch to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
{ 481 }
26 Jan.   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
8 Feb.   Abigail Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
12 Feb.   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 128; Tr (2, both Adams Papers); PRINTED:JQA, Writings, 1:276–285.  
13 Feb.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.).  
15 Feb.   John Adams to Charles Adams, RC (MHi:Seymour Coll.); PRINTED: William Kent, Memoirs and Letters of James Kent, LL.D., Boston, 1898, p. 69–73.  
27 Feb.   John Quincy Adams to Thomas Boylston Adams, extract (MHi:Pickering Papers).  
1 April   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); FC-Pr (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 128; Tr (2, both Adams Papers); PRINTED:JQA, Writings, 1:310–316.  
15 April   John Quincy Adams to William Stephens Smith, LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 128.  
4 May   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); FC-Pr (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 128; Tr (Adams Papers); printed (in part): JQA, Writings, 1:339–344.  
22 May   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, FC-Pr (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 128; PRINTED:JQA, Writings, 1:353–363.  
9 June   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers); PRINTED:JA, Letters, ed. CFA, 2:180.  
12 June   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
16 June   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
17 June   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
24 June   John Adams to Abigail Adams, RC (Adams Papers); printed (in part): JA, Works, 1:480.  
25 June   Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams and Thomas Boylston Adams, RC (Adams Papers).  
27 June   John Quincy Adams to John Adams, RC (Adams Papers); LbC (Adams Papers), APM Reel 128; Tr (Adams Papers); PRINTED:JQA, Writings, 1:371–380.  
Cite web page as: Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses, ed.C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2017.