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Browsing: Adams Family Correspondence, Volume 6

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0063

Author: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Recipient: Cranch, Mary Smith
Date: 1785-06-22

Abigail Adams 2d to Mary Smith Cranch

N 1.
The flattering mark of attention which I yesterday received from my Dear Aunt1 demands my earliest acknowledgments. Be assured Madam it has not arrisen from want of respect to you, or doubting your interest in my happiness that I have not long ere this addressed you, but from the fear of increasing the Number of my correspondents so far as to render my Letters uninteresting to those who flatter me with their attentions, and from being very sensible that a Person who writes a great deel must either be possessd of a great fund of knowledge to communicate or unavoidably expose themselvs the [to] the just observations of the judicious and sensible. I have never closed a packet of Letters but I have wished after they were gone that it was in my Power to recall and Burn them,2 but my friends are partial enough to me to acknowledge some pleasure derived from my scribling and from it I am induced to continue. There are very few who can sufficiently Guard their minds upon every side against the influence of flattery especially when presented under the pleasing veil of commendations from those whose judgment we respect and whose good opinions we are happy to attain, upon this score I am influenced by my Dear Aunt to continue an account of myself and whatever I shall meet with worthy a relation.
My Brother who I hope will arrive before this Letter possibly can, will give you an account of us, till the Period of his Leaving us which { 182 } was a Painfull event to me particularly having lost in him a good Brother an agreeable companion and friend. Since my arrival here I regret it more than ever and cannot sometimes avoid wishing that he had been induced to stay—but upon reflection every selfish principle is overballanced by the idea and assureance that it was an important event as it respects himself, being fully convinced that if he is to spend his Life in America it was time for him to go there, for by so long an absence and at so early a period of his life, he had never acquired or greatly lost just ideas of the Country, People, manners, and Customs. He will acquire a taste and disposition for them all I doubt not. Yet the difference in the manner of Life in Europe and America is so very great that one should not be too long accustomed to the one if they propose happiness to themselves from the other. For myself I have no fears. My early Education and the example of many Good friends had formed in my Mind such Principles sentiments dispositions and taste, as I think will never be shaken by dissipation Gaiety or the Glitter Pomp and Show of this or any other Country—in all of which this Place equals every other Perhaps in the World.
To say that I am greived and sorry for the unhappy State of our friends at Germantown3 is only repeating what I have often said and long felt, as it can afford them no relief it seems as if it were not enough to say. I hope your kind attention to our friend Eliza will be the means of recovering her health. She and the Whole family have my sincere wishes for their Prosperity and happiness.
I have just heard of an opportunity to forward Letters to America and could not omit to make my earliest acknowledgments to you my Aunt for your kind favours. Mamma will write largely I suppose, if I have time I shall certainly write to my Cousins But I am told tho the Ship will sail a thursday.4 If I should not you will be so good as to excuse me to them. I shall write frequently as opportunities Present often to Boston and shall hope for the continueance of your Letters. Be so good Madam as to Present my respects to my Uncle and regards to my Cousin Billy.
[signed] A Adams
RC (MWA: Abigail Adams Corr.); addressed: “Mrs Mary Cranch Braintree Massachusetts”; docketed: “Letter from Miss A Adams, London June 22d. 1785.”
1. Not found.
2. See AA2 to Elizabeth Cranch, [9 Nov. 1782], above, and n.d. [1782], “Hingham,” MHi: C. P. Cranch Papers.
3. Gen. Joseph Palmer's family; “Eliza” in the following sentence is certainly Elizabeth Palmer.
4. That is, the next day.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0064

Author: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Recipient: Cranch, Lucy
Recipient: Greenleaf, Lucy Cranch
Date: 1785-06-23

Abigail Adams 2d to Lucy Cranch

N 3
Disappointment upon Disappointment, Mortification upon Mortification My Dear Lucy shall no longer be subjected to, if it is in my Power to sheild her from them. You will before this Letter reaches you I hope receive from my Brother a long Letter from me1 which will dissipate every unfriendly idea of forgetfullness, neglect, &c &c. I have indeed so many correspondents that I must acquire a considerable Share of Vanity to suppose it is in my Power to gratify them all tho I were to address a Letter to each. I have it is true the best disposition in the World to please them—but I may fail of success. My Cousin may be assured I have none that I think more worthyly of than herself or who are entitled to my earlier attentions.
Your gentle spirit must have been wounded by so many scenes of unhappiness and distress as you have been witness to in the Good family at G[ermantown]. I Pitty them from my heart, but alas how unavailing is Pitty, it seems to mock Misfortunes like theirs. They are indeed an example from which one may derive many Lessons for future Life, and Learn to act with that resignation and Patience which distinguishes them. I am happy to hear that Eliza is better, they all have my sincerest wishes for Health and happiness.
Your list of adventures was as you intended agreeable2 and your efforts to please will never fail of success with your Cousin.
You talk of comeing to see us in a Balloon. Why my Dear as Americans sometimes are capable of as imprudent and unadvised things as any other People perhaps, I think it but Prudent to advise you against it. There has lately3 a most terible accident taken place by a Balloons taking fire in the Air in which were two Men. Both of them were killed by their fall, and there limbs exceedingly Broken. Indeed the account is dreadfull. I confess I have no partiallity for them in any way.
My Brother will not disappoint you. He is gone—alas to my sorrow—for I lost in him all the Companion that I had—and it is not possible his place should be supplyd. I doubt not but he will answer the expectation of his friends, and contribute to their happyness.
You wish to Visit the Theatres. I should be very happy if you could accompany me to them for I am sure you would be pleased. I think a good Tragedy well acted is a rational amusement. I never derived
{ 184 } { 185 }
so much sattisfaction from any other. I have been twice to the Play since I have been in London. There is such a difference between French and English Theatres that one would scarce be led to suppose that they merited the same title. The first peice I saw here was the School for Scandal,4 and I fear there never was a more just picture of real life. I think I have within my own knowledge some Persons of simular characters tho Perhaps they may not have arrived at so great a height of folly. The second time I went they gave a Tragedy of Thomsons Tancred and Siggismundi,5 which you well remember I dare say. The characters were very well supported in general and Tancreds in particular. They gave a very Laughable peice after it, which is all ways the Case, but I was too much interested in the Tragedy to be pleased, with so oposite an entertainment. You know I was never fond of very Laughing characters. I dont know why it is for I am sure I prefer seeing People happy rather than otherwise.
I think the People, generally; do not discover so much judgment at the Theatres here as in Paris. In seeing a good Tragedy acted at the Comedy Francaise you will hear ever good sentiment applauded highly, even by the Partarre, but here it is the action rather than the sentiments which they applaud.
I considered myself a little unfortunate in not arriving soon enough to see the universally Celebrated Mrs. Siddens whose fame has extended to so many parts of the World, and of whom every Person without exception, I beleive, are equally delighted. She has lately appeard in Comedy and tho She is allowed Great Merit from the manner in which she acquitted herself, I think she was too eager after reputation not to be contented with the share She had acquired in Tragedy, but I have not yet seen her in either Character.6 When I have my Cousin shall know my opinion, but she may be assured beforehand that I shall not dare to disent from all the World. My father whose Judgment we may depend upon says, She appears to have understood human Nature better than the Author whose peices She acts. A proof of this May be drawn, from the manner of her Leaving Bath [where] she had been first received as an actress, and the Managers objected to her going when she had acquired some reputation. She told the Company one Evening that She had three very powerfull reasons for Leaving them, to go to London. They were sufficient in her own Mind and she hoped they would sattisfy them all. If the Company would permit She would offer them the Night following. The Next Eve the House was much crouded when the Curtain was drawn up. Mrs. Siddens came upon the stage Leading { 186 } in her three Children, made a Curtsey to the Audience and retired amid the general Applause of the Company who were so much pleased with this Compliment Paid to their sensibility and generossity that they made no objections to her Leaving them so much for her own advantage.
Adeiu my Dear Lucy. Remember me to all my friends, and write often to your affectionate Cousin
[signed] A Adams
RC (MWA: Abigail Adams Corr.); addressed: “Miss Lucy Cranch Braintree Massachusetts.” Slight damage to the text where the seal was cut away.
1. Of 6 May, above.
2. AA2 refers here and below to a letter not found.
3. Space in MS; on this disaster, see Thomas Jefferson to AA, 21 June, note 5, above.
4. Richard Brinsley Sheridan's comedy, first produced in 1777.
5. James Thomson published Tancred and Sigismunda in 1745.
6. See AA2 to JQA, 24 Sept., and note 2, below.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0065

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Cranch, Mary Smith
Date: 1785-06-24

Abigail Adams to Mary Smith Cranch

[salute] My dear sister

Captain Lyde is arrived and I have 3 Letters by him, one from Doctor Tufts one from Dr. Welch and one from Mrs. Storer.2 I will not accuse my dear sister because I know she must have written to me tho I have not yet received it. I know so well how many accidents may prevent for a long time the reception of Letters, that whilst I ask candour for myself, I am willing to extend it to others.
I have been here a month without writing a single line to my American Friends. About the 28th. of May we reachd London and expected to have gone into our old quiet Lodgings at the Adelphia, but we found every hotel full, the Sitting of parliament, the Birth day of the King, and the famous Celebration of the Musick of Handle at Westminster Abbey, had drawn together such a concourse of people, that we were glad to get into Lodgings at the moderate price of a Guiney per day, for two Rooms and two Chambers, at the Bath hotel Westminster Picadily, where we yet are. This being the Court end of the city, it is the resort of a vast concourse of carriages, it is too publick and noisy for pleasure, but necessity is without Law. The Ceremony of presentation, upon one week, to the King and the Next to the Queen was to take place, after which I was to prepare for mine. It is customary upon presentation to receive visits from all the Foreign ministers, so that we could not exchange our Lodgings for more private ones, as we might and should; had we been only in a private { 187 } character. The Foreign ministers and several english Lords and Earls have paid their compliments here and all heitherto is civil and polite. I was a fortnight all the time I could get looking of different Houses, but could not find any one fit to inhabit under 200. besides the taxes which mount up to 50 & 60 pounds. At last my good Genious carried me to one in Grovenor Square, which was not let because the person who had the care of it, could let it only for the remaining lease which was one Year and 3 quarters. The price which is not quite 200, the Situation and all together induced us to close the Bargain and I have prevaild upon the person who lets it; to paint two rooms which will put it into decent order so that as soon as our furniture comes I shall again commence house keeping. Living at a hotel is I think more expensive than house keeping in proportion to what one has for their money. We have never had more than two dishes at a time upon our table, and have not pretended to ask any company and yet we live at a greater expence than 25 Guineys per week. The Wages of servants horse hire house meat and provision are much dearer here than in France. Servants of various sorts and for different departments are to be procured, their Characters to be inquird into, and this I take upon me even to the Coachman; you can hardly form an Idea how much I miss my son on this as well as many other accounts. But I cannot bear to trouble Mr. Adams with any thing of a domestick kind, who from morning untill Evening has sufficient to occupy all his time. You can have no Idea of the petitions Letters and private applications for a pittance which crowd our doors. Every person represents his case as dismal, some may really be objects of compassion, and some we assist, but one must have an inexhaustable purse to supply them all. Besides there are so many gross impositions practised as we have found in more instances than one, that it would take the whole of a persons time to trace all their stories. Many pretend to have been American soldiers, some to have served as officers. A most glaring instance of falshood however Col. Smith detected in a man of these pretentions, who sent to Mr. Adams from the Kings bench prison and modestly desired 5 Guineys, a qualified cheet but evidently a man of Letters and abilities.3 But if it is to continue in this way a Galley Slave would have an easier task.
The Tory venom has begun to spit itself forth in the publick papers as I expected, bursting with envy that an American Minister should be received here with the same marks of attention politeness and civility which is shewn to the Ministers of any other power. When a minister delivers his credentials to the king, it is always in his private { 188 } closet attended only by the minister for Foreign affairs, which is called a private audience, and the Minister presented makes some little address to his Majesty, and the same ceremony to the Queen, whose replie was in these Words, “Sir I thank you for your civility to me and my family, and I am glad to see you in this Country,” then very politely inquired whether he had got a house yet? The answer of his Majesty was much longer, but I am not at liberty to say more respecting it; than that it was civil and polite, and that his Majesty said he was glad the Choice of his Country had fallen upon him. The News Liars know nothing of the Matter, they represent it just to answer their purpose.4 Last thursday Col. Smith was presented at Court, and tomorrow at the Queens circle my Ladyship and your Neice make our compliments. There is no other presentation in Europe in which I should feel so much as in this. Your own reflections will easily [suggest?] the reasons. I have received a very friendly and polite visit from the Countess of Effingham. She calld and not finding me at Home left a Card. I returnd her visit, but was obliged to do it by leaving my Card too: as she was gone out of Town. But when her Ladyship returnd she sent her compliments, and word that if agreeable she would take a Dish of tea with me; and named her Day. She accordingly came, and appeard a very polite sensible woman. She is about 40, a good person, tho a little masculine, elegant in her appearence, very easy and social. The Earl of Effingham is too well rememberd by America to need any particular recital of his Character.5 His Mother is first Lady to the Queen. When Her Ladyship took leave, she desired I would let her know the day that I would favour her with a visit, as she should be loth to be absent. She resides in summer a little distance from town. The Earl is a Member of Parliament which obliges him now to be in town and she usually comes with him and resides at a hotel a little distance from this. I find a good many Ladies belonging to the Southern states here, many of whom have visited me. I have exchanged visits with several, yet neither of us have met.6 The Custom is however here, much more agreeable than in France, for it is as with us, the Stranger is first visited. The ceremony of presentation here is considerd as indispensable. Their are four minister plenipotentiarys Ladies here, but one Ambassador and he has no Lady. In France the Ladys of Ambassadors only are presented there. One is obliged here to attend the circles of the Queen which are held in Summer one a fortnight, but once a week the rest of the year, and what renders it exceedingly expensive is, that you cannot go twice the same Season in the same dress, and { 189 } a Court dress you cannot make use any where else. I directed my Mantua Maker to let my dress be elegant but plain as I could possibly appear with Decency, accordingly it is white Lutestring coverd and full trimd with white Crape festoond with lilick ribbon and mock point lace, over a hoop of enormus extent. There is only a narrow train of about 3 yard length to the gown waist, which is put into a ribbon upon the left side, the Queen only having her train borne, ruffel cuffs for married Ladies thrible lace ruffels a very dress cap with long lace lappets two white plumes and a blond lace handkerchief, this is my rigging. I should have mentiond two pearl pins in my hair earings and necklace of the same kind.
My Head is drest for St. James and in my opinion looks very tasty. Whilst Emelias is undergoing the same operation, I set myself down composedly to write you a few lines. Well methinks I hear Betsy and Lucy say, what is cousins dress, white my Dear Girls like your Aunts, only differently trimd, and ornamented, her train being wholy of white crape and trimd with white ribbon, the peticoat which is the most showy part of the dress coverd and drawn up in what is calld festoons, with light wreaths of Beautifull flowers. The Sleaves white crape drawn over the silk with a row of lace round the Sleave near the shoulder an other half way down the arm and a 3d. upon the top of the ruffel little flower[s] stuck between. A kind of hat Cap with 3 large feathers and a bunch of flowers a wreath of flowers upon the hair. Thus equipd we go in our own Carriage and Mr. A and Col. Smith in his. But I must quit my pen to put myself in order for the ceremony which begins at 2 oclock. When I return I will relate to you my reception, but do not let it circulate as there may be persons eager to Catch at every thing, and as much given to misrepresentation as here. I would gladly be excused the Ceremony.
Congratulate me my dear sister it is over. I was too much fatigued to write a line last evening. At two a clock we went to the circle which is in the drawing room of the Queen. We past through several appartments lined as usual with Spectatirs upon these occasions. Upon entering the anti Chamber, the Baron de Linden the Dutch Minister who has been often here came and spoke with me. A Count Sarsfield a French nobleman with whom I was acquainted paid his compliments. As I passt into the drawing room Lord Carmathan and { 190 } Sir Clement Cotterel Dormer were presented to me.7 Tho they had been several times here I had never seen them before. The sweedish the polish ministers8 made their compliments and several other Gentleman, but not a single Lady did I know, untill the Countess of Effingham came who was very civil. There were 3 young Ladies daughters of the Marquiss of Lothan9 who were to be presented at the same time and two Brides. We were placed in a circle round the drawing room which was very full, I believe 200 person present. Only think of the task the Royal family have, to go round to every person, and find small talk enough to speak to all of them. Tho they very prudently speak in a whisper, so that only the person who stands next you can hear what is said. The King enters the room and goes round to the right, the Queen and princesses to the left. The Lord in waiting presents you to the King and the Lady in waiting does the same to her Majesty. The King is a personable Man, but my dear sister he has a certain Countenance which you and I have often remarked, a red face and white eye brows, the Queen has a similar countanance and the numerous Royal family confirm the observation. Persons are not placed according to their rank in the drawing room, but tranciently, and when the King comes in he takes persons as they stand. When he came to me, Lord Onslow10 said, Mrs. Adams, upon which I drew of my right hand Glove, and his Majesty saluted my left cheek, then asked me if I had taken a walk to day. I could have told his Majesty that I had been all the morning prepareing to wait upon him, but I replied, no Sire. Why dont you love walking says he? I answerd that I was rather indolent in that respect. He then Bow'd and past on. It was more than two hours after this before it came to my turn to be presented to the Queen. The circle was so large that the company were four hours standing. The Queen was evidently embarrased when I was presented to her. I had dissagreeable feelings too. She however said Mrs. Adams have you got into your house, pray how do you like the Situation of it? Whilst the princess Royal11 looked compasionate, and asked me if I was not much fatigued, and observed that it was a very full drawing room. Her sister who came next princess Augusta, after having asked your neice if she was ever in England before, and her answering yes, inquird of me how long ago, and supposed it was when she was very young. And all this is said with much affability, and the ease and freedom of old acquaintance. The manner in which they make their tour round the room, is first the Queen, the Lady in waiting behind her holding up her train, next to her the princess royal after her princess Augusta and their Lady in waiting behind them.
{ 191 } { 192 }
They are pretty rather than Beautifull, well shaped with fair complexions and a tincture of the kings countanance. The two sisters look much alike. They were both drest in lilack and silver silk with a silver netting upon the coat, and their heads full of diamond pins. The Queen was in purple and silver. She is not well shaped or handsome. As [to] the Ladies of the Court, Rank and title may compensate for want of personal Charms, but they are in general very plain ill shaped and ugly, but dont you tell any body that I say so. If one wants to see Beauty they must go to Ranaleigh,12 there it is collected in one bright constelation. There were two Ladies very elegant at court Lady Salsbury and Lady Talbot,13 but the observation did not in general hold good that fine feathers make fine Birds. I saw many who were vastly richer drest than your Friends, but I will venture to say that I saw none neater or more elegant, which praise I ascribe to the taste of Mrs. Temple and my Mantua Maker, for after having declared that I would not have any foil or tincel about me, they fixd upon the dress I have described. Mrs. Temple is my near Neighbour and has been very friendly to me. Mr. Temple you know is deaf so that I cannot hold much conversation with him.
The Tories are very free with their compliments. Scarcly a paper excapes without some scurrility. We bear it with silent Contempt, having met a polite reception from the Court. It bites them Like a serpent and stings them like an adder.14 As to the success the negotiations may meet with time alone can disclose the result, but if this nation does not suffer itself to be again duped by the artifice of some and the malice of others, it will unite itself with America upon the most liberal principals and sentiments.
Captain Dashood came why I have not half done. I have not told your Aunt yet that whilst I was writing I received her thrice welcome Letters, and from my dear cousins too, Aunt Shaw and all,15 nor how some times I laught and sometimes I cry'd, yet there was nothing sorrowfull in the Letters, only they were too tender for me. What not time to say I will write to all of them as soon as possible. Why I know they will all think I ought to write, but how is it possible? Let them think what I have to do, and what I have yet to accomplish as my furniture is come and will be landed tomorrow.16 Eat the sweet meats17 divide them amongst you, and the choisest sweet meat of all I shall have in thinking that you enjoy them.18
I hope you have got all my Letters by my son from whom I shall be anxious to hear.
Adieu adieu.
{ 193 }
Esther is well, John poorly. Do not any of you think hard of me for not writing more, my pen is good for nothing. I went last Evening to Raneleigh, but I must reserve that story for the young folks. You see I am in haste, believe me most tenderly yours
[signed] A Adams
Make the corrections, I have not time; Mr. Storer was well this morning when he left us, he was of the party last evening.
RC (MWA: Abigail Adams Corr.).
1. AA completed most of the body of this letter on the 24th, but the last paragraphs date from the 28th (see notes 12 and 18), and she wrote the first sections on Wednesday and Thursday, 22 and 23 June.
2. Cotton Tufts to AA, [11], and 19 April; and Hannah Storer to AA, 3 May, are all above. The letter from Dr. Thomas Welsh has not been found; AA replied to him on [25 Aug.], below. This opening paragraph is omitted from AA, Letters, ed. CFA.
3. This may have been the prisoner who wrote to JA on 2 June (Adams Papers), introducing himself as W. R. Coleman, a Revolutionary War veteran from Virginia.
4. The Daily Universal Register of 10 June includes a squib describing the “cool reception of the American Ambassador.” One paragraph speculates: “The closet-scene on a late introduction at St. James's, must have been curious. It is thought on one side the blush was as deep as die, as the flesh on Eve's cheek when she first saw Adam.” The Morning Post and Daily Advertiser of 13 June asserted that JA was so embarrassed at his first audience with George III that he could not “pronounce the compliment prescribed by etiquette.” For JA's account of his reception by George III, see AA to Thomas Jefferson, 6 June, note 8, above.
5. Thomas Howard, ninth baron Howard of Effingham and third earl of Effingham, married Catherine, daughter of Metcalfe Procter, in 1765. Effingham was a prominent opponent of Lord North's government and an outspoken supporter of American rights in the House of Lords from 1770 to 1782. He supported Pitt in 1783, became master of the mint in 1784, and was named a lord of trade and plantations in 1785 (James E. Doyle, Official Baronage of England, London, 1886, vol. 1; Vicary Gibbs and H. A. Doubleday, The Complete Peerage, London, 1921; Alan Valentine, The British Establishment, 1760–1784, Norman, Okla., 1970).
6. AA evidently means that she was out when her Southern visitors called, and they were out when she called on them.
7. Francis Godolphin Osborne, son of the fourth duke of Leeds, sat briefly in the House of Commons as the Marquis of Carmarthen (1774–1775). He entered the House of Lords as Lord Osborne in 1776, but was commonly known as Carmarthen until he became the fifth duke of Leeds in 1789. A privy councilor from 1777, he served as secretary of state for foreign affairs from 1783 to 1791. He was a strong supporter of the North ministry until 1780, when he lost his post as lord lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire for refusing to oppose the county association movement. Although he then joined the opposition, he always defended the justice of Britain's effort to keep her colonies. See Namier and Brooke, House of Commons, 3:236–237; JA, Papers, 8:370, and note 6.
Sir Clement Cottrell Dormer was knighted in 1779, and appointed Master of the Ceremonies at St. James's Palace, a position held by members of his family from 1641 to 1808 (William A. Shaw, The Knights of England, London, 1906, 2:296; DNB, under Cotterell). Dormer wrote to JA on 22 June (Adams Papers) to describe the proper manner of AA's presentation to the Queen.
8. Gustaf Adam, Baron von Nolcken, was the Swedish envoy; Franciszek Bukaty was the Polish minister (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:409, 310).
9. William John Kerr became the fifth marquis of Lothian in 1775. JA and JQA had met his son, William Kerr, earl of Ancram, in Paris in 1783. John Bernard Burke, Peerage and Baronetage, London, 1853; JQA, Diary, 1:185, and note 1.
10. George Onslow, son of Arthur Onslow, speaker of the House of Commons under { 194 } George II, also sat in Commons, 1754–1776. In the latter year he became the fourth baron Onslow, and in 1780 he was appointed a lord of the royal bedchamber. DNB.
11. Charlotte Augusta Matilda, George III and Queen Charlotte's eldest daughter, born in 1766; she married the prince of Würtemberg in 1797 (DNB). Her sister Augusta Sophia, mentioned below, was born in 1768 (DNB).
12. The public entertainment rooms erected at Ranelagh Gardens in Chelsea in 1742 were the site of regular promenades of the British upper classes. Ranelagh closed in 1803, and was torn down soon thereafter (Wheatley, London Past and Present). AA's reference to Ranelagh here may indicate that the text from this point was written on 28 June, for she evidently attended Ranelagh on the 27th; see note 19.
13. Mary Amelia, who married James Cecil, seventh earl of Salisbury, in 1773, and Charlotte, who married Earl Talbot in 1776, were sisters, the daughters of Wills Hill, the earl of Hillsborough, who so angered Massachusetts' patriot leaders when he served as secretary of state for the colonies, 1768–1772. Cecil became the first marquis of Salisbury, and Hill the first marquis of Downshire, in 1789. Burke, Peerage and Baronetage.
14. Proverbs 23:32.
15. “Your Aunt” has not been positively identified. Mary Cranch's (and AA's) aunt Elizabeth Storer Smith seems the most likely candidate; Lucy Quincy Tufts is another possibility. By “dear cousins” AA probably means her nieces Elizabeth and Lucy Cranch. Of the several letters that AA evidently refers to here, only Elizabeth Cranch to AA, and Elizabeth Shaw to AA, both 25 April, both above, have been found.
16. This was JA's furniture from the American legation at The Hague. See AA to Cotton Tufts, 3 Jan., and note 4, above; and AA to JQA, 26 June and note 2, below.
17. See Cotton Tufts to AA, [11] and 19 April, both above.
18. The text from this point through “my pen is good for nothing” is omitted from AA, Letters, ed. CFA.
19. This date certainly applies to all the text from “Captain Dashood came,” and perhaps to the text at AA's first mention of “Ranaleigh.” This dated postscript is omitted from AA, Letters, ed. CFA.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0066

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-06-26

Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My dear son

I have not written you a single line since you left me. Your sisters punctuality I saw would render my pen unnecessary and I have resignd to her all the minutia, as her leisure is much greater and her cares fewer. Capt. Dashood is to sail in a few days for America, and tho as you may well imagine I have much upon my hands, and miss your assistance not a little, I have determined to write you a short Letter, and I know not but that it will turn out a very long one, for my pen will always run greater lengths than I am aware of when I address those who are particularly dear to me and to whom I can write with unreserve.
I hope you had an agreeable passage and that this will find you safe in your native Land, that you are now fix'd in persueing those studies which we have so often talkd over together in your Chamber { 195 } at Auteuil. I doubt not that you met with as friendly a reception from our Friends as I ensured you: I shall be anxious to hear from you and every circumstance which respects you, tho you forgot even to mention me in your Letters to your sister.1 I suppose she has written you every thing respecting our quitting Auteuil, our journey and our arrival here. We could not continue at Lodgings here as no such thing is practised <here>, even by those Ministers who have no families. We have procured a house in Grovenor Square and we hourly expect our furniture. Lotter2 comes with it, to see it safe here. The General Idea here is that the United States find a house and furnish it like other powers, but we know the contrary to our cost. The wages of servants house rent and every other article is much higher than in France. The constant Letters petitions and applications from every quarter is incredible, and the fees to the Court Servants the same as in France, only they come to your house here and demand them as the perquisites of their office. After presentation, and a new Years day you have the same to go over again. We have got through with the payment of 23 Guineys. Your sister I suppose has acquainted you with our being obliged to attend court here. We were presented last thursday at a very full drawing room, and stood more than four hours. You will easily conceive that we were sufficently fatigued. I own I3 had some dissagreeable feelings upon the occasion. His Majesty had got over his worst, in the presentation of your Father whom however he received with much civility. He therefore look'd very jovial and good humourd when I was presented to him. Her Majesty was evidently embarassed and confused. She however spoke to me with politeness, and askd me if I had got into my House, and how I liked the situation. The two princesses, had something to say both to me and your sister, in an obliging familiar Stile. But their task is not to be Coveted, to attend these circles once a week, except in the summer, when they hold them only once a fortnight, and to have to go round to every person and find something to say to all, is paying dearly for their Rank. They do it however with great affability, and give general satisfaction, but I could not help reflecting with myself during the ceremony, what a fool do I look like to be thus accutored and stand here for 4 hours together, only for to be spoken too, by “royalty.” The Ministers from all the Courts had visited your Father immediately after his presentation, and since mine they have several of them repeated the visit to me. The Baron de Linden whom you know I believe, is often here and is very civil. Count Sasfeild too often visits { 196 } here. They were both at court, so was Lord Mount Mon's4 whom we saw in Paris. They all paid their compliments to me there; which took of some of the dissagreeable feeling of being known by no one. Lord Carmathan was introduced to me there and Sir Coteral Dormer, who tho he had attended your Pappa, I had not seen before. A Sir John Hoart5 and two or 3 others got themselves introduced and the Countess of Effingham I have found vastly obliging, so that I had my share of conversation and notice, and was not stuck up quite such an object to be gazed at as I feard. I found the Court like the rest of Mankind, mere Men and Women, and not of the most personable kind neither. I had vanity enough to come a way quite self satisfied, for tho I could not boast of making an appearence in point of person or richness of attire with many of them—the latter I carefully avoided the appearence of, yet I know I will not strike my coulours to many of them. We have no reason to complain of any want of politeness or attention at Court. The Newspapers Scriblers complement us with their notice, but we despise their ribaldary. No Tory so bitter that I hear of, as old treasurer Gray,6 who I hear declares now, that he would hang your Father if it was in his power. As to success in negotiation time will disclose it, but more time may be necessary than perhaps our Country will immagine. There are many prejudices to remove, and every wheel is in motion to spin the threads stronger, but they must take care they do not make it into a Gordeon knot least it should like that, require the sword to cut it. Col. Smith from the acquaintance I have had with him fully answers the kind things the Marquis7 said of him. He appears to be a man of an independant spirit, high and strict sentiments of honour, Much the Gentleman in his manners and address, no cincinatus advocate the badge of which he has never worn and I have ever reason to think from conversation with him that he wishes the order totally annihilated.8
This is Sunday, the forenoon of which we went to Hackney all of us to hear Dr. Price. This is the 3d Sunday we have attended his meeting, and I would willingly go much further to hear a Man so liberal so sensible so good as he is. He has a Charity which embrases all mankind and a benevolence which would do good to all of them. His subjects are instructive and edifying.9
Give my Love to your Brothers and tell them and the rest of my Friends that I will write to them as soon as I get a little setled. Write me my dear Son and write me with freedom your sentiments respecting a Friend of your sisters.10 Cover those Letters which you wish me only to see to Col. Smith but do not address them, in your handwrit• { 197 } ing. I will some time or other take occasion to mention to him that if he should receive any letter addrest to me, to give it me alone.
Mr. Lotter is arrived with our things. I shall not have an other moments leisure. Poor Pelitir Rozier I dont know whether I spell the name right, is dead blown up by the ballon catching fire. You will read the account in the Papers. Adieu.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mamma. June 26. 1785”; docketed twice by JQA: “Mrs. Adams. June 26. 1785,” and “My Mother. 26. June 1785.”
1. Of [12] and 17 May, above.
2. Christian Lotter served as a steward to JA at The Hague from 1784 or earlier; his correspondence with JA extends from Aug. 1784 to Oct. 1787. Lotter made the inventory of JQA's clothes and books of 6 Nov. 1784 (Adams Papers); and an F. Lotter checked the long inventory of the furnishings of the Hôtel des Etats-Unis at The Hague, prepared in two sections, by John Thaxter in May and October 1782, and by Marie Dumas in June 1784 (Adams Papers; second item filmed under 14 May 1782, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 357). Christian Lotter brought the items listed on the inventory of furnishings to London in June 1785. The Adamses brought many of these furnishings home to Braintree, where they remain today in the Adams National Historic Site.
3. AA wrote “own I” above the line.
4. AA may intend Irish patriot Hervey Redmond Morres, viscount Mountmorres, whom JA met in France in 1782 (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:96; DNB).
5. Sir John Hort was appointed consul general at Lisbon in 1767, and made a baronet the same year; he served as chargé d'affaires at Lisbon, 1770–1772 (John Bernard Burke, Peerage and Baronetage, London, 1853; Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:169).
6. Harrison Gray served as treasurer of Massachusetts until the Revolution, when he went into exile in England. He was the father-in-law of Samuel Allyne Otis, and grandfather of Harrison Gray Otis. See Samuel Eliot Morison, The Life and Letters of Harrison Gray Otis, Federalist, 1765–1848, Boston and N.Y., 1913, vol. 1, chap. 1; and JA, Diary and Autobiography, 1:270–271, for JA's early opinion of Gray.
7. Lafayette; see AA to Mercy Warren, 10 May, above.
8. This passage seems rather misleading, and William Stephens Smith may have been less than candid with the Adamses about his role in the Society of the Cincinnati. They knew before meeting him that he was a member of the order (JA to Elbridge Gerry, 28 April, LbC, Adams Papers; AA to Mercy Warren, 10 May, above), but AA evidently did not know how prominent a member he was, nor did she imagine how prominent he would become. Smith was a leader of the New York state branch of the Society as early as May 1784, when he played a key role in the national meeting that amended the first plan of the organization. In the 1790s he was elected vice-president, and then president, of the Society's New York branch, and served several terms. In the same decade he was painted by Gilbert Stuart wearing the badge of the order. See William Sturgis Thomas, Members of the Society of the Cincinnati, N.Y., 1929, p. 138; Minor Myers Jr., Liberty without Anarchy: A History of the Society of the Cincinnati, Charlottesville, 1983, p. 59, 61, 130, 192, 195; and Katharine Metcalf Roof, Colonel William Smith and Lady, Boston, 1929, p. 336, and illustration facing p. 332.
9. JA was familiar with Dr. Richard Price's economic and political writings at least from 1778 (JA, Papers, 7:361–362; JA to Price, 8 April 1785, LbC, Adams Papers), and AA quoted from his moral writings with approval in 1783 (to JA, 19 Oct., above), but they apparently first met him upon moving to England in 1785. They became good friends of the liberal dissenting preacher, and worshiped regularly at Hackney, much to AA's satisfaction, until their return to America in 1788 (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:188, 203, 215).
10. Royall Tyler.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0067

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-06-26

John Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My dear son

I hope, that before this day you are Safely arrived at New York, and that in another Month, I shall receive a Letter from you dated from that City. Before this reaches you I Suppose you will be at Boston or Cambridge, or Braintree or Haverill or Weymouth. Let me hear from you as often as you can.
We have taken a House in Grosvenor Square, at the Corner of Duke Street, and hope to get into it in a Week. We have gone through all the Ceremonies of Presentations and Visits, which are more tedious I think at St. James's than at the Hague or at Versailles. You will see by the Papers that the despicable Spight, of the old Boston Tories, Still bears an honourable Testimony to your Fathers Integrity and faithfull Perseverance in the Cause of his Country.1 I have met, however with a very different Reception at Court.
Your Brother Charles I hope will enter Colledge this Year, and that you and he will be very happy together.
Let me know how Mr. Thaxter succeeds in Business, and whether he is a Speaker at the Bar,—the same of Mr. Tyler.
My Love & Duty where due. Your affectionate Father
[signed] John Adams
1. A squib in the Daily Universal Register of 14 June, which describes JA as “a quondam declared rebel,” employs an ironic use of Proverbs 22:29, to attack him. “See'st thou a man diligent in business (said Solomon) and he shall stand before princes and great men, &c.—A-la-mode John Adams.”

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0068

Author: Williamos, Charles
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-06-27

Charles Williamos to Abigail Adams

[salute] Dear Madam

I had the pleasure of writing to Mr. Adams four or five days after your departure1 to acquaint you of your son's safe arrival at l'Orient, and as I did not know your proper adress, I enclosed my letter to Mr. Clarke at Counsellor Brown's, Chancery Lane, with very particular charge to wait on you immediately on your arrival. Mr. Clarke has not wrote to me since, and by Miss Adams's note2 I am led to think my former letter has miscarried, be kind enough therefore to excuse { 199 } my apparent neglect, a thing, far, very far indeed from my thoughts; I then mentioned that my letter from the Captain and officers of the Packet gave me every hope that your son would meet with every attention and find thereby his passage less Irksome.
I was very happy in seeing Mrs. Hay but should have been much more so if I could have rendered her stay here as agreable as possible. Mr. Carnes3 Joined with me in every endeavour. But large towns are such a bore to the true pleasures of Society that I fear she did not relish Paris much; I was much surprised after parting with her the evening before, that when I called the next morning I was told of her departure; Your mantua maker behaved so very Ill that altho' I went to her, and to Mrs. Barclay's on purpose, and sent my man several times to her, she would not finish your things till many days after Mrs. Hay went away. I am looking every where for a safe opportunity to send them.
The June Packet sails from L'orient. I have sent Miss Adams's letter to a friend at New York4 with particular directions to deliver, or forward it, the next packet, and some merchant vessels are certainly to go in the Course of next month from Havre. I shall sail in the very first, doctor Franklin proposes doing the same if possible;5 we are all very well here but feeling every day more and more the loss of our most valuable Auteuill friends. How does, the Change of places, manners and things agree with them? but with such minds as they possess can they but be happy every where?
Mr. Jefferson has some letters ready many days since, which only wait for a Safe Conveyance. They are not often met with.6
The May packet is not arrived yet, all our american news which appear important are by the way of England.
Can I flatter myself Madam that if my feeble services can be of any use on this or the other side of the Atlantick you will Command them freely.
Nothing could render me more truly happy than opportunities of rendering agreable the unfeigned [respect?] and most sincere regard [ . . . ] which I have the honor to be [perfe]ctly
Madam your most obedient devoted servant
[signed] C: Williamos
My best respect ever truly attend Mr. and Miss Adams; I am very happy to hear Col. Smith is arrived Safe and well.
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “Mrs. Adams Bath Hotel Westminster London”; stamped: “IU/30,” and, in a red ink, an illegible word or words; endorsed: “Mr Williamos Letter 27 June.” Some text has been lost where the seal was cut away.
{ 200 }
1. Not found; see AA to Williamos, 1 July, note 1, below.
2. Not found.
3. Burrill Carnes was an American merchant who was living in Lorient in Sept. 1785, and was appointed an American agent at Nantes by consul general Thomas Barclay in Feb. 1786 (Jefferson, Papers, 8:544; 9:303).
4. Probably one of AA2's letters to JQA, written in May or early June, which have not been found. See AA2 to JQA, 4 July, note 1, below.
5. Franklin's plan to sail directly home from Le Havre was frustrated by a lack of vessels leaving that port for America, and he sailed from England in late July. Williamos did not sail at all. See AA to Williamos, 1 July, note 2; Williamos to AA, 21 July, note 2, both below.
6. Jefferson still retained his letter of 21 June to AA, above (see note 1 to that letter; Jefferson to AA, 7 July, below; and Jefferson to JA, 22 June and 7 July, both Adams Papers, printed in Jefferson, Papers, 8:246, 265).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0069

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Smith, Isaac Sr.
Date: 1785-06-30

Abigail Adams to Isaac Smith Sr.

[salute] Dear Sir

You obligeing favour1 I received by Captain Lyde and thank you for its contents, which assured me of your kind remembrance of me, and your politeness at the same time: in being the first of our American Friends who crost the water to visit us in Stile. Many English Lords and Noblemen have visited us in the same way, but as it is not in our power to return the visit untill we happily reach the American Shore, you will in the mean time accept my thanks in this way. Be assured Dear Sir that I wrote you by my Son2 and that I should have written to you oftner if I had thought I could have entertaind you, and that my omission has been neither oweing to want of Respect or affection.
The magnifying glass is still made use, of by Englishmen in looking at America, and every little commotion there, is represented as a high handed Roit, and it is roundly asserted that their is neither Authority or Government, there. I was in company the other day and heard these observations, but as they were not addrest to me, I did not think myself Authorised to enter into a political dispute.
When the shop tax past here the other day,3 the shops throughout the city were shut up, some hung in black, and the statue of Gorge the 2d put into deep mourning. Upon the shops was written shops to be let, inquire of Mr. Pitt. Upon others no Pitt, no shop tax, damn Pitt. In Several places he was hung in Effigy. In the Evening every body was apprehensive of a Mob, as they threatned very much to assail the House of Commons, the Militia and city Gaurds were all under Arms, and had enough to do to keep the Mobility in order. If such an opposition to Authority had taken place in America, it would { 201 } have been circulated in the highest coulouring as far as British Newspapers could carry it.
The disposition amongst the mercantile part of this Nation is not very favourable to America, and the Refugees are very desperate bitter and venomous, and none more so that I hear of than the former Treasurer of Boston.4 Some of them I believe are wretched enough, but it does not work conviction in them, that they have erred and strayed like lost—not Sheep, but Wolves—for they would devour us yet if they could. Some Merchants say they can have our trade without any treaty, others what is a trade good for with a people who have nothing to give in return? Others that we are not united enough to take any resolutitions which will be generally binding and that Congress has no Authority over the different states.
Time will discover whether this system is to opperate in the Cabinet. The civil and polite reception given to the American Minister and his family, from the Court, does not ensure to America justice in other respects, but so far as forms go; America has been treated in her Representitive with the same attention that is shewn to Ministers from other powers.
If you should have an opportunity to send us a Quintel of good salt fish we should be much obliged to you. It may be addrest to Mr. Rogers. Dr. Tufts will pay for it.
Be so good sir as to present my duty to my Aunt to whom I will write as soon as I get setled in my house to which we shall remove this week in Grovenor-Square. My Love to all my cousins. I visited Mr. Vassels family this week at Clapham,5 they inquired after you, and Miss Hobart particularly desired her regards to you and my Aunt.
My daughter desires her duty and Love may be presented to all her Friends and relatives. Mr. Adams will write as soon as he can get time. Believe me Dear Sir most affectionately Your Neice
[signed] Abigail Adams
RC (MHi: Smith-Carter Papers); addressed: “Isaac Smith Esquire Merchant at Boston”; notations on address sheet, in other hands?: “sh.2.16”; and “Hond by Cap J Ingram”; docketed: “Mrs Adams London 1785.”
1. Not found.
2. Of 8 May, above.
3. 25 Geo. 3. c. 30.
4. Harrison Gray.
5. William Vassall, distressed by the disorders of the coming Revolution, but considering himself neutral in the conflict, fled Massachusetts for England in 1775, and died there in 1800. He had apparently been a client of JA's at some point (JA to Thomas Jefferson, 3 May 1816, in JA, Works, 10:214–215), but the nature of the case(s) is not known. Vassall had employed several lawyers in the 1750s, when he maintained interminable law suits against several fellow Bostonians. Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 9:349–359.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0070

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Williamos, Charles
Date: 1785-07-01

Abigail Adams to Charles Williamos

[salute] Dear sir

I received your favour last evening which is the first line we have had from you; I shall send to this Mr. Clark and see if the other Letter is to be found.1 We are at present in much confusion our furniture having just arrived at our house which we are aranging as fast as possible, so that I am between the Bath hotel and Grovesnor Square much occupied. I assure you it would be a great addition to our happiness if the intercourse between the Friends we had in Paris could be as easily mantaind here as at Auteuil. You know that I did not live long enough in Paris to become so great an Idolatar of it, as some of my fair countrywomen, and it is not to be wonderd at that the same Religion Language customs and some likeness of Manners should give me a Bias in favour of this Country. Heitherto I have had nothing to complain of, not even the compliments in the Gazzets which are beneath notice, and spring from the corrupted source of torry Malevolence, but nothing better can be expected from those who have been paricides to their Native Land. From the Court we have received every mark of politeness and attention which we had any reason to expect. Upon the last drawing room of the Queens I had the honour with my daughter of being presented to their Majesties the ceremony of which is very different from a presentation at Verssailes. When the Lord in waiting presents a Lady to the King, she draws of the Glove of her right hand and his Majesty salutes her right cheek. He then speaks to her and the Queen does the same. The princess Royal and her elder sister who are the only two that attend the drawing room go round in their turn and speak to all who have been presented. It is very tiresome however and one pays dear for the smiles of Royalty. I was four hours standing, for it was a crouded drawing room and the Royal family have a task of it to find small talk sufficient to speak in turn to the whole.
I thank you sir for all your Friendly attentions to me and mine whilst at Paris and since my arrival here. My Matua Makers word I never found much reliance upon, but her work is so much to be prefered to any thing I can get done here, that if it was not attended with so much difficulty I should send her all my Cloaths to make. If Mrs. Barclay had a commission to Execute for me as soon as it is accomplishd I would have the things all put together and I inclose you a letter unseald to Mr. Hales the <Duke of Dorsets> British { 203 } Secratary of Legation by which you see I have requested his care of them. I have been informd that the duke of Dorset has a trusty person who passes weekly in a carriage from Paris here. If you will be so kind as to take charge of this Letter and see Mr. Hale I dare say I shall be at no further trouble in looking out for a conveyance and Mr. Jefferson I fancy may trust his Letters safely in the same bundle with out even mentioning them as they will not be subject to Search. Mrs. Barclay had some lace to send me which if not already forwarded may be sent by the same way. Mrs. Hay speaks very highly of your particular attention to her as well as the rest of my Friends at Paris. Her situation required her embrasing the first opportunity of returning to England and she had only a few hours notice of the opportunity. She begg me to present her respects to Mr. Jefferson and the rest of the Gentleman who were so kind as to notice her. My Regards to Mr. Jefferson, Col. Humphries, Mr. Short and my good Friends the Abbes. Respectfull compliments to Dr. Franklin and Son.2 The Marquis and Lady are I suppose gone into the Country. Whenever you embark for America I wish you a pleasent voyage. I shall always be happy to hear from you. Mr. Adams will write soon to Mr. Jefferson. Col. Smith and Col. Humphries seem to be standing upon points of punctilio who shall make the first advances towards renewing an old acquaintance. We are much pleased with Col. Smith I assure you.
<My daughter joins me in sentiments of Regard accept>
Believe me Sir with sentiments of Esteem your Friend and humble servant
[signed] AA
Dft (Adams Papers); notations on the first page by CFA: in blue ink: “To Mr Barclay. London July 1. 1785”; and in pencil: “To Mr Barclay?” See note 1.
1. Although a transmission of three days from Paris was quite rapid, the references in this sentence, and those in the following paragraph to AA's Paris mantua maker and to Mrs. Hay, are all to Charles Williamos' letter of 27 June, above. Williamos' other letter, sent to JA, ca. 25 May, in care of “Mr. Clarke at Counsellor Brown's, Chancery Lane” in London (Williamos to AA, 27 June), has not been found. The conjecture by CFA that the intended recipient of this letter was Thomas Barclay (see descriptive note) probably owed to AA's references to Mrs. Barclay, below. But no other letter by AA to Barclay, or from him to her, has been found, and only one letter is known from Mary Barclay to AA (5 Sept., below).
2. AA certainly means Benjamin Franklin's elder grandson, William Temple Franklin; Franklin's younger grandson, Benjamin Franklin Bache, was also returning with him to America. The three departed from Passy on 12 July, and reached Southampton, England, on the 24th. There Franklin had one last, painful meeting with his son, the loyalist exile William Franklin, whom AA had probably never met. See Jefferson, Papers, 8:281, 308; Claude-Anne Lopez and Eugenia W. Herbert, The Private Franklin: The Man and His Family, N.Y., 1975, p. 279–281.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0071

Author: McCann, Mary
Recipient: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-07-02

Mary McCann to John Adams and Abigail Adams

[salute] May it please your Excellency

[salute] Madam

Having humbly presumed to wait on you to solicit the honor of serving your Excellency's Family with Cream and Milk, and had the honor to give you at the Hotel last Fryday, a Recommendation from his Excellency the Spanish Ambassador's Steward, you was pleased to order me to wait at your House in Grosvenor Square Yesterday Morning with Cream and Milk, which I accordingly did; but may it please your Excellency, I am humbly to inform you, that a Woman in the Care of the House refused taking either from me, tho' I told her I came by your Excellency's Order: thus refused by her, I beg leave with all Humility to address your Excellency with these few lines, humbly to solicit the honor of serving your Family.
As I have Madam the honor of serving now His Excellency the Spanish Ambassador, and likewise had the same honor to serve Prince Caramanico, and Count Pignatelli1 when here, I presume to hope my Conduct is always approved off; and if your Excellency will permit me to hope for the honor of receiving your Commands, it shall be my pride and Study to merit the honor of your Excellency's Countenance and protection, and in Duty I shall be bound to pray!
[signed] Mary McCann
No. 1 Great Quebec St.
Portman Square
1. The Spanish ambassador was Bernardo del Campo y Pérez de la Serna (made the marqués del Campo in Aug. 1786), who served in London from 1783 to 1795. Francesco d'Aquino, Principe di Caramanico, served as the Sicilian envoy to Britain from 1781 to June 1784, and then to France, Oct. 1784 to Jan. 1785. Michele, Conte Pignatelli, preceded d'Aquino as Sicilian envoy to Britain, 1771–1781, and to France, Aug. 1783 – June 1784. Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:432–433, 424, 423.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0072

Author: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1785-07-04 - 1785-08-11

Abigail Adams 2d to John Quincy Adams

Every day, hour, and minute, your absence mon chere frere, pains me more and more. We left last saturday2 the Hotell and have got settled in peace and quiettness in our own House in this Place. The { 205 } situation is pleasant. I would walk, my Brother is gone. I would ride, my Brother is gone. I would retire to my chaimber. Alas, I meet him not there. I would meet him in his appartment—but—where is it? I would set to my work, and he would read to me—but alas, this is Passed—and I am to draw the comparison between Auteuil and Grosvenor Square and sigh, and—and, wish to recall, the former. No. I do not wish to recall the former. I only wish for you and I should esteem myself happy. We shall live more as if we were a part of the World; than when in France. And we already find ourselvs, better pleased. But I have much to regret in thee. More than you can Judge—with all your knowledge of yourself. The C[olonel]3 has taken Lodgings. He is civil and your father is pleased with his Principles and sentiments as they respect His appointment with Him. You know what they must be.
Least you should tax me for want of particularity, I will give you a description of my appartment. A Bed, on one side, three chairs of Green velvet—you know them I dare say, a bureau, and dressing Glass, one of the secretaries of which the Covers Shut in, at which I am now writing. On the top of it there is placed, my secret Box. The Book cases which Contain Bells Edition of the British Poets4 which my father has made me a Present of, with a few other Books. Over it I have hung a picture intended for yourself, of which you have heretofore spoken to me.5 I would not mortify you by saying I think it a likeness nor Pay so Poor a compliment to my own judgment. However as it was intended for you I shall look upon it for you, and derive some satisfaction from it, and at the same time wish it were better.
From this day my narative shall commence. We hope you by this time arrived at New York, if not in Boston, but many weeks must pass before we hear from you. Our family is not yet quite arranged. I dont know what will become of us. We are obliged to have more servants here than in Paris—and their wages, is much more. Instead of 11 Guineas to Petito we are obliged to give a Person in the capasity of a butler 30. Guineas, but out of Livery, to a foot man with a Livery 18, to a Cook 15. For Horses and Coachman we have engaged to give 110. Guineas a year, or 11 Guineas by the Month—which is less than we gave in Paris, a little. We have had our Coach fitted up, and it answers. The C——keeps a Carriage. There is not one expence Lessend here, but every one augmented.
Pappa and the C—— dined to day with Mr. Bridgen, perhaps you may recollect him. He Married the Daughter of the celebrated Richardson but she is Dead lately.6 He has been to see your father several times. { 206 } General Oglethorp who called upon Pappa when he was in London before, appointed a day to call upon him a week or two ago, and came accompanied by Mr. Paradise.7 Your Pappa returnd His visit, and the Last week he died. A surprising Man he was an hundred and two years oald, and the oaldest General in the Kings service and also the oaldest in the Emperiors. Since I have heard of His Death I have regreted that I did not see him when he visitted my father. I have heard he was sprightly and chearfull, to a very surprising degree for His age, and was perfectly possessed of His reason and senses. He was the first Governor of Georgia and a friend to America.8
To day being the anniversary of the independence of America there was a Large Party dined together out of Town. Your father was invited but was engaged before. Mr. Storer came and dined with us, and after dinner went with your Mamma and myself to some Shops. By way of anecdote let me tell you that when we first arrived in London, it was necessary to take immediately a Carriage and Horses. For the former we sent to Mr. Foster of whom you purchased our Coach.9 He furnished us with a handsome Chariot till he could repair our own Carriage, and your Pappa took Horses and Coach Man from another Person, who was recommended Perhaps not sufficiently—to discriminate is a dificult matter in these Countries where every one offers their services, and never lack sufficient recommendations from themselvs. However we soon found that we had a drunken Coachman, but as he had been several days in our service, and your father many visits to return upon his first arrival, he thought it best not to Change till we should go to our own House and take a Coach Man into the family as is the Custom in this Country. One afternoon Pappa went out to return some visits, and while he was drinking tea with a Gentleman, the Coach Man being drunk got asleep upon His Box, fell down, broke the two front Glasses, and split the fore part of the Carriage. But as nought is never in danger he received no Hurt himself, by His fall. This is a matter of about six pounds—but we nevertheless, continued Him in service till we got to this House, where we have taken a fellow, who, except talking amaizingly fast, has every appearance of being what we shall want Him to.
Pappa dined with Mr. S. Hartly, Cousin of Mr. David H[artley], the latter has been to see us. Mr. Hammond has not.10
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Pappa went to the drawing room, and we had four American Gentlemen to dine with us. Coln. Norton who is again here, a Mr.[]12 from New York, a Mr. Noise from Boston, and a Mr. Remington from Watertown. Tis true we were not in the best order imaginable to receive company, but Pappa thought not of that you know when he invited them. However we did very well, with the assistance of a servant of the Coln. for our own butler has not yet come. We have a foot Man besides John Brisler who is in very Poor Health, but he is a German and does not understand English perfectly and seems to be an honnest, quiet, stupid, kind, of a Creature. After we had dined Mamma and myself went to take a ride, intending to Call upon Mrs. Temple and take her with us. Just as we were in the Carriage Coln. Smith came up in his Carriage with a General Stewart from America, who is a very handsome Man. Mamma told the C— that She intended to have asked Him to accompany her, but he had company. He ordered the Door opened and in jumpt telling his Companion that he would find Pappa at Home. He went on and we rode off. Perhaps you will say the Coln sacrifised politeness to Gallantry. We proceeded on our way to Mrs. Temples, but soon overtook her with Mr. Trumble and a Mr. and Mrs. Wheelright going to walk in Kensington Gardens. We concluded to accompany them and joined them at the entrance of the Gardens where we walkd for some time and returned Home.
The Baron de Linden called upon us at about eight oclock in the Evening and told us he had just come from Breakfasting with the Dutchess of Bedford, to which he was invited for four oclock. Ridiculous, beings these are. I was told the other day of an invitation which a Gentleman had to dine with the Duke and Dutchess of Devonshire at Eleven oclock at Night. In time it is to be hoped they will come to be reasonable in this matter of aranging their time. By such continued changes, they must inevitably sometimes come right, however they may indeavour to avoid it.
Pappa is not much pleased with the Foreign Ministers here. They have all visitted him and are very sivil, but he thinks them much less respectable as individuals, than those in Holland or France. There is but one Court which is represented by an Ambassador here, which is France. He has arrived within a few days from Bath, and is said is going soon Home to His own Country upon account of His Health.
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We have received a third visit to day from Mrs. and Miss Paradise and an invitation to dine with them next thursday. They tell us that they had the pleasure to know you. Therefore any description or account of either of the Ladies is needless, and I am sure I should be at a Loss to know how to give you an idea of them. The only observation that I could make upon Mrs. P[aradise] when I first saw her was, that I had never seen any thing like her before. She appears to me to be a singular Character. But I will Leave her, to describe to you a young Lady who called upon us to day, with Her Uncle, a Mr. Hamlington13 from Philadelphia. He has brought this his Neice over to this Country to give her an education, suitable to a fortune which he intends to give her. She is now at a boarding school, her Name is Miss Hamlinton. She is I should Judge 15 or 16 years oald, not very tall an agreeable size, good complexion not remarkably fair, brown Hair, good Eyes, and tolerable teeth, a good share of animation in her countenance, her Manners easy delicate and pleasing. I think you would have thought her pretty. Pray what think ye of Miss Hazen. Is she all your friend, W[inslow] W[arren] told you of Her.
Mr. Storer has called upon us, this afternoon and says that He shall Leave this Country and embark for America certainly this Month with His sister and Her family. I shall continue my narative till it is necessary for to seal my packet for Him. When you receive it you must not be unmindfull of your Prohibitions to me. Sentiment you could get from Books therefore I was to avoid them. You wanted only a Plain relation of facts as they should take place in the family, which I shall indeavour to fullfill to the best of my knowledge and ability. I could sincerely complain an Hour of your being absent, but this you do not want to be told again to beleive, I trust. The next packet I shall expect Letters from you and I am well assured that I shall not expect to be disappointed, if you arrive safe by that time and Heaven Grant you may is the sincere wish of your affectionate sister.
Pappa Mamma and myself, went agreeable to the Letter of our invitation at four oclock to dine with Mr. and Mrs. Paradise but unfortunately were two hours too early. The company did not collect till near six, consequently we did not dine till that Hour. I will give you the circle at table. Mrs. Paradise your Mamma, Coln. Smith, your sister, Dr. Price, a French Gentleman Mr. Paradise another French { 209 } Gentleman Miss Paradise, Mr. de Freire, Charge des affairs from Portugal, my Lady Hawk and your Father, in this way we were seated. I had the pleasure and honour of being seated next to Dr. Price . . but Wise Men you know are allways silent in mixed companies. The Dr. I have heard seldom enters upon any important subject in company, he however paid attention enough to me in this way as to sattisfy me. But in truth I dont recollect one thing said at table worth relating. Our dinner was a la Francaise la tout, and every civility was paid to us, that we could wish or expect. When we returnd to the drawing room we found several Gentlemen, who had not been of our diner party, the company increased, and we were expected to spend the Eve. Several Gentlemen and Ladies were invited we were told, upon our account, but your Pappa and Mamma came away before tea, and did not see all the company, I feard at the risk of haveing offended the People we visitted, however you know that seven years hence, it will be all one.
We drank tea with Mrs. Temple where we met Mr. and Mrs. and Miss Vassall. We are upon very civil terms—that is, sufficiently distant. Mrs. T is a Lovely Woman, but we are to loose her soon, for they assert that their passages are taken to go out to America this Month.
Dined with Mr. and Mrs. Roggers, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Temple Mr. Granvile Temple, and Coln. Smith. I dont know a Man who can please more than this said Mr. T when he indeavours to be agreeable, and how ever one may be prejudiced against Him, his manner of behavour, dispells it all.
We went to Hackney to Hear Dr. Price. He has been giveing his People his sistem of religion, in a Course of sermons. We have been to Hear them all. This day forghtnight he proposes to conclude. I think you would have been pleased to have been of our party. We have been treated with respect to seats with the utmost civility and politeness.
Mamma and myself rose before six o clock, and went out to take an early Breakfast with Mrs. Atkinson. The rain we had yesterday had made the air sweet and has given or rather renewed in some measure { 210 } the verdure, and our ride was cleaver, enough. Mr. Atkinson talks of going out in August. Charles will go with them and I expect this Letter will be handed you by this Mr. Charles Storer, if he should not conclude and preconclude the ensueing season in the same way as he did the last with respect to visitting France. He postpones his journey thence, for some time, but however I beleive, hopes it may arrive some time or other. Pappa and Coln. Smith dined with Mr. Vaugn,14 for the 2d. time, to day, and the Spanish Minister came and drank tea with us. His Name is le Chevalier del Campo, he speaks English well, for a Foreigner. I see nothing in his favour, but that he is a very ugly Man. His eyes are squint very black, and sharp enough to be agreeable.
Mrs. Hay came to town from Hampstead and spent the day with us. Pappa went to the Levee. His Majesty is very sociable, in general, and your father says, sometimes utters very good things. He disapproves the arangment of the day, and recommends, order and regularity, says he allways, rises at six oclock, and in winter is the first Person up in the Palace and generally makes his own fire, for he says a Man who is not capable of helping himself is a Slave. He shaves himself also, as he asserts, and sometimes wears his scratch Wig to the Levee, so much for His Majesty. All the World are gone into the Country. The Levees and drawing rooms are very thin at present and one may easily dispence with going to Court at this season. We have not yet been since we were presented. Perhaps her Majesty will think we were offended at her reception—it was better suited to the Present season than to the Winter, is very true, but it is not in the Power of the Smiles or Frowns of Her Majesty to affect me, either by confering pleasure or giveing Pain. I was wholy incapable of takeing the place She seemed to assign me when I was presented to Her. I suppose she assented to the assertion made by some Persons in this Country that there were no People who had so much impudence as the Americans, for there was not any People bred even at Courts who had so much confidence as the Americans. This was because they did not tremble, Cringe, and fear, in the Presence of Majesty.
Coln. Smith has not been to Court since he was presented. He says he does not Love them and he will see as little as possible of any belonging to them. His aversion is I beleive quite equal to Coln. H[umphrey]s. He does not express, so great a degree, however. He desired me to day to present his compliments to you when I should { 211 } write you and, to tell you that he had wished to become acquainted with you before he left America, from the account he had heard of you, and he now regrets your absence—in which I can sincerely join him, for I mourn at it—and yet think you acted right in going home. By this time we hope you are arrived in Boston.
To day Mr. Charles Bullfinch has called upon us. He arrived a day or two since in Scot, and has brought us, some Letters.15 We dined by invitation this day with Mr. and Mrs. Copely, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Roggers, Mr. West Mr. Clark, and Mr. Whiteford.16 The latter was seated next me at table, and after haveing lookd at me through his spectacles, which you know he all ways wears and haveing diverted the company with a few puns, for which you also know he is famous, if not in[],17 he began by telling me how very disappointed he was by your not haveing come here with your father, and by enquiring whether you should return here soon. I told him that you had gone with the intention of setling in America. “What said he, then I suppose he is going to be married.” I told him of your design of entering Colledge, and could sincerely join with him in whatever regret he might express on account of your absence. He talked about France, and said many things respecting the French which I could only reconcile, from his being an Englishman. I am not surprised when I hear People who have never been out of this Island, perhaps not out of the Town of London, expressing such iliberal sentiments upon other Nations, which one from charity would attribute to the score of ignorance. But when I hear a Man who has travelled, who has seen Mankind and had an opportunity of judging and whom one might suppose was not unreasonably prejudiced, express, a contempt for any particular Class of People, I only Pitty those principles which prevent him from discovering and doing justice to real merit wherever it is to be found in whatever Country or Climate. “One would scarce beleive it possible that a distance of seven Leagues, for its is absolutely no farther says Yorick,”18 the character of the two People should be so strongly marked, and that so constant a communication, should not have worn off some of those illiberal prejudies, which discover themselfs in every mind on this side the Water. I have absolutely discoverd, disapprobation in the countenances of almost every person who has asked me, how I was pleased, with France, after I answered them that I found it agreeable, and that the General Manners of the People pleasd me much. They { 212 } will be satisfied with nothing less than a studied preference in favour of their Country, which I cannot nor will not ever give them at the expence of my cincerity. Mrs. B[ingham] says she made many enemies by giving the preference to the French. If I have been truly informed she did it not in the most delicate manner or the most polite. She has been in London lately and they set of this day for Spar,19 from thence propose going to Brusells, and spend the first Part of the Winter in Paris, come over here, in February perhaps “before the Birth day,”20 and go to America in the Spring. I have been so fortunate as never to have seen Mr. B. but once.21 Mrs. B. has made us three very agreeable visits.
The weather is very warm, at present. It is said that a season like the present has not been known in Europe for many years, if ever. In France they have scarce had any rain since you left it and you know, well how much it was wanted when you was on the road. There has been but two or three rains since we arrived here, and none thought sufficient for the fruits of the Earth, by People of reason and Common sense. Yet such is the dispossition of the People that the papers often assert that rain is not wanted and that the season is very promising, on this Island.
I had like to have set down this Eve and to have complained of not having any thing to communicate to you, but recalling to mind your injunction “be punctual and let no circumstance however trivial escape your Pen”22 I have tax'd myself with not having fullfilled it, in many respects and now determine to make up all Past deficiencies at least in this respect. Indoubtedly you well remember Grosvenor Square, as it is said to be the finest in23 this Capitall. We have some respectable Neighbours, at least they inherit every title to which the World afix the Ideas of respectability, and <many of them> some are perhaps <so>) entitled to the epithet from their own merit. Lord Carmarthen, lives about five houses from us, but not upon the same side of the Square. He is said to be a worthy Man. You know I suppose what [h]is title is. When we first came into this House, the Man of whom we hired and who furnished Mamma with some few articles of furniture, is a singular kind of a Body, very sivl, not intirely ignorant, and his business, leads him to some knowledge of these great Folks, it being what is here called upholster and undertaker. We made some { 213 } | view few inquiries of him by whom we were surrounded and I must give it you as he told it us. Upon the right hand said he is Lady Tacher and on the left Lady Lucy Lincoln sister to the Famous Conway24 and there is my Lord Norths and there a House formerly belongs to the Duke of Dorset, but he has sold it. Such a House belongs to the Dutchess of Bedford who ran over to France the last Winter—and in such a one, lives, Lady, what do you call her whose husband ran a Pen through her Nose the other day, &c. &c. &c.
You are sattisfied I suppose by this with an account of our Neighbours. Lady Lincolns Parlores Window makes one side of the square and, our drawing room windows the other thus, so you see we have a chance of looking at each other, an opportunity we each have already taken advantage of. She peeps at us, and we illustration can not do less you know than return the compliment. The English may call the French starers but I never saw so little civility and politeness in a Stare in France as I have here. In short I beleive the French are the politeest People in the World and take them for all in all, I neer expect to Meet their like again.25 Our house stand at the Corner of Duke Street. The situation is much in its favour. It is a descent House, a little out of repairs, but such a one as you would not blush to see, any of the Foreign Menisters in. The front doer is a little in the corner. At the entrance there is a large Hall, with a large Stair Case, all of Stone. On the left Hand, is the dining room, which will hold 15 Persons with ease, and, next to it is a littel room, more retired in which we usually dine, when we have no company, and from this you go into a long room of which Pappa has, made an office, for doing Publick business. The Kitching is blow Stairs. Above, over the dining room is the drawing room, as large as the room below and from it a little room of which Mamma has mad a Common setting Parlour, to breakfast and drink tea if we choose and out of it is another long room in which Pappa has put his Library, and in which he writes usually himself. This is a very descent suit of rooms, and we have another very small one which servs to breakfast and set in at this season. Our Chaimbers are upon the 3d. floor, of which there are four besides a dressing room. Mamma took one of the front Chaimbers to herself, the other she has appropriated for to Stand empty for a spare bed, to which you will be perfectly well come if you will come and spend the Night with us. I have a chaimber over the small setting room. It looks only into a little peice of a yard with { 214 } which we are favourd. It's so situated that the sun does not approach it any part of the year, and I have a most extensive prospect from it, of the tops of all the Houses which surround us, and I can count an hundred Chimneys from it—and see Norths et[c] et[c]. Dont you envy me the Prospect. The Chaimber is very tidy and cleaver. Over the Library is Esters room, out of mine, and above are chaimber for the servants. Now you know every room in the House, and were you set down blind fold at the Corner of Duke Street Grosvenor Square, you would be at no loss, where to find my chaimber I suppose.
To day, is the first time that we have pretended to see company to dine. We had a company of fifteen. Mr. and Mrs. Temple and their son Mr. Granvile Temple, Mr. and Mrs. Roggers, Mr. and Mrs. Atkinson, Mr. Storer, Dr. Price, Mr. Charles Bullfinch, Coln. Smith, and ourselvs. You know not how much <we> I missd you and how much I wished for you. The Customs of different Countries are different, and even when one knows how to Conduct in the one, you may be ignorant of the next you visit. You often meet here with an imitation of the French, customs, especially, at diner, and Courses are as Common allmost here as in France, but they do not arange matters so well. Were I to follow my will, I would Introduce the Whole Custom of dining in the French Stile here. In the first place, in this Country when your dinner is said to be on table, instead of the gentleman of the House Gallantly handing, the first Lady in company in to diner and every other Gentleman following his example, the Lady of the House rises and desires the Lady in company who happens to be the Greatest stranger or higest rank to walk to dinner, and every one follows accordingly, then the Gentlemen, like a flock of Sheep one by one, not <yoked> in Pairs. When you get to the table the Ladies must all sit in a cluster, and the Gentlemen by themselvs. And, now every one is thus seated why they must all set quietly with their hands before them till, the Gentleman or Lady of the House and [yore?] served a Whole [circle?] of 20 and said Pray Mam or Pray Sir will you be helpd so and so—and to be sure every Person in Company, will make choise of one dish, that one Person may have the extreme felicty of setting quite Starved till every one at table is helpd, then all must begin together, and when every one has their Plate changed and the cerimony is to perform over again, through every dish at table, nor will they eat if you leave it to themselvs to make a choise. Ridiculous formality. Then there must be, every two minutes, Mam will you do me the favour to drink a Glass of Wine with me, which obliges some to say, with pleasure, { 215 } when in reallity they never drink any thing but Water and had rather be excused. And then the additional formality of drinking Health and toasts which above all things I detest, and will not now nor henceforward for ever more do it. In short one cannot consult their ease and pleasure but must be enslaved with fashion and customs. And another thing I dislike, that I mean of the Ladies rising from table and the Gentlemen, continueing seetting, but it is quite the fashion here to go from the dining table to the Card table. I am told, I have not dined any where yet where I have seen it done. By this time you will laught at me, I doubt not and tell me what you used to foretell has come to pass—of the preferance, I should have for France when I got here. True it is I give the preferance, to many customs amongst that People to what I find here, but it is such a priveledge, to be able to talk that it allmost over ballances every other consideration. But I am sure, you would find yourself much happier here than you were in France. Yet I hope you will be still more so where you are—and I will not doubt it.
Our company was large enough to be agreeable, and had every one consulted his own ease and that of his Neighbour, we should have been much pleased at least I shold. It is the department of the Butler to change the Course and put every thing upon table. We have a cleaver fellow in this capacity. He has more solemnity and not so much alertness as Petit,26 and he is thought to be perfectly honnest. Our Cook, gave us a good [dinner?]. Pappa is not so pleased with the English Cookery as the French. He says Now we shall all soon be sick with eating raw meat and I confess, I am partial to the Country I have left—at least to its rationallities. And I veryly beleive there is less of what one may Call folly there than here, howe[ve]r the People here may affect to despise their Neighbers.
Oh one peice of News—Mamma had a Letter from Mr. Williamos,27 who is Still in Paris and who still waits for an opportunity more eligable than by way of Lorient, that informed her that Dr. Frankling had arrived at Rouen, in Health on his way to the Isle of Whight from which he is to embark in a Ship commanded by Capt. Truxton for Philadelphia. The King of France sent the Dr. his picture set in diamonds of Greet vallue, and two letters from the Comte de Vergenes !!!!!!! Mrs. Williams has gone out with the Dr.28
By the way, I must not omit to tell you, what a rage for Painting has taken Possession of the Whole family. One of our rooms has been occupied by a Gentleman of this profession, for near a forghtnight, and we have the extreme felicity of looking at ourselvs upon Canvass. { 216 } The Paper yesterday had this paragraph “Sir J. Reynolds is employd in takeing a portrait of Lady Dungannon. Copely and Brown are exerting their skill upon their illustrious Country Man Mr. Adams the American Ambassador.” I expect it will be next that Mr. Brown is painter to the American Ambassadors family. He was very sollicitous to have a likeness of Pappa, thinking it would be an advantage to him, and Pappa Consented. He has taken the best likeness I have yet seen of him, and you may suppose is very Proud, when so many have failed before him. Mamma has set for hers, and I, followed, the example. It is said he has taken an admirable likeness of my Ladyship, the Honble. Miss Adams you know. It is a very tasty picture I can assure you, whether a likeness or not. Pappa is much pleased with it, and says he has got my character, a Mixture of Drolery and Modesty. I wish we could have the other three, yourself and Charles and Thomas. I think we should make a respectable Group. He has a good likeness of Mamma, too.29
This Morning Mamma and myself went out to hear Dr. Price, it being the last sermon, he is to Preach for some time, as he tells me he allways makes a practice of going into the Country in the Month of August. Dr. Jebb, who has visitted your father several times since we arrived, and who is of his opinions I beleive in Politicks, brought his Lady to see Mamma this Morning. She is also a great Politicianess, which consequently pleased Mamma.30 The American War, Present dispute with Ireland, and the Propositions which have just passed, and which are now sent over to Ireland to be accepted or refused, furnished this Lady with subject of conversation. She was of opinion that the propositions would pass, the House of Commons, in Ireland, but that the People will not accept them. Your father thinks if they are accepted, that he shall have no chance of succeeding in his treaty of Commerce, with this Country, as the fourth proposition, is intended to bring the Irish to join this Country in all their Commercial arangments, so that we feel ourselvs much interested in the matter.31
Now do not Laugh at me, for, writing Politicks to you, and tell me I am a dunce, for I assure you that all I mean is to indeavour at giving you some little information respecting us. If I fail, you will not refuse me what is due for right intentions.—The Parliament were sitting till Tuesday the 2d. of August and then adjourned till October.32 Mr. and Mrs. Temple invited us to go to the House, of Commons, if the King
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came to make his speach, upon the adjournment of the House, but, he did not meet them, so we consequently did not go to see him in his robes of State and Crowned.
This Morning as I was setting at work in my room, Mamma came and told me there was a Gentleman below, who wished to see me. I not a little surprised at being inquired for, went down, and who should it be but Mr. Short just arrived from Paris. His comeing was not unexpected, neither, his business I dont know. I beleive however it was to bring some Papers of consequence safe.33 We were very much pleased to see him, and he brings us accounts of the Health of all our friends there, which will give you pleasure to hear I know. Do you recollect Mr. Adams that this day, twelvemonths we went to Richmond, together, and walkd in Popes Gardens, &c.34 We were then Strangers almost and we are nearly so again I fear. But we know, a little more of each other and by constant and unreserved communications I hope we shall not loose the Knowledge we mutually gained in the last twelvmonths of each others sentiments and dispositions. It is a very unpleasing Idea to me, that a Whole family, should grow up, Strangers to each other, as ours have done, yet it has been unavoidable, and will tis probable Still continue so.
This Morning Mr. Short came and Breakfasted with us, and before we had finished Mrs. Wright, came in, as Crazy as usual, “with such a Budget,” was her term. You know her figure. Pappa introduced Mr. Short to her as an American and friend of Mr. Jeffersons. I expected she would have saluted him as usual, but she dispenced with this ceremony, and said, her Countryman did her great honour to be sure—by way of compliment. She visits Colln. Smith very often, and there is no such thing as getting rid of her. She came with a particular account to day, of the affront which has been offered to the English flag, by the French. The account in the papers, is as follows—Why now the Paper is lost, and I cant recollect the paragraff, so you must excuse me, for Leaving this space blank.35
You will not surely complain of me for not having written enough, this time. I only fear that you will say you can find nothing in it all. Tell me if this is the Case and I'll abridge.
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Colln. Smith received a letter from his friend Colln. H[umphreys] who informs him that he is writing another Poem, which is to be much longer than the address to the Army,37 and he assures him will have equal merit. He wishes to get some Person to Print it here and suggests that he thinks he may expect it will furnish [him] with the means of visitting this Country. An hundred and fifty Gunieas he proposs himself from it. We dont know what the subject is, and Mr. Short declares he cannot inform us. The King of France has accepted the dedication of the Vision of Columbus, and subscribed for a Number of Coppys, upon this Condition that the Count de Vergennes should be permitted to examing it to be assured there is nothing too severe against this Nation nor the Spainairds, in it. What think you of this Condition?
Before you receive this Letter, I suppose you will have arrived, in Boston, been received by all our Friends, visitted them as much as your time will permit, taken the opinion of some respecting the preparation necessary for your entering the university, and perhaps set yourself down for a few Months, in Mr. Shaws family, with application and diligence to accomplish your design. And now permit a sister who feels herself, greatly interested in every event in which you may be engaged, to inquire how you are pleased and gratified, whether contented and happy, from the idea of intending right, or from, the sattisfaction which you find resulting from your decisions. Tell me all that I am entitled to know, of what passes within your own Mind, from what scources you derive pleasure, and from what you receive Pain. No one can more sincerely rejoice in the one, regret the other and participate in Both than a sister, and a sister who is often influenced by them, herself. Tell me also, all that you wish to, respecting myself or others. Remind me of all my errors, mistakes, and foibles, and convince my judgment, Guide my opinions, and may you also approve of all past present and future decisions. If I ever take any important Step, contrary to your judgment, it will be because you are not present to give it.
Tell me also, if I am too particular in writing you, or whether I am not enough so—whether you find yourself informed by my scribling, of things which y[ou] wish to know. When I know what will gratify you, I shall indeavour as far as my ability will enable me to contribute to this Gratification. You will not say I am mistaken when I suppose it in my Power. If you should, you must suppose this error founded, upon a wrong judgment, which originated from anticipating the pleasure I shall receive from your Communications.
{ 220 }
I want much to know, whether your disposition for rambling has left you. If it has, I beleive you bequeathed it to me, not as a blessing I fear. I have as much the wish, to wander, as a certain American Lady.38 But necessity prevents its appearance. For my part I should like above all things to make one of a Party to go round the World. When this proposal, is put in execution we will, take you with us, provided you should be as, unreasonably inclined as, those who will undertake it. But to be serious, I cant see why People who have the inclination (and ability) which to be sure is the most essential of the two, should not gratify themselvs, by indulging it and seeing as many and curious parts of the World as it should Lead them to visit. If they are possessed of proper Principles, it will not injure them, but make them Wiser and better and happier. Pray dont you feel a great deel Wiser, than if you had never been outside the limits of the State of Massachusetts Bay, which tho a very respectable place, one may gain a little knowledge in other Parts. And then you know with a little Policy, one may be thought nearly more Respectable, for the People of our Country have a Wonderfull liking to those who can say, “I have been in St. Pauls Church. I have seen the Lions, Tigers, &c. in the Tower. I have seen the King, and what is more have had the extreme honour of being saluted by him. What the King? Yes by George the Third King of Great Britain France and Ireland, defender of the Faith &c. And I have seen the Dancing Dogs, Singing Duck, and little Hare which beats the Drum, and the Irish Infant,[]39 feet high, but not yet the Learned Pig.” The Tumblers of Sadlers Wells, have made great objections that the Learned Pig, should be introduced upon the Stage and have I beleive left it.
Mr. Storer has just now informed me that there is an opportunity to convey Letters tomorow, to Boston. Altho I had intended to send this Letter by him, I will take advantage of this conveyance as it is a forghtnight sooner than, he will sail, and as I would not fail of punctuallity to you, or give you reason to suppose me capable of it. I have not the pleasure to hear yet of your arrival at New York, but the packet is expected dayly and I hope soon to have the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of long Letters from you. Mamma has written you this Morning, and we are going this afternoon to Hampstead with Mrs. Roggers, to visit Mrs. Hay, and are to Leave the Letters at the New England Coffee House to go tomorrow. I must { 221 } wish you Health happiness and peace and hasten to subscribe myself your affectionate sister
[signed] A Adams
Dft (Adams Papers); notation at the top of the first page: “My Brother JQA—sent by Capt Lyde.” The letter is written on thirty-two numbered pages of small, irregular size.
1. AA2's letters to JQA numbered 1 through 4 have not been found, but for No. 1, see JQA's letter of 17 May, above.
2. 2 July.
3. William Stephens Smith.
4. Bell's Edition: The Poets of Great Britain complete from Chaucer to Churchill, appeared in 109 pocket-size, illustrated volumes between 1777 and 1782 (DNB).
5. This is probably the Isaak Schmidt portrait of JQA, done in Holland in 1783, and given by JQA to AA2 (see Andrew Oliver, Portraits of John Quincy Adams and His Wife, Cambridge, 1970, p. 17–19). Long held by AA2's descendants, it was recently acquired by the National Portrait Gallery; see the Descriptive List of Illustrations, vol. 5.
6. Edward Bridgen, a close friend of the Adamses, had married Martha, daughter of the novelist Samuel Richardson, in 1762 (DNB [Richardson]).
7. John Paradise was an Englishman who had married Lucy Ludwell of Virginia, in London in 1769 (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:184).
8. James Oglethorpe, the founder of Georgia, died on 1 July. Although he was only eighty-nine, he was described in two contemporary accounts as being over one hundred. Oglethorpe had begun his military service in England in 1710, and in Europe a few years thereafter (DNB).
9. See JQA to JA, 30 July, and 6 Aug. 1784, both above.
10. JA had met both David Hartley and William Hammond in 1778 at Passy, and had dealt with both in the peace negotiations in 1783 (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:303, and note 2; 4:65–66; John Thaxter to AA, 18 April 1783, above).
11. AA2 appears to have confused her daily entries, probably beginning either here or at the next entry, “a Wedensday.” To read her headings literally, in order, would give dates of Tuesday, 5 July; Thursday, 7 July; “a Wedensday,” 13 July; “Fryday,” 15 July; and then “July 14th. thursday.” Thereafter her dating is clear and correct.
12. Left blank in MS.
13. AA2 probably intends Ann Hamilton and her uncle, William; Ann soon became a close friend of the Adamses (see JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:184, and note 1).
14. Probably Benjamin Vaughan, who had served Lord Shelburne as a confidential observer at the peace negotiations in 1782–1783 (JA to AA, 12 Oct. 1782, note 3, above; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:54, note 2).
15. See Richard Cranch to JA, 3 June, above. Mary Cranch to AA, and probably John Thaxter to AA, both 4 June, above, were included in this set of letters.
16. The dinner guests included the artist Benjamin West; Caleb Whitefoord; and Richard Clarke, John Singleton Copley's elderly father-in-law.
17. Blank in MS.
18. AA2 quotes roughly the opening passage of Laurence Sterne's A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy, by Mr. Yorick. Seven leagues (twenty miles in Sterne) is the distance from Dover to Calais.
19. Spa, in eastern Belgium about twenty miles southeast of Liège, was one of the earliest resorts to become famous for the medicinal effects of its waters.
20. Opening quotation mark supplied. Anne Bingham was presented at court in Feb. 1786. The occasion marked the celebration of the Queen's birthday (see AA to JQA, 16 Feb. 1786, and AA2 to JQA, 9–27 Feb. 1786, both Adams Papers).
21. AA2's apparent negative opinion of William Bingham agrees with that of JQA, recorded earlier in the year (Diary, 1:222, 250–252).
22. See JQA to AA2, 25 May, above.
23. From this point to note 28, the text is written less carefully, on much coarser, irregularly-sized paper, and many passages are difficult to decipher.
24. Gen. Henry Seymour Conway a prominent commander on the Continent in the Seven Years' War, was a steady and outspoken opponent of Britain's treatment of America, from the 1760s to the 1780s (DNB).
{ 222 }
25. AA2 adapts Shakespeare, Hamlet, I, ii, 187–188. In her journal for 27 Aug., AA2 wrote that she “read Shakspeare after dinner. Papa purchased his works this morning, upon my saying I had never read them” (Jour, and Corr., 1:ix).
26. The Adams' servant at Auteuil.
27. Of 21 July, below.
28. The coarse paper and poorly written text end here. Mariamne Alexander Williams was the wife of Benjamin Franklin's nephew, Jonathan Williams Jr. Mr. Williams was about to sail for America with his uncle, while his wife and her sisters were to go to London to live (Jefferson, Papers, 8:423).
29. Mather Brown, born in Boston in 1761, had come to London in 1781 to study painting with Benjamin West. Of the three Adams portraits that he executed in 1785, that of JA and AA are lost. On 2 Sept., AA2 recorded JA's reaction to a portrait done of him, presumably that by Brown, in her journal: “. . . we had some conversation upon the pictures below. Papa said they were spoiled; he was not at all content with his own, yet thought it the best that had ever been taken of him. No one had yet caught his character. The ruling principles in his moral character were candour, probity, and decision. I think he discovered more knowledge of himself than usually falls to the lot of man” (Jour, and Corr., 1:80). Brown painted JA again in 1788 for Thomas Jefferson, who owned this portrait until his death; it is now in the Boston Athenaeum. Brown's portrait of AA2 is at the Adams National Historic Site, Quincy, Mass. A “Portrait of a Lady,” in the N. Y. State Historical Association, previously identified as that of AA by Mather Brown, is no longer considered to be by Brown. The identity of the sitter, as well, is now questioned. The painting is signed by Ralph Earl but no evidence exists that he painted AA at this or any other time. The eyes of the “Lady” are blue; those of AA in her other likenesses are brown. These reasons are enough for the editors to doubt, until further supporting evidence is found, that the “Lady” is AA (Dorinda Evans, Mather Brown, Early American Artist in England, Middletown, Conn., 1982, p. 195). See the Abigail Adams 2D, July 1785, by Mather Brown 217Descriptive List of Illustrations in this volume.
30. JA and JQA had met Dr. John Jebb in Nov. 1783. Jebb was a former cleric of radical theological views, and a physician, scholar, and strong supporter of the American cause whom JA warmly admired. His wife, Ann Torkington Jebb, also wrote ably on radical issues. JQA, Diary, 1:202, note 1; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:197; DNB.
31. For the background to the twenty propositions approved by the British Parliament on 25 July for presentation to the Irish Parliament, see AA to Cotton Tufts, [26 April], note 10, above. The fourth proposition provided: “That it is highly important to the general interests of the British empire, that the laws for regulating trade and navigation should be the same in Great Britain and Ireland; and therefore that it is essential, towards carrying into effect the present settlement, that all laws which have been made, or shall be made, in Great Britain, for securing exclusive privileges to the ships and mariners of Great Britain, Ireland, and the British colonies and plantations, and for regulating and restraining the trade of the British colonies and plantations (such laws imposing the same restraints, and conferring the same benefits, on the subjects of both kingdoms), should be in force in Ireland, by laws to be passed in the parliament of that kingdom, for the same time, and in the same manner, as in Great Britain” (Parliamentary Hist., 25:935). The full text of the proposals is in the same, cols. 934–942. In mid-August, the twenty propositions met such an angry reception in the Irish House of Commons that the British administration in Dublin tabled the matter, and it quietly died. Vincent T. Harlow, The Founding of the Second British Empire, London, 1952, vol. 1, ch. 11.
32. The only hints in the MS of the point where AA2 may have finished writing on 31 July, and began writing on 2 Aug., are a long dash before “Now do not Laugh at me . . .,” here rendered as a paragraph break, and the shorter dash before “The Parliament were sitting . . .”
33. These papers were one or more copies of the treaty of amity and commerce between Prussia and the United States, signed by Franklin at Passy on 9 July, by Jefferson in Paris on 28 July, by JA in London on 5 Aug., and by Baron von Thulemeier, the Prussian envoy, at The Hague on 10 September. JA to Richard Cranch, 3 April 1784, note 4; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:182, note 1.
34. See AA to Mary Cranch, 2 Aug. 1784, and note 3, above.
35. The Morning Post and Daily Advertiser for 1 Aug. stated that the British warship Wasp, Capt. Hills, met a French lugger in the English Channel, The French vessel refused { 223 } to salute the British flag and its captain informed the officers of the British ship that he had specific orders from the French government not to do so.
36. Following this farewell the text starts on a new page, although some space remained on the previous page. It is not clear if AA2 wrote the next four paragraphs, up to the dateline “Thursday August the 11th. 1785,” below, on the 11th, or wrote it earlier, perhaps on the 4th, and then added the three sentences immediately before “Adieu” on 11 August.
37. David Humphreys had published A Poem Addressed to the Armies of the United States of America in 1780. His A Poem on the Happiness of America Addressed to the Citizens of the United States was first published in London in 1786. Joel Barlow's The Vision of Columbus, written over a period of eight years, was published in 1787, with a dedication to Louis XVI. DAB.
38. Perhaps Anne Willing Bingham; see notes 19–20.
39. Left blank in MS. The quotation mark after “Learned Pig” has been supplied. Most of the amazing animals in this passage—lions at the Tower of London, performing dogs and hares, and particularly “the Learned Pig,” which made its London debut early in 1785, are discussed in Richard D. Altick, The Shows of London, Cambridge, 1978, see esp. chs. 3 and 7, and illustration 6 on p. 41. By 1812 both Sadler's Wells and Drury Lane had dropped their opposition to animal acts (same, p. 310–311; see also Wheatley, London Past and Present, [Sadler's Wells]).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0073

Author: Jefferson, Thomas
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-07-07

Thomas Jefferson to Abigail Adams

[salute] Dear Madam

I had the honour of writing you on the 21st. of June, but the letter being full of treason, has waited a private conveiance. Since that date there has been received for you at Auteuil a cask of about 60. gallons of wine. I would have examined it's quality and have ventured to decide on it's disposal, but it is in a cask within a cask, and therefore cannot be got at but by operations which would muddy it and disguise it's quality. As you probably know what it is, what it cost, &c. be so good as to give me your orders on the subject and they shall be complied with.
Since my last I can add another chapter to the history of the redacteur of the Journal de Paris.1 After the paper had been discontinued about three weeks, it appeared again, but announcing in the first sentence a changement de domicile of the redacteur, the English of which is that the redaction of the paper had been taken from the imprisoned culprit, and given to another. Whether the imprisonment of the former has been made to cease, or what will be the last chapter of his history I cannot tell.—I love energy in government dearly.—It is evident it was become necessary on this occasion, and that a very daring spirit has lately appeared in this country, for notwithstanding the several examples lately made of suppressing the London papers, suppressing the Leyden gazette, imprisoning Beaumarchais,2 and imprisoning the redacteur of the journal, the author of the Mercure of the last week has had the presumption, speaking of the German newspapers, to say “car les journaux de ce pays-la ne sont pas forcés { 224 } de s'en tenir à juger des hemistiches, ou à annoncer des programes academiques.” Probably he is now suffering in a jail the just punishments of his insolent sneer on this mild government, tho' as yet we do not know the fact.
The settlement of the affairs of the Abbé Mably is likely to detain his friends Arnoud and Chalut in Paris the greatest part of the summer. It is a fortunate circumstance for me, as I have much society with them.—What mischeif is this which is brewing anew between Faneuil hall and the nation of God-dem-mees?3 Will that focus of sedition be never extinguished? I apprehend the fire will take thro' all the states and involve us again in the displeasure of our mother country.
I have the honour to be with the most perfect esteem Madam your most obedt. & most humble servt.
[signed] Th: Jefferson
RC (Adams Papers); docketed in an unknown hand: “Mr Jefferson 1795.” The “9” is faint and may be an incomplete “8” rather than an error.
1. See Jefferson to AA, 21 June, and notes 3 and 4, above, and Jefferson, Papers, 8:265. The Journal did not actually cease publication between 4 and 27 June, but it did announce a new editorial office, under the heading “Changement de Domicile,” in its 27 June issue.
2. Pierre Caron de Beaumarchais had been imprisoned at St. Lazare for a few days in March 1785, at the insistance of a member of the royal family who became offended at Beaumarchais' vigorous defense of his controversial and extraordinarily popular comedy, Le mariage de Figaro (JQA, Diary, 1:233–234, and note 3, 236).
3. Between 10 April and 5 May, competing groups of merchants, mechanics, and manufacturers held several meetings in Boston's Faneuil Hall and filled the local press with polemic essays in an attempt to formulate an effective policy to counter the flood of imported British manufactures that was disrupting the city's economy. The protests led to the passage of a navigation act and a protective tariff by the Massachusetts legislature in June and July. Jensen, The New Nation, p. 290–293; Mass., Acts and Laws, 1784–1785, p. 439–443, 453–457; JQA to JA, 3 Aug., note 3, below. “God-dem-mees” (Goddems; Goddams) was a synonym for Englishmen in common use by the nineteenth century (OED).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0074

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-07-17

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams

[salute] Dear Madam

We are now sailing up North River; and have met the french packet about 6 leagues from New York: she will sail to morrow morning; and has sent her boat on board, while we are at sail. I profit of the only <minute> instant I have to inform you, that after a tedious passage of 8 weeks, we expect [by] noon to be at New York. I have not even time to seal the Letter I have prepared for my Sister,1 and must request { 225 } she, and my Father, will excuse me if the peculiarity of the circumstance prevents me from writing to them.

[salute] Your ever affectionate Son.

[signed] J. Q. Adams
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “Mrs. A. Adams. <to the care of Mr. J. Elworthy, Merchant N. 1 Broad Street.> London”; in another hand after the canceled material: “Corner of Brooke St. Grovesnor Sqr.”; docketed by AA2JQA. July 17th 1785”; marked: “B” and “PP R T”; and stamped: “SE[ . . . ]” and “[ . . . ][o]'clock.” Slight damage to the text near the torn seal.
1. That of 25 May, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0075

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
DateRange: 1785-07-17 - 1785-07-31

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams 2d

N: 4.
I went on shore upon Long Island with our Captain, and visited Monsr. de Marbois, who has taken a house there for the summer. He received me with politeness, invited me to dine with him, and enquired concerning my father in as friendly a manner, as he could have done had he wish'd him well. Madame de Marbois, may be called a pretty, little woman. She was a quaker, but appears not to have retained any of the rigid tenets of that sect.1 As this is Sunday, I have not as yet delivered any of my Letters; and have done nothing but walk about the town.
I have delivered a number of my Letters, and have acquired some information, but which you will doubtless know before this reaches, you. Messrs. Jackson and Tracey, arrived in Boston, the 18th. of last may, after a passage of only 20 days. Poor Temple took the small pox in Ireland, and died on the passage. Mr. Bowdoin is present governor of Massachusetts and increases, in popularity every day. Mr. Hancock, being too infirm, to act as Governor of Massachusetts, is chosen as Member of Congress for the next year, and will probably take his rest, in the President's seat, next November. This is escaping Scylla to fall into Charybdis; or is rather like a man I have read of; who being offered a glass of wine: answered, that he could not take a glass, but that he would take a bottle. The other delegates in Congress from Massachusetts for next year, are Mr. Sedgwick, Mr. King, Mr. Holten, and Mr. Dane.2 (not Mr. Dana).
I waited upon the Massachusetts' delegates before I went any { 226 } where else, except to Mr. Jay's. Mr. Gerry was glad to see me, on account of his friend,3 and Mr. King was very polite. They went with me and introduced me to the president,4 who enquired very particularly concerning my father. I also waited upon the Governor, and upon Don Diego de Gardoqui, who had about a fortnight since, his public audience of Congress,5 and who shows away here to an high degree. He made a speech when he had his audience; and I believe, I may affirm confidently, that he tired none of his auditors. You will see the speech in the Papers.
The President of Congress this morning, at breakfast at Mr. Gerry, invited me to take an apartment in his house. I endeavoured to excuse myself as well as I could: but at dinner at his house, he repeated his invitation. I again offered my excuses, but he press'd it on me, with so much politeness, that I did not know how to refuse. Such attentions, embarass me, yet they give me more, pleasure, than they would, if I was myself the object of them.
I met Mr. Church this morning: he sails the 4th. of next month in the british Packet, and has offered to take any Letters for me. You will receive my N:3.6 and probably this by him.
At tea, this afternoon, at Mr. Ramsay's, for whom Mrs. Rucker, was kind enough to give me Letters,7 I met Mr. Gardoqui, and his secretary Mr. Randon, who, if common report says true, is soon to marry Miss Marshall (Mrs. Rucker's Sister.) Much good may do her, with the swarthy Don: his complexion and his looks: show sufficiently, from what country he is. How happens it, that revenge stares through the eyes of every Spaniard? Mr. Gardoqui was very polite, and enquired much after my father, as did also Mr. van Berkel the Dutch minister.8 Governor Livingston was appointed some time ago minister for Holland, but did not accept. Mr. Rutledge, governor of S. Carolina, is now appointed: but will it is presumed also decline.
Doctor Mather, you will see by the Boston Papers, is dead. I have a Letter from your Pappa to him, and a small packet from his Son. I don't know who I shall give them to.9
Mr. Dana has been appointed a judge of the supreme Court in our State, and is now riding the Circuit.
{ 227 }
I moved this morning to the President's house. I determined upon this with some reluctance, not knowing whether it would meet with your Pappa's approbation. But the President repeated his invitation with so much politeness, and Mr. Gerry and Mr. King whom I consulted on the subject, being of opinion I could accept of it without impropriety, I thought I could not do otherwise.
Hearing in the morning, that the british June Packet had arrived, last night, I immediately went to Mr. Jay, and enquired after you. He had received Letters from my father; and had sent them to Congress. I was certain, there were some for me: I then went and found out Mr. Curson, who inform'd me he had seen you, the last day of May: but he had not a line for me.10 I was much surprised. I had supposed that your Pappa was so much engaged in business, that he had no time to write, but I could not conceive, why I had not one word from Mamma, nor from you. Perhaps you supposed I should have left New York before, the packet would arrive. I cannot account otherwise for your silence.
Mr. van Berkel, with whom I dined to day, begins to expect his Daughter: he has certain information that she sail'd, from Amsterdam, the 2d. of May, in a Dutch vessel. She has now been nearly 12 weeks out, and consequently it is almost time for her to arrive. It is observed that there is here now a Dutch vessel, that sailed from Amsterdam 3 days before the ship that returned lately from China, sailed from Canton, and arrived here three days after her.11 I Drank tea this afternoon with Mr. Secretary Thomson.
We were a dozen or 14 to day, who dined at General Knox's. He lives about 4 miles out of the City.12 The Virginia and Massachusetts delegations Mr. and Mrs. Smith, Lady Duer, a Daughter of Lord Stirling, Miss Sears, Mr. Church, Coll. Wadsworth and Mr. Osgood, form'd our Company. You know almost all these persons.13 Lady Duer is not young, nor handsome. I saw but little of her: not enough to say any thing concerning her. Miss Sears has been ill, and looks pale, but is very pretty. She has the reputation of being witty, and sharp. I am sure she does not look méchante.
{ 228 }
I am very impatient to hear from you. The french packet for June will soon he expected. I hope you will not neglect that, as you did the English one: especially, if Mr. Williamos comes out, in her. The Day before yesterday, Mr. Gerry moved in Congress, that, Mr. Dana's expences for a private Secretary, while he was in Russia, be allow'd him, and Congress resolved that those Expences should be paid.14
I have been strolling about the town, almost all day. The weather here, has been exceeding fine, all this Season: no extreme, heat; plenty of rain, and not too much. The Crops will be excellent, and if those in Europe, turn out as bad, as it was supposed they would when I came away, we may profit, very considerably, by ours. Fruit has not been so successful, as there has not been sufficient hot weather.
I dined with the Delegates of the State of Virginia; Mr. Arthur Lee, left this Town in the afternoon. He was this day chosen, by Congress, to be one of the commissioners of the Treasury. Mr. Osgood is now in Town; and does not find it an easy matter to get clear, from the Confusion in which the late financier left the office.15
I breakfasted with Mr. Söderstrom the Sweedish Consul,16 at Mr. Gerry's house. He arrived in town only a day or two ago, from Boston: all your friends there were well, when he left it. Dined at Mr. Ramsay's with a large Company. General Howe,17 Mr. Gardoqui, Mr. Randon, Miss Susan Livingston &c. Miss Livingston passes for very smart, sensible young Lady; she is very talkative, and a little superficial I think. I cannot say I admire her. Miss Marshall is very agreeable: I cannot help pitying her, when I am told she is about to marry, that swarthy Don.
At length after a passage of a little more than 12 weeks, Miss van Berkel, arrived two days ago at Philadelphia. Her father is gone to meet her. The young Ladies here are all very impatient to see her, and I dare say, that when she comes, remarks, and reflections, will not be spared on either side. The Beauties of this place, will triumph, but I hope with moderation.
{ 229 }
I have had a visit this morning from Dr. Crosby:18 he tells me he has received lately a letter from uncle Quincy, who was ill, almost all last winter, and is now only recovering. All the rest of our friends are well. The weather is much warmer than I have for many years been accustomed to: yet I hear every body say that there has been no hot weather this year. There is almost every day a morning, and an evening breeze, that are very refreshing, and temper agreeably the heat of the day.
I expect to stay here about a week longer: but I am not yet determined whether to go in a packet to Rhode Island, and from thence by Land; or to go all the way by land through Connecticut. In the heat of the Season, a Journey by land would be more disagreeable than a voyage by water, and it would certainly be longer: but I am very desirous to see the fine Country between this and Boston. And there are many persons that I wish to see too. Upon the whole I rather think I shall go, by Land. We are in a great dearth of news: nothing of any Consequence is going forward. The merchants complain very much that trade is continually dying away, and that no business is to be done.
The President had a large Company to dine with him: all gentlemen; he entertains three times a week, but never has any Ladies because he has none himself. His health is not in a very good <state> way, and I believe the Duties of his place, weary him much. He is obliged in this weather to sit at Congress from eleven in the morning, till near 4 afternoon, which is just the hottest, and most disagreeable part of the day. It was expected that Congress would adjourn during the dog days at least: but there is at present little appearance of it: they have so much business before them, that a recess, however short would leave them behind hand.
I went with Mr. Jarvis, a brother of the gentleman you know, to Jamaica, upon Long Island;19 12 miles from the town. We there had the pleasure of seeing Coll. Smith's mother and Sister's.20 I spent the day very agreeably. Mrs. Smith, has had Letters from her Son, since { 230 } he arrived in London, in which he mentions having already seen you all. I am really very impatient to hear from you. Your Brother
[signed] J. Q. Adams
RC (Adams Papers). The text is on eight pages, numbered, beginning with the second, “26” to “32.” See JQA to AA2, [12] May, descriptive note, above.
1. JQA had met François Barbé-Marbois in 1779; see JQA to JA, 3 Aug., note 6, below. In 1784 Barbé-Marbois married Elizabeth Moore, daughter of William Moore, a Philadelphia merchant and member of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania from 1779 to 1782 (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale; DAB).
2. Nathan Dane of Beverly, Mass., first elected to Congress in June 1785, served until 1788 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).
3. That is, JA.
4. Richard Henry Lee served as president of Congress from Nov. 1784 to Nov. 1785 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).
5. Gardoqui was the son of Joseph Gardoqui, the Bilbao merchant whom JA and JQA had met on their journey through Spain in Jan. 1780. He was received by Congress on 2 July, and served as the Spanish chargé d'affaires until 1789 (JCC, 29:494–496; JQA, Diary, 1:30–31, 289, and note 5).
6. That of 25 May, above. “Mr. Church” was the Englishman John Barker Church (see JQA, Diary, 1:310, and note 2).
7. JQA had met Mr. and Mrs. John Rucker in Paris in March (Diary, 1:233, and note 2). Ramsay was probably South Carolina congressman David Ramsay, one of the earliest historians of the American Revolution (DAB).
8. JQA first records meeting Pieter Johan van Berckel of Rotterdam in that city in May 1783, just before van Berckel sailed for America as the first Dutch minister to the United States. JQA next met van Berckel in New York on 18 July 1785 (Diary, 1:174, 289; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:135, note 1).
9. Rev. Samuel Mather, youngest son of Cotton Mather, his father's successor at the Second Church in Boston, and brother-in-law of Gov. Thomas Hutchinson, died on 27 June 1785, still estranged from his loyalist son Samuel, then a refugee in England (Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 7:216–238).
10. The letters sent after JQA left Auteuil were JA to John Jay, 13 May, 29 May, 30 May, and 1 June (all PCC, No. 84, V, f. 413–420, 437–439, 461–464, 465–466); see Jay to JA, 3 Aug. 1785 (Adams Papers). All appear in Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, 1:495–498; 2:345–346, 365–367, 373–376. The N.Y. merchant Samuel Curson, whom JA had met in Amsterdam in 1780, brought the letter of 29 May, and probably that of 30 May (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:450).
11. The Empress of China, returning from the first voyage by an American merchant ship to China, sailed from Canton on 28 Dec. 1784 and arrived in New York on 11 May 1785 (Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, The Empress of China, Phila., 1984, p. 201, 206).
12. In his Diary, JQA locates Knox's home “2 miles out of town” (Diary, 1:293).
13. The Virginia congressmen were William Grayson, Samuel Hardy, Richard Henry Lee, and James Monroe; the Massachusetts congressmen were Elbridge Gerry, Samuel Holten, and Rufus King. “Mr. and Mrs. Smith” were probably the N.Y. congressman Melancthon Smith (Biog. Dir. Cong.), and his wife. Catherine Alexander Duer, called “Lady Kitty,” was the daughter of Maj. Gen. William Alexander, who claimed the ancestral title of Lord Sterling; she had married the N.Y. merchant, financier, and congressman William Duer in 1779. Rebecca Sears was the daughter of the N.Y. merchant and popular leader Isaac Sears. Jeremiah Wadsworth of Connecticut had served as commissary general of the Continental Army, and of Rochambeau's forces. The former Mass. congressman Samuel Osgood was a commissioner of the U.S. Treasury (Burnett, ed., Letter of Members, 8:lxxxvii–lxxxviii; xcviii; DAB). AA2 had probably met several of the Massachusetts delegates, and perhaps Rebecca Sears, whose family lived in Boston, 1777–1783; the others she knew only by reputation, if at all.
14. JCC, 29:569–570.
15. Samuel Osgood had been highly critical of Robert Morris, the superintendent of finance, 1781–1784. In January 1785 Osgood was { 231 } appointed to the three-man treasury commission that replaced Morris (DAB).
16. Richard Söderström was the Swedish consul in Boston; JQA had met his brother Carl Soderstrom in Jan. 1783 in Göteborg, Sweden, on his return trip from Russia to Holland (Diary, 1:167, and note 1).
17. Robert Howe, commander of the Southern Department of the Continental Army, 1777–1778 (JQA, Diary, 1:290, and note 2).
18. Ebenezer Crosby, named professor of midwifery at Columbia College in 1785, was from Braintree (same, 1:295, and note 2).
19. Both Benjamin and Charles Jarvis accompanied JQA to Jamaica, L.I.; AA2 had met their brother James Jarvis in France in April (same, 1:254, 296; AA to Lucy Cranch, 7 May, above).
20. JQA met the recently widowed Margaret Stephens Smith and her many daughters, of whom he noted Sarah Smith as “handsome” in his Diary, and in his letter of 1 Aug., below. Sarah would marry CA in 1795. Diary, 1:296, and notes 1 and 2.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0076

Author: Cranch, Mary Smith
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
DateRange: 1785-07-19 - 1785-08-07

Mary Smith Cranch to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dear Sister

I have been waiting till I am out of all patience to hear that you are returnd to England. One or two vessels have sail'd for London without taking Letters for you. I did not know they were going till it was too late to write. I sent you a hasty line by Mr. Charles Bulfinch1 which I hope you receiv'd and to tell you the truth I have written you two letters Since, which I thought proper to commit to the Flames when I had done. There are many things which would do to be said, that it would not be prudent to commit to writing.2 We have been expecting Cousin John every day above a week past: There is a vessel in from France the capt. of whom says he Saild four days before him. I hope soon to welcome him to his native country. Tomorrow is commencment: our children are all gone to Boston to day, to be ready for an earley ride in the morning. Cousin Charles's Heart beats thick I dare say. His trial comes on next Friday. Billy says, he is exceedingly well fitted and has no need of any fears. Billy will look him a good room, and will give him all the Brotherly advice that he may need. He will have enough to spring upon him if he does not stand firm in the begining. He or you will repent it, if he does not. He shall not need any Friendly counsel that I will not give him. I will gain his Love and confidence if Possible. I shall then be sure of influence.
I have been very ill ever since I wrote the above, with a pain across my Breast. The Rhumtism the Doctor says. I am better but very weak. The children are returnd and a fine day they had. Mr. Shaw and Cousin Charles were there. He will return with his uncle and come next week if he is accepted, and there is no doubt but he will be. { 232 } Cousin John will be here I hope by that time. I am prepair'd to doat upon him. May nothing happen to interrupt the Harmony and happiness of our dear Boys. I am indeed happy at present in my children. From every thing that I can see and hear Billy behaves just as I could wish him too. Betsy is in Boston very attentive to her Harpsicord and is in better health than I have known her for many years. Lucy is at home affording her mama all the assistance she is able too, and if her Soul is not tuned to Harmony it is to Science. Had she been a Boy she would have been a Mathamatition. Billy plays prettily both upon the violin and Flute, and when he joins them to his Sisters instrument they form a Sound very agreable to the Ears of us who have not heard the finer musick of your opereas. Betsy wishes Cousin Nabby to learn the musick of France, that she may bring her home some new tunes.
Aunt Tufts is in a very poor way. Her Feet and ancles are much swell'd and turn purple and black and every dissagreable colour. You know she never could bear the Bark, and it seem now to be more than ever necessary for her. I am very much affraid of a mortification if She cannot take it.
Uncle Quincy was confin'd to his House from the 25th of November to the beginning of July With the Rhumatisim in his Hip. He is much better but not well. Our Germantown Friends are all of them in a poor weak State. The general himself very feeble. Cousin Betsy is better but her cough is still troublesome. Miss Paine is very spry, can dress and undress very well, has spent a week or two with me lately, is now at Germantown but next week goes to her Brothers for a home as she supposes.
As to Mr. Palmers Family Mr. Tyler must give you an account of them. He knows more about them than any one else.3 Madam Quincy and Miss Nancy are well. Miss Nancys fortune has not yet procur'd her a Husband. Mrs. Quincy desires to [be] most affectionately remember'd to you. Mrs. Guild has spent a week with her little Boy at Braintree. She is not well by any means, but looks chearful and behaves exceeding well under her dissapointment. She has sold all the Furniture of her best room and chamber and remov'd into that end of a House which Miss H. Otis liv'd in. What a reverse of Fortune in one year! Mr. Guild looks as if he was going into the Grave soon. His pale Face is paler than ever. His countenance excites pity from every eye. No alteration has taken place in your Neighbourhood that I know of. Mr. Adams Family are well, your mother Hall is upon a visit at Abington. She was here a few days since and was well. Turtius { 233 } Bass and wife are parted. He has sold the House and land which his Sons liv'd in and divided his Estate into four parts, given his wife one fourth part, one half to his two Sons. The remainder he has taken to support himself and Nell Underwood in their Perigrinations to the Eastward whither he is going he says to settle. And as he is going into a new country, tis proper he should take a young person to help People it, and her abbillity to do it She has given ample proof off by presenting somebody (she swore them upon Leonard Clevverly) with a pair of Twins last winter. She liv'd in Mr. Bass's Family—but as they both dy'd she was at Liberty to pursue her Business as Housekeeper in some distant part of the State as well as at Braintree, and who would be Maid when they might be mistress? Mr. Bass was so generious to the Girl, that he keept her in his house to lay in, and gave Mr. Tyler a handsome Fee as Counsel for her in case Mr. Cleaverly should deny the charge which he did most solemnly. In this case the woman has the advantage in law. He was oblig'd to enter into Bonds, but the children dying, and Mr. Tyler not appearing, he took up his bonds and Mr. Bass was oblig'd to bear all the charges. Mrs. Bass is in great trouble. Seth is mov'd into the House with her, and the other Son with his wife and child are mov'd seventy mile into the country out of all the noise of it—so much for Scandle.
Capn. Baxter is married to Mrs. Arnold and is gone to live in her House. Mrs. Arnolds eldest Son is married to Deacon Adams eldest Daughter4 and lives in the House that Mr. Bass sold. Our Parson visits us as usual, but forgot this year that it was Election day till it was half gone. He ought to have had his grandchildren about him beging for coppers to bye them an election cake.5
I once mention'd to you a clergemans Family who were in our House at Weymouth. He has a Son almost eighteen, who tho he is a portrait Painter has not sacrificed much to the Graces.6 He made several attempts to take the Face of our cousin Lucy Jones, but could never acquire stediness enough in his hands to do it. In short her fine Form had made such an impression upon his mind and Lucy all-together had taken such possestion of his Soul, that when he endeavourd to decribe a single feature he found it impossible. The tremor was communicated to his Tongue and his speech also fail'd him. Poor youth what would he have done if it had not been for the blessed invention of Letters, by which <medium> he could pour out all his soul and save his Blushes—but alass this was only to insure his dispair, for she treated them with such neglect and contempt that it almost depriv'd him of his reason. In the silent watches of the night, { 234 } when the Moon in full orb'd Majisty had reach'd her nocturnal height, He left his Bed and upon the cold ground told her his tale of woe, in accents loud and wild as wind.—Forgive the Stile my dear sister. No common one would do to relate this extraordinary affair in. It has caused us much amusement. They are both so young they did not know how to manage the matter. He all Passion. She full of Coquettry and at present without any kind of attachment to him is playing round the Flame without any aprehension of danger. There are some symptoms however of either Vanity or Love that make their appearence. She dresses more than usual and parades before the windows opposite to those he sets at. The other day she dress'd herself in white and walk'd into Capn. Whitmans Coppes set herself upon a rock under a fine spreading oak and was excited by the melody of a variety of Birds that were perch'd upon almost every bough, to add her note to theirs. The sighing swain was raking Hay at a little distance. The pleasing sound soon reach'd his ears. He left his Rake and pursu'd it, and (she says) was close by her before she perciev'd him but she like a nimble-footed Dauphne was out of his sight in a moment and was as pale aunt says when she enter'd the House as if she had been pursu'd by a snake.
I give you joy my dear sister. Cousin John I hear is arriv'd at New York after a Passage of 56 days. He will be with us soon I hope. Mr. Cranch sent me word of it last monday. The same day he found a Letter from you to me in the Post-office.7 I find by it that a Mr. Chaumont brought it, but I cannot hear that he is in Boston. I am mortified that you are still in France. What is become of Mr. Adams commission for the court of London. I wish you were at home every soul of you. I fear your expences must have been greatly increas'd by the dryness of the season. Our news Papers say you have had almost a Famine in Europe occationd by it. Here we never saw a finer season. The best of English Hay has been sold in Boston for two shilling a hundred and some as low as one and four pence. Meat is high, but vegetables very plenty. We have fine crops of english grain, and the Indian looks finely. Your Gardens yeald plentifully. Your sable Tenants8 almost maintain themselves by selling the produce of them. Betsy is return'd to spend the Dog-days with us. Will go again in the Fall to take a few more Lessons. Billy has tun'd the old Spinnet at home, by which means she will not loose any time.
{ 235 }
Betsy and Lucy spent a forenoon this week over-looking the things at your House and picking out furniture for master Charles chamber, who is become a student at Harvard college.9 He is hear and very well. Mr. Shaw offer'd another schooler, who is a very cleaver Fellow and is to be his chambermate.10 I could have wish'd the two Brothers might have liv'd together. Upon some accounts it would be less expencive. Cousin John comes I dare say impress'd with a sense of the importance of eocomimy. I have been telling Cousin Charles He must begin right, and that his Papas Station in Life will subject him to many inconvenincs if he is not upon his Guard. I have consulted with Doctor Tufts in every thing that I have done with regard to the children and shall continue to do so. I have pursued that plan you mention with regard to money matters11 already as I thought it would be the simplest, and be assur'd my dear Sister so far as I am capable I will do every thing in my Power to supply, the place of a mama to them. I hope to gain their confidence and esteem. They feel like my own children and if I can but gain as much of their Love as you have of my childrens I shall feel very happy.
As soon as Cousin John comes I will write more with regard to him. I hope to have many Letters by him. I do not suppose that our April Pacquet reach'd you before he imbark'd. I wish it might have done so for many reasons. The letters for him will not be half so acceptable to him here as if he had reciev'd them in France.12
Aunt Tufts remains very Ill. The Doctor seems quite discourag'd about her. Her Legs and Feet grow worse. She is in great pain and wasts fast. I fear she will not continue thro the Dog-days. Tis true she bears the Bark but she has such a constitution as I think cannot hold out long unless she is suddenly reliev'd.
Old Mrs. Tullur dy'd about six weeks ago very suddenly. Was well in the morning and dead before night, and this afternoon Fanny Nash is bury'd. She has been in a consumtion all winter.
I have just heard of Mr. Adams presentment at the court of London. Mr. Cranch writes me that he has seen an account of your arrival in England. He saw it in a [New] York paper. Cousin John is not yet got to town. What is he doing with himself? He does not know that every moment seems an hour till he arrives. Charles and Billy are here waiting with impatience. I feel as if you were half way home at least. I shall now be able to write oftner and with greater Freedom. { 236 } England must I think be more agreable to you than France for many reasons. Your being able to converse will be a great addition to your Happiness and seeing so many of your old acquaintance and Friends will make you feel as if you was half an american at least, but are you not almost sick of Parade? To have been made happy by show and equipage your mind should have been less cultivated, and yet tis only to such, that these things can do no harm. A Scientific mind, will be pleas'd only with their novelty and the useful observations it helps them to make upon Men and Manners.——But this Embassa of three years—what shall I say to it? Will it be necessary that you should stay so long. Cannot the Business be compleated before that time. How does cousin Nabby like the Idea. She would not wish to come without you I dare say, unless every thing here was fit to receive her. Money is very hard to be got where it is due, and where there is the greatest attention and puntiallity in business what is procur'd by it, must be very prudently us'd or it Will not buy Farms and Houses, repair them Handsomely, and maintain a Family genteelly. You conclude your last Letter by saying that “you hope——is very busy and to great purpose.”13 I hope soo too, but I know very little about him for he is very seldom in Braintree and when he is, very little at home. He has attended the courts in Boston the last winter and this summer, and does not come home till the Sessions are over.
Mrs. Hunt is here and desirs I would give her most affectionate Love to you, and beg you to come home for she longs to see you and that she cannot bear to pass by your House. She visits us often and is better than for years back. She works forever, has spun and knit above eighty pair of stockings since you went away.
You mention Mr. Adams's having receiv'd a Letter from the Amsterdam merchants, complaining that they had receiv'd no accounts of the sales of their goods.14 I forgot to write about it in my Spring Letters. Mr. Cranch wrote them last winter a state of their merchandize such as what goods remain'd unsold, and the custom of giving six months credit. The Difficulty of selling for ready money, and the danger of trusting The Bill of Sale he could not then send because Mr. Austen who you know had the care of dispossing of them had remov'd to Casco-Bay in the beginning of the winter, and by accident carried all the Papers with him, and the season was so severe that we never could get them till this spring, when he came up and brought them himself. Mr. Cranch has put what remain'd unsold into the Hands of Mr. Greenlief & Foster Vendae Master, to be dispos'd { 237 } of at private Sale in the best manner they can. Mr. Cranch has had a great deal of trouble with them. Most of them were very unsalable articles, and too high charg'd for the inundation of Goods that were soon roled in after the peace upon the country.
Cousin John not come yet. I hear there is a vessel to Sale in ten days for London. If I keep writing I shall swell my Letter too a volume, for I am continually thinking of something which I want to communicate. I cannot bear to seal my Letter till I have seen my cousin, and yet I fear if I do not send it to town the vessel will slip away without it.
It is just as I fear'd. I hear a vessel sal'd for England this morning, and I was told she would not go this week. Cousin John not yet come. Several People are come from [New] York who have seen him, and say he will be here in a few days. You may easily judge how impatient I am, but I am determin'd to wait no longer, but send this to be put into the Bag and write again if he should come before the next chance.
Aunt Tufts sinks fast. She has had a Dissentery, which tho it has abated has wasted her much. Her Feet and ancles are very bad, all manner of colours, much swelld and very painful. I have seen the last Week. You would scarcly know her. She appears calm and resign'd, has no expectation of Living. She will be a great gainer by the exchange for she is indeed a very good woman. The poor will loose a great benefactor. Her Family also will feel her loose for tho she could not do much she look'd well to her household. Lucy will a second time loose a mama,15 and she seems very sensible of it. O my sister one more removal and Weymouth will loose all its charms. Every Freind departed makes me wish more for your return. Three years is a great while to look forward too. Many very many may be the changes that may take place before that period arrives. I dare not trust myself with the thought. Resignation to the will of Heaven is what I am constantly seeking after. I have been very unwell myself for above a month but I hope I am geting the better of my dissorder. I am weak yet the Feverishness has not left me, but salt of wormwood which I take every two or three days will I hope kill it.
Cousin Charles is in fine Health and spirits, and rejoices over and { 238 } feasts as heartily upon a large Whorttle Berry Pudding as you can at any of your great entertainments. Would not a Dish of Green Corn relish &c. be acceptable to you? We are all Busy fixing your Son for college. The piece of Linnin which I got for them made seven shirts for Charls and four for Tom.
Miss Paine desires I would not forget her Love to you all.
I depend upon it that you will not expose my writing to any one not even to my dear Brother, to whom present my Love and best wishes and tell him tis a sad world we live in and that the more merit he has, the better mark he will be for Envy to shoot at—but she cannot sting him.
Charles Warren yet Lives, but look like death. He is planing a voyage to Lisbon, he thinks he cannot stand our cold winters. I do not beleive he will live to reach it. Mrs. Warren is much destress'd to know what to consent too.–Did you ever find her Letters which you thought you had lost. She thinks you have. Do not forget to tell me.
The distresses of our Germantown Friends will never have an end. Last week Tom Feild cut his Back and Shouldar in a dreadful manner with a scythe. The wound is two feet long and very deep in some places. The Doctor put fourteen stiches in it. He has lost a great deal of Blood, but is in a good way, and unless a Fever should set in, will tis thought do well.
Adieu my dear Sister and believe me your ever affectionate

[salute] Love to cousin Nabby.

[signed] M. Cranch
1. Mary Cranch to AA, 4 June, sent with Richard Cranch to JA, 3 June, both above.
2. Cranch may refer to her growing concern about Royall Tyler. See below in this letter, her letter to AA of 4 June, above, and several of her letters of October-December, below; and AA to Mary Cranch, 15 Aug., below.
3. By 1785, Royall Tyler had become a close friend of Gen. Joseph Palmer's son, Joseph Pearse Palmer, and his family, and lodged with them in Boston. By the late 1780s he was helping to support the financially ruined family, and in 1794 he married Palmer's daughter Mary. G. Thomas Tanselle, Royall Tyler, Cambridge, 1967, p. 19, 24–29.
4. Mehitable Adams, eldest daughter of JA's double first cousin, Ebenezer Adams, married Joseph Neale Arnold on 16 June (A. N. Adams, Geneal. Hist. of Henry Adams of Braintree, p. 410).
5. If by “Our Parson,” Mary Cranch means Rev. Anthony Wibird, her image must be ironic, for Wibird never married (Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 12:226–230).
6. The artist John Hazlitt was the eldest son of William Hazlitt. Lucy Jones, just shy of seventeen, was the daughter of Cotton Tufts' sister, Anna Tufts Jones. In 1787 John Hazlitt, unmarried, returned to England with his family. The Journal of Margaret Hazlitt, ed. Ernest J. Moyne, Lawrence, Kansas, 1967, p. 15–20; Mary Cranch to AA, 6 Nov. 1784, note 3, above.
{ 239 }
7. AA to Mary Cranch, 15 April, above.
8. Phoebe and William Abdee.
9. CA's printed admission form to Harvard College, dated 17 Aug., is in the Adams Papers.
10. Samuel Walker.
11. AA to Mary Cranch, 15 April, above; see the account in Cotton Tufts to JA, 10 Aug., below.
12. Mary and Elizabeth Cranches' letters to AA of 25 April, both above, and presumably other letters of about the same date, did not reach the Adamses until late June (see AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, above). No letters from America to JQA, written in the spring of 1785, have been found.
13. AA to Mary Cranch, 15 April, above, referring to Royall Tyler.
14. See Richard Cranch to JA, 3 June, and AA to Mary Cranch, 7 Jan., and note 4, both above.
15. Probably Lucy Quincy Tufts' niece, Lucy Tufts Hall, daughter of Dr. Cotton Tufts' brother, Dr. Simon Tufts of Medford. Niece Lucy's mother, Lucy Dudley Tufts, had died in 1768. Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 11:478–481.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0077

Author: Williamos, Charles
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-07-21

Charles Williamos to Abigail Adams

It is with much pleasure my dear Madam that I hear of your safe arrival in London and that you are once more fixed in a house of your own, the situation of which altho' not quite so pleasant as Auteuill is not without much merit.
Whatever base rancour and malice may invent, I am very sure that you will on all occasions meet with every Mark of respect which are every ways your due.1 Yet I do not suppose, that the Court Notwithstanding its politeness will be very often graced with your and Miss Adams's Company.
Paris is not the livelier I can assure you Madam since you left it. Passy is deserted also—and we have accounts of the doctor's very safe arrival at Rouen from whence he was to proceed immediately to Havre—the King sent him his Picture most elegantely set in diamonds of great value, with two very polite letters from Count de Vergennes.
The peculiar honor and satisfaction I had in opportunities of paying my very Sincere respects to Mr. Adams yourself and family will ever be recollected as one of the most agreable events of my life and I shall never think myself happier than in opportunities to renew it. I am very sorry to have failed hitherto in every attempt to send your things. I went to Mr. Hailes's who desired his best respects and assured me it was out of his power to forward any thing larger than a packet of letters as the messenger goes no further than Calais where the master of the British packet takes charge of the letters.
This I communicated to Mrs. Barclay who agreed in thinking it best to wait for Doctor Bancroft who is to go in 8 or ten days but if an opportunity offers sooner we [will?] not fail to improve it. Mr. { 240 } Harison t[akes?][c]harge of the lace by which means there are only gowns. Mr. Storer has some books with a Mr. Graff but Mr. Barclay thinks that as he is going to America they had better be sent there to him than trouble any one with them.
Mr. Jefferson and the other Gentlemen are very well. Col. Humphreys has wrote to Col. Smith. The June Packet is arrived but not all the letters. I am still waiting for a better opportunity than by L'orient, but fear much that I shall be obliged to take that rout.2 Whenever I go and where ever I am I shall allways retain sentiments of highest respect and ever be Madam your most obedient devoted servant
[signed] C. Williamos
Be Kind enough to present my best respects to Mr. and Miss Adams.3
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “Mrs. Adams Grosvenor Square London”; docketed: “Mr Williamos Paris June 27 1785”; stamped: “[J]Y/25,” “2 o'clock,” and, in red ink, “A PAYE PAR.” AA's erroneous docketing may have been an inadvertent repetition of her docketing of the 27 June letter from Williamos, above. This letter was filmed at 27 July, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 365. Some loss of text where the seal was torn off.
1. Williamos refers to AA's remark about “torry Malevolence” in the London press, in her letter of 1 July, above. He may have been particularly sympathetic to the Adams' plight at this time because of “the atrocious falshoods which have too Successfully been attempted by the lowest and most infernal Malice,” which, he claimed, had suddenly turned Thomas Jefferson against him just two weeks before the date of this letter (Williamos to Jefferson, 8 July, in Jefferson, Papers, 8:275, and see P. 269–273, 276–277).
2. Williamos had been planning to sail to America since February, but various complications, including his sudden falling out with Jefferson on 7 July, and eventually his ill health, delayed him, and he died in Paris in November (Jefferson to AA, 20 Nov., below; Claude-Anne Lopez and Eugenia W. Herbert, The Private Franklin, N.Y., 1975, p. 280).
3. This sentence was written along the left margin of the last page of text.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0078

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Cranch, Mary Smith
DateRange: 1785-07 - 1785-08

Abigail Adams to Mary Smith Cranch?

[salute] My dear sister

I wrote you by Captain Dashood just when I was about removeing from the Bath Hotel to Grovsnor Square,1 since which I have had a buisy time getting my House in order and procuring a thousand little necessaries for different countries have different fashions and what suits in one will not answer in an other. For instanc my kitchen furniture was made for a hearth fire none of which could be used with grates and then the coars ware belonging to a family is never worth a remove so that I found I had many things to purchase.
{ 241 }
Then the great and important article of servants was to be arranged. Of Ester I made what is here calld Ladies Maid, her Buisness is more imediately about my person. She always dresses my Hair and your neices and is a great proficient in that most important Buisness. She take care of all the Linnen, delivers it out and receives it in. The remainder of her time is employded at her needle. The person who works with her is the Buttler. His Buisness is to take care of the wine, to market for the family, to keep the weekly accounts, to see the table and side Board in order to attend as overseer of the table, to take care of the Plate and to have a general care of the lower servants. He is allways calld Mr. I hope we have been fortunate in the choise of ours. He appears a very civil well bred Man. The House maid is next. She makes beds cleans the house taking it from the top of the kitchen stairs and going up. The two footmen2 go behind the carriage wait at table rub the table and chairs of the dining room and attend the door, for there is no entrance into a house in this Country but by wrapping or ringing a Bell which is with out side the door. No door is permitted one moment to be left open, you could have no security for any thing within, if it was. The cook is next in order who prepares the victuals and the kitchen maid takes the House from the kitchen stairs and goes down to the kitchen pantrys, housekeepers room, Buttlers room and servants Hall as it is calld. She washes dishes, cleans knives and candle sticks &c. &c. The coachmans buisness is to take care of his carriage and horses.
You will think I suppose that I have got a comfortable number, but with less I could not get the necessary buisness of the family done, not because there are not more than sufficient, but because none of them will do any thing but in their particular department. A House keeper a Laundry Maid and a Porter are 3 more which they would be very glad that I would add, but I am determined against it, as I cannot but think 3 Americans would do the whole work of the Eight and think they had no hard task. The work of the family here is by no means so much as Mrs. Newcomb has herself done in my family at Braintree for my washing is all put out, and we have no company to sup. But in a country crowded with inhabitant they get as many of their poor supported in this way as possible and every news paper is filld “with wants a place.” Yet are the wages of those who are good for any thing very high. So far from feeling myself in a more desirable situation than when I moved in the small sphere of my <lowly> Braintree Cottage, I assure you I look to it as an envyable situation. { 242 } Fewer cares and less anxiety attended my rising up and sitting down, my Friends all smiled upon me and met a hearty welcome under the lowly roof.
My Habitation here is in one of the pleasentest squares of London. We are in the same Row if not in the same Box of most of the great people in this Country, opposite however to Lord North. A near Neighbour to Lord Thurlow and the Marquis of Carmarthan. Yet the street as well as city is quite deserted, for nobody lives here in the summer who can go into the country. In the middle of the square which is very spacious is a circuleer inclosure in which clumps of trees are planted which look like shubbery as the trees are small and close together. Round them is the hedge which when cut has a very rural appearence. In the middle is the King on horse back. The whole is laid out into walks and those who live in the square have a key to one of the gates which you may make use of for to walk.
Dft (Adams Papers). The text fills two pages of a folded leaf; it has little punctuation and no paragraph breaks. It is likely that Mary Cranch, not Elizabeth Shaw, was the intended recipient (see note 1). The editors have added paragraph breaks and some punctuation.
1. AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, above, is the only extant letter that fits this description.
2. John Briesler was one of the footmen.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0079

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
DateRange: 1785-08-01 - 1785-08-08

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams 2d

In my last1 I just mentioned having been over upon Long Island, and paid a visit to Mrs. Smith, the Colls.s Mother: she was very polite to me, and appeared to miss her Son, much. All the family are in mourning for the old gentleman who died about 9 months ago. There is one Son here now, and if I mistake not, 6 daughters. Sally strikes most at first sight: she is tall; has a very fine shape, and a vast deal of vivacity in her eyes, which are of a light blue; she has the ease and elegance of a French Lady, without their loquacity. Her conversation I am told is as pleasing as her figure: but of that I only speak, from hearsay.—There is also on this island a celebrated beauty by the name of Miss Ogden: she looks I think, something like Mrs. Bingham: she is not so tall, nor so red, although I believe she has more colour.
{ 243 }
I have been writing a letter to your Pappa;2 but it is full of politics. I don't know whether he will not think I meddle too much with them: but there are some things he may wish to be inform'd of, and at many places where I go into company I hear nothing else: so that I am obliged bongré, malgré, as the french say, still to dip a little in that subject: but I don't care how soon, I leave it off entirely. Mr. Church goes on Thursday.
I dined to day with Doctor Crosby, who came the other day, as soon as he knew I was in town, to see me. I imagine he thinks me a very cerimonious being: for, the day that he first saw me, he ask'd me to drink tea with him that afternoon. I promised I would: but I happened to dine in a Company where I was kept till it was too late, to wait upon the Doctor. The next day I went to his house to make an apology, but he was not at home: and yesterday I received a card containing a most formal invitation to dine to day. I find it a very nice matter here, to take a just medium between Ceremony and ease. If a person is formal he is laugh'd at, and if otherwise he often offends. It is exactly the fable of the miller and his Son.
I have been spending the evening with Mr. Gerry and Mr. King. Mr. Gerry writes to your Pappa, by Mr. Church who is to sail to morrow morning, and to whom I have given 2 letters for you; and one for your Pappa.3 I have not been able to find time for writing to Mamma. You will present my duty to her, and make an apology for me.
I was shown this evening a poem in manuscript, called a receipt for a wife: it is a catalogue of the celebrated beauties in this town, abusing some, and commending others. I would send you a Copy of it, but it is really such a pitiful performance, that it would not probably furnish you any entertainment. I am told of another piece in the same way; if I find it better I will give you some extracts from it, in case I can get a copy of it.
Mr. Church sail'd in the Packet this morning with my letters: they will show you that I have not been forgetful of my promises. I dined4 with a large Company at Mr. Osgood's. I was introduced this morning to a Miss Riché5 lately arrived from Philadelphia; and was this evening in Company with her at Mr. Sears's. She is a great beauty, but { 244 } if I mistake not has a good deal of Affectation. She sings, plays upon the harpsichord, and writes songs herself: consequently she must be witty; but she is affected.—The Miss Sears's, you know I believe. Polly was married last spring to Mr. Bordieu. Sally, some say, is soon to be married to a Mr. Gamble; but fame has not yet disposed of Becca, the prettiest of them all.
I have got a Copy of the poem I yesterday talk'd of. It speaks of Miss Becca as follows.

If Becca would but learn to walk

And not be so afraid to talk

With greater lustre she would shine

In other eyes as well as mine.

Praise her for elegance of form

Which would the coldest marble warm

Praise her for sprightliness of wit,

Her Character you'll justly hit.

She's tender, virtuous and mild

But walks, as if she was a child.

You know, that part of our agreement is to give each other our opinion upon Characters; but I trust you will allow me to quote from other People, especially, when it is in verse. I am told the author of this piece is partial, in favour of Miss Sears when he says she is witty: as she is not much celebrated as a wit. Of this I cannot decide, for although I have been several times in Company with her, I don't know that four words have ever pass'd between us.
The President6 has a large Company of 20, or 25 persons to dine with him, three times a week: but as he has no Lady himself, he entertains none but gentlemen. Once a week, he has a musical Entertainment, as it is here called, that is, he invites a number of persons among his Company, that sing songs after dinner, and, there was one to day. Among the singers the most curious was Genl. Howe, of whom you have often heard. He is you know not less famous for cracking the bottle, than for singing a song. Being requested to day to sing, he endeavoured once or twice to begin but found something wanting. At last he cried out, “give me that Madeira to revive me, for I have been flattening my voice by drinking Burgundy.” And after drinking his glass he sung, “Once the gods of the greeks,” very well.
I went this Evening, with the President to a Mr. Eccles's. Miss { 245 } Eccles, is the most perfect at the harpsichord, of any Lady in the City, or perhaps on the Continent. I must again quote from the same poem, which speaks of this Lady thus.

Miss Eccles now my lay commands,

Her mind harmonious as her hands.

Six hours in every twenty four

For nine revolving years or more

(Some rigid moralist may say)

Is too much time to spend at play.

I own the observation true,

But still admire the music too

For he that hears her must forget

The time she lost in learning it.

I am sure my Sister would never agree to purchase perfection in the art of music upon such conditions, and I should be very sorry if she would.
Young Chaumont, who has been at Philadelphia, almost all the time since he arrived, return'd here a few days since, and is going shortly to Boston. Perhaps we shall go both at the same time. When he first arrived here he presented a memorial to Congress, requesting that, they would order all the paper money, which french merchants had received in the course of the war, or which now lies in their hands, to be paid in hard money, dollar for dollar.7 This will surprise you probably as much as it did every body on this side the water. Yet Chaumont really presented his memorial with hopes of succeeding. Congress have not given any answer, and he begins to think that the plan will not take. He tells me he will show me his memorial, and says, I shall then own that his pretensions, are absolutely just, and equitable.
I attended Church this morning at St. Paul's, for we have a St. Paul's here, as well as you in London, but it is something like Alexander the great, and Alexander the Copper smith.8 This is however the largest and most frequented Church in [New] York, and is more consistent with the smallness of the City than it would be if it vied in grandeur and magnificence with its namesake in London. After Church I left a card at Miss van Berkel's; she arrived here two { 246 } days ago, from Philadelphia. She had a passage of 13 weeks (in a Dutch vessel) and yet her brother, who had been informed of the time of her sailing, by the arrival of other vessels; told me, that she arrived before he expected her.—I paid a visit too this forenoon to Miss Alsop. Her father is acquainted with our's.9 She is called a Coquet.

Why is not Alsop often told

That coquetry is grown quite old?

That nothing is more out of date

Than affectation, and conceit?

The eye half shut, the dimpled cheek

And languid look, are arts too weak,

To win the heart of any youth,

Who loves simplicity and truth.

These lines have not however cured her of her fault: for the 5th. and 6th. are an exact description of her appearance, as it was to day, and I am told she is always so. She is fair, and pretty, but injures her appearance much by those simpering airs.
I was at a party at tea this afternoon, and Miss van Berkel was present. There were only two or three persons in Company that could speak to her, so, I was obliged to converse with her, near two hours together. And here I must tell you, that I believe more and more firmly, that what a certain Friend of mine said of her, is a most infamous falsehood. She behaves as well, as any young lady I know of, and I believe if her brother knew what that coxcomb said of her, he would make him repent it heartily. She complains of not understanding the language, as bitterly, as you did when you first arrived in France. She says she had no idea, how awkward one appears in a large company, where one can neither hear what is said nor speak one's self. You have had sufficient proofs of the truth of this observation: tho' you was not often subjected to the inconvenience.
I went out this morning with some Company to Content, a seat, about 3 miles out of town, where Lady Wheate lives. She is one of the most celebrated belles in the City. As for Sense, her conduct has shewn her not overstock'd with that. About two years ago she married Sir Jacob Wheate, a british officer between 60 and 70 years old; she herself was not 16. Sir Jacob before he had been married a week, went to the West Indies and there died. He left her an handsome { 247 } fortune; and it is said she is now soon to marry a Captain Cochran, son to Lord Dundonald, a scotch Nobleman. The author of the aforesaid Satirical poem appears quite enraged in speaking of her.

If Wheate should live till she be old

She will not marry then for gold

When Nature took such special care

To form her so divinely fair

She gave her not those matchless charms

To bless a dotard's gouty arms.

“A title, and a vast Estate

May purchase love, and conquer hate.”

The person may be bought I own

But barter'd love was never known.

The girl that weds for money's sake

A titled fool a batter'd rake

Deserves as much a bad renown

As any woman of the town.

This is carrying the matter too far: though I cant say I admire any person who makes fortune the only object in marriage. Miss S. Smith was with Lady Wheate, and has spent about a week at Content. I am vastly pleased with this Lady. The contrast between her manners and those of Lady Wheate is highly in her favour, and very striking.
I dined to day in Company with Genl. Greene, at the president's. He arrived in town only a few days since, and he will make but a short stay, here. He is going to settle I am told, in Georgia, where he has a very large landed Estate.
My Paper bids me close, but I take my leave of you only till tomorrow. Mean time I am as ever, your's.
[signed] J. Q. Adams
RC (Adams Papers). The text is written on eight small pages, numbered from “33” to “40”; see the descriptive note to JQA to AA2, [12] May, above.
1. Of 17 July, above.
2. Of 3 Aug., below.
3. Gerry's letter of 3 Aug. is in the Adams Papers. JQA's two letters to AA2 were of 25 May, and 17 July, both above; his letter to JA is identified in note 2.
4. The word is written over and illegible; JQA wrote “Dined” in his Diary (Diary, 1:297).
5. On Miss Riché, and on Miss Eccles (under 5 Aug., below), see same, 1:297–298, 299, 300.
6. Of Congress, Richard Henry Lee.
7. On 30 June, Congress appointed a committee to consider “the letter of June 30 from the Secretary for Foreign Affairs on the letter of June 14 from [the French chargé] Barbé Marbois and a memorial from James Le Ray de Chaumont acting for French creditors” (JCC, 28:489). This committee was discharged on 7 July, and the matter was referred to the Treasury Board. On 30 July, the Board completed a report on the general issue of financial obligations to French cred• { 248 } itors, in response to the memorials of Barbé Marbois. Concerning Chaumont's memorial, the Board simply referred it to Congress' general decision on the issue of obligations. John Jay presented the Board's report to Congress on 2 August; Congress took no action on Chaumont's memorial. JCC, 29:517, 598–606.
8. St. Paul's Church, on the west side of Broadway between Partition and Vesey streets, a few blocks south of the present City Hall, was built in 1764–1765 (I. N. Phelps Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498–1909, 6 vols., N.Y., 1915–1928, repr. 1967, 1:331, 415–416, and plate 54b). Alexander the Coppersmith was an opponent of the Apostle Paul at Ephesis. He is mentioned in only two verses of Scripture, and nowhere else (2 Timothy 4:14–15, although 1 Timothy 1:19–20, and Acts 19:33, may refer to him).
9. Mary Alsop was the daughter of the N.Y. merchant John Alsop, a member of the First Continental Congress whom JA had met in New York in Aug. 1774. Mary Alsop married Rufus King in 1786. JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:98, 106; JQA, Diary, 1:297, note 2.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0080

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1785-08-03

John Quincy Adams to John Adams

[salute] Dear Sir

Mr. Church proposes to embark on board the british Packet, which is to sail to-morrow. He has offered to take my Letters, and I suppose, he will be the bearer of dispatches from Congress.—Our Passage, though it was not a stormy one, was very tedious. Of eight weeks, that we were at Sea, we had at least four of such calm weather as not to proceed more than 8 or 10 leagues a day. As we were coming up the River, we met the other Packet, which was sailing for France. I had only time to write a Line, and inform you of my arrival:1 I hope she has by this time performed a large part of her voyage, and that three weeks hence, you will receive my Letter. I shall remain here some days longer than I expected, when I left you; as it was too late when I arrived here, for me to be at Boston before Commencement, I thought there was less necessity of my being in haste to go. The President has been polite to me, even beyond what I could have expected; he has given me an apartment in his House, where I have been these ten days. Mr. Jay was so kind before I came here to make me the same offer.
The Politicians here, wait with great impatience to hear from you. Matters seem to be at a Crisis. The British instead of delivering up the Posts, have lately sent there a reinforcement of troops. I have heard from merchants here, that the fur trade from which we are thus precluded, by an open breach of the Treaty of Peace, is worth annually 50,000 pounds Sterling.2 This may be overrated; but the reluctance the British <shew> to leave the Posts, is sufficient proof that it is an important object. It is supposed that your next Letters, will give information on the Subject, and let us know what is to be depended upon.
{ 249 }
The Duties laid on imported goods, by many of the States, and the prohibition of all English vessels in Massachusetts, are another subject of much Conversation. Merchants, who often adopt the proverb, that Charity begins at home, endeavour to demonstrate that the Country will suffer very much, by these regulations. They say that all foreign nations, will be discouraged from bringing us any goods while, they are encumbered with such heavy imposts; and if we go for them ourselves, they will sell them only for money, which we have not. Many of them are still very much afraid of Great Britain: they dread a war; and in case she be not able to carry one on, they tremble lest she should shut her ports upon us and stop our trade with her West India Islands. They <say> own that those Islands cannot subsist without us, but they think we could not hold out, if we had no market to carry our productions to, so long as they could without them. You will easily see that this is the reasoning of a merchant who fears present Losses, and does not consider future advantages. Fortunately the Spirit of the People is different, and I doubt not, in Case Great Britain should persist in her present Conduct, sufficient firmness will be shown, on this side the water. The State of Massachusetts have already prohibited all british vessels to come in their Ports. A frigate appeared since the act was pass'd, but was not suffered to enter.3—The States have not yet given to Congress the power of regulating their trade: but it is almost universally considered here, a necessary measure. The President of Congress is however much against it. He has written you by this opportunity, and perhaps he has given you his opinion upon the subject.4
You doubtless know before this, that Mr. Bowdoin, was elected governor of Massachusetts, at the last election, in the place of Mr. Hancock, who was chosen Member of Congress for the next Session. The parties shew some rancour and acrimony at the Time, but since the Election, every thing has subsided, and the present governor is very popular. It is generally supposed here; that Mr. Hancock, will next year be seated in the chair of Congress. I don't know however, whether he has accepted the appointment.5
Mr. Osgood, Mr. Walter Livingston, and Mr. Arthur Lee, are the Commissioners of the Treasury. Mr. Lee was chosen a few days since: and has accepted. The board could not be composed of persons more universally respected.
Mr. de Marbois it is said will in a short time leave America; and Mr. Otto, formerly, a secretary to the Chevalier de la Luzerne, is to succeed him: I believe he will not regret this Country: nor do I think { 250 } he will be much regretted himself. The Chevalier is supposed to be much more friendly to the Country, and is much more respected here. Many persons wonder why a Minister is not sent from the Court of France.6
After reading this Letter, you will perhaps think I had better be at my Studies, and give you an account of their progress, than say so much upon politics. But while I am in this place I hear of nothing but politics. When I get home I shall trouble my head very little about them. I propose leaving this next monday the 8th. instant and shall certainly be in Boston by the 20th.

[salute] I am your dutiful Son.

[signed] J. Q. Adams
P.S. Please to present my duty to my dear Mamma: I will write if I can find time.7
RC (Adams Papers); docketed by AA2: “JQA August 3d 1785.”
1. JQA to AA, 17 July, above.
2. The British were obligated to surrender several military posts in the northwest, on and near the Great Lakes, under arts. 2 and 7 of the Definitive Treaty of 3 Sept. 1783, but they continued to occupy them while controversies over the claims of British subjects in American courts (arts. 4 and 5) remained unresolved.
3. “An Act for the Regulation of Navigation and Commerce,” passed on 23 June, provided that as of 1 Aug., all exportation from Massachusetts in British vessels would be prohibited, and all importation in British vessels would be restricted to three ports—Boston, Falmouth (later Portland, Maine), and Dartmouth (including the port of New Bedford)—where such imports would pay higher duties than those on American ships. The ban on exporting on British ships could be lifted by the governor and council if they learned that the British government had rescinded its recent prohibition of American ships from several ports in the British Empire. Mass., Acts and Laws, 1784–1785, p. 439–443.
JQA may refer to the British frigate Mercury, Capt. Henry Stanhope, which conducted several transport ships from Nova Scotia to Boston to bring live stock back to the large Loyalist refugee populations at Shelburne and Halifax. Both the Mercury and the transports did enter the port of Boston in mid-July, but local newspapers sternly warned their readers to reject the British appeal for cargoes as long as they were to be carried away in British vessels. These warnings apparently prevented the loading of the transports. They may also have contributed to a bitter exchange of letters between Capt. Stanhope and Gov. James Bowdoin between 1 and 4 August. See the Boston Gazette, 11 and 18 July; the Independent Ledger, 11 July; and AA to Thomas Jefferson, 19 Oct., below.
4. Richard Henry Lee to JA, 1 Aug. (Adams Papers); printed in The Letters of Richard Henry Lee, ed. James Curtis Ballagh, N.Y., 1911, 1914, 2:378–381.
5. Hancock, elected to Congress in June, did accept his election, and he was chosen president of that body in Nov. 1785, but ill health kept him in Boston. In May 1786 he resigned the presidency and his seat in Congress. Burnett, ed., Letters of Members, 8:lxxxviii; Biog. Dir. Cong.
6. JQA had met François Barbé-Marbois, then the official secretary to Chevalier Anne César de La Luzerne; Louis Guillaume Otto, La Luzerne's private secretary; and La Luzerne himself in June 1779, when he and JA accompanied the Frenchmen to America on La Sensible. La Luzerne served as French minister to the United States until 1783, when he returned to France. Barbé-Marbois continued, as charge d'affaires, until 1785, when he was appointed intendant of Saint Domingue. JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:380–400; Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale.
7. JQA next wrote to AA on 6 Oct., below, wherein he explains his tardiness as a correspondent.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0081

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
DateRange: 1785-08-09 - 1785-08-19

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams 2d

Mr. Söderström, the Sweedish Consul, has been here about a fortnight. I went this morning about a mile out of town with him, and was introduced to a Mr. Bayard. He has two Daughters that are among the toasts; one of them I think very pretty. Mr. Bayard I hear was in the late war violent on the wrong side of the Question. It is the case with a great number, of the most reputable families in the place. But those differences are in a way to be forgot, and families of both parties are sociable together.1
Dr. Johnson, a delegate from <Rhode Island> Connecticut, went out of town a few days ago. Mr. Ellery from Rhode Island lately sprain'd his ancle, and cannot attend Congress, so that there are now only 8 States on the floor:2 very little or no business can be done, when there are no more present: and therefore this day Congress adjourned till next Monday. It is expected, that before that time, Doctor Johnson will return, and Mr. Ellery will recover. And there is a delegate expected daily from North Carolina; this will make up eleven States. There has not been a fuller representation since the Confederation was form'd.
I dined to day in company with Mr. Paine, the author of common Sense; with Dr. Witherspoon, and Dr. Gordon,3 who arrived here a few days since.—Wherever I go I hear a repetition of the same questions, how you all do? How you like Europe? What Country you prefer? When you will return? and a hundred other such. I am almost wearied to Death with them, and I sometimes think of writing a list of the Questions with the answers, and whenever a person begins to make any Questions, I would give him the Paper, and so content him at once. I expect the evil will rather increase than diminish, when I get to Boston. But there will be an end to it.
Since my arrival here, Every moment of my time has been taken up, and yet I have had little or nothing to do. I had a great number of Letters, as you know, and have been wholly employ'd in paying visits and going into Company. I have been introduced at different times to almost all the Members of Congress, and to a great number of the Inhabitants of the City. I have every where been treated with { 252 } a great deal of politeness and complaisance and it has been peculiarly pleasing, because upon many occasions I knew attentions were paid me, for my father's sake. I have spent more time than I expected to when I arrived; several circumstances have detained me, from day to day, but is now high time for me to think seriously of being gone: and of this you may be sure, that if I am in good health, I will not be in New York, after next Monday the 15th. instant.
I have at length been over to Long-Island, and paid my visit to Madam de Marbois. I ought to have done it long before now: for I don't know any place where People are more attach'd to a certain etiquette, (that of visiting) than here. Madam, is a spruce, pretty, little woman; and speaks french very well. There was a very sumptuous entertainment to day at Genl. Knox's. Near thirty persons present.4 I there saw the Baron de Steuben for the first time: he lives at a Country seat near the City, which he calls his Louvre. What a name, for a Republican! Such a trifling incident sometimes discovers the real sentiments of a man, more than important actions. However we must never form an opinion rashly upon any subject.
I am much at a loss how to go from here. If I go by water, I shall lose an opportunity of seeing the Country; and probably another will not present itself for many years; if ever. If I go by the stage, it is so close, a carriage, and goes I am told so fast, that I shall have little opportunity of seeing any part of the Country I shall go through: and it is an expensive way of travelling.5 I have been advised to buy an horse, and go in that manner: I am told that I may sell him when I get to Boston, near as much if not quite, what one will cost me here: and go in that way at least as cheap as I go in the Stage. But then I am exposed to twenty chances, and am not sure of selling him, if I should get safe home. I am quite in a dilemma: and much in want of advice: I have been looking at several horses: and have found only one, that would be proper: he belongs to the Dutch Minister: but he asks 50 £ this currency for him. This sum frightens me, and I believe I must after all go in the Stage, next Monday.
Mr. Chaumont left Town this afternoon, and will wait for me to morrow, at a place 10 miles distant from the City, for I have at length { 253 } determined, for the sake of going with him, to buy the horse as Mr. van Berkel has agreed to take 45 £ for him. Mr. Chaumont goes in a Chaise, with two horses. I shall ride, alternately in the Chaise with him and on my own horse, and I hope in ten days time to be at Boston.
The president is in a very ill state of health; and his present Situation, is certainly not the thing for recovering it. He intended to sail down to day to Sandy Hook, and try if the Sea air, would not be serviceable to him. But he found himself so unwell this morning that he could not go. Why is it the lot of great men to call with justice their lives a long disease? And why cannot one person be blest, with health of body, and strength of mind?
This afternoon I came here, and found Mr. Chaumont waiting for me; to-morrow we shall proceed on our journey. I am afraid our Parents will think this is an imprudent, headless scheme of mine, and I now almost wish I had either gone by water or by the Stage to Boston. But I chuse they should know every thing I have done. I may commit faults, but I will not add to them, by concealing them.
This is one of the most elegant tavern's I know of. I have never seen any in England superior to it. It is a very large house situated upon a small hill, and commands a most beautiful prospect. Parties of Company often come from the City, to spend a day here: and the master of the house owns the stage that goes to Boston. To morrow we are told we shall have bad roads: those from N. York here are very good.
We have been able to come only 22 miles to day. The roads have been very bad, and this is the hottest day, we have had since I arrived. We are here but 5 miles distant from the rivulet which seperates the States of N. York and Connecticut. So that I shall be to morrow, in the midst of the yankee Country.—This State you know, formerly was settled by the Dutch. It seems as if that people, had a mortal aversion, to every piece of ground that was not a bog. Their settlements on the coast of Africa, are all low lands like their own Country. Their islands in the West Indies, lie almost all of them level with the water or very near it. And in this State, which belonged to them, the lands are very low. They are however in general very good, and their produce is for the most part, the same, with that in the New England States. The { 254 } crops this year are uncommonly fine; all, except those of indian corn, which has not had rain, enough. This may be of great advantage to us, if the drowth in Europe continued after I sail'd.
We are now only 54 miles from New York. The Sun, has been still more powerful to day than it was yesterday, and we have rode only 21 miles. We are absolutely necessitated to lay by 5 or 6 hours, in the middle of the day, and can only ride mornings and evenings.—I can perceive a great alteration in the manners of the People already. There is a bluntness, and an assurance here, which does not exist in the State of New York. The manners of the People there are much more similar, to those of the Europeans. Their ancient form of government, was not so free as those of New England. Their extensive manors, which descended by law entirely to eldest sons, promoted an aristocratic spirit, which was very contrary to Liberty. The Legislature of the State are so fully sensible of this that they have pass'd laws, permitting the Proprietors of the manors, to dispose of them as they please, and divide them in as many parts as they please. This will probably have an excellent effect, but the People have not yet acquired that Republican Confidence, which wise Laws, and a longer enjoyment of their Liberty, may inspire them with, and which the inhabitants of N. England possess in an high degree.
I could not write a word yesterday, because, in order to get here, we rode till almost midnight; for this is 38. miles from Norwalk, and that, with this weather, and these roads, and the same horses, is a very long days journey. This is one of the Capitals of Connecticut, and was about 18 months ago made a City: five towns, Hartford, New-Haven, New London, Norwich, and Middleton, were form'd into Corporations, so that this State has five Cities, while poor Massachusetts has not one, for there they could not form a corporation even at Boston.—I had a number of Letters for this place, and among the rest, those of Mr. Jarvis for his Lady, and for Mr. Broome.7 I have deliver'd them, and Mr. Broome, has been polite beyond my expectation. But unfortunately I shall not be able to see Mrs. Jarvis, who is now at Huntington on Long Island, and will not be here in less than a month's time. Mr. Broome lives in a charming situation. His house is on an hill, directly opposite the harbour, and the tide comes up within 20 rods of it. Mr. Platt lives a few doors from him { 255 } on the same hill, and with the same prospect. I have met with my friend Brush8 here too. He sail'd from Marseilles a few days before I did from l'Orient, and had a much longer passage. He has been here about a fortnight. It is said he is an admirer of Miss Betsey Broome; I wonder at it much, if it is true, for their characters appear to me to be very dissimilar. He is full of vivacity, and life, and she seems to be as phlegmatic, and cool, as a Dutchman. He is quite sociable, and from her, it is with the utmost difficulty you can draw from her the assenting particles yes and no. But when she goes so far as to say “that is true,” and “it is so,” it is quite a miracle. Do not think this a precipitate judgment. I own I cannot be myself a competent judge, as I never saw her before to day: but this is her reputation every where: and Brush himself has given me nearly this Character of her. You know Mr. Broome has two twin sons. Yesterday, they were both of them taken ill together, and were so, all night: to day they are both much better: this is a very singular circumstance, and it has already happened once before. We dined at Mr. Broome's to day, and were going in the afternoon, about 2 miles out of town to view a Cave famous for having served as a shelter for two of Charles the 1sts. Judges.9 But a thunder shower prevented our going. It was a most tremendous one, while it lasted, which was not more than half an hour. We had some as heavy claps as any I remember ever to have heard and the lightning fell once in the water about 30 rods from Mr. Broome's door.
I this morning paid a visit to Mr. Stiles the President of the College here.10 He was very civil, and shew me all the curiosities belonging to the University. The library is neither as large nor as elegant, as your Pappa's, and the natural curiosities, as well as artificial are but few. There are however a number of stones found in the Country, which would not disgrace an European Cabinet. They were more interesting to me, on account of their belonging, to the natural history of my own Country.
To morrow morning we shall again set out to proceed on our journey, and Mr. Broome and Mr. Brush will go with us as far as Hartford. I am very impatient to get home to Boston: both because I wish to see my friends there; and because I expect to find letters there from you. I shall continue my relation as I have done till now; although I very much fear it will look dull and insipid to you. Your Candour is all on which I depend. Your Brother.
[signed] J. Q. Adams
{ 256 }
RC (Adams Papers). The text is written on eight small pages, numbered from “41” to “48”; see JQA to AA2, [12] May, descriptive note, above.
1. Although JQA had not previously met William Bayard, he knew Bayard's brother-in-law and business partner, Herman Le Roy, from his stay in Holland in 1781 (vol. 4:148, note 1; JQA, Diary, 1:57, and note 5). In his Diary at this point JQA laments the fact that “the connections of almost all the finest girls in and about N. York, were of the british party during the late war” (Diary, 1:300).
2. The states lacking two or more delegates in attendance in most of Aug. 1785 were Connecticut, Delaware, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Rhode Island (Burnett, ed., Letters of Members, 8:lxxxiii–xcviii, and table on p. xcix). Just under thirty congressmen attended sessions sometime in late July-early August, and JQA met most of them; see his Diary and references in this and previous letters to AA2.
3. Both Thomas Paine and Rev. John Witherspoon, president of the College of New Jersey (Princeton) from 1768 to his death in 1794, and a congressman, 1776–1782, were new acquaintances for JQA. He had probably met Rev. William Gordon of Jamaica Plain, Mass., in Braintree in 1775 (JQA, Diary, 1:301; vol. 1:229, descriptive note; DAB; DNB).
4. In his Diary, JQA records the presence of “a number of delegates, and the president of Congress, the Dutch, Spanish, and French Ministers &c.” (Diary, 1:303).
5. On 13 Aug., Rev. William Gordon wrote to JA (Adams Papers) that he had persuaded JQA to travel to Boston with him, by water to Newport and then Providence, R.I., but JQA's text immediately below suggests that he rejected the water route on 12 August.
6. Probably either in northern Manhattan or in the Bronx, just across the Harlem River from Manhattan (see Stephen Jenkins, Old Boston Post Road, N.Y., 1913, chap. 5).
7. Samuel Broome, father of Amelia Broome Jarvis (Mrs. James Jarvis), had been a business partner of Jeremiah Platt, and of Eliphalet Brush, both mentioned below (JQA, Diary, 1:307, notes 1 and 2).
8. JQA had met the N.Y. merchant Eliphalet Brush on 10 June 1781, in Amsterdam (same, 1:76, and note 1).
9. William Goffe and Edward Whalley, two signers of Charles I's death warrant, had fled to Boston at Charles II's restoration, and lived in a cave near New Haven in the summer of 1661, before settling in Hadley, Mass. (same, 1:307, note 3).
10. Ezra Stiles, president of Yale College, 1778–1795. In his Diary for this day, JQA notes that Thomas Jefferson once told him that he thought Stiles “an uncommon instance of the deepest learning without a spark of genius” (same, 1:307–308).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0082-0001

Author: Tufts, Cotton
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1785-08-10

[salute] Dear Sir

The Want of a sufficient Power in Congress to regulate the national Concerns of the United States is now pretty generally seen and has been severely felt. In the opening of the last Session of the Gen Court, the Governor in his Address to both Houses among other Things laments that Congress had not been authorized to regulate their foreign Trade, and suggests the Necessity of further Powers being given to that Body. The Legislature took the Matter into Consideration and prepared Letters to the several States, to the President of Congress and to their own Delegates proposing a Convention for the purpose of revising the Confederation and of curing the Evils felt { 257 } | view and apprehended. But untill that could be effected, Measures were adopted and Laws enacted to prevent the Excess of Importations and to counteract the operation of those Laws of Great Britain which more immediately affect our Commerce—as You will find by the enclosed Papers.1
I have enclosed an Account of the Transaction of your Affairs to the 21st. Ultimo which Mr. Cranch has examined.
Master Charles has entered College. Mr. John has arriv'd at New York. I expect him dayly. In a few Days I shall probably draw upon You for £50 or 100£ as I apprehend the encreasing Expence of the Education of Your Children will make it necessary. I wish You equal Success at London, as heretofore at the Hague, And Am with sincere Regard Yours
[signed] Cotton Tufts
P.S. I shall write more fully to Mrs. Adams upon Your domestic Concerns.2
RC (Adams Papers), with enclosed account. Letter endorsed: “Dr Tufts August”; account endorsed: “Dr Tufts's Account 1785.”
1. Gov. James Bowdoin's address, delivered on 31 May, was published in the Independent Chronicle, 2 June, in the Boston Gazette, 6 June, and in the Continental Journal, 9 June. A list of all laws passed in the May-July session appeared in the Independent Chronicle, 7 July. See also JQA to JA, 3 Aug., note 3, above.
2. Cotton Tufts' next extant letters to AA are dated 12 and 14 Oct., both below.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0082-0002

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Tufts, Cotton
Date: 1785-08-10

Enclosure: Account

The Honble. John Adams Esq. to Cotton Tufts as His Attorney
1784.   June.   24.   To Cash pd. Nath. Austin 19/6          
  July.   1.   To Nath. Willis 30/9   2.   10.   3    
  July.   21.   To 1/2 m. Nails 4/          
  Aug.   11.   To Cash pd. Jno. Gill 24/ 1/2 qe Paper 9d   1.   8.   9    
  Sept.   29.   To Thos. Russell Esq for 16 years Rent of Verchilds Land   38.   8.   0    
      To Elkh. Thayer for ditching 30/ pd for Glass & Putty 9/   1.   19.   0    
  Octob.   6.   To Saml. Eliot for Cloathing for yr. children   2.   6.   1    
      To half a Day at Braintree in adjusting Accounts &c   0.   6.   0    
    28.   To Revd. Jno. Shaw 40/ To Sundry Persons by ordr. of Mrs. Adams 72/   5.   12.   0    
  Nov.   18.   To Revd. Jno. Shaw 60/ To Jona Marsh for a pr. Boots to Charles 27/   4.   7.   0    
      To 1/2 Day at Boston 7/6          
{ 258 } | view
    28.   To 1/2 Day at Braintree 6/   0.   13.   6    
  Dec.   10.   To Cash pd. for recordg. Will. Adams Deed 2/6 for Searchg Records of 2 1/2   0.   3.   8   1/2  
    14.   To Do. paid David Bass for Salt Marsh bought of him   32.   16.   3    
      To 1 Day at Braintree settling the Survey Purchase &c   0.   12.   0    
    16.   To Cash pd. for recordg Deed 3/   0.   3.   0    
1785   Jany.   8.   To 1 Day myself & Horse 12/ To Cash pd. James Thayer for Land £60   60.   12.   0    
    17.   To Cash pd. for Cloathing for Mast. Charles & Thos   4.   11.   2    
    27.   To Revd. Jno. Shaw £6. To recordg James Thayers Deed 2/6   6.   2.   6    
  March   3.   To pd for a Singing Book 6/ Wards Grammar 3/ for Thos   0.   9.   0    
    17.   To Revd. Jno. Shaw £10.16.0          
    23.   To 1/2 Day at Braintree 6/   11.   2.   0    
      To pd for 2 Crevats 8/2          
    24.   To 1/2 Dy. at Boston 7/6   0.   15.   8    
    29.   To Gayus Thayer for Your own and Farm Rates   10.   12.   4   1/2  
  April   9.   To Andw. Newell 8.3.0. To part of a Day at Boston 7/6   8.   10.   6    
      To Cash pd. Elias Burdett in Advance for Building   62.   0.   0    
    11.   To a Journey to Medford to give Lease for Medford Farm &c   0.   12.   0    
    21.   To Revd. Jno. Shaw 90/          
  May   13.   To part Journey to Boston 6/   4.   16.   0    
    26.   To Cash for 1 pc. Linnen for Children 84/          
    30.   To Davd. Marsh's Bill for Shoes 57/4   7.   1.   4    
    30.   To Revd. Jno. Shaw 71/10          
  June   1 & 2d.   To Mrs. Shaw to purchase Cloathg. 8.4.0   11.   15.   10    
    16.   To Revd. Jno. Shaw Quarty Bill 14.8.0 To Register 1/ 2 1/2 To Phoebe 8/   14.   17.   2   1/2  
  July.   2.   To. Ebenz. Burdett in full for Building as Pr. Agreement   62.   0.   0    
{ 259 } | view
    5.   To Thos. Russell Esq 1 Yrs. Rent for Verchilds Land 48/   2.   8.   0    
    6.   To Willm. Homer for Repairs of House at Boston   4.   10.   6.    
    19 & 20.   To Cash for Charles a Hat and Cravats   3.   1.   4   1/2  
        £367.   3.   0    
1785.   July   21.   To Cash now on hand to Ballance   4.   16.   11   1/2  
        £371.   19.   11   1/2  
  June   16.   By a Ballance of Cash left in my Hands by Mrs. Adams   7.   13.   4    
    28.   By Cash recd. of Mrs. Smith left in her Hands by Do   1.   6.   8    
      By Do. recd. of the Executors of Revd. Willm. Smiths Will   15.   0.   0    
  Sept.   16.   By Do. recd. of Andw. Newall 1 qr. Rent   15.   0.   0    
  Octob.   8.   By Do. recd. of Matthew Pratt for Yoke of Oxen   9.   0.   0    
    22.   By Do. recd. of Phoebe 36/2          
  Nov.   18.   Andw. Newall 1 qr. Rent 15£   16.   16.   2    
    23.   By Do. recd. of Matthew Pratt for Farm Produce   11.   0.   0    
  Dec.   15.   By Do. recd. of Alexr. Hill on Ballance of Acctts   3.   0.   7    
1785.   Jany.   6.   By Do. recd. of Benj. Guilds in full of his Note   103.   5.   0    
    10.   By do. recd. in part for Certificates for Intt. on Continl Notes   8.   2.   0    
    14.   By Do. recd. of Phoebe 12/10          
  March   24.   By Thos. Pratt on Acct. 16/6   1.   9.   4    
  Jany.   1.   By my Bill of Exchange in favour of James Elworthy for £50 stg. 5 P. Ct. above par is 52.10.0—Lawful Money   70.   0.   0    
  March   24.   By Cash recd. of Matthew Pratt. Ballance of Farm Acctts   22.   2.   9    
      By Do. recd. of Royall Tyler Esq for Debts collected   29.   3.   9   1/2  
{ 260 } | view
  April   9.   By Do. recd. of Andw. Newall 1 qr. Rent   15.   0.   0    
  May     Do. recd. of Mrs. Otis for Dorset Alley 1 Yr   1.   16.   0    
  June   4.   By my Order in favour of James Elworthy for £11. 12. 0 sterg Exchange 6 P. Ct.—in Law My   16.   8.   0    
    16.   By Andw. Newall 1 qr Rent to the 30 Apr. last   15.   0.   0    
  July   1.   By Cash recd. for Interest   1.   5.   0    
    4.   By Do. recd. of Matthew Pratt on Farm Acct.   9.   11.   4    
        371.   19.   11   1/2  
[signed] Errors Excepted Per Cotton Tufts
Weym[outh]: July 21st. 1785. At the Request of the Honble. Cotton Tufts Esq. I have particularly gone over and examined the foregoing Account, and find it right cast and properly Vouched in all its Parts.
[signed] Richard Cranch
The content of notes that appeared on this page in the printed volume has been moved to the end of the preceding document.
RC (Adams Papers), with enclosed account. Letter endorsed: “Dr Tufts August”; account endorsed: “Dr Tufts's Account 1785.”

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0083

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-08-11

Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My dear son

I went from my own little writing room below stairs just now into your Pappas; where Mr. Storer was writing for him. Col. Smith having set of upon a Tour in order to see the Prussian Review which takes place upon the 20 of this Month,1 Mr. Storer whilst he remains here; has offerd to supply his Place. Upon my going into the room he told me that a vessel would sail for Boston tomorrow, which is the first I knew of the Matter. Lyde is expected to sail in a few days and by him I design to forward Letters to my Friends, but tho as usual I have several partly written none are compleat. I however told Mr. Storer { 261 } that I would take my pen and write you a few lines, just to tell you that we are all well and are now quite settled, that we wait with impatience to hear from you. Mr. Short came here last week from Paris upon Buisness, he sets of tomorrow for the Hague. Mr. Jefferson Col. Humphries Mr. Williamos &c. are all well. Mr. W is waiting as usual for the moveing of the waters.2 If you get the English news papers you will think that the Father of Liars is turnd Printer. Not a paper which has not some venom. I hope the Scripture Benidiction will be fullfilld upon those who are falsly accused and persecuted.3 They however do not often attack us personally, only as the Representitive of America &c. I was not displeased with one paragraph provided it would have a proper effect upon our Country. It was this “the American minister has not yet paid his Way, that is given a diaplomatick dinner to the Ministers, because Congress Paper will not pass here.” If it was expensive living in France, it is much more so in London, but I trust our Country will either consider us, or permit us to return.
The King of France has publishd an Arret prohibiting British Manufactories under severe penalties, in concequence of which 8 thousand Gauze and Muslin looms have stoped working here.4 I will inclose to you two or 3 News papers.
Captain Lyde will take Letters. The contents of some of them, you will be surprizd at, but, at the same time you will approve the wise conduct of the writer who has shewn a firmness of mind and prudence which do her honour. Be Silent! We are all rejoiced because it came of her own accord free and unsolicited from her, and was the result I believe of many Months anxiety as you were witness.5
Remember me to all my Friends your Brothers in particular. I have not time to add an other line. I do not know whether your sister writ[es] by this vessel to you.6 Let me hear from you by every opport[unity.] I have given Mr. Storer a Letter from Mr. Murray for you.7 M[r.] and Mrs. Temple sail next week for New York. Tis near four and I must dress for dinner. Once more adieu. Your sister and I miss you much. We want you to walk and ride with us, but we know and hope you are much more usefully employd. I am going with your sister this afternoon to Hamstead to drink tea with Mrs. Hay, who resides out there. I shall call and take Mrs. Rogers to accompany us. We all went last week to accompany Mr. Short to the Hay Market,8 but who can realish the English after having been accustomed to the French Stage? A Siddons may reconcile me to it, but I believe nothing else will.
{ 262 }
I never know when to leave of, once more adieu and beliee me most tenderly Yours.
[signed] A A
RC (Adams Papers); addressed by Charles Storer: “Mr. John Quincy Adams”; endorsed: “Mamma Augt. 11th. 1785”; docketed: “My Mother 11. Augt. 1785,” and “Mrs. Adams. Augt. 11. 1785.” Some loss of text where the seal was torn away.
1. See AA to William Stephens Smith, 13 Aug., below.
2. See Charles Williamos to AA, 21 July, note 2, above.
3. Matthew 5:10–12.
4. Louis XVI issued this edict in council on 10 July to pressure the British ministry to conclude a treaty of commerce, as provided for in the art. 18 of the Anglo-French Treaty of Versailles of 1783. The two countries did conclude a new commercial treaty in 1786. JA to John Jay, 10 Aug., PCC, No. 84, V, f. 601–604, printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, 2:428–430; Cambridge Modern Hist., 8:284–286.
5. See AA2 to Royall Tyler, [ca. 11 Aug.]; AA to Mary Cranch, 15 Aug.; and AA to Cotton Tufts, 18 Aug., all below.
6. AA2 sent JQA her journal letter of 4 July, above, by this ship; see her last dated entry, of 11 Aug., in that letter.
7. William Vans Murray to JQA, 2 Aug. (Adams Papers).
8. The Haymarket Theatre, sometimes called “The Little Theatre in the Haymarket,” was built on the east side of Haymarket Street, between Pall Mall and Coventry Street, in 1721 (Wheatley, London Past and Present).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0084

Author: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Recipient: Tyler, Royall
Date: 1785-08-11

Abigail Adams 2d to Royall Tyler

[salute] Sir

Herewith you receive your letters and miniature with my desire that you would return mine to my Uncle Cranch, and my hopes that you are well satisfied with the affair as is
[signed] A. A.
MS not found. Printed from (Grandmother Tyler's Book), p. 76. No other versions of the letter survive, nor is there any evidence to show whether the text is complete.
1. The date is suggested by AA to JQA, 11 Aug., above. See also AA to Mary Cranch, 15 Aug., and notes 3–7, and AA to Cotton Tufts, 18 Aug., both below.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0085

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Jefferson, Thomas
Date: 1785-08-12

Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson

[salute] Dear sir

I would not omit so good an opportunity as presents by Mr. Short,1 of continuing the correspondence which you have done me the honour to Say you consider as settled.
Your obliging favours of june 21 and july 7th were punctually deliverd, and afforded me much pleasure.
Were you to come to this Country, as I sincerely hope you will, for the sake of your American Friends2 who would rejoice to see you; as a Husbandman you would be delighted with the rich verdure of the field, and the high cultivation of the Lands. In the Manufactory of { 263 } many articles, the Country can boast a superiority over their Galician Neighbours. But when you come to consider the Man, and the social affections; ease, civility, and politeness of Manners, this people suffer by the comparison. They are more contracted and narrow in their sentiments notwithstanding their boasted liberality and will not allow their Neighbours half the Merrit, they really deserve. They affect to despise the French, and to hate the Americans, of the latter they are very liberal in their proofs. So great is their pride that they cannot endure to view us as independant, and they fear our growing greatness.
The late Arrets of his most Christian Majesty3 have given the allarm here. They term them Calamitous, and say they will essentially affect their trade. If Ireland refuses the propositions4 with steadiness, and firmness, England may be led to think more justly of America. If a person was to indulge the feelings of a moment, the infamous falshoods, which are daily retailed here against America, would prompt one to curse and quit them, but a statesman would be ill qualified for his station, if he feared the sarcasm of the sarcastic, the envy of the envious, the insults of the insolent or the malice of the dissapointed, or sufferd private resentment to influence his publick Conduct. You will not I dare say envy a situation thus circumstanced, where success is very dubious, and surrounded with so many difficulties. It is rather mortifying too, that Congress appear so inattentive to the situation of their Ministers. Mr. A has not received any letters of any concequence since the arrival of Col. Smith, nor any answers to the lengthy Letters he has written. Mr. Short informs us that you are in the same situation. What can have become of the said Mr. Lamb mentiond by Mr. Jay? Is he gone with all his papers directly to the Barbary Powers? I suspect it, but Mr. A will not think so.5
I fear Mr. Short will not have a very favourable opinion of England. Unfortunately Col. Smith set off, upon a tour a few days after his arrival, and Mr. Short having but few acquaintance will not find himself highly gratified; we have accompanied him once to the Theater, but after having been accustomed to those of France, one can have little realish for the cold, heavy action, and uncouth appearence of the English stage.6 This would be considerd as treason of a very black dye, but I speak as an American. I know not how a Siddons may reconcile me to English action, but as yet I have seen nothing that equals Parissian ease, and grace. I should like to visit France once a year during my residence in Europe.
The English papers asscribe the late disturbances in the provinces { 264 } of France, to the example set by the Rebellious Americans, as well as every failure of their own Merchants and Manufact[urer]s7 to the Ruinous American trade, tho prehaps two thirds of them never had any intercourse with America. O! for the energy of an absolute government, aya and for the power too. How many Letters de cachet have these abusive Beings deserved?8
The cask of wine you mentiond in your Letter, Mr. Adams request you to take if agreeable to you. He has written to Mr. Garvey with respect to that which is under his care.9 As to the House rent which you mentiond, neither you or Mr. Adams can do yourselves justice unless you charge it, and Mr. A is fully determined to do it. There is an other heavy expence which I think he ought to Charge this Year.10 These are the Court taxes. Being considerd as minister in Holland, the servants applied for their perquisites which was allowd them by Mr. Lotter, tho realy without Mr. Adams's knowledge or direction. At Versailles he went through the same ceremony, and when he came to this Court all the servants and attendants from St. James came very methodically with their Books, upon which both the Names of the Ministers and the sums given were Specified. Upon the New Years day this is again to be repeated: and the sum this year will amount to not less than a hundred pounds, which will be thought very extravagant I suppose; but how could it be avoided? Our Countrymen have no Idea of the expences of their Ministers, nor of the private applications which they are subject to, many of which cannot be dispenced with. All the prudence and oeconomy I have been able to exercise in the year past, has not enabled me to bring the year about; without falling behind hand. I have no objection to returning to America, but I have many, against living here at a greater expence than what our allowence is: because we have 3 children in America to Educate, whose expences must be, and have been borne by our private income which for 12 years past has been diminishing by Mr. Adams's continued application to publick buisness: these are considerations Sir which some times distress me. As I know you are a fellow sufferer you will excuse my mentioning them to you.
You were so kind sir as to tell me you would execute any little commission for me, and I now take the Liberty11 of requesting you to let Petit12 go to my Paris shoemaker and direct him to make me four pair of silk shoes, 2 pr sattin and two pr fall silk; I send by Mr. Short the money for them. I am not curious about the colour, only that they be fashonable.13 I cannot get any made here to suit me, at least I have faild in several attempts. Col. Smith proposes visiting { 265 } Paris before he returns, and will be so good as to take Charge of them for me. An other article or two I have to add, a Glass for the middle of the table. I forget the French name for it. I think they are usually in 3 peices. If you will be so good as to procure it for me and have it put into a small Box well pack'd and addrest to Mr. Adams; Col. Smith will also have the goodness to take care of it for me; and to pay you for it: I do not know the cost, as we had one at Auteuil, which belongd to the House. I have to add four Godships,14 these are so saleable in Paris that I think they are to be had for Six livres a peice, but should they be double that price it cannot be thought much of for deitys. Apollo I hold in the first rank as the Patron of Musick Poetry and the Sciencies. Hercules is the next in my favour on account of the numerous exploits and enterprizing Spirit. If he is not to be had, I will take Mercury as he is said to be the inventer of Letters, and God of eloquence. I have no aversion to Cupid, but as I mean to import them through the Hands of a Young Gentleman, one should be cautious of arming persons with powers: for the use of which they cannot be answerable; there cannot however be any objection to his accompanying Madam Minerva and Diana, Ladies whose company and example are much wanted in this city. If you have any command to execute here you will do <me> a favour by honouring with them Your obliged Humble Servant
[signed] A. Adams
RC (DLC: C. W. F. Dumas Papers). Dft (Adams Papers); the Dft is incomplete
1. Because William Short traveled to The Hague before returning to Paris, Jefferson did not receive this letter until 23 Sept. (Jefferson to AA, 25 Sept., below).
2. The draft has “Friend.”
3. See AA to JQA, 11 Aug., note 4, above.
4. See AA2 to JQA, 4 July, and note 31, above.
5. On 11 March, John Jay had entrusted four commissions, directing JA, Franklin, and Jefferson to negotiate treaties with Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis, to Capt. John Lamb, a mariner and merchant from Norwich, Conn. Jay referred to these documents in his letter to the three commissioners of the same date, and suggested that they appoint Lamb, who had offered his services for this task in February, to negotiate with the Barbary powers, under their direction (Jefferson, Papers, 8:19–22). Jay also briefly mentioned Lamb in his letter of 13 April to JA (Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, 1:480–483). All these documents are in the Adams Papers. On John Lamb and negotiations with the Barbary states, see AA to Cotton Tufts, 18 Aug., below; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:182, note 2; and Burnett, ed., Letters of Members, 8:72–73, 250–251.
6. The draft adds: “Indeed most of the Ammusments of this Metropolis are closed, for the Season.”
7. This word, barely legible, appears to have been corrected from “Manufactories.” The draft has “Manufactory.”
8. Jefferson had given ironic praise to the energy of absolute government in his letters of 21 June and 7 July, above.
9. See Jefferson to AA, 21 June, and note 7, above; and JA to Anthony Garvey, 16 July (LbC, Adams Papers).
10. In her draft, AA adds here: “I wish you would give me your opinion of it.” Also in the draft, AA calls these “Court taxes,” “Etraines,” as she had earlier in writing of them; see AA to Cotton Tufts, 3 Jan., and enclosure, above.
11. The draft has “liberty to send by Mr. Short a Louis requesting . . .”
12. Adrian Petit had served the Adamses at { 266 } Auteuil, and after their departure for London in May, he helped Jefferson handle the disposal of the wine JA had bought. At some point between May and September he entered Jefferson's service. See Jefferson, Papers.
13. The draft adds: “they are all for me, and the whole four pair will not cost me more than one pair here.” In the draft, AA does not say anything about her failure to find shoes that suited her in London.
14. The draft ends here, at the bottom of a page; the remainder is missing. Jefferson discusses the “four Godships” in his reply of 25 Sept., below.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0086

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Smith, William Stephens
Date: 1785-08-13

Abigail Adams to William Stephens Smith

[salute] Dear Sir

Your letter from Harwich, dated August 10,1 reached us upon the 11th. We were very glad to hear of your arrival there, and continue to follow you with our good wishes.
When you tendered me your services, and asked my commands, I did not know you had any thoughts of returning by the way of Paris; otherwise I should have charged you with a few. I now write by Mr. Short, requesting your care of an article or two which Mr. Jefferson will be so good as to procure for me.2
Nothing new in the political world has taken place since you left us, but a fresh report by way of Minorca, that the Algerines had, upon the 13th3 of July, declared war against America. This I suppose is circulated now, in order to raise the insurance upon the few American vessels ready to sail. The report says that twelve of their ships are ordered to cruise in the Mediteranean for ours;4 but it will probably be so long before this letter will reach you, that what is news now, will not be so then.
I have taken the liberty, sir, of requesting Mr. Jefferson to introduce you to two gentlemen and ladies; the first of the gentlemen is much esteemed in the world, for his patronage of the sciences, and for his knowledge and skill in music and poetry; and the other for his notable exploits and heroism. One of the ladies is of a very ancient and noble family; she is eminent for her wisdom, and exceedingly fond of all those in whom she discovers a genius, and a taste for knowledge; the other is a single lady, remarkable for her delicacy and modesty.5 As there is some talk of their coming to London, they may possibly accompany you here. There will be no difficulty on account of the language, as they speak one as perfectly as they do the other.
I had some idea of mentioning a young gentleman6 of my acquaintance, whose manners are very insinuating, but as he does not always conduct himself with the prudence I could wish, and is very fond of { 267 } becoming intimate, his company sometimes proves dangerous; but Mr. Jefferson, who knows them all, I presume, will use his judgment, and upon that you may safely rely.
I hope you will not travel so rapidly as to omit your journal, for I promise myself much entertainment from it upon your return. I presume that the family would join me in their regards to you, if they knew that I was writing; you will, from the knowledge you have of them, believe them your well wishers and friends, as well as your humble servant,7
[signed] A. Adams
RC not found. Printed from (AA2, Jour, and Corr., 1:119–121.) Dft (Adams Papers); notation on last page by AA2: “To Co Smith”; and by CFA on the first page: “To Col Smith.” The editors have favored the printed text over the Dft here on the supposition that it is based on the RC, which passed from William Stephens Smith to his and AA2's daughter, Caroline de Windt, who published it along with various other letters by and to AA2. A few variants in the Dft are noted below.
1. Not found. Col. Smith wrote to JA from his lodgings at Leicester Fields on 4 Aug. (Adams Papers), asking permission “to take a small tour on the Continent—a general Review of the Prussian Army takes place the latter end of this or the beginning of the next Month, I should like to see it.” On 5 Aug., JA, imagining that Smith would make a fairly brief tour beginning in a month that was “so dull and so disgusting and unwholesome in London” with the city “so deserted by Men of Business as well as others,” granted his request (PCC, No. 92, I, f. 19).
The colonel departed London on 9 Aug. for the North Sea port of Harwich to catch the boat for Holland, in company with Francisco Miranda, the South American soldier whom he had met in New York during the war (and whose 1806 abortive military expedition to free South America from Spanish rule Col. Smith would be charged with aiding). Smith carried letters of introduction from JA to C. W. F. Dumas at The Hague, and to Messrs. Willinck and Staphorst at Amsterdam (LbCs, Adams Papers).
Smith and Miranda reached the Netherlands on 11 Aug., and traveled through Rotterdam, The Hague, and Amsterdam into northern Germany, stopping at Minden, Hanover, Brunswick, and Potsdam before reaching Berlin on 31 August. They reviewed Prussian troops and visited garrisons and cultural sites in the Berlin-Potsdam area from 5 to 23 Sept., and then continued their tour through Leipzig, Dresden, and Prague to Vienna, staying in the Austrian capital from 14 to 26 Oct., when Col. Smith finally departed for Paris.
The expansion of his “small tour” delayed Smith's return to London to early December, long after JA expected him, and considerably annoyed the minister, who found himself coping with an extensive correspondence in the fall without a secretary. Col. Smith recorded the better part of his journey, from 11 Aug. to 26 Oct., in great detail; this diary is published, in English, in Archivo Del General Miranda, Viajes Diaros 1750–1785, Caracas, 1929, 1:354–434. See Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale (Miranda); DAB (Smith).
2. See AA to Jefferson, 12 Aug., above.
3. The draft has: “The Eleventh of july.“
4. From this point, the draft reads: “Mr. Short will set out on twesday, <but as> it is not probable that this Letter will reach you untill you arrive in Paris it will then be so old a date that I should not have written but to have askd your care of my things.”
5. AA refers to the four “Godships”—Apollo, Hercules, Minerva (Athena), and Diana (Artemis)—mentioned in her letter to Jefferson of 12 Aug., above.
6. Cupid; see AA to Jefferson, 12 Aug., above.
7. This paragraph is not in the draft, which has in its place: “Callihan is arrived from Boston this day, if any thing worth communicating should come to hand when I get my Letters which I am just going to seek it shall be communicated by Sir Your Friend and humble servant.“

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0087

Author: Cranch, Mary Smith
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-08-14

Mary Smith Cranch to Abigail Adams

[salute] My dear Sister

I have just Sent away one Letter1 and shall now begin another to be ready for the next ship. Cousin John is not yet arriv'd. I hear of him upon the road. He has not quite done his duty. He should have written to one of his uncles2 at least as soon as he came on Shore, but I will not chide him without hearing his reasons, I feel inclin'd to be very partial to him.
I have just heard that cousin Charles is not like to have the chamber he petition'd for, nor any other. Half his class will be oblig'd to Board out in the Town. Mr. Cranch and I are going tomorrow to see how it is, and to procure him a place if necessary. The Doctor desires I would take the whole care of providing for him off his Hands, as he is so hurried with business of a publick nature.3 I will most chearfully do it. You cannot think how sorrowful your son looks about the loss of his chamber, but I hope to make him happy yet. I have got all the Furniture ready, (this is the part he is to find). The Bed and Linnin is found by his chum a very worthy pretty youth, who study'd with him at Mr. Shaws. Walker is his name, he is from Bradford.
Charles is happy he has got his chamber. I return'd last night. I found he had his petition'd granted. He is in the same college with Billy has a Room upon the lower Floor.4 I have got him a pine Table made to stand under his looking glass. It doubles over like a card Table and is painted Marble colour and looks very well. He has the Square Tea Table to stand in his study. I got a few things for him in Boston as I came from Cambridge, and now I think he is equip'd and will go tomorrow with the best advice I can give him. You may assure your self my dear sister that I shall watch over him with the Parential Eye of tenderness. In sickness and in health He shall be my peculiar care.5
Cousin John is come, dear youth, and brought with him in his own Face such a resemblance of His Papa and Mama as I never before saw blended in one. And I am happy to perceive that it is not only in his Person that he bears such a likeness to his Parents. I have already { 269 } discover'd a strength of mind, a memory, a soundness of judgment which I have seldom seen united in one so young. His modesty is not the least of his virtues. In the Eyes of his cousins, tis of great price. If his applycation is equal to his abilities he cannot fail of makeing a great Man. He will be destitute of his Fathers ambition if <he> it is not. His mothers animated countinance assures me I need not fear a dissapointment.
Cousin came last week, spent some time in Boston and Cambridge consulting with his uncles and the President about his future studies. He does not understand Greek <enough> nor make Latten well enough to be admitted into Billys Class. They all advise him to go to Haverhill and study With his uncle Shaw till April, by which time if he applys himself very closly he may enter. Billy is to spend part of the winter vacancy with him by his uncles desire.
Here we are my dear sister. Cousin and I arriv'd last night. I came with him that I might have the pleasure of introducing a Nephew I am proud enough off to all the good Folks on the road. I find he is quite a Stranger in his own country. We came thro Cambridge and call'd upon my Sons8 there. They were well and I trust very studious and good. We all drank Tea at Mr. Gannetts.9 My Fellow traveller and I Lodg'd there. They Would not suffer us to go further. He has given our children an invitation to visit him frequently. Billy is too diffident. He does not accept of the repeated invitations of the Gentleman of the Town to visit them. Tis true he does not need to accept them for the sake of seeing company so much as some others, but it will give him importanc to be notic'd by them. Cousin John has promis'd me he will dispel some of his diffidence when he is fixd there.
Mr. Shaw will take your son and give him all the instruction in his power. We shall return in a few days to prepair for cousins residence here, as soon as possible.
I find Sister Shaw in better health than I have seen her for several years. Little Betsy has had a bad Boil10 which has reduc'd her to skin and Bone. She is very pale and I think in a poor way. Thomas is <very> well and is a very good child his aunt says. He is made <very> happy by the return of his Brother, Whos living here will be a <very> great advantage to him. They are very fond of each-other.
I thank you my dear sister for your Letter by Cousin and for the { 270 } present to Betsy and Lucy.11 They wanted nothing to increase their Love to the best of aunts. Their gratitude must be express'd by all the assistance and every attention they can give their Cousins.
I came thro Boston in my way here and had the pleasure to find a large Pacquit from my dear sister, brought by Capn. Dashwood,12 and very intertaining I find it. I cannot enough thank you for your kindness in writing so often and so largly to me, and have only to regret that <I fear> I cannot send you any thing that will afford you half the amusement. I have no new scenes to introduce you too nor new dress to inform you off but what your sisterly kindness has help'd me too, unless the disposition of your gauze cap and white Bonnet which we found at the bottom of a Trunk crowded down by half a dozen Blankits Would afford you any. The children brought them home pull'd them to peices and out of them Betsy made a cap for Lucy a Bonnet for me and a Hankercheif for herself. We thought we had better do so and repay you in something or other to the children, than let them lay, and turn yellow till they were useless.
Your account of your Presentation was curious. Mere men and women indeed. I observe but one wise Speech among all that were made you. One would suppose His Majestys Eyes were really open'd to the best interest of his own Nation if he was sincere when he told your Friend that “He was glad the choice of his country had fallen upon him,” for sure I am that he has reason to be so. I Wish Mr. Adams may not have the least influence in his own country.13 I veryly think he has more to fear from the envious Spirit of some of us than from any other quarter. It is a mean vice. It will be very hard indeed if He who could so suddenly change the sentiments of a whole People, remarkably slow in their determinations and gain their interest in our Favour, while under the influence of two powerful Nations exerting themselves to the utmost to prevent it,14 should not have the confidence and warmest gratitude of those who employ him. To me this has always appear'd one of the most wonderful and most important events in our History.
So long as human nature remains as it is you cannot be surpriz'd at the spight of the Torys, but they will not hurt you. I do not wonder you felt dissagreably when presented to a Person who had done all in his Power to humble in the dust the country and people you represent. Your benevolent hearts must have felt more for him than for your selves. There is not another court in Europe Where you could have had such a Triumph. The Countess of Effingham I am { 271 } greatly pleass'd with, I want to know more of her character. Her Friendly politness to my sister has made me partial to her. Introduce to me all your acquaintance and acquaint me with their characters.
Mr. Thaxter is doing very well here. He is greatly respected by all denominations. He is very attentive to his Business and very puntual. Tis a good sign when a young Gentleman of his profession is almost always excepting while the courts are siting to be found in his office or near it.15Forgive this Blot.
The Merchants in our seaports are breaking all to peices, three in Salem last week.16 Jo[seph] Otis last spring and his Brother about three weeks since to the supprize of almost every body. Miss Hannah I hear has secur'd her fortune. He has broke for a very large Sume, and what is dreadful is that he has ruin'd a Mr. Johnson who was bound for him for a large debt due to a Gentleman in England.17 He has a large Family and is now absent upon a voyage and could secure nothing. Every thing he has in the world is attach'd. The Family are greatly distress'd. I pity Mr. Otis exceedingly. The attack upon him was so sudden that he had not time to Secure any body at any distance. Some people think he can pay every body some that he owes much more than he is worth. I have not seen any of the Family yet. He has much owing to him, but tis suppos'd he will never be able to collect it half, and as to the Estate he has in his hands we well know that when tis known that a man is oblig'd to Sell, the thing offer'd will not bring him half as much as if this circumstance was not known. Harry18 is more mortified than I think he ought to be. He is in poor Health Spits Blood.
Cousin Johns Trunks are come from Holland. Many of the cloath will do for his Brothers. There are about eight or Ten Shirts some of them will do for himself, others for Charles. They all want a great deal of mending. Cousin Charles sends his Linnin to me to be done up. I chuse he should. I can now see that tis mended when it should be. I hire a Girl to help wash and Iron. I have not been able to do any thing about it this summer. Betsy has been in Boston, and I wish not to put too much upon Lucy. She has been my strength this summer. Betsy Cleaverly left us last spring and John the fall before. I have only Becca and a Boy of nine years old a Brother of Seths and Peters who us'd to live with us.19
We have had several Letters from Mr. Perkins since he arriv'd at Kentucka.20 He had a most dangerous fatigueing Journey. He travelled alone part of the way in constant fear of the Indians who had { 272 } cut of several Parties but a little before he sat out, and whos mangled Limbs he beheld as he pass'd along. He was one night alone in the woods, without any Shelter but a Blanket. He tied his Horse he says in a green Spot to feed, then wrap'd himself in his Blanket and with two Pistols in his hands sat him <self> down to guard himself and Horse from the wild Beast who were howling around and from the more Savage Indians who were thursting for his Blood. The roads were so deep by reason of great rains which had lately fallen that every Step he took for weeks was up to his Horses knees. He could go but one mile in an hour. For three weeks it thundred lighten'd and rain'd incessantly. In a few days after he set out, he overtook five hundred People in one company, who were going to Kentucka. A great number of them caught the Measles upon the road and tho the Weather was so bad they all did well. His Letter is a curiosity. I will get Betsy to copy it and send you. He is well and in good business.
Aunt Tufts is better but very low. She cannot bear her weight upon her Feet yet if you could see her you would not think She had much to bear neither.21 I never saw any body much thiner. I wish you would write to her. She think hard of it that you do not.22 Mr. Cranch is well and still in the Treasurys office, but he has almost got thro with the business, and what he will then do for imployment I know not. He begins to look anxious about it. He thinks of returning to watch work, but he has so long been imploy'd in Publick business that he feels dissagreably, when he thinks of it. Money is very scarce, it [at] present but I do not design to distress my self. Something unforeseen may turn up. We have more than half got thro with Billys college education. He has been a very prudent child has made us as little expence as he could possibly help.
We came here last night fatigued almost to death by coming a cross road from Haverhill. We find this Family all well and much grattifyed with their Letters and your kindness to your Neice.23 She as well as the other children are surprizingly grown. She is a fine girl. Sister is comfortable Supported, and enjoys fine Health. I ask'd cousin John yesterday, whether his Friends answer'd his expectations. He says they have greatly exceeded them. I could not bear to have him dissapointed. If attention will please him he must be pleass'd. He receives it as he ought, it does not puff him up with vanity. He is admir'd every where he goes for his modest behaviour. I want to know { 273 } what he thinks of us all. He enters into characters with a penetration that astonishes me. If I had anything in my disposition that I wish'd to hide I would not be acquainted with him. He is form'd for a Statesman. I shut him out of the room when I want to work. I can do none when he is in it. I can do nothing but look at him. Tis an expressable pleasure that I feel in tracing the countenance, the air, and manners of my dear Brother and Sister most agreable united in him. I do not wonder you were loth to part with him. I was very sorry he had not receiv'd our Letters24 before he came. Do send them to him that he may see that we did not promise more than we mean to perform and that we were not unmindful of him when abroad.
We returnd last evening by the way of Boston. I stay'd but one night at Lincoln. I heard more of Fashons and new dresses while I was there than any where upon my Journey. I was make heartily sick of Folly and flurtation airs. I could learn nothing certain about a relation of ours.26 She told me some dismal Storys about him. I believe he is strip'd of his Store and every thing he had in it, and for an infamous debt. Poor child I do not love to think of him.
I read part of your Letter to Mrs. Sam. Adams. She was much pleas'd with your descriptions, desir'd me to give her most affectionate regards to you. I thank you my Sister for the importance, you have given me. I find the knowledg of my having a Letter decriptive of your dress and reception at court will introduce me any where. I have been careful who I read it too. I Went to see Mr. and Mrs. Otis. I felt very dissagreably as I approach'd the House, the outside window Shutter of which were all shut up. They live up stairs. The knocker is taken of the Door for what I know not. Mrs. Otis and Betsy were gone out. He look'd out of the chamber window to see whether he might let me in or not. As I had no demands upon him but those of Friendship I was admitted. He looks very pale and dejected. He tells me General Warren, wants to sell his Farm at Milton, that he has offer'd it for Sale, but that he has refus'd two thousand pound which has been offer'd him by a Mr. Furgarson from the southward, and to be paid in Bills of Exchange. Mr. Otis thinks Such a price will never be offer'd him again. I am affraid they are embarress'd. He was sued at the spring court for an English debt of five hundred sterling. I have been talking with the Doctor about geting your debt. He says he knows nothing about it from you. She spoke to me about it the other { 274 } day, Said she wish'd to pay it in Something or other. The money she could not pay. Doctor Tufts Says as he had no orders nor any papers about it, He does not chuse to take it in any thing but money: but that I may do as I please. I cannot help having fears. She offer'd Linnins but I found I could buy them cheaper else where. If I had not I believe I should have venturd to have taken them and turn'd them into money for you. I wish you would give the Doctor directions what to do about it. She told me they had enough to pay all their debts if they could but Sell any of their places to their minds. This speech alarm'd me.
I design to send this Letter to Boston tomorrow to be put on board the first Ship that Sails. There are several almost ready. Thank you my Sister for my Share of the Sweetmeats.27 There is one Pot of citron. I shall keep some of that to put into cake for our children at college. I shall take some of your cinnamen to put into cakes for Cousin Charles. They have been so use'd to eat Something between their stated meals that they want a little bit yet. Charles says, you will make me Some, wont you aunt? Yes my dear Boy you shall have your quarter cake as well as your cousin. I have taken Some of the Sugar you left for the purpose. He took Some of it with him for his coffee. They like coffee better than Tea. I gave him a pound ready ground. [John was?]28 last thursday with his cousin at Mr. Fosters. We have got Mr. Foster to let your children dine there, whenever they are not invited else where. Tis the only time our children can see their Papa and uncles.
I hope my last Letter29 has reach'd you. Remember me most affectionatly to Mr. Adams and be assur'd of the Sincere Love of your Sister
[signed] Mary Cranch
You wont complain of short Letters from me I hope.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mrs Cranch August 14th. 1785.” Dft (MHi: C. P. Cranch Papers); notation in an unknown hand: “Mrs. Cranch to Mrs. Adams Aug. 14. 1785.” The Dft is incomplete. Major differences are noted below.
1. Mary Cranch to AA, 19 July, above.
2. The draft has “to His uncle Tufts or Mr. Cranch as he was consign'd to them.”
3. Cotton Tufts served as both a state senator and a justice of the peace throughout the 1780s, and he was active in the Massachusetts Medical Society and several other organizations (Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 12:497–498).
4. CA roomed in Hollis Hall, where his cousin William Cranch also had a room. CA's room was in the northeast corner on the ground floor (JQA, Diary, 1:316, note 3; Richard Cranch to JA, 13 Oct., Adams Papers).
5. The draft adds here: “He is much of a gallant I assure you. Not too much so neither—only pleasingly attentive to every Body.”
6. JQA arrived at the Cranches on the evening of 27 Aug. (JQA to AA2, 20 Aug., below; JQA, Diary, 1:313–314). The following paragraph could have been written between his arrival and his return to Boston, on 29 Aug., { 275 } or as late as the next paragraph (see note 7).
7. In the draft the following paragraph begins with the more specific “Cousin came last Saturday week,” which roughly dates the passage. JQA conferred with Harvard's president, Joseph Willard, on 31 Aug., and returned to Braintree on 3 Sept. (Saturday). He and Mary Cranch departed for Haverhill on 6 Sept. (JQA to AA2, 29 Aug., below; JQA, Diary, 1:317–319).
8. Mary Cranch evidently refers to CA as well as to her own son, William. In the draft she writes “our Sons.”
9. Caleb Gannet, steward of Harvard College from 1779 to 1818 (see JQA, Diary, 2:xi, and index).
10. The draft has “bad Sore upon her thigh.” Elizabeth Quincy Shaw was five.
11. AA to Mary Cranch, 8 May; to Lucy Cranch, 7 May; and to Elizabeth Cranch, 8 May, and 12 May, all above. The postscript to AA to Lucy Cranch mentions AA's present for the sisters, a large piece of silk.
12. AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, above.
13. AA's account of the Adams' presentation at St. James's Palace is in her 24 June letter to Mary Cranch, above. The closing quotation mark in the previous sentence is supplied from the draft of this letter. Cranch's ambiguous remark about JA's “influence in his own country,” is probably a reference to AA's quotation of Scripture (Mark 6:4) in her letter to Elizabeth Cranch, 12 May, above.
14. Mary Cranch evidently refers here to JA's triumph in persuading the Dutch to recognize the United States in 1782. The “two powerful Nations” pressuring the Dutch were presumably Great Britain and either France, or possibly Prussia.
15. At this point Mary Cranch heavily crossed out an entire line, making it illegible.
16. The draft does not have “three in Salem last week,” but adds: “Ned Green I suppose you know broke last spring. He is execrated by every Body. Mrs. Leveret put all her Business of settling her Husbands Estate in His Hands. He has collected above one thousand pound of it and [has] been living away as if he own'd it all, and tho repeatedly call'd upon would not be accountable to Mrs. Leverett for any thing. He is now shut up in an uper Chamber in his Brother Greens House. He has had a small shock of the Palsy since. I pity his poor wife from my Heart. Uncle Smith and aunt meet with trouble in their connections, as well as others. Tis the lot of mortals.”
17. The draft arranges essentially the same material on the Otises somewhat differently, adding that Joseph Otis was “of Barnstable,” and that the large debt due to a creditor in England was for “sixteen thousand pound.” Joseph Otis, Samuel Allyne Otis, and Hannah Otis were younger siblings of the late James Otis Jr., and of Mercy Otis Warren. Samuel's marriage to AA's and Mary Cranch's cousin, Mary Smith, made his bankruptcy a family tragedy.
18. Harrison Gray Otis, son of Samuel Allyne Otis. In the draft, Mary Cranch also mentions Harry after his father's misfortune, and then adds: “I cannot think what is the matter with all the young Fellows. One quarter of them at least are spiting Blood.”
19. The draft continues: “We have let our Farm to the Halves, to Shalhouse. His wife makes a good dairy woman.”
20. Thomas Perkins' letter to Elizabeth Cranch, dated “Danville, Kentucky, March 1st 1785,” which Mary Cranch summarizes in this paragraph, was published anonymously in The Boston Magazine, Sept. 1785, p. 342–345.
21. The draft ends at this point.
22. See AA to Lucy Tufts, AA to Lucy Tufts, 3 Sept., and note 1, below.
23. Louisa Catharine Smith.
24. No letters from the Cranches to JQA in 1785 have been found. Those to which Cranch refers may have been written around 25 April, when both Mary and Elizabeth wrote to AA, both above.
25. Mary Cranch arrived in Braintree on 15 Sept., after an overnight stay in Boston; JQA stayed two nights in Boston, reaching Braintree on the 16th (JQA, Diary, 1:324–325).
26. Their brother, William Smith Jr.; see Mary Cranch to AA, 25 April, above, and Catharine Smith to AA, 27 April, above, and 26 Oct., below.
27. See AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, above.
28. The text is lost in a tear; see JQA, Diary, 1:325 (15 September). JQA's cousin in this sentence could have been either Billy Cranch, visiting from Cambridge with CA, or Betsy Cranch, who apparently was living in the home of Boston merchant William Foster, as was her father, Richard (same, 1:318).
29. Of 19 July, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0088

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Cranch, Mary Smith
Date: 1785-08-15

Abigail Adams to Mary Smith Cranch

[salute] My dear sister

When I wrote you by Captain Dashood,1 I was obliged for want of time to break of before I had noticed certain parts of your Letter,2 some of which gave me anxiety, particularly that which related to a certain Gentleman, of whose present affairs, or future intentions we know nothing of. I had written to you upon this Subject but not having time to transcribe more than half my Letter, that part was omitted. I am not now sorry that it was, as neither he or his affairs in future will be of any material importance to us, for when this reaches you it will accompany a final dismission of him.3 I have for sometime observed a more than common anxiety in the appearence of your Neice, which I sometimes attributed to the absence of her Brother, but several times she had dropt hints as if returning to America soon, was not an object near her Heart and I knew that nothing had taken place here to attach her.4 A few days since, something arose which led her in conversation to ask me, if I did not think a Gentleman of her acquaintance a Man of Honour? I replied yes a Man of strict honour, and I wisht I could say that of all her acquaintance. As she could not mistake my meaning, instead of being affected as I apprehended she said, a breach of honour in one party would not justify a want of it in the other. I thought this the very time to speak. I said if she was conscious of any want of honour on the part of the Gentleman, I and every Friend she had in the world, would rejoice if she could liberate herself.
Here ended the conversation, she retired to her Chamber and I to mine. About two hours after she sent me a Billet, with the copy of two Letters,5 which she desired me to communicate if I thought proper. In the Billet she asks if her Father was included in the Friends I mentioned. If he was, she should be deliverd from a state of anxiety she had long known. She adds that she dreads his displeasure, and will not in future take a step unapproved by him. Thanks Heaven that her mind is not in so weak a state as to feel a partiality which is not returnd. That no state of mind is so painfull as that which admits, of fear, suspicion, doubt, dread and apprehension. “I have too long” says she “known them all—and I am determined to know them no longer.” You may be sure I did not fail of communicating { 277 } the whole to her Father, the result of which was a conversation with her. He told her that it was a serious matter, and that he hoped it was upon mature deliberation she acted, that he was a perfect stranger to the Gentleman, that his Character had been such as to induce him to give his consent not so freely as he could wish: but because he conceived her affections engaged. But if she had reason to question the strictest honour of the Gentleman, or supposed him capable of telling her that he had written Letters when he had not, he had rather follow her to her Grave, than see her united with him. She has not received but one Letter since last December, and that a short one, and by what I can learn only four since she left America.6 In that by Lyde7 he says that he had written to her and to her parents by way of Amsterdam. I doubted it when she told me, tho I kept silence, but I find now she is of the same opinion. She request that neither the Name or subject may ever be mentiond to her, and I hope none of her Friends will be so unwise as to solicit for him. The Palmers will be the most likely, but the die is cast.
It is not worth his while to make a Bustle. I dont think it will kill him. He would have been more solicitious to have kept his prize, if he had known the value of it. It is a maxim in a favorite Author of his, that a woman may forgive the man she loves an indiscretion, but never a neglect. But it is not merely a want of proper attention you well know my Dear sister which has been the source of anxiety to me, or to her either. I have always told him, that he was his own greatest enemy. Such he has proved. She appears much more cheerfull since she has unburthend her mind. There is however a degree of delicacy necessary to be preserved, between persons who have thought favourably of each other, even in their seperation. I do not wish that a syllable more may be said upon the subject, than just to vindicate her, and I believe very little will do that, in the Eye of the world.
We are agreeably enough situated here in a fine open square, in the middle of which is a circle inclosed with a neat grated fence; around which are lighted every night about sixty Lamps. The border next the fence is grass, the circle is divided into five grass plots. One in the midle is a square upon which is a statue of Gorge 2d. on horse back. Between each of the plots are gravel walks and the plots are filld with clumps of low trees thick together which is calld Shrubbery, and these are surrounded with a low Hedge, all together a pretty effect. I have got a set of servants which I hope are good, but time { 278 } must prove them. I shall lose a very agreeable companion in Mrs. Temple. She goes out this week. I have had more intimacy with her than with any other American, as she has been situated near to me, and has been very sociable. Mrs. Rogers is benevolence itself, it is impossible to know her without feeling a sisterly regard for her. I regret that she is 3 miles distant from me. Mrs. Atkinson too is agoing out in a few days, as well as Mr. Storer whom we shall greatly miss. Mrs. Hay resides at Hamstead about 4 miles out. Mrs. Copely is an agreeable woman whom I visit. Mrs. West also; wife to Mr. West the celebrated painter, is a friendly sensible Lady in whose company I expect a good deal of pleasure. Mr. Vassels family who reside at Clapham I have both visited, and received visits from. There is a Mrs. Johnson Lady to a Gentleman from Philadelphia who is setled here in Buisness that I have some acquaintance with. There are several others who have visited me, but almost everybody is out of Town. I am not however so solitary as at Auteuil. They tell me I shall get attached to England by and by, but I do not believe it—the people must Love my country and its inhabitants better first. They must discover a more amicable temper towards us. Yet there are worthy good individuals here whom I Esteem.
What you wrote with respect to my Mother gave me uneasiness.8 I am sorry she had not spoken her mind before I went away. I know Mr. Adams has written to her9 desireing her to call upon the dr for what she may want. As to Mr. Adams's having every thing which belong'd to her in his Hands, I know not the meaning of it. The estate which was left him by his Father which did not amount to more than 30 acres of land; I know she had her thirds in, and it was never divided; but the income of it could not amount to much deducting taxes. I will send by Mr. Storer 2 Guineys to be given to you for her, which you will take a receit for, and I will take some opportunity to mention it to Mr. Adams and take his orders about it. I should have done it before now, but he has been so engaged with publick buisness and private applications that I hated to worry him as I knew this would. And then there were at the time, other things in the Letter, that I did not wish to trouble him with.
I hope my son has arrived before now, tho the French Consul who calld yesterday upon us with Letters from some of Mr. Adams friends in Boston brought no news of the May pacquet tho he left Boston the fourth of july. I have not yet got a line by Capt. Callihan. I cannot but think I must have some letters from some of you.
{ 279 }
I have been to Mr. Elworthys in hopes to find Letters but not one can I hear of. From thence to the post office. Mr. Storer got his on Saturday, this is tuesday and I hear nothing of any. The servant came yesterday to me for two Guineys and half to pay the postage of a packet of Letters from America. Well now thought I we have got a fine Bugget. I ran and got the money, and down I went in full expectation, and when I came, behold it was a pacquet from New York for Col. Smith, who being gone a journey had orderd all his letters to be left here. One of the Bundles contains the New York papers up to 6 of july, but alass no mention of the arrival of the May pacquet, which makes me not a little anxious: for supposing all well it must have been at sea for more than six weeks.
I have sent by Captain Lyde a few Books amongst the children which you will see distributed as directed. What letters I cannot get ready to send by him Mr. Storer will take. Continue my dear sister to write me particularly tell me all, and every thing about my Friends my Neighbours, &c.
If an opportunity should offer I wish you to send me a doz. of Chocolate, it must be put in some captains chest.
Esther is well now tho she has been very sick since she came to England. I keep her intirely about my person so that she has no hard work of any kind to do. She sews and dresses my hair and Nabbys. She has not even to sweep a chamber, as that falls into the department of the House maid, and is considerd as beneath a Ladies Maid. I do not say this because she is not willing to do it, or any thing else, but as there was one person whom I must have in that capacity; I chose it should be she. They are more particular here I think than in France.10
Remember me to every body who inquires after me. Mrs. Temple is to visit me to day for the last time before she goes out.
I shall endeavour to write by every opportunity. Love to Mr. Cranch and my dear Neices to whom I shall write if I have time. Let me know how Charles succeeded! Adieu. We have company to dine to day, and I must quit my pen to dress.
Believe me most tenderly & affectionately Yours
[signed] A Adams
Mr. Bulfinch was well a few days since when he calld here. He has been here several time[s]. I met Master George Apthorp in Kensington Gardens the other day, he was so grown that I did not know him at first. My compliment to his Mamma and sisters.11
{ 280 }
RC (MWA: Abigail Adams Corr.)
1. On 24 June, above.
2. Of 25 April, above.
3. Neither any rough draft of AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, containing AA's remarks about Royall Tyler, nor any MS version of AA2's “final dismission” of Tyler has been found. The only text of AA2's letter to Tyler appears, undated, in Grandmother Tyler's Book, p. 76, and is printed above, at [ca. 11 August.]
4. This remark ignores William Stephens Smith's recent interest in AA2, which may not yet have been reciprocated by her. AA's purpose here is to declare to her American friends that AA2 broke off her engagement with Tyler only because he did not correspond regularly with her, and because she believed that he was not being truthful with her. Whatever AA2 thought of Smith in August, however, AA was most aware that he was attracted to AA2. AA later wrote to JQA that when she saw Smith's interest in AA2, she told him that AA2 was still “under engagements” with Royall Tyler. Smith then thought it prudent to take his trip to Prussia. See notes 6 and 7; William Stephens Smith to AA, 5 Sept., below; and AA to JQA, 16 Feb. 1786 (Adams Papers).
5. Neither the billet nor “the copy of two Letters,” probably AA2 to Tyler, and perhaps AA2 to Cotton Tufts (see AA to Tufts, 18 Aug., below), or possibly to Richard Cranch, have been found.
6. AA2 returned these letters to Tyler about this time (see AA2 to Tyler, [ca. 11 Aug.], above); none have been found.
7. This letter, not found, was probably written in late April, the date of several other letters sent from Braintree and Boston to the Adamses by Capt. Lyde that are printed above. Tyler's reference to his writing the Adamses by way of Amsterdam may be to Col. Beriah Norton, who carried Cotton Tufts' 11 April letter to AA, above. See Mary Cranch to AA, 25 April, above.
8. See Mary Cranch to AA, 25 April, and notes 7–9.
9. No letters from JA to his mother have been found.
10. That is, AA's English servants were even more particular than her French servants in performing only those duties traditionally associated with their positions. See AA to Mary Cranch, 5 Sept. 1784, above.
11. Probably George Henry Apthorp, son of James Apthorp, one of nine Braintree loyalists who were declared “Inimical to the United States” on 9 June 1777 (John Wentworth, The Wentworth Genealogy, 1870, 1:300–301, 305; Braintree Town Records, p. 481–482). On the Apthorps of Braintree, see JQA to AA2, 19 Sept., below.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0089

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Shaw, Elizabeth Smith
Recipient: Peabody, Elizabeth Smith Shaw
Date: 1785-08-15

Abigail Adams to Elizabeth Smith Shaw

[salute] My dear sister

I have been situated here for near six weeks. It is one of the finest squares in London. The air is as pure as it can be so near a Great city. It is but a small distance from Hide Park, round which I sometimes walk, but oftner ride. It resembles Boston Common, much larger and more beautified with Trees. On one side of it is a fine river. St. James Park and Kensington Gardens are two other fashonable walks which I am very sensible I ought to improve oftner than I do. One wants society in these places. Mrs. Temple is the only person near me with whom I can use the freedom of calling upon to ride or walk with me, and she to my no small regret I am going to lose. Mrs. Rogers is an American and one of the most Benevolent women in the world: but is 3 miles distant from me. A sister of hers is like to be setled near you I hear. Visit her my sister, she is the counterpart of { 281 } the amiable Mrs. Rogers. I have some acquaintance with her, she is the Friend and correspondent of your Neice. Mrs. Rogers and she too, have too much of “the tremblingly alive all over”2 to be calculated for the rough Scenes of Life. Mrs. Hay resides out at Hamstead about 4 miles from London. We visit, but they have such a paltry custom of dinning here at night, that it ruins that true American Sociability which only I delight in. Polite circles are much alike throughout Europe. Swift's journal of a modern fine Lady3 tho written 60 years ago is perfectly applicable to the present day, and tho noted as the changeable sex; in this Scene of dissapation they have been steady.
I shall never have much society with these kind of people, for they would not like me, any more than I do them. They think much more of their titles here than in France. It is not unusual [to find people of the highest rank there, the] best bred and the politest people. [If they have an equal share of pride, they kn]ow better how to hide it. [Until I came here, I had no idea what a] National and illiberal inveteracy the English have against their better behaved Neighbours, and I feel a much greater partiality for them than I did whilst I resided amongst them. I would recommend to this Nation a little more liberality and discernment. Their contracted sentiments leads them to despise all other Nations: perhaps I should be chargable with the same narrow sentiments if I give America the preference over these old European Nations. In the cultivation of the arts and improvement in manufactories they greatly excell us, but we have native Genious capacity and ingenuity equal to all their improvements, and much more general knowledge diffused amongst us. You can scarcly form an Idea how much superiour our common people as they are termd, are to those of the same rank in this country. Neither have we that servility of Manners which the distinction between nobility and citizens gives to the people of this Country. We tremble not, neither at the sight or Name of Majesty. I own that I never felt myself in a more contemptable situation than when I stood four hours together for a gracious smile from Majesty. Witness to the anxious solicitude of those around me for the same mighty Boon. I however had a more dignified honour as his Majesty deigned to salute me.4
I have not been since to the drawing room, but propose going to the next. As the company are chiefly out of Town the ceremony will not be so tedious.
As to politicks, the English continue to publish the most abusive bare faced falshoods against America that you can conceive of. Yet glaring as they are, they gain credit here, and shut their Eyes against { 282 } a friendly and liberal intercourse. Yet their very existance depends upon a friendly union with us. How the pulse of the Ministry beat, time will unfold, but I do not [promise or] wish to myself a long continuance here. [Such is the temper of] the two Nations towards each other, that [if we have not peace] we must have war. We cannot resign the intercourse and quit each other. I hope however that it will not come to that alternative.5
Captain Callihan arrived last week from Boston which place he left 4 of july. I was not a little mortified in not receiving a single Letter by him. I sought for them in every place where I thought it probable they might be. I am not without hope that the Captain himself may yet have some in his private care as the letters in the bag generally are landed at Dover and sent by land several days before the ship gets up, but as Captain Lyde sails directly I must finish my Letters and send them this afternoon.
I am not a little anxious for my son, as we have the News papers from New York up to july 6th and he was not then arrived. He sailed the 21 of May, and must have a very tedious passage. I shall wait very impatiently for the next packet. I had hoped that he was in Boston by that time.
How did Charles succeed, I want very much to know? And how Tommy comes on. I have sent him a Book and one to each of my neices and Nephews. I wish it was in my power to do more for my Friends, but thus it is. We did not bring the last year about upon our anual allowence, and very far were we from being extravagent.
Remember me kindly to Mr. Shaw, Mr. Thaxter and all our Friends and believe me most affectionately
[signed] Your sister
RC (DLC: Shaw Family Papers); notation on the first sheet: “London 15 August 1785.” Printed: AA, Letters, ed. CFA, 1840, p. 304–306. Some of the MS has been obscured by opaque tape, and is supplied from the printed edition, in brackets.
1. The “near six weeks” in AA's opening sentence, counting from the date of the Adamses moving to Grosvenor Square on 4 July, supplies the dateline.
2. The editors have supplied the closing quotation mark. Abigail Bromfield Rogers and Daniel Denison Rogers left Boston for Europe in 1782, and returned in 1786. Abigail Rogers' sister Sarah married Eliphalet Pearson, who spent part of his career in Andover, near Haverhill. JQA came to know this couple well at Harvard in 1786. See vol. 4:343, and note 1; JQA, Diary, 2:96, and note 1. This paragraph, from “Mrs. Rogers is an American” to “rough Scenes of Life,” is omitted from AA, Letters, ed. CFA.
3. Jonathan Swift's “Journal of a Modern Lady” was published in 1729.
4. See AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, above.
5. All the text from this point to the signature in omitted from AA, Letters, ed. CFA.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0090

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Tufts, Cotton
Date: 1785-08-18

Abigail Adams to Cotton Tufts

[salute] My dear sir

Captain Lyde is to Sail this week. I will not let him go without a few lines to you, tho Captain Callihan has arrived without a Single Letter from my Friends. Mr. Adams received 3 by Monssieur Le Tomb, from his Boston Friend's.1 If my son had been lucky enough to have had such a passage as I hoped he would, I should have heard of his arrival by Captain Callihan or the New York packet which saild the 7 of july. He left Lorient the 21 of May, and must have a very tedious passage. I am not yet without hopes that the French packet which does not leave New York untill the 20th may, will2 bring intelligence from him.
I find that our reception here had not reachd Boston when Captain Callihan left it. Tho treated by the Court with as much civility as could have been expected, it has not Screened us, or our Country from the base falshoods, and bilingsgate of hireling Scriblers or the envenomd pen of Refugees. Their evident design has been to get Mr. A. to notice them, and to replie to their peices. They have tried every string. Sometimes they will not even allow him the Rank of Minister, then they will represent the title in a ridiculous light, calling him commercial Agent, proscribed Rebel, snearing at him for having taken Dr. Price as Father confessor, because we have usually attended the Drs. meeting. Sometimes they have asserted that the king treated him with the utmost disdain, at others that Lord Carmathan and the American plenipo, were at the utmost varience, that the foreign ministers would not associate with him, that he could not give a publick dinner because Congress paper would not pass, and tradesmen would not credit, that the Secratary to the Legation could neither read or write, but that his principal had sent him to an evening school to qualfy him, that Hearing the Honble. Mrs. Adams's Carriage call'd was a little better than going in an old chaise to market with a little fresh butter; in short the publication which they have daily publishd have been a disgrace to the Nation.3 Now and then a peice would appear lashing them for their Scurility, but they are callous, and refuse to publish in favour of America, as I have been told or rather demand such a price for publishing as to amount to a prohibition. Mr. A has never noticed them.
The Massachusetts Navigation act has struck them dumb, for tho { 284 } 3 days publishd not a syllable of abuse has appeard; by a vessel which arrived yesterday from Virgina it is said, that assembly has passt similar acts and prohibited any tobaco being exported in British vessels,4 which will essentially affect the revenu, by the British navigation act. No vessels but British and American have been permitted to bring tobaco. The duty paid here last year upon tobaco, amounted to four hundred and Eighty two thousand pounds. It is supposed that 3 hundred thousand pounds worth was smuggled. The severity of the Laws against Smuggling has led them to suppose they should collect seven hundred thousand pounds this year. Three Virgina vessels which went not long since to the West India Islands being sent away without permission of unloading have raised the old Spirit amongst them. Thus is this Nation driving us into greatness, obliging us to become frugal, to retrench our Luxeries, to build a Navy to have a great Number of Seamen, and by and by to become a terrour to evil doers.5 The very measures they are taking to prevent it, will hasten it. Mr. A. soon after his arrival communicated to the Marquiss of Carmarthan the various subjects of his mission agreeable to his instructions. He had some conferences with him, in all of which the Marquis discoverd a liberality of sentiment and a mind open to conviction. Through him these matters pass to the minister of State.6 Yet not a syllable of replie to any one thing proposed has been returnd. It is thought they mean to wait, and see what effects the propositions7 are like to have in Ireland. If they can oblige the Irish to swallow them without much struggle, they will then be ready for America. But by the present appearence Ireland determines not to be triffled with, and it is thought best not to push these matters at present. If the States empower Congress to regulate their commerce it will have happy concequences for at present, there are those who have the ear of the ministry and persuade them that there is not union sufficient in the States to accomplish any thing jointly. Every little petty disturbance is represented as a dissolution of all government.
It is hoped here by the Friends of America, and there are many such yet, that the measures which are taken there, will be well weighed and matured, that the legislators will not suffer any narrow contracted sentiments and principals to operate, but that they will view objects upon a large Scale looking forward to concequences, rearing the Edifice upon a rock that will not be shaken.8
You will consider some parts of my politicks as confidential Sir and { 285 } excuse my being so buisy in them, but I am so connected with them, that I cannot avoid being much interested.
With regard to our private affairs sir I wrote you by my son9 and nothing new occurs at present to my mind. Mr. Elworthy presented your Bill which was paid upon Sight, and Mr. Storer who is soon to sail for America will receive 12 Guineys at New York from Dr. Crosby, being money paid upon the dr account here, which money he will deliver to you.10 We do not find living here, less expensive than in Paris I assure you sir, but there is one comfort that we cannot go to Kings bench11 untill our commission is vacated. But we should soon be in a condition for that place if we were disposed to take the credit which is offerd us. Notwithstanding all the abuse in the papers we receive none from any other quarter, tradesmen are as civil and as obliging as in any country, and there are constant solicitations from them to Supply us. But I chuse no credit, so long as we have money we shall pay it, and when we cannot live here we will come home. Go to Market again with fresh Butter.
I suppose sir you will receive by this vessel, two Letters which may supprize you.12 Mrs. Cranch will communicate to you what I have written to her. It is a matter I believe concluded upon after long deliberation and mature reflection. The former assent of her Father seems to have sometime hindred her from taking this step, and tho perfectly agreable to our wishes, we had never expresst them, nor scarcly ever mentiond the name of the person. Being once free, I believe she will in future proceed with a caution purchased by experience. You will not be very well pleasd with the commission,13 yet as it was her own act and the choise she has made is so wise, I hope you will comply. I have scarcly room upon my paper to present my duty to my dear Aunt or to Assure you how affectionately I am Yours
[signed] AA
Since I finishd my Letter Mr. A has received Letters from France from Mr. Jefferson,14 inclosing the two Arrets of the King of France, prohibiting english Manufactories, which make them grumble here very much, but it will all work for good to us. It has been publishd here in the papers that our “good and Great Ally” had shut us out of the French West Indias, whereas Mr. Jefferson writes no such thing had taken place, but that more of our vessels were now at the French West Indias than ever was known before, and that he is not without hopes of obtaining particular priviledges for us. What an impolitick { 286 } Nations this, it has been hinted that this Court are striving to set the Algerines to war with us. Congress sent important papers by a Mr. Lambe to the minister more than 3 months ago. No such man has arrived and their Hands are tied for want of this intelligence. Nobody can tell what is become of him or his papers. He had been tendering his Services to congress to go there as consul.15 They sent him to the ministers to do as they thought best—but no Papers or Man has come. Thus you see sir how the most salutary measures may be obstructed and parties blamed when they have done what was their duty and exerted themselves to the utmost for the publick benefit. Col. Smith has taken a tour to Berlin to see the Grand Review which commences the 21 of the month, he appears a Gentleman solid sedate tho warm and active when occasion requires. He is sensible and judicious, dignified sentiments of his own Country and a high sense of honour appear to govern his actions. Mr. A is very happy in him.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mrs. Adams London Aug 1785 recd Sept.” The postscript is written on a separate fragment of a full sheet of paper.
1. On 14 Aug., Philippe André Joseph de Letombé, the French consul in Boston, called on JA at Grosvenor Square with letters from Samuel Adams, 2 July, and Thomas Cushing, 3 July (both in Adams Papers; see AA2 to JQA, 26 Aug., below).
2. Thus in MS; “will” is written above the line. AA perhaps intended to write “untill the 20th [July] may bring,” and then, in reading over the letter, mistook “may” for “May” and added “will.”
3. JA was identified as “the same person who was proscribed as a REBEL,” in the Daily Universal Register of 9 June. On 10 June the same newspaper stated that his reception at Court had been “cool,” and on 14 June it reported: “It is whispered the celebrated Dr. Price is political father confessor to the new Plenipo, and has already given him absolution.” Similar attacks and attempts to discredit JA appear in the Daily Universal Register of 6, 21 and 22 July.
4. Virginia levied a 5 shilling per ton duty on all goods imported in English ships; this act went into effect in October (William Waller Hening, ed., The Statutes at Large; being a Collection of all the Laws of Virginia, Richmond and Philadelphia, 1809–1823, 13 vols., 12:32; Jensen, The New Nation, p. 299).
5. AA appears to paraphrase Scripture here, perhaps Romans 13:3, or 1 Peter 2:14. Several verses in Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Psalms also speak of “evil-doers.”
6. AA probably intends the prime minister, William Pitt. On 6 Aug., JA wrote Pitt to request a conference. Pitt replied on the 16th, agreeing to meet the following day, but that meeting was evidently postponed to 24 Aug., when JA had his first meeting with the prime minister (JA to Pitt, 6 Aug. [LbC], Pitt to JA, 16 Aug., both Adams Papers; JA to John Jay, 25 Aug., PCC, No. 84, V, f. 605–619, printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, 2:455–462).
7. See AA2 to JQA, 4 July note 31, above.
8. Luke 6:48; Matthew 7:24–25.
9. On 2 May, above.
10. On 5 March, JA accepted Tufts' bill of £50, and directed Richard & Charles Puller, bankers in London, to pay that amount to James Elworthy, and charge the sum to his Amsterdam bankers, on his account with the United States (JA to Elworthy, 5 March, to Richard & Charles Puller, 5 March, both LbCs, Adams Papers). On 1 Jan., Tufts had received £70 lawful Massachusetts currency for his £50 bill of exchange, drawn “in favour of James Elworthy” (account entry in Tufts to John Adams, 10 Aug., above). Dr. Ebenezer Crosby owed the twelve guineas to JA for a medical instrument that JA had recently purchased for him (Crosby to JA, 14 April, Adams Papers).
11. King's Bench Prison in Southwark, where debtors as well as criminals were held (Wheatley, London Past and Present).
12. The identity of these letters, concerning { 287 } Royall Tyler, is not certain, but see AA2 to Royall Tyler, [ca. 11 Aug.], and AA to Mary Cranch, 15 Aug., both above.
13. Probably to recover a miniature of AA2, her letters, and certain other items, from Royall Tyler. See Tufts to AA, 13 April 1786, and AA to Tufts, 22 July 1786 (both Adams Papers).
14. Jefferson to JA, 10 Aug., and perhaps also 6 Aug. (Jefferson, Papers, 8:361–362, 347–353).
15. The JCC says nothing about Lamb's seeking the position of consul to the Barbary States; see AA to Jefferson, 12 Aug., and note 5, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0091

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Date: 1785-08-20

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams 2d

This morning we left <Hartford> New Haven, accompanied by Mr. Broome, and Mr. Brush, who wishing to take a ride to Hartford, took this opportunity, which is a very agreeable Circumstance to us. We at first intended to have gone directly to Hartford this day. But as I had a Letter for Genl. Parsons,2 one of the aldermen of this City, and as we were told it was worth ou[r while to us]e this road, which is only 2 miles longer than the other, we [determined t]o go no further than this, to-day: it is only 28 miles from New Haven. This is a much smaller place than that, but I think full as agreeably situated. It stands upon the side, of an hill on the banks of the Connecticut River, which deserves the poet's lays as much as ever the Rhine, the Danube, or the Tiber did. Many parts of the Country through which we have past, and especially the banks of this River, are highly cultivated, and I was never so much delighted with the appearance of any Country, probably because, I never felt so much interested, in any of those I have travell'd through. Genl. Parsons spent the Evening with us. I feel a peculiar veneration for him, because he told me, he was three years at Harvard College, with my father, and was at that time intimate with him. We proceed to-morrow, for Hartford.
It is only 14 miles from hence to Middleton, so that we got here, before 9 o'clock this morning. Part of the road, is along by the side of the River, but some times you leave it, to ascend an hill from whence there are some of the most beautiful Prospects I ever beheld. There are several such on this Road. Three miles before this we came through, the town of Weathersfield, which is greatly celebrated for the Singers, it produces. Indeed all over Connecticut, they pay great attention to their singing at meeting. Mr. Chaumont went with us { 288 } this afternoon; and as soon as the Service was over, he told me he had been struck with the singing. I own I was very agreeably, although I had already been told, of the fact. Here I have seen Coll. Wadsworth, with whom I suppose you are not acquainted, and Mr. Trumbull,3 with whom I had a great deal of Conversation this afternoon. I wish I could have an opportunity of forming a nearer acquaintance; but cannot be gratified, as we propose leaving Hartford to-morrow.
We have rode 16 miles this afternoon: for we did not leave Hartford till 4 o'clock. Mr. Broome, and Mr. Brush, left us in the morning, and return'd to New Haven. We went in the forenoon out with Coll. Wadsworth, to his farm, 2 or 3 miles out of the City. He there shew us a number of the largest oxen we ever saw: they really appeared monstrous to us, yet, Cattle of this size, are not uncommon, we are told in this State. What such an amazing difference, in the same kind of animals, is owing to I cannot conceive. We dined with Coll. Wadsworth, and were not able to ride further this afternoon, on account of the weather which is very warm.
Thirty six miles nearer home, than yesterday, and at length arrived into the State itself. At about 9 this morning, we cross'd Connecticut River, near Springfield, where it serves as a barrier between the two States.4 Two days more will carry us I hope to the town [Boston]. The roads in this State, are much rougher, and more disagreeable than the greatest part of those in Connecticut. I have been known at two or three taverns, by my resemblance to my father, who has travelled these roads more than once.5
We have proceeded, only 31 miles to-day owing to several circumstances; we shall have 42 to-morrow, an hard days work, but I hope we shall perform it, if the weather is good. The roads as we are told, and as we may naturally suppose, grow better as we come nearer to the Capital. We came through Worcester this afternoon, and a[re] now but 6 miles from it.6 This I think is where your Pappa studied Law, and the appearance of the town pleased me very much; I wished to stop there this Night, but it would have made our Journey of to-morrow, too long.
{ 289 }
The heart of the most loyal frenchmen, has not felt this day, so great, and so real a pleasure as mine has. Our motives are certainly very different. Their's because it is the jour de fête, de Son bon Roi; (all kings of France you know are bons Rois)7 mine, the idea, of being after a seven years absence, return'd to my own dear home, and amidst the friends of my Infancy, and those who are dear to me by the ties of blood. My Satisfaction cannot be now complete. The absence, of two of the best Parents in the World, and of a Sister on whose happiness my own depends, can certainly be compensated by nothing; but I will think as Little of this as possible, and turn all my ideas to pleasing Subjects. I have not yet told you how I got here. This morning, before 4 o'clock, we got under way, and by riding till about 9 this evening, we got to Bracket's tavern. There was no lodging to be had there: the house, was full, as there are now a great number of foreigners in town. We then came down, to a Mrs. Kilby's in State Street, where we have obtained one Room between us both. It is now eleven o'clock, and I am much fatigued: so I must lay down my pen for the present.
The first thing I did this morning, was to go to Uncle Smith's. Betsey8 came to the door, and as you may well suppose I knew her immediately: but she did not know me. Your uncle was at his Store; and Mr. William set out this morning, on a journey to the Eastward.9 Your Aunt ask'd abundance of Questions about you. I went down to Uncle Smith's store. He knew me as soon as he saw me, and immediately enquired when I arrived. Upon my telling him, last night, I suppose, said he, you could not find the way to our house. I found here all my trunks, both those that were sent from Holland, and those I embark'd at New-York. But I enquired in vain for Letters from you: none were to be found, so I am now obliged to set out on fresh hopes; and though I have received but four short pages from you, since I left Auteuil,10 yet I have no doubt but you have been as punctual as myself; and I am sure, if all I have written, affords you half the pleasure, one of your Letters does to me, I shall never regret my time. I Dined with Uncle Cranch, Lucy and Betsey were both in town. We sat, and look'd at one another; I could not speak, and they could only ask now and then a Question concerning you. How much more expressive this Silence, than any thing we could have said. I am glad { 290 } to see you, will do for a Stranger, and a person quite indifferent to us; but may I always find a silent reception from my real friends. Don't think I am grown too sentimental; I felt so impatient to see my brother that I would not wait till to-morrow, and went in the afternoon with Mr. Smith and your Cousins, to Cambridge. Charles and your Cousin, are both well; but I spoilt Charles for Conversation by giving him your Letters;11 he was so eager to read them, that he was employ'd a great part of the time we were there. He comes on well in his Studies, and, what is of great advantage, to a Student, has for his Chambermate, a youth, whose thirst for knowledge is insatiable. His name is Walker. He <studied> was about six months in Mr. Shaw's family, and it will be sufficient to say that all our friends, are much pleased with their being together at College. And I am perswaded it will afford peculiar Satisfaction to our Parents, who well know how much benifit is derived from the Spur of Emulation. I hope I shall be as fortunate as my Cousin, and brother have been, when I enter College, myself. To-morrow we go to Braintree.
At length all the ideas, which have been for so long a time been playing upon my imagination, are realized, and now I may truly say,

A tous les coeurs bien nés que la patrie est chere!

Qu'avec ravissement, je revois ce séjour!12

I left Boston early in the afternoon, but stopp'd on the road at several places; so that it was eight before I got here. Mr. Toscan, (the Vice, as you used to call him)13 and Mr. Chaumont came 4 or 5 miles out of town with me. You remember your Pappa gave Mr. Chaumont a Letter for the former governor,14 Who has occupied, Mr. Swan's house in Roxbury, all this Summer. He deliver'd it this afternoon. And I thought this might be a proper time to pay him my visit too. He is at this time troubled with the gout, but not enough to prevent his seeing Company. From thence we went and drank tea at Mr. Hichborne's, Summer Seat, (for Summer Seats are high in vogue now). He was not at home himself, so that I saw only his Lady. There was considerable Company.15 There I left the gentlemen, and proceeded to Genl. Warren's. There I was cordially received. Poor Charles, is going again to try if he can recover any portion of Health. He went last Winter to the West Indies, and found himself much better, but has pined away again since he return'd, and intends now to sail in the Course of the Week for Europe: he proposes spending the Winter { 291 } at Lisbon. My wishes for him are much greater than my hopes. My last Stage, was at Uncle Adams's, there I saw our aged honour'd Grandmamma, and I am perswaded, I have been more heartily welcomed by no person. The Question, which is so often repeated to me, When will they return? was one, of the first she ask'd me. I could only answer with a sigh, which she understood as well, as if I had spoken. May she live to see the joyful day! It will be an happy one to her, and then may she never wish for your return again! When I arrived here,16 I perceived that I had left your Packet for Mr. Tyler, and the letters for your aunt, at Boston in my trunk. I was sorry it happened so; but the Circumstance was to my own Advantage, for it made them all more sociable, than they would have been; for as one of our Cousins told me, they have now time enough to talk with me, but your Letters will not last so long, and therefore when they have them, they must make as much of them as they can. Miss Eunice Paine, has spent some weeks here, and Cousin Betsey has spent a great part of the Summer in Boston; where she is learning to play upon the harpsichord.
I have attended the meeting twice to-day. I could not have supposed that the parson's17 voice, and looks and manner, would seem so familiar to me. I thought while he was preaching, that I had heard him every week ever since I left Braintree. As I look'd round the meeting house every face, above 30, I knew; scarcely one, under 20. This did not at all surprize me, as I had already made the same observations with Respect to persons of our own family. As for Billy Cranch: I might have been an hundred times in Company with him, without having the most distant suspicion who he was, though I should at first sight, have known his father and mother, wherever I might have seen them. This afternoon I went down, and view'd the well known habitation. My Sensations on this occasion cannot be described, but they were such that I did not stay two minutes in the House, nor would it give me the least pain, was I forbidden to enter it again, before your return. I went to the Library, and look'd over the books, which are in good Condition; only somewhat musty and dusty, which shows that their owner is not with them.
My Paper bids me close, but it shall not be for long. Compliments, are useless to those we love. Your's.
[signed] J. Q. Adams
RC (Adams Papers). The text is written on eight small pages numbered “49” to “56”; see the descriptive note to JQA to AA2, [12] May, above. Small fragments of { 292 } the text have been lost at folds and edges, and through the tearing away of the seal. The MS was water damaged in the wreck of the ship Ceres, which brought its courier, Nathaniel Barrett of Boston, to France. See AA2 to JQA, 5 Dec., below.
1. Middletown, Conn.
2. The letter was from Connecticut congressman William Samuel Johnson, whom JQA had met in Fairfield on 17 Aug. (JQA, Diary, 1:306, 308–309). Samuel Holden Parsons, Harvard 1756, had served in the Continental army throughout the war, reaching the rank of major general. JA wrote to Parsons at least once a few years after college; in 1776 they became regular correspondents. See Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 14:50–73; JQA, Diary, 1:309, note 2; and JA, Papers, 1:46–47; 4:index.
3. John Trumbull, the Connecticut poet and lawyer, had studied law with JA in 1773–1774, had written the epic poem McFingal in 1775, and was regarded, in 1785, as the leader of the Connecticut Wits (JQA, Diary, 1:310, note 1; DAB).
4. JQA also makes this curious statement in his Diary (Diary, 1:311), perhaps because the river nearly coincided with the point where his particular route crossed the state border.
5. JQA's Diary suggests Scott's Tavern in Palmer, Mass., fifteen miles east of Springfield, as one location where he was recognized as JA's son. JQA and Chaumont probably reached either Western (now Warren) or Brookfield, Mass., this evening (same, 1:311, note 3).
6. The travelers probably lodged in Shrewsbury, Mass., this evening (same, 1:312, note 1).
7. In his Diary, JQA notes this as the festival day of St. Louis, France's “good king” Louis IX, the pious crusader monarch of the thirteenth century (same, 1:312).
8. Elizabeth Smith, youngest daughter of AA's aunt and uncle, Elizabeth Storer Smith and Isaac Smith Sr., was fifteen; she would not have seen JQA since he was twelve or younger, and she only nine.
9. In his Diary, JQA records that he did see Isaac Smith's son William before William's departure (same, 1:312).
10. Not found. This was probably AA2's “No. 1,” which JQA received on 20 May, in Lorient; it was probably written about five or six days earlier, at Auteuil (JQA to AA2, 17 May, above, under “Friday eve: May 20th”).
11. Not found.
12. Voltaire, Tancrède, III, i (JQA, Diary, 1:313, note 1).
13. Jean Joseph Marie Toscan was currently the French vice-consul in Boston (Abraham P. Nasatir and Gary Elwyn Monell, French Consuls in the United States, Washington, 1967, p. 567–568).
14. JA's letter to John Hancock, dated 14 April, merely recommended Chaumont to Hancock (LbC, Adams Papers).
15. Included in the party at the home of Boston lawyer Benjamin Hichborn was Lt. Gov. Thomas Cushing (JQA, Diary, 1:313, and note 4).
16. The Cranch's home in Braintree.
17. Rev. Anthony Wibird.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0092

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Jefferson, Thomas
Date: 1785-08-21

Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson

[salute] Dear sir

The Gentleman who is so kind as to convey this to you is from Carolina, his Name is Smith.1 He is a distant relation of mine, tho I have not the pleasure of much acquaintance with him. He has resided in England some time, and bears a Good Character here. Give me leave sir to introduce him to your notice.
Mr. Short left us last twesday for the Hague, I did myself the honour of writing to you by him.2
{ 293 }
I find by the last papers from New York that Mr. Rutledge is appointed Minister at the Hague; in the room of Mr. Levingstone who declined the embassy.3 There is no mention made of a Secretary.
You will probably see our Massachusetts Navigation act before this reaches you; it has struck the hireling scriblers dumb. There has been less abuse against the Americans in the papers since the publication of it; than for a long time before.
Ireland has exerted herself,4 and Pharoah and his host are overthrown. The Courier of Europe will doubtless give you the debates. The july packet arrived last week. Tho she left New York the seventh of july, she brought not a line of publick dispatch. A private Letter or two for Col. Smith, the contents of which we cannot know; as he is absent upon a Tour to Berlin.
I was much dissapointed to find that my son had not arrived when the packet saild. As the French packet sails sometime after the English, I am not without hopes that I may hear by that, and I will thank you sir to give me the earliest intelligence if she brings any account of the May packet.
Be so good as to present my Regards to Col. Humphries. Mr. Short gives us some encouragement to expect him here this winter. My Love to Miss Jefferson, to whom also my daughter desires to be rememberd. Our5 good old Friends the Abbes, I would tender my Regards. If I could write French; I would have Scribled a line to the Abbe Arnou.
I think Madam Helvitius must be very melancholy now Franklin as she used to call him is gone. It is said here by a Gentleman lately from Philadelphia, that they determine to elect the doctor president upon his arrival, as Mr. Dickinsons office expires in october.6
In my Letter by Mr. Short I had taken the Liberty to request you to procure for me two or 3 articles, and to convey them by Col. Smith who talks of returning by way of Paris. But if he should not visit you, Mr. Smith when he returns will be so good as to take charge of them for me. But this I shall know in the course of a few weeks, and will take measures accordingly.7
I am sir with Sentiments of Esteem Your Humble Servant
[signed] Abigail Adams
RC (DLC: Jefferson Papers). Dft (DSI: Hull Coll.).
1. James Smith of South Carolina (JA to Thomas Jefferson, 18 Aug., in Jefferson, Papers, 8:400).
2. On 12 Aug., above.
3. The draft has “the 7 of july” after “New York.” On 23 June, Congress elected Gov. Wil• { 294 } liam Livingston of New Jersey to replace JA as minister plenipotentiary to the Netherlands, but Livingston promptly declined. Congress next turned to John Rutledge of South Carolina on 5 July, but on 1 Aug., he too declined the service. Congress never did replace JA, who continued as minister to the Netherlands until his resignation, and return to America, in 1788. JCC, 28:474, 481; 29:497, 654–655.
4. See AA2 to JQA, 4 July, and note 31, above.
5. The draft has “My”; the “Abbes” were Arnoux and Chalut.
6. The office was president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, that commonwealth's equivalent of governor. Franklin was elected to this post in October, and held it until Nov. 1788 (Colonial Records of Pennsylvania, Minutes of the Supreme Executive Council, Harrisburg, 1852–1853, 16 vols., 14:557, 565; 15:584).
7. This paragraph is not in the draft.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0093

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Cranch, Richard
Date: 1785-08-22

John Adams to Richard Cranch

[salute] My dear Brother

I have received your kind Letter of June 3. and rejoice to hear of the Health and Welfare of our Friends.
The County did themselves Justice, when they put you into the Senate, and the State did itself Honour when it placed Mr. Bowdoin in the Chair. I think you must be happy and prosper under his Administration.
The Massachusetts, wise as it often has been, never Struck a more masterly Stroke, than by their Navigation Act. I hope they will persevere in it, with inflexible Firmness. This is playing a sure Game.1 It will compell all the other States to imitate it. If they do not, the Massachusetts will soon get so much of their carrying Trade as will richly compensate her, for any present Inconvenience. But I hope You will not Stop. Go on. Lay on heavy Duties upon all foreign Luxuries especially British and give ample Bounties to your own Manufactures. You will of course, continue to do all these Things upon the condition to continue in force only untill they Shall be altered by a Treaty of Commerce, or by an Ordinance of Congress.
My oldest son is with you, I hope, the Second is at Colledge and the third in good Health at Haverhill. Mrs. A. and Miss are with me, in Grosvenor Square in the Neighbourhood of Lord North.
We have a very good House, in as good an Air as this fat greasy Metropolis, can afford: But neither the House nor its furniture nor the manner of living in it, are Sufficiently Showy for the Honour and Interest of that Country, which is represented by it. If I ever do any Thing or carry any Point it will not be by imposing upon any Body by the Splendor of my Appearance. An American Minister should be able to keep a Table, to entertain his Countrymen, to return the { 295 } Civilities of his Friends, to entertain People whose Aid is necessary to his political Purposes, and to entertain the foreign Ambassadors: But as the People of America, choose to place their Pride in having their Ambassadors abroad despized, or rather as they choose to be despized themselves, let them have their Choice. It is their Affair. I wish I was out of it.

[salute] Your affectionate Brother

[signed] John Adams
RC (NhHi: Hibbard Coll.).
1. An “x” appears at the beginning of this paragraph, and at the end of this sentence. Cranch may have excerpted this passage to show members of the Massachusetts legislature and other political leaders (see Cranch to JA, 10 Nov., Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0094

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-08-23

Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My dear son

I hope this will find you upon terra firma, tho in vain I searcht the New York papers of july 7th. to find you, since which I have been very anxious. Your passage I hope has been safe tho long and tedious.
I have written to you twice before since you left me1 and I believe you have a steady and faithfull correspondent in your sister, who having substituded you as her correspondent in lieu of her L[ove]r2 hopes to find more punctuality in the return, than it seems she has met with else where. But this between ourselves.
I know you will be anxious to hear how the treaty is like to Succeed. You know the progress of courts, and that during a whole twelvemonth only one has concluded a treaty.3 The propositions are before the m[inistr]y. I have reason to think a conference will be held upon them this week.4 What will be the result time must unfold, the temper and disposition of the people does not look very favourable.
You will hear the fate of the Irish propositions, labourd with so much Zeal here as to keep the Parliament setting untill this month. The Irish however have made short work of them. You will also see the Arrets of his most Christian Majesty5 prohibiting the use of British Manufactories, which has turnd out of employ the english Newspapers say twenty thousand hands already. They are vastly angry with that seditious state of Massachusetts for their late navigation act. Mischief always begins there, they say, but they deceive themselves with the hopes that the states will be divided. Talk of prohibiting any American vessel from comeing here, that is the mercantile threaten, but they look very serious and I dare say the act will operate greatly for our Benifit.
{ 296 }
Pray what do you think is become of that Said Captain Lambe who was sent out 3 months ago, with papers &c. You know upon what buisness. He has not arrived neither here nor in France. Mr. Jefferson and your Father are very anxious. Neither of them have yet had any acknowledgement of a single Letter writen for a whole twelvemonth past, nor has any packet brought them any publick dispatches except the commission to this court.
I do not know what C[ongre]ss mean by such proceedings, or rather by no proceedings. Did you hear any talk of supporting us here. I should be glad they would recall us, or put us in such a situation that we need not, nor our Country be squib'd at for not being able to give a dinner now and then to the Ministers. And it is most certain if we do that we must live very meager all the rest of the Year, and my poor Lads at home suffer for it. I suppose such a system of occonomy will now get into their Heads, that they will rather think of curtailing more. Let them use at Home occonomy where it is a virtue, but do not let them disgrace themselves abroad by narrowness. Mr. Temples Sallery as consul I am informd is equal to what our country allow their ministers. Besides fitting him out, he has taken out 5 different Sorts of carriages with him. Yet of a consul it is not expected that they live in splendour—but enough of this.
Write me very particularly, if you want any thing in my power, let me know, you know how limited they are, so your wants will be in proportion. Remember me to your Brothers and be assured that I am at all times Your ever affectionate Mother
[signed] A A
Your Friend Murry dined here last week. West I believe is in the Country. I have not seen him a long time. Appleton6 was here a few days since. Why does not he go home? Captain Lyde says he shall be here in the winter again. Be sure you write largely by him.
RC (Adams Papers); addressed by JA: “To Mr John Quincy Adams Boston”; notation by AA: “pr favour Capt Lyde”; endorsed: “Mamma. August 23d. 1785”; docketed: “My Mother. 23. Augt. 1785,” and “Mrs. Adams. Augt. 23. 1785.”
1. 26 June and 11 Aug., both above.
2. Royall Tyler.
3. The completed treaty was that with Prussia; see AA2 to JQA, 4 July, note 33, above.
4. JA had his first conference with William Pitt the following day, when he presented his proposals for settling the issues that remained outstanding between the United States and Great Britain: the British army's occupation of the forts in the Northwest, British trade restrictions, compensation for slaves carried off by the British army during the war, and American debts due to British creditors. But he made no more progress with the prime minister in August than he had in June and July with the foreign secretary, Lord Carmarthen, and these issues remained unresolved until the Jay Treaty of 1794 (see JA to John Jay, 25 Aug., PCC, No. 84, V, f. 605–619, printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, 2:455–462; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:181–182, note 1).
{ 297 }
5. Louis XVI of France; see AA to JQA, 11 Aug., and note 4, above.
6. Perhaps John Appleton, son of Nathaniel Appleton of Boston, whom JA and JQA had met in Europe in 1780, and whom JQA last recorded seeing in Paris in Jan. 1785 (JQA, Diary, 1:35, and note 2, 52–54, 216).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0095

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Welsh, Thomas
Date: 1785-08-25

Abigail Adams to Thomas Welsh

[salute] My dear sir

Your obliging favour of April 252 came to hand by Captain Lyde just after my arrival here. The important affairs of Court Etiquette and prepareations for shewing myself at St. James occupied my time so fully that I could not write you as I wished by Captain Dashood who saild soon after. When this great epocha of my Life was past, I had to seek a habitation and to see it put in order for <my> the reception of the family. After much inspection and serching not for the Grandure of the Building but for an airy situation, I very fortunately lit of one in the most reputable and prettyest Squares in London. If I could feel myself elated by my vicinity to Nobility I might boast the greatest share of it, of my square in London, but I am too much of a republican to be charmd with titles alone. <We are however still opposite to Lord North.> We have not taken a side with Lord North but are still opposite to him.3
The sedition of Massachusetts is much the topick of conversation at present, and your late Navigation act is termed a ruining of yourselves. So tender are these good people of their Dear American Friends that they tremble at your rash passion, for say they the4 other states will never come into it, and Massachusetts will be intirely shut from our ports. But those who see beyond the present moment view the Massachusetts in concequence of it, rising into power and greatness should this nation be mad enough to continue on its present System. It will soon make the American states a formidable Naval power. It will force upon them frugality, oconomy, industery and give a spring to manufactorys which would otherways lag on for years without any considerable improvements. <A few temporary inconveniencies will be felt at first which will creat some discontents.> Excellence is never granted to man but as the Reward of Labour, but those who persevere in habits of industry however slow their advances will meet a sure <reward in> recompence in the end. A few temporary inconveniencies will be felt at first, which will create disgust in some, but they are the only measures which can be persued to bring this country to reasonable terms with ours. And should those fail we shall certainly reap the benifit, for we shall be improveing and advancing { 298 } our National prosperity whilst Britain is diminishing hers. Mr. A. had yesterday a conference with Mr. P.5 and he appears to see much further than the avoued dispisers of America, but he is under the weight of Irish resentment and British Bilingsgate. His Friends tremble for him, least the opposition should tumble him from his seat, but his private Character is so good, and his application and assiduity so constant that however unpopular the Irish propositions have made him, I rather think they will not be able to Shake him. But whether he will have courage to encounter British prejudices against America time only can determine.
It was a saying of king Richards “that God helps those who help themselves.”6 I should think our Countrymen have too often experienced this doctrine not to see their path plain before them.
Having set before you my dish of politicks I will inquire a little respecting domestick fare. Pray how does Mrs. Welch and the Young Brood? Tell her I desire to have so much respect for my Name if she will not for her own as to Name the next daughter for me.7 Is cousin William like to be married yet?8 Tell him to wait a little longer and who knows but that I may have the Honour of calling him son yet?!
When you write tell me all about your good Towns folks, whose married whose born and whose dead? There is not a cat if it is American, but what I have a value for.
This is a delightfull country and with cash enough one may enjoy every comfort and conveniency of Life aya and misery too. I wish it was in my power <to see more of it. The load of taxes is so enormous that it destroys much of the Beauty and Harmony of the Whole.> to make the tour of it. All the vilages round London are like so many gardens, but the people groan and justly under the loads of taxes which are enormous. <Two><3> 5 additional taxes have taken place since my comeing here, one upon shops one upon pedlars and one upon gloves—in short you can scarcly name an article but what is taxed. They may talk of the lawless Americans and the disturbances which they magnify here into annihilation of Government, but there is <more> twice the real discontent in this Nation which subsists in any part of America.
But I am running on in great length yet have many others to write to. My best regards to Mrs. Welch and the children, Love to cousin Betsy.9 Tell her I often reflect upon the many pleasant hours we have spent together with much delight. Mr. Adams joins me in affectionate remembrance to all our worthy Friends. We hope our son is with you before now. Let me recommend him to you as a Youth not altogether { 299 } Ignorant of Men or Books who I hope will deserve the good will and esteem of Gentleman of Learning and abilities and the Friendship of those particularly allied to Sir your Friend and Humble Servant
[signed] A Adams
Dft (Adams Papers); notation by CFA: “1785.” Filmed under date of July? 1785 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 365.
1. On the date, see note 5.
2. Not found.
3. That is, Lord North lived on the opposite side of Grosvenor Square (see AA2 to JQA, 4 July, above, under “Tuesday July 26th”; AA to Mary Cranch, [ca. July-Aug.], above).
4. Above the line AA inserts “ye,” an extremely rare case of her using the thorn.
5. For the substance of JA's 24 Aug. meeting with William Pitt, see AA to JQA, 23 Aug., note 4, above.
6. For an earlier usage of this same quotation, see AA to Royall Tyler?, [post 414 June 1783], above.
7. Abigail Kent Welsh was Rev. William Smith's niece; she married Dr. Thomas Welsh of Boston in 1777. In 1785 she was raising Dr. Welsh's two daughters by his first marriage, Charlotte and Harriet, as well as her son, Thomas Jr., and the Records of the Church in Brattle Square, Boston, p. 191, show the baptism of “William, son of Thomas and Welch” in Oct. 1784. Abigail Welsh evidently had no daughters, but the Welshes would name their last son John Adams Welsh in 1792. AA had known Dr. Welsh since at least 1775 (vol. 1:219, and note 8, but his lost letter to her of 25 April, and this reply, begin a correspondence that lasted to 1798. Dr. Welsh, his wife, and his daughter Harriet were among the closest friends of the Adams family from the late 1780s through the 1820s.
8. Isaac Smith's son William.
9. Probably Isaac Smith's daughter Elizabeth.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0096

Author: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-08-26

Abigail Adams 2d to John Quincy Adams

N 6
Lyde sailed the 24th. with a long Letter for you from me,1 and I have now commenced N 6, which I propose giving to the Care of Mr. Storer he talks of going next week. If so, this will be but short. But alas my Brother 14 weeks have elapsd since you left us, and we not yet any account of your arrival. Hopes and fears alternately possess my mind, and I can not banish anxiety upon your account. May you be safe, and happyly settled with your friends ere this. I think of you continually—our days are dull, and our Evenings very lonesome. Tis then I miss you most. You know not what a Winter I have in anticipation, the weather horrible, little society, no associates, no Brother, to enliven the scenes. Ah, I wish you were here. But I must indeavour to recollect the few event which have taken place since I closed my last. For this I must turn to my journal.2 It tells me that a fryday the 11th.3 your Mamma and myself and Mr. Storer called upon Mrs. Roggers and took her with us, to make a visit to Mrs. Hay at Hamsted, but there was not any thing took place worthy a relation.
{ 300 }
Early in the Morning I heard a strange Noise about the House like the ringing on a warming Pan. Upon inquiry when I went down to Breakfast found from the servants that it was a set of People who Stile themselves Marro bone and cleavers,4 belonging to the Prince of Wales, who had assaulted the House because it was his Highnesses Birth day,5 and demanded mony as due to them from all the Foreign Ambassadors. However as Pappa had been deceived by the same People when he first arrived who called themselvs His Majestys Marro bone and cleavers—to whom he gave a gunia, and afterward found that they were not in the list of those who had a right to demand any thing—he did not give them any thing. When we first arrived we were applied to dayly, allmost Hourly by the People of the Kings Household, with their Books, with the Names of all the Foreign Ministers with sums given by each. These were Porters footmen Bell ringers under Porters, and the duce knows wholl all. Some demanded one Gunia and others 2, the whole sum which Pappa was obliged to give was not less than 25 or 30 Gunieas. This is a Custom of Courts, and you know one might as easily attempt to alter the course of the flowing of the sea, as to refuse them. Pappa has had a thrille fortior6 this year. He gave Etrennes to you know what amount in France. Mr. <Lotter> Dumas was applyd to at the Hague, and Paid the usual sum, on your father account, and here he has Paid it upon being Presented, and at Cristmass, it will be demanded again. The whole will not amount to less I suppose than an hundred Guineas. Congress think not of these kind of demands. Perhaps some of them would rather think they ought to be refused—let them try.
Mr. Storer came to town from Hampstead and told us of the arrival of Calliham. He had received Letters we have none yet.
In the Morning Monsieur le Tombe called upon us just arrived from Boston, in Calliham. He brought Letters for Pappa but Mamma nor myself have received a single line.
We dined to day by invitation with Dr. Jebb and Lady. The company was not large. No Ladies except ourselvs. Dr. Jebb is an Irishman for which reason he is so greatly interested in the Present Commercial arangements with that Country. There were 4 Gentleman of the Party. Dr. Brocelsby, is an Englishman, the redness of whose face and the { 301 } blackness of his habit did not form that pleasing contrast which sometimes pleases us. He is Said however to be a very sensible Man and Great in his Profession. He was moderate. There was one flaming son of St. Partrick. He had got his dinner some where else, and when we went to table had nothing to do but talk, and so improved his faculty of speach that he stund the rest of the company. Such Prejudices against the French Nation, I never heard. The Country its Government Laws, manners, customs &c. were atacked by him without reason Prudence or good sense. He was very voilent upon the American War also. He approved the independance of Ame[rica] because it could not be avoided by this Country but attributed to the fault of their Generals that we were not conquered. He would have granted the independance at first, and then have attacked the French. He could bear to see America independant but he could not support it, that France should be at peace. Every Englishman and Irish Man too I suppose thinks he has a right to Condemn or oppose the measures adopted by the rulers, as they seem fit in his Eyes. My Lord North Mr. Fox, &c. were condemd without Jury. In fine there was nothing that did not receive his disapprobation in the line of Politicks. When your father was speaking or appeard as if going to speak, he was all attention. I feard he would sometimes make Poppa warm, by his ignorance of our Country, and at the same time giving his Wise opinions respecting the War. There was another Irish Gentleman Present who seemd more reasonable. He did not say much.
The 4th. Gentleman was an Englishman, a Mr. Remain. He was young, and appeard to be possessd of a degree of Modesty bordering upon diffidence. He said but little. What he did discovered good sense but not unprejudicd [opinions?]. He was Silent while diner but at the desert found his tongue. I was seated next him at table, and he began by inquiring how long I was in France. He had been there, but viewed every thing I found with an Eye of prejudice. Paris was not so fine a City as London, the French Ladies he was sure could not be agreeable in the Eyes of the English, and in all he found a preference to this Country. I had like to have been in the sittuation of the Chevelier, who thought Mrs. Bingham belonged to Boston when he gave the preference to that part of the Continent to any other,7 for before I sat down to table I had conceived an opinion that this gentleman was a Native of France but had been long in this Country. From his Name, complexion, and manners I was led to Judge thus, and I thought myself perfectly safe in the preference I shold give to that Country. But I soon found that I had a rong idea, { 302 } for he was veryly English. Both the Dr. and Mrs. Jebb, spoke highly <in his> Praise of his abilities good sense Judgment &c., and I was willing to beleive them. Thus you have some account of the company. Were I to attempt a description of Mrs. Jebb, I should find myself unequal to the business. Perhaps you never saw just such a looking Woman. If you have seen Miss Polly Palmer8 you have seen good Nature, softness, and sweetness of Countenance when compared to this Lady, but dont show Miss P—— P—— this. The Dr. is said to be a very Wise sensible Man, that he is an agreeable one, I can assure you. He says he wants to go to America and does not think it impossible that he may make the tour of America. Poor Man looks as if he was not intended long as an ornament to Learning, or Science: his Health is very Poor.9
My journal says, thus. Alas how frequently have we cause to observe upon what slender foundations we have raised our hopes of happiness and yet no sooner than the Ilusion of one prospect vanishes than we are building upon their ruin our future hopes, and this from a full confiction that it is necessary to cheat ourselvs thus. For three Months past I have been looking forward to the arrival of the July packet in hopes that it would bring the pleasing account of the arrival of my Brother. For three weeks past the anticipation of this and the hopes of receiving Letters from him have employd most of my thoughts wishes and expectations—but the packet has arrived without any account of my Brother. Thus at one moment all my pleasing prospect vanishes, and I have now to build other hopes and anticipate from other scources this pleasure.
Mortifying reflection that we are not permitted to look forward with any degree of certainty even to the next hour. Blind unthinking ignorant beings we are, yet Proud Vain selfsufficient arrogant and presuming. What is happiness? what is misery? How Poor a title have we to the former, and yet how little do we think of the latter.
We had a company of Gentlemen only to dine with us. Mr. David Hartly, dressed as usual.10 Pappa asked him what he thought of the Massachusetts Navigation act. He said if the two Countries wished to be at variance he thought it very well. He would venture to Prophesy, that it would be the means of destroying <every> all Navigations acts whatever. He would not venture to say it would be done { 303 } either one two or three years, but he firmly beleived that it would eventually be the effect of it. Pappa proposed to him in a banter that they shold undertake to repeal them, as his Commision for making a treaty of Commerce still existed. But he said that depended upon the higher Powers. He was willing however.
Mr. B[arthelemy] the Charge des affaires, from France,11 was one of the company. Tho he has been in this Country a year and an half he does not pretend to speak English. His appearance has nothing very striking in it. His dress and Manners are Englasied. There is nothing very pleasing in them. Dr. Jeb, and Dr. Brocelsby dined with us, and your friend Mr. Murry. He seems to be in Poor Health and his spirits appear affected I think by it. He does not talk so much, nor discover so great a portion of vivacity as when I saw him last year. We talked about you, hoped you had arrived, yet wished you were here. Mrs. Temple and her Daughter drank tea with us. Mrs. T—is not gratified with the prospect of going out to America at all. They sail, the next week. I do not wonder at her reluctance <at all>.
There is a new Play lately given at the Hay Market called (Ill tell you what).12 Much has been said in its Praise. It was written by a Lady two which you may be sure, in the Eyes of all Persons of discernment, is in its favour. Mr. Short said he should have returnd to France with a Poo opinion of the English Stage if he had not seen this Peice. Mis Farren Play as Principle character in it and Mr. S—observed she was the only Woman he had seen in England who knew she had Eyes. He was much pleased with her. I think she is the best actress I have seen upon the <Theatre> stage. They are in General, terrible. I often think of Mrs. Binghams comparing the Actors and Actresses upon the English stage to the stormitans—and must acknowledge that when compared with the French they appear nearer to resemble the former. Pappa went this Evening to see the New Commedy. It is rather what the French call a drame, some scens are said very affecting and others very comic. A Gentleman who had seen it told me that if one went to see it with an intention of becomeing critick they mingt find many faults, for [he] said, only think it was written by a Poor Woman, but if one went to see it and be pleased, he had found no peace which had given him so much pleasure.
A Letter from Mr. Jefferson, came by the Post to day.13 He writes in sypher, and when there is nobody elce to desyper I have the agreable task. I am paid perhaps for my trouble by knowing what is { 304 } written. “He say the Cardinal Prince of Roan is confined to his Chamber under Guard for reflection on the Queen, who was present in Council herself on his examination the first time She was ever there—and the first instance of so high an eclesiastical character under acted force.14
They are propagating reports here that American Ships are capturd by the Algerines, but whether true <or false is not known> or whether to raise the insureance is not known. Your father thinks the latter is the Plan. He has no accounts of any.15 Mr. Lamb, who was sent by Congress to go to Algiers has never been herd of, this side the Water. Your father and Mr. Jefferson think it so necessary that something should be done that they think of sending some other Person. Mr. Barcley offers to go, but whether he is accepted I dont know.
To day we had a large company to dine of Gentlemen and Ladies. The Baron de Linden, an old Womanish kind of a Man this, <and a Dutchman.> I have often heard that every thing was clean in a Dutchmans house but his Wife. Were I to form a judgment from this Man, I should think that the Husband ought also to be accepted for I never saw him decent in my Life. He goes to Court with a beard that looks as if it had not felt a razor for a week—and his ruffles look as if he did not often pay for their washing. I think one may easily discover strong traits of the character attributed to his Country Men in General perhaps universally for one may easily discover by little things the ruling Principles of the Mind and those which influence the Conduct <of People>. Mr. Mrs. and Miss Paradise, were a part of our company. Mrs. P——discovered as many traits of singularity as ever. I beleive the Womans head is a little turnd. She has a Wondrous knowledge of Great Folks. Charles [Storer] was quite diverted with her. She had a great deel of conversation with him, and her manners were so particular that he says, he dreampt of her all Night. She inquired of him who was comeing as Ambassador from France in the place of Count D'adamar whose health will not permit his return. He told her the papers mentiond Monsieur la Baron de Bretuil.16 Bretuil, Bretuil—Breteuil, remember Bretuil said She to her Daughter who sat next her, and turning to him again and said, I am going to ask you a very impertinent question and hope you will not be affronted. Pray what was the Name of that Gentleman who is said to be comeing Ambassader from France? The Baron de Bretuil, answerd he again, { 305 } and She repeated it as many times. But her manners and actions are so singular that you must see her to have any idea of them.
Mr. and Mrs. Copely, Mrs. Church, and a Mr. James Smith, from Carolina, a distant relation of Mammas who is going to France to pass a twelvemonth, Mr. Trumble17 and Dr. Bancroft made the company. The Dr. has just arrived from Paris, where he has been ever since we arrived here. Tis not the Custom in this Country for the Company to Leave you as soon as diner is over as it is in France. For sociability I prefer the Custom here, for ceremony I shuld choose the French Custom. But you know one must give in to all these kind of fashions, in every Country, for you can neither invite them to stay longer in France nor desire them to go sooner here. They parted about ten oclock. There are a kind of assemblys here called routs, were the name changed I should not dislike them. A Lady sets apart a particular day in a week when She is to be found at home and her acquaintance who wish to see her, call upon her that Evening, or She sends invitations to whatever Gentlemen or Ladies She pleases. Cards are usualy introduced after tea and those Play who choose. Others who do not, let it alone. And at ten or Eleven the company Leaves her. The Lady of the House never Plays herself, and it is a kind of rule that if you Play at one House, you must at every one, at which you visit in this Way. This Mrs. Paradise has a Musical [Part?] every sunday Eve. Miss P—— Plays, and she has a Number of Gentlemen and Ladies of her acquaintance who sing and Play, who visit her that Evening. She has no Cards. She has often told Mamma and myself that she is allways at home of a sunday Eve, but we have not yet ever visitted her, nor I dont suppos ever Shall.
A Monday last Count Sarsfeild called upon Pappa. He has lately returnd from the Country, where he has been with some of his friends. Pappa asked him to dine with him a tuesday, but he was engaged but proposed dining with us this day, upon which Pappa invited the Baron de Linden and Mr. B[arthelemy] to dine with him. We received afterwards a Card to dine with a Mr. and Mrs. Smith who Live at Clapham. He is a Member of Parliament, and Married a Miss Capes.18 A Brother and two sisters of this Lady Live also at Clapham. They have all visitted us, and seem to wish for an acquaintance. This is the second invitation to dine which we have had and been obliged to refuse. I was sorry, that it so happened to day, because { 306 } I shuld like to visit every Person who invited me, but it was unavoidable. The Baron de Linden did not come. Count Sarsfeild and Mr. B dined with us, quite in a sociable way. A Mr. Crew from Virgina19 and Mr. Charles Bullfinch were all the company. The Count is allways in good spirits and very entertaining you know. He was more so to day than I ever saw him, for he was not under any restraint from Company. Mr. B—— felt quite at home too, and was very clever. The other and the enclosed Letter is from a friend of yours we suppose.20 It was sent us by Mr. Roggers. Pappa has inquird of Mr. Bartlemey and Count Sarsfeild, if they know the French Minister at Naples, but they did not seem to feel themselvs authorised to give any Letters. If you wish to write him I will put your Letters, into the Care of Mrs. Roggers.
This Morning Mrs. Wright came and breakfasted with us. I never heard her converse so rationally in my Life. She asked if we had heard of your arrival and sayd to Mamma do you know that I predict great things of your son—and spoke much in your praise. I shall like her better for the future, I need not tell you what, but save your vanity. The Mrs. Smith, from whom we had an invitation to dine, called upon your Mamma, but she being dressing I went down. There was with her a Mis Brailsford—and they provoked me by their ignorance of us. Which Country, said Miss B—— do you like best France or this. I told her I preferd some things in each—but surely said She you prefer this Country to America. Indeed Miss answerd I, I do not. You must think this the finest Country, the Cultivation is greater and every thing superior. That may be, but I have friends and Connections in America that will ever make it dear to me. Tis not merely the place which I regard, tis what friends and acquaintancees I find.21
Last Night I wrote you thus far, but had not spirit to proceed. This Morning just as I went down to breakfast one of the servants came up with a huge packet, with Mr. Churchs Compliments. I was so rejoiced as I cannot tell you how. Your hand writing was first sought for, and as soon as found the seal broke, where I found your two Letters N 3, and 4,22 and such a feast as it was, no one thought of tea toast or bread and butter, for an hour, quite sattisfied with the food for the mind. And now I have perused, them and <gained a little> and got a little over the agreeable flutterations and heart beetings I { 307 } am prepared to acknowledge their receipt to thank you for your punctuallity to chide you for not having been more particular to excuse you for this time, and to give you a little sisterly advice, and many more things which Shall follow. 1st. Monday Morning sep. 5th. 1785. Nine oclock, received from Mr. Church your Letters, after a passage of only 1 Month, which heightend their vallue, much. 2d. Your punctuallity in writing on Ship Board, leads me to hope you will never forget your promises, and that I shall know something of you every day, and thus encourage me to pursue my diary, which sometimes I fear is too minute, but you shall determine its continuance. 3dly. to Chide you for not having told me more about the folks you became acquainted, than their Names. I wanted to hear your comparisons, and your remarks, upon every one, in Short I wished you only to have thought aloud, to me. I was a little surprised to hear Miss Sears termed a Wit. She was not called so in Boston I beleive. My idea of her was that she possessed a simplicity, more amiable than smartness. I wished to have heard your remarks upon Mr. R——.23 I have seen him but have not the slightes personal acquaintance with. I have heard his character, perhaps not justly described, but I can excuse you because I know when one first arrives, in a strange place, we feel, puzled, hurried. The attentions we receive demand much of our time and attention. Now for my advice. As I feel myself so much interested in your following it I hope you will excuse it. You are a young Man, with a warmpth of temper which you leads you to judge rather prematurely and to condemn without sufficiently considering the for and against. Think this not a harsh accusation. You supposed I had neglected you when you found Mr. Cursen had no letter for you24—the Gentleman had seen me, and it was quite unpardonable that I did not write. Now, you must have given place in your mind to an Idea disadvantageous to me, and as it was not just I must feel myself injured by it. Appearances were in your favour I'll allow, but as I wish you to avoid the painfull idea of my inattention to you, I must beg in future that you would weigh possibilities in future, and Ill tell you <what>[how?] it happend that Mr. C. Carred you no Letter. The unsettled situation we were in the Continued visits made us, and the Whole suit of adventures enough to puzzle the Brain of a Philosopher, did not prevent me from writing. I had finished my Letter and seald it for Mr. Cursen, but Colln. Smith who had promised to deliver it to him happend to forget it, and he [Curson] left town, without it. Now, <please to retract> as I know it is not plasing to retract, I will excuse you provided you will consider the next time before you { 308 } condemn. The letter I forwarded immediately to Mr. Williamos to go in the June packet and he informs me that he inclosed it to a friend, who would deliver it if you were at N. York when the packet should arrive and if you were gone on, would forward it to you.25 In a few days I wrote you again and Colln. Smith inclosed my Letter to Mr. King, since which I have written too long letters besides this—which is N 6.26
I fear your Passage was long and disagreeable, your passengers not the most agreeable, neither. I know well how painfull a Life on Ship board is, even where every one indeavours to make it tolerable. The insipid sameness, which must forever reign, must be tiresome, and an impatient disposition must suffer more than I can have an idea of. But you are safe landed, Heaven be praised, and in health. Take care to preserve it. Great attention will be necessary, for you. I am happy that you found so many friends, and were shewn so much attention, for nothing is so pleasing, whether it arrises from our own merit or our connection with People of merit. I have sometimes thought that we are better pleased with those attention which we receive upon account of our friends than those paid merely to ourselvs. In some cases, I have been assertaind of the preference, and beleive it will allmost pass for a general rule. Why is it that our American Ladies, are so fond of connections with foreignors?27 I confess it does not strike me in an agreeable point of view. There are no People, easier deceived than we are, I beleive nor, none more easily [daizled?] by Glitter and Show. But they should remember that

Not all that tempts your wandring Eyes

And heedless hearts, is lawfull prise,

Not all that Glissters Gold.28

The National Characters are very strongly impressed upon most People, yet I would not venture to pass upon any without exception, for there a[re] Men from every Nation untinctured by the Characteristick vices, or foibles of it. Tho ninety Nine in an hundred, Dutchmen May be Misers, avaricious, and, mean spiritted, and the same proportion of Englishmen, surly Ill Natured, prejudiced <and self> Drunkards, the Spain[ish] Jealous and revengefull, the French, flighty inconstant and insincere, yet I would not venture to affirm that either of these Characters were universal in their Different Countries, for the one in an hundred may posess the virtues of each, and be exempt from any real vices.
Your Father wishes that some person would except the embassey { 309 } to Holland, for something or other is continually presenting to teise him, which an Minister there would releive him from. Tis hard that he should be tormented with so many perplexities which the attention of Congress might releive him from.
You will hear accounts of the season from the Papers. The drought has been excessive, especially in France. They endeavourd to furnish themselvs with fodder from this Country, but, it was obliged to be prohibitted here. Count Sarsfeild said the other day, that he knew not what to do, the ensueing Winter. If he stayd in Paris, he should [be] put to it to keep his horses, and if he went into the Country it would be worse, and added that a great Number of Cattle must be killed, for want of provender. Every thing here is dearer than usual, on account of the drought. Tho the late, plentifull rains have been of vast service, fruit here is Scarce and dear as well as far from being Good. We have given, sometimes half a Guniea for a Mellon, and sixpence a peice for every peach. This must sound very surprising with you [Now?].
Miss Van Berkel, must have had a disagreeable time I think. The Ladies, make remarks, and perhaps triumpth, if there is opportunity. They had better appear conspicuoes for their Candour, for their is not a more amiable <principle> trait in the Character of a Lady, and, prove themselvs superior, by their behavour towards her, than a greater degree of beauty could render them.
Charles [Storer] procastinate from day to day his departure. He now says he shall go tomorrow certainly but it may be the latter part of the week. I am very glad that I set my last by Lyde. I am sure he may make half his passage before, this young Man sails. The last week nothing took place to tell you of, except what Mamma has writen you,29 that Mr. Barcley and Mr. Franks, are going to Algiers, and that the latter is here at present, waiting for his instructions from your father. Very unfortunately the day after his arrival, your father was seized with a [violent?] inflamation in his Eyes,30 that rendered writing all most impracticable. And Mr. Smith has not yet returnd from his tour. But perhaps I have never yet told you where he has gone, and I now inform you, to Berlin to be present at the King of Prussias reveiw. We expect him soon.
We fear that you will not have so frequent opportunities to write us from Boston as we shall wish to hear from you, therefore request that you will write by the Packet send your Letters to some Member { 310 } of Congress, and desire them to be forwarded by the English packet. Dont fail. You know how very sollicitous we shall be to hear frequently from you, and, you also know how apt People who get to America are to be inattentive. Let us not suppose it universall.
I have sent you by Mr. Storer a box containing a pd of sealing Wax. I think it is good. You will see from whence it came, and think it a Modest way of begging. When we first arrived we had continual applications of this kind. They are at present less frequent. Your Books and watch Chain I have also put into the Care of Mr. Storer. If there is any thing which you want and it is in my Power to send it you, write for it. In return I request, a lock of your hair, which I forgot to have before you left us. I dont mean, Sampsons locks, nor, a lock from your Eye brows, and hope you will not demand mine in return.
I do not recollect at present any news, or any thing interesting to communicae. And as my Letter I fear is already so long as will tire your patience I shall haste to subscribe myself your affectionate sister
[signed] A Adams
[I?]31 thank fortune we are not dependant upon the favours nor Smiles of Majesty, nor think ourselvs servilely dependant upon their customs, so we will act as we like, and bid them defiance not fearing Mob or any thing else. Your father says he observes a fear in every one of the Foreign Ministers of being known to have any intimacy with him least they should be mob'd. One would not like to be in danger to be sure. I should as willingly put myself at the Mercy of so many savages as to the Mobility in this Country. But all this is high treason so keep it to yourself.
Dft (Adams Papers); the text is written on twenty-one small pages, several of them numbered. The MS is in good condition; it is AA2's occasionally poor hand and her incomplete expressions that call for the bracketed material.
1. Of 4 July, above.
2. The MS of AA2's journal has not been found; all that survives in journal form appears in AA2, Jour. and Corr., vols. 1 and [3]. The printed journal from 7 Aug. 1784 though 4 June 1785 (Jour. and Corr., 1:viii, and 7–79) gives some idea of how regular and full AA2's complete diary probably was. Fragments of her journal from 26 Aug. through 18 Dec. 1785 are in Jour. and Corr., 1:viii–xi, 79–84, and [3]:185–205. Large sections of all six extant AA2 letters to JQA in 1785, however, were probably copied with little alteration from AA2's journal, including much of the present letter. AA2's journal entries for 28 Sept. through 18 Dec. 1785, printed in Jour. and Corr., [3]:185–205, were also incorporated in a letter to JQA, which has not been found.
3. The 11th fell on Thursday.
4. “Marrowbones and cleavers” was an eighteenth-century term for ancient British instruments of “rough music” (OED).
5. The Prince of Wales, later George IV, was twenty-three.
6. This Anglo-French compound phrase, written as though entirely French, appears to be AA2's coinage, apparently meaning a “strong shock.”
7. The exchange between Maurice Riquet de Caraman, who had traveled to America { 311 } with the Marquis de Lafayette, and Anne Willing Bingham, a native of Philadelphia, occurred at Lafayette's home on 7 March (JQA, Diary, 1:230).
8. Mary Palmer, a daughter of Gen. Joseph Palmer, had been an invalid since her youth, when a gun discharged near her head caused a permanent nervous condition (Grandmother Tyler's Book, p. 23–25).
9. Jebb died “of decline” the following March at age fifty (DNB).
10. Perhaps dressed quite plainly, as he appears in Romney's portrait of him (Namier and Brooke, House of Commons, 2:592).
11. François Barthélemy had served as charge d'affaires, with one brief break, from July 1784 (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:118).
12. Elizabeth Inchbald's well-received comedy, I'll Tell You What, was first performed on 4 August. Elizabeth Farren's role was the “Lady” (Some Account of the English Stage from the Restoration in 1660 to 1830, 10 vols., Bath, England, 1832, 6:368–369).
13. To JA, 17 Aug., with a decoding of the encoded passages, in AA2's hand, on the blank third sheet of the letter (Adams Papers).
14. The underscored passage, beginning at “the Cardinal Prince,” quotes AA2's decoding of Jefferson's letter, but introduces a few errors: the decoding has “Rohan” for “Roan,” and “reflections,” it places “herself” before “in Council”, and it has “actual force” rather than “acted force.” AA2's decoding agrees almost exactly with Jefferson's uncoded draft text; see Jefferson, Papers, 8:394–395. On Cardinal Rohan and the Diamond Necklace Affair, see Jefferson to AA, 4 Sept., note 3, below.
15. Presumably meaning “of any captures.” See AA to William Stephens Smith, 13 Aug., and note 4, above.
16. Jean Balthazar, Comte d'Adhémar, the French ambassador to Great Britain since May 1783, had been minister plenipotentiary to the Austrian Netherlands, 1774–1781. He was not replaced in London at this time, although he took several leaves from his post, and he served until Jan. 1787. Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier, Baron de Breteuil, a French envoy to several countries over two decades, held no posts after 1783. Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:118, 128 (Adhémar); 113, 122, 125, 136, 139 (Le Tonnelier).
17. John Trumbull, the painter, had been in London for over a year, studying with Benjamin West (DAB).
18. William Smith, the son of a merchant of Clapham Common, entered the House of Commons for Sudbury in 1784, and sat almost continuously, for various districts, until 1830. He was a supporter of Pitt's parliamentary reform effort of April 1785, and was later a dissenter and an opponent of all religious tests for office, as well as of the slave trade. Smith married Frances Coape in 1781. Namier and Brooke, House of Commons, 3:452–453.
19. Robert Crew was a London tobacco merchant from Virginia (Jefferson, Papers, 7:434; 18:309).
20. AA2 does not set this and the following sentences off from the preceding text despite the sudden and obscure change in subject matter. The editors have not identified “the other” or “the enclosed Letter.” In Aug. 1785, Dominique Vivant Dénon, the French chargé d'affaires in Naples, had just departed for France; his replacement, Louis Marie Anne, Baron de Talleyrand-Périgord, a relative of the famous diplomat of the Napoleonic era, had just arrived (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:139).
21. AA2, Jour. and Corr., 1:79–80, gives a longer account of the exchange with Miss Brailsford, in which AA2 expressed her views with less reservation, and compared both the United States and France favorably to England in several respects. Her opinions there are quite similar to those of AA in her letter to Elizabeth Storer Smith, 29 Aug., below.
22. Of 25 May, and 17 July, both above.
23. The editors have not identified “Mr. R——.” In his letter of 17 July, JQA mentions meeting Dr. David Ramsay and John Rutledge, both of South Carolina, and Francisco Rendon, the secretary to the Spanish envoy, Diego de Gardoqui. It is not known whether AA2 ever met any of these three men.
24. See JQA to AA2, 17 July, and note 10, above.
25. This letter, probably marked N. 2 and written about 1 June, has not been found.
26. AA2's letter to JQA, marked N. 3, dated 13 June, and sent with a William Stephens Smith letter to Mr. King [Rufus King?], presumably by a vessel sailing for New York, was received by JQA at Boston on 31 Aug. (JQA to AA2, 29 Aug., below), but has not been found; nor has another letter, probably marked N. 4, and perhaps written toward the end of June. The second of AA2's “too long letters besides this” is N. 5, of 4 July, above.
{ 312 }
27. AA2 is probably responding to JQA's critical remarks, in his letter of 17 July, above, on the impending marriage between Miss Marshall of New York and Francisco Rendon.
28. Thomas Gray, Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat. The last line reads: “Nor all, that glisters, gold.”
29. AA wrote JQA on 6 and 12 Sept., both below.
30. Lt. Col. David Salisbury Franks arrived from Paris on 10 Sept. (AA to JQA, 12 Sept., below), placing the onset of JA's malady on the 11th. Col. Franks served in the war from 1775 to 1780, then as a diplomatic courier, and briefly as vice-consul at Marseilles. On 4 Sept., Jefferson proposed to JA that Franks be named secretary to Thomas Barclay, whom they were sending to Morocco to negotiate a commercial treaty (Jefferson, Papers, 8:473). Franks carried Jefferson's letter to JA, and another from Jefferson to AA, of the same date, below, to London, where JA approved the mission on 15 Sept. (same, 8:521–522). Franks served in the Morocco mission until Dec. 1786. Hersch L. Zitt, “David Salisbury Franks, Revolutionary Patriot (c. 1740–1793),” Pennsylvania History, 16 (1949):77–95; Morris, Papers, 1:255–256.
31. This character appears to be written on the edge of the page.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0097

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Cranch, Lucy
Recipient: Greenleaf, Lucy Cranch
Date: 1785-08-27

Abigail Adams to Lucy Cranch

[salute] My dear Lucy

I have not yet noticed your obliging favor of April 26th,1 which reached me by Captain Lyde, whilst I was at the Bath Hotel. I had then so much upon my hands, that I did not get time to write but to your mamma and cousin, who I hope is with you before now. By him I wrote many letters, and amongst the number of my friends, my dear Lucy was not omitted.2
If I did not believe my friends were partial to all I write, I should sometimes feel discouraged when I take my pen; for, amongst so large a number of correspondents, I feel at a loss how to supply them all.
It is usual at a large entertainment, to bring the solid food in the first course. The second consists of lighter diet, kickshaws, trifles, whip syllabub, &c.; the third is the dessert, consisting of the fruits of the season, and sometimes foreign sweetmeats. If it would not be paying my letters too great a compliment to compare any of them to solid food, I should feel no reluctance at keeping up the metaphor with respect to the rest. Yet it is not the studied sentence, nor the elaborate period, which pleases, but the genuine sentiments of the heart expressed with simplicity. All the specimens, which have been handed down to us as models for letter-writing, teach us that natural ease is the greatest beauty of it. It is that native simplicity too, which gives to the Scotch songs a merit superior to all others. My favorite3 Scotch song, “There's na luck about the house,” will naturally occur to your mind.
I believe Richardson has done more towards embellishing the present age, and teaching them the talent of letter-writing, than any { 313 } other modern I can name. You know I am passionately fond of all his works, even to his “Pamela.” In the simplicity of our manners, we judge that many of his descriptions and some of his characters are beyond real life; but those, who have been conversant in these old corrupted countries, will be soon convinced that Richardson painted only the truth in his abandoned characters; and nothing beyond what human nature is capable of attaining, and frequently has risen to, in his amiable portraits. Richardson was master of the human heart; he studied and copied nature; he has shown the odiousness of vice, and the fatal consequences which result from the practice of it; he has painted virtue in all her amiable attitudes; he never loses sight of religion, but points his characters to a future state of restitution as the sure ground of safety to the virtuous, and excludes not hope from the wretched penitent. The oftener I have read his books, and the more I reflect upon his great variety of characters, perfectly well supported, the more I am led to love and admire the author. He must have an abandoned, wicked, and depraved heart, who can be tempted to vice by the perusal of Richardson's works. Indeed, I know not how a person can read them without being made better by them, as they dispose the mind to receive and relish every good and benevolent principle. He may have faults, but they are so few, that they ought not to be named in the brilliant clusters of beauties which ornament his works. The human mind is an active principle, always in search of some gratification; and those writings which tend to elevate it to the contemplation of truth and virtue, and to teach it that it is capable of rising to higher degrees of excellence than the mere gratification of sensual appetites and passions, contribute to promote its mental pleasures, and to advance the dignity of our natures. Sir Joshua Reynolds's observations4 with respect to painting may be applied to all those works which tend to refine the taste, “which, if it does not lead directly to purity of manners, obviates, at least, their greatest depravation, by disentangling the mind from appetite, and conducting the thoughts through successive stages of excellence, till that contemplation of universal rectitude and harmony, which began by taste, may, as it is exalted and refined, conclude in virtue.”
Why may we not suppose, that, the higher our attainments in knowledge and virtue are here on earth, the more nearly we assimilate ourselves to that order of beings who now rank above us in the world of spirits? We are told in scripture,5 that there are different kinds of glory, and that one star differeth from another. Why should not those who have distinguished themselves by superior excellence over their { 314 } fellow-mortals continue to preserve their rank when admitted to the kingdom of the just? Though the estimation of worth may be very different in the view of the righteous Judge of the world from that which vain man esteems such on earth, yet we may rest assured that justice will be strictly administered to us.
But whither has my imagination wandered? Very distant from my thoughts when I first took my pen.
We have a large company to dine with us to-day, and I have some few arrangements to make before dinner, which obliges me to hasten to a conclusion; among the persons invited, is a gentleman who married the only daughter of Richardson.6 She died about six months ago. This gentleman has in his possession the only portrait of her father which was ever taken. He has several times invited me to go to his house and see it. I design it, though I have not yet accepted his invitation.
Write to me, my dear Lucy, and be assured I speak the words of truth and soberness when I tell you that your letters give real pleasure to Your affectionate aunt,
[signed] A.A.
MS not found. Printed from (AA, Letters, ed. CFA, 1848, p. 261–263; 1841, 2:109–112; 1840, p. 306–310.)
1. Not found.
2. To Lucy Cranch, 6 May, above.
3. The 1840 edition lacks “favorite.”
4. The 1840 edition has “observation.”
5. “Scripture” is capitalized in the 1840 edition. The scriptural verse is 1 Corinthians 15:41.
6. Edward Bridgen had married Martha Richardson (see AA2 to JQA, 4 July, above).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0098

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Storer, Elizabeth
Recipient: Smith, Elizabeth Storer
Date: 1785-08-29

Abigail Adams to Elizabeth Storer Smith

[salute] My dear Madam

Mr. Storer your worthy Nephew will be the Bearer of this Letter. I congratulate his Friends upon his return to them, after several Years absence, tho we shall essentially feel his loss, being as much attached to him as if he was our own. The appointment of a secretary of Legation prevents Mr. Adams from taking any other, which he realy stands in need of. If he had been allowed one, Mr. Storer would have had the preference, and we should have had much pleasure in keeping him in our family. I hope by returning to America he will be able to do better. A Young Gentleman at his time of Life, ought to be establishing himself in some profession, whereby he may serve himself and his generation. It was a thorugh conviction of this truth, that induced us to part with our Son, who I hope is safe arrived before { 315 } this time in his Native Country, where by application and industry he may be sure of obtaining his Bread.
The more my dear Madam that I see of Europe the more I am attached to the method of Education persued in the state of Massachusets. If our Youth have not all those opportunities for improvement in some branches of Literature, and the fine Arts, which these old countries can boast, they have sufficient to qualify them for any departments they may be called to fill. An acquaintance with foreign Countries, is no doubt a benifit when properly improved, as it tends to <improve> remove prejudices, and enlarge the mind. But I question much whether out of the many Youth who come Anually from all parts of America, more of them do not return with corrupted morals, and a distaste to the purer manners of our own Country, than with improved understandings or wiser Heads. As to civility of behaviour, politeness of Manners, true Hospitality and Benevolence, this Country have much more need of going to America to learn them, than our Country has of any embelishment this can bestow. I have seen and heard more narrow prejudice, more Illiberality of Sentiment, not merely with regard to America, but every other Country and its inhabitants; since my residence here, than I ever Saw or heard in America in my whole Life. And all the contracted Sentiments which we ever possesst with respect to other Countries, we imbibed from this, when we Reverenced her and her sentiments as our parent. But as soon as we came to think and act for ourselves, we broke the shackles.
I have never been in company since my return from France without being immediately ask'd which Country I prefer? This I should esteem as mere words of Course if I did not see how quick it touches them to have the least preference in any respect given to France; tho on many accounts I like this Country best, and have in my heart a greater fondness for it, I have been often tempted to shew the Contrary, on purpose to mortify the pride of this people, who realy in point of civility to strangers, and good Breeding, are not to be compared with their Neighbours whom they so contemptably despise. You will think I fear that I am desplaying those very prejudicies which I condemn; but I will appeal to the judgment of all my Countrymen who have visited the two Countries.
Dr. Price has the most liberal sentiments of any Gentleman I have heard converse since my residence here, he is indeed one of the best of Men, but the dessenting Clergy in this Country appear a very different set of Men from those which inhabit ours. They are { 316 } cramped contemned and degraded, they have not that independant appearence, and that consciousness of their own worth which gives an Air of dignity to the whole deportment. Dr. Price notwithstanding his literary fame, and his great abilities, appears like a Man who has been brow beaten. In America he would be revered and caresed, as his merit deserves.
We had a visit the other day from Mr. Tom. Boylstone. He appears to have an affection for Boston and his old Friends, tho he will not allow that there are any honest folks there, my good uncle excepted. He appears to wish for an amicable settlement between the two Countries, tho he says he shall not live to enjoy it.1 He has had a severe fever which he says has left him weak as a Child in Body and Mind. His Nerves are much affected. You will easily believe he is allarmed when I tell you that he keeps a Pheaton and pair,2 and rides every day. He talks of going to the South of France for the winter.
I have been once to see Mrs. Hollowell since I returnd,3 she seems much broke since last I saw her. If I was not here in a publick Character, I should visit her more, and cultivate our old family Friendship, but there are persons who will belie one, and say things which were never meant or thought of, so that there is no safety but in keeping quite clear. Many of the Refugees appear to have lost all Idea of truth, and even those who are well disposed too readily credit their assertions.
I visit Mr. Vassels family, and have seen there, a Mrs. Hobart, who always kindly inquires after you.
I shall miss Mrs. Atkinson and am very sorry to part with her. Mrs. Hay and She are to dine with me to day. You will be so good as to remember me kindly to Mr. Otis and Lady to all my cousins and be assured Dear Madam that I am most affectionately Yours
[signed] AA
Nabby desires her duty and Love to all her Friends.
RC (MHi: Smith-Carter Papers); addressed: “Mrs. Elizabeth Smith Boston”; notation in pencil: “Mrs. Adam[s] London—1785.” A mend at a fold obscures the notation. Dft (Adams Papers).
1. The draft concludes the sentence: “but looks to me as if he would not live long to enjoy it.”
2. AA likely refers to Boylston's notorious stinginess; see vol. 2:295, and note 2; 4:342, note 2.
3. The draft continues: “she is much broken I think since I saw her last year. I should be fond of keeping up an acquaintance and Friendship with the family for her sake, but it is so difficult to visit any of these people without being belied by those with whom one cannot have any connection and who are full of resentment, that I know not any safety in their company.” Despite her caution, AA did become a close friend of Mary Boylston Hallowell, who was JA's mother's first cousin.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0099

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Date: 1785-08-29

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams 2d

I came into Boston this morning, and shall probably spend the week here, in order to pay all my visits, and see all those persons, that it will be necessary to show myself to. Stopping at Milton, I was very much surprized, when Mrs. Warren inform'd me, that Mr. Otis1 shut up last Saturday Evening: had the news come from any other Person, I should not at that time have believ'd it, for I was introduced to him, Saturday on the exchange, and dined at Uncle Smith's, in Company with him and his family. But it was as I have been told to day in town, a Circumstance, which happened in the afternoon, that obliged him finally to Close. Uncle, and Aunt Smith, and their family, are as you may well suppose, very much affected by this Event, which I imagine, was unexpected, even to them. There is a visible dejection in their Countenances, and I heartily sympathize with them. I saw Harry pass in the Street to day. Nobody I believe feels the misfortune, more than he does. I Dined to day at Mr. Breck's, in Company with Mr. Toscan, Mr. Tom Appleton, the brother of the gentleman now in England, Mr. Chaumont, Mr. L. Austin, and his brother, and two other french gentleman; and a Mrs. Shepherd, an English Lady; (I must beg her pardon, and your's for not introducing her first.)2 She is about twenty five I imagine, very fair, well shaped, and the only objection I have to her, is that she has what I call Italian eyes. I don't know whether you will understand me, without an explanation. I mean no defect, but something very piercing, and rather harsh, that I have most commonly observed in the eyes of the Italians I have been acquainted with, there is something disagreeable to me, in it, and if I am whimsical, I must claim indulgence. Mr. Appleton I suppose you know at least as much of as I do: so I say nothing of him. It Rain'd in the afternoon, so that most of the Company stayd. The sight of cards drove me off early in the evening, for of late I have a great aversion for them, and should be perfectly contented never to touch another: pack. I spent the Evening at Dr. Welch's. Uncle Smith and his family were there; all in very low spirits, which you will easily account for.
The Supreme Judicial Court, met to day: I went and heard the { 318 } Chief Justice, deliver the Charge to the grand Jury. I never heard either Lord Mansfield, Lord Thurlow, or Lord Loughborough (and I have heard them all,) speak with more dignity: they never spoke upon a more important subject; for it was almost entirely upon the Education of youth. I was very sorry to hear him Complain, that many towns in the State have neglected to maintain the public Schools: and I sincerely hope, what he said may be productive of good effects. Mr. Thatcher afterwards was called upon for a prayer, and made, one, extempore, very well adapted to the occasion. Mr. Dana for the first time fill'd one of the judge's Seats.3
I came here this afternoon, and shall return to morrow. You have heard doubtless of the Bridge, they are building over Charlestown ferry: it was a great undertaking; and is carried on with a vast deal of Spirit. It was not begun till the latter end of May, and will be about half finished before the Winter comes on. If the Ice does not destroy it, (and I am told every possible Caution has been used to protect it) by the middle of next Summer it will be compleated; and if it stands, it will be a great saving in the End to the public, and will turn out, vastly to the advantage of the undertakers.4 Charles is very much pleased with his situation here: and comes on well with his Studies. His Class is one of the most numerous of any that have entered.5
Mr. Chaumont went to Cambridge this morning, and saw the Library and the museum, belonging to the University. I waited upon President Willard and deliver'd your Father's Letter.6 Upon the account I gave him of myself, <he s> and upon my telling him I intended to wait till the next Commencement, he advised me rather to enter in the spring, so that I might have the benifit of two lectures upon natural Philosophy. So it is now decided that I am to go and spend some months at Mr. Shaws, though I do not expect to get there finally before the beginning of October. I return'd here with Mr. Chaumont, and as I was standing in the Street before the door of the Post Office with Mr. Tyler, a letter was handed to me from it; my hopes were immediately raised, I broke the seal, and found a very polite Letter from Mr. King, enclosing your N:3. June 13th. from the Bath Hôtel.7 I never received but one Letter that gave me more Pleasure, and that was about 14 months ago from my friend Murray.8 You begin with a { 319 } Caution which I am sorry to have given Cause for, but for which I sincerely thank you. It is a great Consolation, when we are Sensible of having failed, to have friends, who can kindly reprove us. Let me request you my Sister, that you will continue to be my monitor when I may fall into other errors, and I am sure that will correct me if any thing can. Your N:2 I wait impatiently for.9 I hear not a word of Mr. Williamos, though you was <mistaken?> misinform'd as to there being no packet to sail in June from France, for she is arrived at New York after a passage of 52 days from l'Orient. What this second change, in the place of departure, is owing to I cannot imagine. Not to the influence of Mr. W. I believe.—I am very sorry to find you are not more pleased with your present Situation, than you was when at Auteuil: but I hope, you will, be more pleased after a Residence of some time: the first months are most commonly disagreeable, in a new place; because a person has not had time to form a society sufficient to pass pleasantly the leisure hours: but a number of Circumstances combine, to make your acquaintance more extensive than it was in France, and I dare say, by this time you relish your Situation much better, than you did the former. I am sufficiently sensible of your partiality for me, readily to believe, that you in some measure miss me. Had I consulted my present feelings, I certainly could not have been induced to leave you; but there is no necessity for me to inform you, of my motives; you know them and approved of the measure, as being the most advantageous for myself, that I could take. Was I now placed in the Situation I was in six months ago; although I might be still more sensible than I was, then, how much I should suffer, by a seperation from the best of Parents, and of Sisters, yet should I again follow the same course that I have pursued. My preferring to return home, has surprized a number of my young acquaintance here; much more than it would probably, if they had seen as much of Europe as I have. As for the diversions, and the splendor of those Countries, I have not bestow'd so much as one regret upon them: and if I ever do it will be because I shall be at a loss, what to do, and I am not afraid of that ever being the Case.—Do not think my Sister, that any thing coming from you, can ever be by me considered as ridiculous or trifling; I have been in my former Letters often so minute, that I was afraid it would be tiresome; but I now hope otherwise, and am certain it cannot be so, if I judge of your feelings from my own.—I have seen in the London Papers some Specimens of british (or rather refugee) politeness; but all { 320 } those paragraphs are like certain fowling pieces, which instead of wounding the game they are pointed as [at], as Mc:Fingal says,

Bear wide, and kick their owners over.

I am not afraid of seeing any thing of the kind, directed against any of you, that will give me a minutes pain. The most ineffable contempt is the only Sentiment, they will ever raise in my breast. I want very much to hear how you went through the Ceremony of the presentation; with proper dignity and assurance, I dare say: but what I want are the minutiae. What will the King say, what the Queen &c., &c., &c. I suppose some trite, common place, things, which will be ennobled by coming from those who are the fountains of honour and dignity. The mighty of the Earth, seem to be conscious of their inferiority to the rest of the world; and therefore they chuse to envelope themselves in all the majesty of obscurity. Perhaps had I gone with you, I might also have enjoy'd the felicity of a presentation to his Majesty; but it cannot be and I must endeavour to bear my misfortune as firmly as possible.—I am glad to find you have engaged an house in so fine a Situation as Grosvenor Square, and I hope, that before now you are finally settled in it. And I am very glad to hear, that you will have the Dutch furniture. By the bye; perhaps Madam Dumas, will send my watch by that opportunity to you; if she does you can send it by Charles Storer to me, for the one I have does not go so well as I wish. If it should not be sent to you before this reaches, I wish you would send for it by the first good opportunity, and you will, I suppose find some body, that will take charge of it, for me; I little thought of such a seperation from it, when I left it at the Hague.—I have read in several of the London Papers that the Earl of Effingham, was to come here as Minister from that Court: you do not mention any thing upon that Subject in your Letter; but by the visit you had from the Countess I suppose the Intentions of the Court are really in that Case, as the Papers represent them.10 Mr. Temple has been expected as Consul, at New York, these four months. I expected to have found him there on my arrival; Many Persons have enquired of me, whether he had sailed, and many here seem to doubt of his appointment: I have not been able to give any information on the Subject; and your Letter does not say a word concerning him. His Daughter, the great Toast of this town, is generally supposed to be about preparing a Treaty of alliance with Mr. Tom Winthrop:11 and it is said the Preliminaries are agreed on by all the parties interested. { 321 } I have waited on the Governor, but have not yet had the good fortune of seeing Miss Temple.—There is a passage in your Letter which puzzles me very much: I cannot imagine what Character it is you allude to, and whose baseness has drawn a few misanthropic reflections from your pen. I read the passage of your Letter to Mr. Tyler, and ask'd him if he could explain it in any manner; he thinks you must mean the husband of a Lady who is said to resemble you so much; he that was at Auteuil the day I left you:12 he tells me there is a story, very much to his disadvantage, and supposes you was inform'd of it after I came away: I was exceedingly surprised at this, and I cannot believe there is any truth in it. In one of my former Letters you will see an account of my reception in Consequence of a Letter from that person; but I did not tell you that he was enquired after by all the family, with as much apparent affection, as if he had been an own son, and Brother. And is it reasonable to suppose, that the parents and the Sister of an injured Lady, would show such a degree of fondness for the person who is supposed to have done her the harm: from the time I left you to this day I have never had Reason, to form one Suspicion against his Character, and I have often consider'd myself under obligations to him, as the Letters he gave me, have made me acquainted with a number of agreeable persons; and if he is the person you mean to speak of, I sincerely hope, you are mistaken as to his Character. I ask'd Mr. Tyler if he had written you this anecdote he told me of, and he says no: perhaps after all you was speaking of some other Character. I wish you would in your first Letter to me, after the reception of this, write me, how the matter is.—— I think with you, it was paying you but a poor Compliment, to find so great a Resemblance between you and me. But there are certain features, which I suppose every family have peculiar to themselves, and consequently a person of Mr. West's profession, who is obliged to study physiognomy, may perceive a likeness, which a man in any other, would not think of.—I perceive, that I have run on these six pages13 in replying to your Letter, and I am very glad you have at length furnished me with subjects to write on; for I was quite ashamed to have nothing to say but what related to myself. But now I will again proceed in my narrative. I dined to day at Mr. Storer's in Company with Uncle Smith's family and Mr. Green's.14 There was nobody present, that you are not acquainted with, so that there is no necessity of my giving you my Opinion, concerning any person there. This afternoon I paid a visit to Mr. Cushing the lieutenant Governor, { 322 } but he was not, chéz lui. Drank tea at Mr. Appleton's, though I did not see him. Charlotte, has been for a long time in ill health, and is supposed to be in a Consumption. She is pretty, but I think not equal at present to her Sister Betsey;15 I am thought here, some what peculiar in my taste: Ideas of Beauty are often local; and it is probable I have in Europe, corrupted mine. This Lady is not considered as extraordinary here; and I have been much less struck by several, whose Reputations, for personal Charms, are much higher. Her shape has been form'd by Nature such as the Ladies in Europe, [take?] so much pains to acquire; like a Wasp, as your Mamma used to say. Her manners are very easy, and she is properly sociable. I have seen very few young Ladies since my arrival, whose first sight has been so pleasing to me: and now my dear Sister, I must bid you good night, for I have written so much to day, that I have fairly tired myself out, and I am afraid you too. But I will make no apology lest it should induce you to shorten your Letters.
We went to the forenoon ball at Concert hall.16 There were very few Gentlemen there, but I should have supposed, every young Lady, in the town. At any rate there was more than an hundred, high and low, short and tall, plain and pretty, all in a jumble. Dined at Mr. Cushing's. The Company was not large. There were two young Ladies present, but I had no Conversation with them, and I do not know their names, though I believe they are nieces to Mr. Cushing. I have been paying as many visits as I possibly could all this week, for visits, I am obliged to pay; and not a few, I hope however by Saturday, to have nearly finished with Boston.
Mr. Chaumont, was obliged to leave town to day, having made but a very short stay here.17 He went in the afternoon, and I went as far as Roxbury with him. He is pleased with his Reception in Boston, as every foreigner must be, and proposes returning and spending some weeks here in the Course of the Winter or of the next Spring. The forenoon was very rainy so that I have not been into any Company to day. I spent the Evening with Dr. Tufts and Uncle Cranch. Aunt Tufts has been very ill, of late, and her life was despaired of; but she is now in a fair way of Recovering: her Son, I have not yet seen, { 323 } though he has been in Boston all this week: this will not surprise you.18
I left Town this morning at about 11 o'clock, and dined at Genl. Warren's. Mrs. Warren, went to Boston This forenoon, with Charles, who sails in the beginning of the Week, for Cadiz, from whence he proposes to go and join his brother at Lisbon. But I fear greatly he will never get there: I have but little hopes of ever seeing him again: though I sincerely wish I may be mistaken. The Genl. with the three other Sons, dined at home. He talks of selling that place, and returning to Plymouth. I have been told he has lately been offered 2000£ for the house, and farm, at Milton, but he will not take less than 2500. But the Price of Lands has fallen of late, and will it is supposed fall still more, so that it is doubted whether any body, will come to his price. I drank tea at Uncle Adams's, and found them all well. I did not get here till near 7 o'clock. It took me the whole day to Come from Boston here.
Sunday, and yesterday I spent at Braintree. This morning, aunt Cranch and I set out together for Haverhill. We dined in Boston, and as the Wind was pretty high, aunt was not fond of crossing the ferry, so we took the round about way, and made it so late before we got here, that we thought best not to proceed any further, this Evening, and we are now at Mr. Gannett's, whom I suppose you know. I found in Boston to day, Letters from you, and our dear Parents.19 I miss very much your N.2. without which I cannot but lose entirely the thread of your Relation; I wonder Mr. W[illiamos] to whom you say you sent it, did not forward it by the last French Packet, if as I shrewdly suspect, he did not come himself. But I will wait with patience, and in the mean time reply to your N.4.—I am not at all surprised at your preferring the French Stage to the English; Every person of taste and delicacy, cannot I think avoid it, unless blinded by national prejudice, and I have met with English men, and there are Writers, who are sufficiently candid to acknowledge the Superiority of their neighbours in that respect. Tancred is a very tragical Story. I admired the original tale, when I read it, in Gil Blas, from whence Thomson took it.20 But I know not for what Reason, I never admired this authors Dramatic pieces; the Representation may give them more interest, than we should suppose they have, when we only { 324 } read them. As they inculcate Virtue and Morality they have great merit, and it must be remembered they are the productions of an Author who never wrote

One line which dying he might wish to blot.21

Wednesday the 22d [June] say you, Pappa went to dine with Mr.—. Perhaps you intended I should fill up the name; but it is not a matter of very great importance. Your account of the presentation, was exactly such as I wish'd for; it is sufficiently minute to make me attend you in my imagination, through every step, from the morning till the joyful instant when you went into your Coach, to return home; for if I am not mistaken that was the most pleasing Circumstance that you met with in the Course of the day. That the whole Ceremony, as all those of Courts are, was beyond measure Ridiculous, is as true, as that it was absolutely <Ridiculous> Necessary for you to go through it. Was Heraclitus himself present at such assemblies, he could not, I believe, refrain from laughing. I think that since they are obliged to go through this Drudgery so often, they might make the matter still more Systematical, and never say but one thing which they might repeat upon every occasion, and to every body. But mankind can be brought by constant use, to relish almost every thing, and perhaps these very levees to which we should consider it as a misfortune to be subjected, are an enjoyment to those, who have been bred to them. The different speeches of the R[oya]l personages, were such as I expected. Why her M[ajest]y should be confused I cannot imagine, but there seems to be some meaning, in what she said, though by the Way, you seem in your answer to have hit exactly the Court Style; a Compliment, though at the expence of your real opinion. And I own you could not with propriety have given the preference to your own Country upon that Occasion.22 You will I suppose often attend the drawing Room, and although I suppose it will never be agreeable, to you, yet I imagine, it will never give you so much uneasiness again, as it did the first Time.
It was certainly very impolite in the Gentleman, whoever he was, that suffered a Servant to say he was at home: and I think the apology very proper. <I think> That custom of being absent when you please, is the best invention possible, both to avoid importunate visits, and to dispatch those that are necessary; and I think it a pity the King, cannot have the priviledge, of being out too.
They have been very civil with Respect to your furniture; but you have not said any thing about the Wine, which you mentioned in { 325 } your last: I want to know, how that matter ended. Your next I suppose will be from Grosvenor Square, and I hope you will be then finally settled. I shall expect quite a minute detail of matters, and conceive great hopes for the future from your former punctuality. Charles Storer is shortly expected, and I shall doubtless have a fine packet by him. Aunt Cranch had from Mamma a particular account of your presentation; so that we do not want for information on that Subject.
We intended when we left Braintree, to lodge at Lincoln, last Night, and come here to day. But as We did not come further than Cambridge, yesterday, we determined, to wait till we return'd before we went to Lincoln. We came by the shortest Road; dined at Andover at Mr. French's. He was not at home.23 We got here some time before Sunset; and found all our Friends well. Tommy was at his Studies, when we got here. So my Uncle took me, to the Chamber, where he was, and said, Here's somebody wants to see you; we stood two or three minutes without saying a word, either of us. At last Mr. Shaw ask'd Tommy, don't you know this person. I believe I do says Tom, I guess tis brother John: so you see I could not remain long incog. Mr. Thaxter of Course knew me; You know it is said he is courting. Fame seems now pretty obstinate, and rather increases than otherwise. He is there every day, and was proceeding that way, when we met him in the Street. A propos, since I am talking of courting; you know Cousin B.K. is or is not going to be married near here; the problem is as great as ever.24—Miss Hazen is still here. Her person answers all the expectations, which had been raised by the descriptions of yourself, and my friend at Lisbon.25 I will wait till I be more acquainted with her, before I give you my opinion of her Character. Yours as ever
[signed] J. Q. Adams
RC (Adams Papers). The text is written on small pages numbered “57” to “72,” and also “1” to “16”; see JQA to AA2, [12] May, descriptive note, above.
1. Samuel Allyne Otis; “Harry,” mentioned below, is his son Harrison Gray Otis (see Mary Cranch to AA, 14 Aug., and notes 17 and 18, above; and JQA, Diary, 1:315).
2. Samuel Breck Sr. was a Boston merchant and maritime agent for Louis XVI; JQA had delivered a letter to Breck from Lafayette on the 26th (JQA, Diary, 1:312–313, and note 5). The Austins at dinner were probably Jonathan Loring, whom JQA had met in Europe, and Benjamin; the two were merchants, and usually business partners (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:299, and note 2; 4:49; JQA, Diary, 1:36, note 1; Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 16:306). The two Frenchmen were probably a Mr. Issotier and a Mr. Serano (or Serane) (JQA, Diary, 1:316, 318).
3. William Cushing had served as chief justice of the Superior Court of Judicature from 1777, and in the same post when the court was renamed the Supreme Judicial Court under the Constitution of 1780 (Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 13:30). JQA had heard Lord Thurlow, and presumably Mansfield and { 326 } Loughborough, in June 1784 (JQA to JA, 15 June 1784, above). William Murray, first earl of Mansfield, was lord chief justice of England from 1756 to 1788; Alexander Wedderburn, first baron Loughborough, was chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 1780–1793 (DNB). Francis Dana was appointed a justice of the Supreme Judicial Court in Feb. 1785 by Gov. Hancock, and began serving, riding the western circuit, in April (Dana to JA, 30 Jan., p.s. 19 Feb.; and 10 April, both Adams Papers).
4. The Charles River Bridge, the first bridge to connect Boston and Charlestown, opened with great festivities on 17 June 1786, the anniversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill (see JQA, Diary, 2:50–51).
5. CA's class was by far the largest of the decade, with 53 students, at its formation in 1785. By commencement in 1789, however, it was little larger than the classes that graduated in 1784 and 1786, and somewhat smaller than the class of 1787, of which JQA would become a member. Harvard University Faculty Records, vols. 5 and 6 (microfilm); Harvard Quinquenial Cat., p. 195–204.
6. JA to Joseph Willard, 22 April (Col. Soc. Mass., Pubns., 13:115–116 [Feb. 1910]).
7. See AA2 to JQA, 26 Aug., note 26, above.
8. This, the earliest known letter from William Vans Murray to JQA, dated 23 July 1784 (Adams Papers), announced to JQA that “Your dear mother and lovely sister are arrived” in London.
9. See AA2 to JQA, 26 Aug., note 25, above.
10. The London Daily Universal Register reported on 9 June, “It is said, the Earl of Effingham is to go to America, in capacity of Ambassador.” The countess of Effingham visited the Adamses sometime before 22 June (AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, and note 4, above).
11. Elizabeth Bowdoin Temple would marry Thomas Lindall Winthrop in July 1786 (Temple Prime, Some Account of the Temple Family, N.Y., 1896, p. 52).
12. The character whom AA2 intended in her lost N. 3 cannot be identified, but in this paragraph JQA appears to be defending the character of James Jarvis, a New York merchant whom the Adamses had met in Auteuil in April. JQA notes Jarvis' presence at Auteuil on 12 May, the day JQA departed for America, and records the hospitable reception he received from Jarvis' father-in-law, Samuel Broome, and Jarvis' siblings and in-laws, to whom he had carried letters from Jarvis. See JQA, Diary, 1:254, 266, 294, 296, 306–307.
13. That is, since beginning the entry for this day, at “Boston August 31. Wednesday,” above.
14. Probably Joshua Green Sr., his wife Hannah Storer Green, a close friend of AA, and perhaps their son, Joshua Greene Jr. (same, 1:22).
15. Charlotte, daughter of Nathaniel Appleton and Rachael Henderson Appleton, and sister of JQA's European acquaintance, John Appleton, was just turning nineteen; despite her apparent illness, she lived until 1798. Elizabeth was seventeen. W. S. Appleton, A Genealogy of the Appleton Family, Boston, 1874, p. 14.
16. This was the fortnightly ball of William Turner's dancing class (see JQA, Diary, 1:317, and note 1).
17. Chaumont was departing for Albany (same, 1:318).
18. JQA may be implying that Cotton Tufts Jr. had little family feeling, and that AA2 knew of this feature of young Tufts' personality. JQA would sharply criticize Tufts on the occasion of his mother's death in October (same, 1:352).
19. AA2's letter N. 4, to which JQA begins to reply in the next paragraph, has not been found, but it must have been dated near those to JQA from AA, and from JA, both 26 June, both above (see same, 1:319–320).
20. AA2 had seen both Sheridan's School for Scandal, and James Thomson's Tancred and Sigismunda in London in June (AA2 to Lucy Tufts, 23 June, above), and had evidently discussed the second play in her lost letter N. 4 to JQA. Thomson's Tancred was based on a tale in Alain René Le Sage's Histoire de Gil Blas.JA gave JQA a four-volume edition of the later work in 1780; it is now in MQA.
21. From Lord Lyttleton's prologue to Thomson's posthumously produced Coriolanus.
22. The only known accounts of the 23 June interchange between Queen Charlotte and her daughters Charlotte and Augusta, on the one side, and AA and AA2 on the other, appear in AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, and in abbreviated form in AA to JQA, 26 June, both above. AA's remarks there do not make clear what AA2 said.
23. Rev. Jonathan French of the South Church in Andover was a native of Braintree whom JA had known since the 1770s or earlier; his wife, Abigail Richards, was a native of { 327 } Weymouth (Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 17:514–520; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:45).
24. JQA probably intends Elizabeth (Betsy) Kent, daughter of AA's aunt, Anna Smith Kent, who would marry Rev. Jonathan Allen of Bradford, Mass, in December (see Mary Cranch to AA, 10 Dec., and JQA to AA, 28 Dec., both below).
25. Winslow Warren; see AA2 to JQA, 4 July, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0100

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-08-31

John Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My dear Son

I hope Mr. Storer, when he delivers this Letter, will find you a Student in the University, or upon the Point of becoming So.
We have as yet no News of your Arrival in America, but We hope to learn it by the first ship.
We are comfortably Situated here, and have all enjoyed very good Health hitherto in England. But Home is Home. You are Surrounded by People who neither hate you nor fear you.
I have no other Idea of an happy Life: Than Health and Competence, with a clear Conscience and among People who esteem and love you. All these you may and will have, I hope. The Conscience Health and Competence I may have here. I may even be esteemed: but never can be beloved, as you may easily suppose.
Write me as often as you can: let me know how you like your Situation: and if you want any Books from hence. Charles I take it for granted is at Colledge, and Thomas is I hope well.
I wish he was with me, but this cannot be. I dont know how to do, without one of my sons at least with me. But am obliged to deny myself this Pleasure.
My Respects wherever they are due. Your affectionate Father
[signed] John Adams

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0101

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Cranch, Elizabeth
Recipient: Norton, Elizabeth Cranch
Date: 1785-09-02

Abigail Adams to Elizabeth Cranch

No 8

[salute] My dear Betsy

At the Bath hotel I received my dear Neices Letter of April.1 I have told your Sister and other Friends why I did not write then, but I { 328 } should have no excuse to give if I omitted so good an opportunity as now offers by Mr. Storer.
This day two months ago we removed here, where I should be much delighted if I could have my Sisters my Cousins and connections round me, but for want of them every Country I reside in, lacks a principal ingredient in the composition of my happiness.
London in the Summer season is a mere desert, no body of concequence resides in it, unless necessitated too, by their Buisness. I think the Gentry qui[te right?]2 in every view to retire to their Country seats, residing upon them is generally a great benefit to the propriater. Many noble Men expend vast sums anually in improveing and Beautifying their estates. I am told that one must visit some of these Manors and Lordships to form a just estimate of British Grandeur and Magnificence.
All the Villages which I have seen round London are mere Gardens, and shew what may be effected by Culture, but we must not expect for many Years to see America thus improved. Our numbers are few in comparison with our acres, and property is more equally distributed which is one great reason of our happiness; Industery there, is sure to meet with its recompence and to preserve the Labourer from famine from Nakedness and from want. The Liberal reward which Labour meets with in America is an other Source of our National prosperity, population and increasing wealth result from it. The condition of our Labouring poor is preferable to that of any other Country, comparatively speaking. We have no poor except those who are publickly supported. America is in her early vigor, in that progressive state, which in reality is the Cheerful and flourishing state to all the different orders of Society. It is so to the humane constitution, for when once it has reachd the meridian it declines towards the Setting Sun. But America has much to do e'er she arrives at her Zenith. She possesses every requisite to render her the happiest Country upon the Globe. She has the knowledge and experience of past ages before her. She was not planted like most other Countries with a Lawless Banditti, or an Ignorant savage Race who cannot even trace their origon, but by an enlightned a Religious and polished people. The Numerous improvement which they have made during a Century and half, in what was then but a howling Wilderness, proves their state of civilisation. Let me recommend to you my dear Girl to make yourself perfect mistress of the History of your own Country if you are not so allready; no one can be sufficiently thankfull for the Blessings they enjoy, unless they know the value of them.
{ 329 }
Were you to be a witness to the Spectacles of wretchedness and misiry which these old Countries exhibit, crouded with inhabitants; loaded with taxes, you would shuder at the sight. I never set my foot out, without encountering many objects whose tatterd party coulourd garments, hide not half their Nakedness, and speak as Otway expresses it “Variety of Wretchedness,”3 coverd with disease and starving with hunger; they beg with horrour in their countanances; besides these, what can be said of the wretched victims who are weekly Sacrificed upon the Gallows, in numbers Sufficient to astonish a civilized people? I have been credibly informd that hundreds of Children from 4 years and upwards, sleep under the trees fences and Bushes of Hide Park nightly, having no where else to lay their heads, and subsist by day; upon the Charity of the passenger. Yet has this Country as many publick institutions for charitable support of the infirm, as any country can Boast. But there must be some essential defect in the Government and Morals of a people when punishments lose their efficacy and crimes abound.
But I shall make you sick with my picture of wretchedness. Let it excite us to thankfulness my Dear Girl that our lives have fallen to us in a happier Land, a Land of Liberty and virtue, comparatively speaking. And let every one so far as there Sphere of action extends, and none so contracted as to be without Some influence, Let every one consider it as a duty which they owe to themselves to their Country and to posterity to practise virtue, to cultivate knowledge and to Revere the deity as the only means, by which not only individuals, but a people or a Nation can be prosperous and happy. You will think I have turnd preacher. I know I am not writing to a thoughtless, but to a reflecting Solid young Lady, and that shall be my excuse.
How have you advanced in your musick. The practise of Musick to those who have a taste and ear for it, must be one of the most agreeable of Amusements. It tends to soften and harmonize the passions, to elevate the mind, to raise it from earth to Heaven. The most powerfull effects of Musick which I ever experienced, was at Westminister Abbey. The place itself is well calculated to excite solemnity, not only from its ancient and venerable appearence, but from the dignified Dust, Marble and Monuments it contains. Last year it was fitted up with seats and an organ loft sufficienly large to contain six hundred Musicians, which were collected from this and other Countries. This Year the Musick was repeated. It is call'd the celebration of Handles Musick. The sums collected are deposited, { 330 } and the income is appropriated to the support of decayed Musicians. There were 5 days set apart for the different performances. I was at the peice call'd the Messiah,4 and tho a Guinea a ticket, I am sure I never spent one with more satisfaction. It is impossible to describe to you the Solemnity and dignity of the Scene. When it came to that part, the Hallelujah, the whole assembly rose and all the Musicians, every person uncoverd. Only conceive six hundred voices and instruments perfectly chording in one word and one sound! I could scarcly believe myself an inhabitant of Earth. I was one continued shudder from the begining to the end of the performance. Nine thousand pounds was collected, by which you may judge of the rage which prevaild for the entertainment.
How do all my good Friends and old Neighbours. Let me hear as often as possible from you. Never conceive that your Letters are trifling, nothing which relates to those I Love appears so to me. This Letter is to go by Mr. Storer, as I told you in the begining; a smart youth for some of you; and what is better a virtuous and good Young Man. We are sorry to part with him, for he is quite Domesticated with us, but we hope he will be benifited by the exchange. It is time for him to be some way fixed in a profession for Life. He thinks of Divinity, and now I am talking of Divinity I will inquire after my Friend Mr. Wibird and chide you all for never mentioning him—for I have seen him twenty times Since my absence come up your yard, and enter the house, and inquire (after having thrown aside his cloak) “Well, have you heard from your Aunt? What does She say, and how do they all?”
I hope you have seen your cousin before this time and in your next you must tell me how you like him. You must cure him of some foibles which he has. He will take it kindly of you, for he is a good youth only a little too possitive. My paper only allows me to say that I am Yours
[signed] AA
RC (MHi: Jacob Norton Papers); docketed: “Letter from Mrs A Adams to Miss Eliz. Cranch London Septr. 2d. 1785. (No. 8).”
1. Of 25 April, above. AA probably received this letter about 21–22 June, when she and AA2 received several letters from Boston (AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June; AA2 to Mary Cranch, 22 June, both above).
2. Text partly lost in a worn fold.
3. Closing quotation mark supplied. The phrase has not been located in the works of Thomas Otway, a Restoration poet and dramatist (DNB).
4. AA attended this performance on 8 June; see AA to Thomas Jefferson, 6 June, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0102

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Tufts, Lucy Quincy
Date: 1785-09-03

Abigail Adams to Lucy Quincy Tufts

[salute] My Dear Aunt1

And why my dear Madam have you not written a few lines, and tuckt into a corner of my good uncles Letters when he has favourd me with one? Perhaps you think I ought first to have adrest you. I knew I was writing to both, whenever I scribled to my honourd Friend, and that my sisters and Neices would communicate to you their Letters whenever there was any thing worthy your notice.
I know Madam that you Live a Life so retired and are now so frequently seperated from your worthy companion that I flatter myself a few lines from me will not be unacceptable to you: tho I were to amuse you with what is the Ton of London, The learned pig, dancing dogs, and the little Hare that Beats the Drum.2 It is incredible what sums of Money are nightly lavishd upon these kinds of Amusements, many of them fit only to please children. The Tumbling and rope Dancing is worth seeing once or twice, because it gives you an Idea of what skill agility and dexterity the Humane frame is capable of, and of which no person can form an Idea without having seen it. The House where these wonderfull feats are exhibited is calld Sadlers Wells and is accomodated with Boxes and a Stage in the manner of a play House. Upon the Stage two machines are fixed upon which a rope is extended about 15 foot from the floor. Upon this the Dancers mount drest very neat with a Jocky and feathers and a silk Jacket and Breaches, the Jacket very tight to the waist and a sash tied round the Jacket. He bows to the company; upon which a person who stands near him gives him a long pole made thick at each end. With this pole which serves to Balance him, he commences his dance to the Musick which he keeps time with. He will run backwards and forwards poise himself upon one foot, kneel jump across the rope, spring upon it again, and finally throws down the pole and jumps 6 foot into the air repeatedly, every time returning upon the rope with the same steadiness as if it was the floor, and with so much ease, that the spectator is ready to believe he can perform, the same himself. There is one man who is stilled the little devil, who dances with wooden shoes, and I have seen him stand upon his head with his feet perpendicular in the air. All this is wonderfull for a Man, but what will you say, when I assure you I have seen a most Beautifull Girl perform the same feats! Both in Paris and England. Why say you { 332 } what could she do with her peticoats? It is true that she had a short silk skirt, but she was well clad under that, with draws, and so are all the female Dancers upon the stage, and there is even a law in France that no woman Shall dance upon the stage without them; But I can never look upon a woman in such situations, without conceiving all that adorns and Beautifies the female Character, delicacy modesty and diffidence, as wholy laid asside, and nothing of the woman but the Sex left.
In Europe all the lower class of women perform the most servile Labour, and work as hard with out door as the Men. In France you see them making hay, reaping sowing plowing and driveing their carts alone. It would astonish you to see how Labourious they are, and that all their gain is coars Bread and a little ordinary wine, not half so good as our cider. The Land is all owned by Marquisses Counts and Dukes, for whom these poor wretches toil and sweat. Their houses through all the villages of France consist of thatched roof Huts, without one single pane of glass. When they have any buisness which requires light, they set out of Door, and this they usually do through the whole season, for Heaven has blesst them with an admirable Climate, and a soil productive of every necessary and delicacy that Luxery can pant for. But there Religion and Government Mar all heavens Bounty. In Spain I have been told that it is much worse.3 I believe in England the common people live more comfortably, but there is wretchedness and oppression enough here, to make a wise Man mad.
If I was not attached to America by a Naturel regard, as my native Country, when I compare the condition of its inhabitants, with that of the Europeans, I am bound to it by every feeling of phylanthropy, and pray that the Blessings of civil and Religious Liberty, knowledge and virtue may increase and shine upon us, in proportion as they are clouded and obstructed in the rest of the Globe, and that we may possess wisdom enough to estimate aright our peculiar felicity.
I will not close untill I have inquired after your Health and that of your Son and Neice4 to whom present my Love. Mr. Adams and your Neice also tender you their regards. As I esteem a good domestick I would not forget them in the number of your family, or any of my Towns f[ol]ks who may think it worth while to inqure after Your affectionate Friend and Neice
[signed] Abigail Adams
RC (Adams Papers); addressed by Charles Storer: “Mrs. Lucy Tufts Weymouth”; docketed in an unknown hand: “1785 AA.” Slight damage to the text at the seal.
{ 333 }
1. This is the only extant letter from AA to Lucy Quincy Tufts; it probably went to America with Charles Storer (see AA to Cotton Tufts, 16 Sept., descriptive note, below), and therefore did not reach her before her death on 30 October.
2. See AA2 to JQA, 4 July, and note 39, above.
3. Sources for this view of Spain may have been JA and JQA. Their journey through northern Spain, Dec. 1779 – Jan. 1780, is fully recounted in vol. 3:243–272; and in JA, Diary and Autobiography, vols. 2 and 4; JQA, Diary, vol. 1; and JA, Papers, vol. 8.
4. Probably Lucy Tufts Hall; see Mary Cranch to AA, 19 July, and note 15, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0103

Author: Jefferson, Thomas
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-09-04

Thomas Jefferson to Abigail Adams

[salute] Dear Madam

I was honoured with your letter of Aug. 21. by Mr. Smith who arrived here on the 29th. I am sorry you did not repeat the commission you had favoured me with by Mr. Short as the present would have been an excellent opportunity of sending the articles you wished for. As Mr. Short's return may yet be delayed, will you be so good as to write me by post what articles you desired, lest I should not otherwise know in time to send them by either of the Mr. Smiths.1 The French packet brought me letters from Mr. Jay and Dr. Ramsay only. They were dated July 13.2 They do not mention the arrival of your son. Dr. Ramsay's letter was on a particular subject, and Mr. Jay's letter was official. He may have arrived therefore tho these letters do not mention it. However as he did not sail till June, and Westernly winds prevail in the summer I think the 13th. of July was too early to expect him to have arrived. I will certainly transmit you information of his arrival the moment I know it.
We have little new and interesting here. The Queen has determined to wear none but French gauzes hereafter. How many English looms will this put down? You will have seen the affair of the Cardinal de Rohan so well detailed in the Leyden gazette that I need add nothing on that head.3 The Cardinal is still in the Bastille. It is certain that the Queen has been compromitted without the smallest authority from her: and the probability is that the Cardinal has been duped into it by his mistress Madme. de la Motte. There results from this two consequences not to his honour, that he is a debauchee, and a booby. The Abbés4 are well. They have been kept in town this summer by the affairs of the Abbé Mably. I have at length procured a house in a situation much more pleasing to me than my present. It is at the grille des Champs Elysees, but within the city. It suits me in every circumstance but the price, being dearer than the one I am now in.5 It has a clever garden to it.
{ 334 }
I will pray you to present my best respects to Miss Adams and to be assured of the respect and esteem with which I have the honour to be Dear Madam Your most obedient & most humble servt.
[signed] Th: Jefferson
RC (Adams Papers); docketed by AA2: “Mr Jefferson Sep 4th.”
1. That is, James Smith, who carried AA's 21 Aug. letter to Jefferson (above), and Col. William Stephens Smith.
2. These letters appear in Jefferson, Papers, 8:292–294.
3. For a highly-detailed account of the scandalous Diamond Necklace Affair involving Louis René Edouard, Prince and Cardinal de Rohan, his mistress, Madame de La Motte-Valois, and Queen Marie Antoinette, see Simon Schama, Citizens, A Chronicle of the French Revolution, N.Y., 1989, p. 203–210.
4. The abbés Arnoux and Chalut.
5. On 17 Oct., Jefferson would move from his house on the Cul-de-sac Taitbout (now the Rue du Helder), just off the present Boulevard Haussmann, which he had leased in Oct. 1784, to the second floor of the Hôtel de Langeac, at the corner of the Rue Neuve de Berry (now the Rue de Berri) and the Avenue des Champs-Elysées, abutting the elaborate city gate, called the Grille de Chaillot, that stretched across the avenue. This passage is evidently the first surviving record of Jefferson's intention to move. The lease was drawn on 5 Sept., and signed on the 8th; his yearly rent increased from 6,000 livres, at his former address, to 7,500. See Jefferson, Papers, 7:xxviii, 442–443, illustration facing 452; 8:xxviii–xxix, illustration facing 247, 485–492.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0104

Author: Barclay, Mary
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-09-05

Mary Barclay to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dear Madam

I did not know till this moment that Coln. Franks would set out this evening, who has just Call'd on me for my Commands. I dare not detain him long, and cannot let him depart without a few lines to assure you of my attachment and best wishes.
I am glad to find you are agreeably fixed1 and that you enjoy a good society which is certainly much superior to all the fashionable amusments of, this, or any other place, tho' you are so happy in your own family that you must feel the want of it much less than any one I know.
When Dr. Bancroft left this I thought of settling at L'Orient during Mr. Barclay's absence2 but on maturer reflection it is not a place proper for the Education of our Children, therefore have determined to remain some where in or near Paris where those advantages may be procured that I would wish to have for them. Catharine stay'd with me till the 10 of August, and as I then expected to leave Paris in a few days she engaged with the Family which came into the house at Mont Parnasse which we were obliged to quit at that time, and removed to Hotel D'Aligre rue d'Orleans St. Honoré.
Pauline I believe to have too good Principles as well as too great a love for this life, to put an end to it in the maner you mention.3 She { 335 } was happily placed about three weeks after you left this with a Lady who gives her three hundred livres a year besides Profites which are considerable, yet she seems to regret much your service.
I pray you remember me respectfully to Mr. and Miss Adams & believe me with the greatest sincerity your Friend & humble Servant
[signed] Mary Barclay
1. Mary Barclay refers, here and below, to a missing letter from AA, presumably written in July or August.
2. On or just before 4 Sept., with JA's prior agreement, Jefferson instructed Thomas Barclay to negotiate a commercial treaty with the Barbary States. Barclay intended to depart soon thereafter for Morocco but was delayed until Jan. 1786 by the need to settle Caron de Beaumarchais' accounts. See Jefferson, Papers, 8:394, 424, 473; 9:91, 214.
3. Pauline had served the Adamses at Auteuil.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0105

Author: Cranch, Elizabeth
Author: Norton, Elizabeth Cranch
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-09-05

Elizabeth Cranch to Abigail Adams

[salute] My dear Aunt

My Papa came in this evening and brought a great Letter directed to Mama, superscrib'd by my Uncle Adams.1 Mama is at Braintree, we had no Letters to satisfy us. The Pacquet was laid upon the table. I took it up, examined the seal, and wanted much to get at the contents, then took the stocking, (which I was lining the Heel of for your Charles), and work'd upon it a little, all the time immagination busy in anticipating what might be in the Letter before me. My impatience shewd itself and was a kind of apology for Papa's curiosoty, who after a serious Pipe, sedately laid it down, took out his spectacles, wip'd them, and I very dextrously cut round the Seal, and gave it to Him to read. Imediatly, from the humble scenes around me; my immagination was borne away to the circles of Kings, Queens Earls and Countesses, to brilliant rooms, to birth nights, and to Balls. My head is even now full of them, and I certainly shall dream, and feel as great as any lady to night. I have to thank you for a great degree of entertainment which your account has afforded me. I was in Love with your dresses. I would have given (I dont know what) to have peepd in upon you, but tis almost as good to heare your discriptions.
The week before last we had the pleasure of recieving and welcoming our dear Cousin John to his native Land. I do not wonder that you regret the loss of him. I am sure I shall Love him tenderly. I am pleased when I look at him, to trace the features of both his parents so plainly in his face and more of yours my dear Aunt than either of your other Children can show. I have not yet seen him half eno'; he { 336 } has been engagd, visiting, the Boston gentry, for a whole week, tho he has calld upon me a little while every day. The day he arrivd (or rather the day after)2 which was the first of my seeing him, he dined with my Papa and me at our present Lodgings. Lucy had come to town with a design of going up to Cambridge to see our Brothers there, and drink tea with them. So we took our Cousin John, and Isaac Smith with us and went. The meeting was joyful indeed between the Brothers and Cousins. We intended to have surprizd Charles with an unexpected interview. We arrivd first, and kept him up in Billys Chamber, but [he] would go below, and was looking out, when he saw Cousin John alight at a distance he call'd John! John!, and made the Colledges echo. Cousin J heard, but did not know from whom or from whence, for he did not expect to hear the voice of a man when his Brother spoke. But he repeated his calls, till he drew his attention, and before we thought of it Mr. Charles, came and introduced his Brother to us, and we did have a sweet, charming time of it. I am sure my good Aunt could you have lookd in upon us, sitting around our tea table, looking so much chearful happiness, you would have felt a glow of pleasure, unequalled perhaps, by any the drawing-room ever afforded you! It was pleasure, even to a degree of pain, for tears, and smils, alternately had there dominion. We wanted our Tommy to compleat our happiness. We left, the Colledge Lads, and returnd to Boston and spent the eve at Uncle Smith. After I got to my own Lodgings, I retired and to compleet the pleasure of the day, read yours and Cousin Nabby's Letters.3 Never will it be in my power my dear dear Aunt to make you any returns for your unequalld attention and kindness to me, so many excellent Letters as you have favourd me with. How shall I express my thanks. I know not how you will be repay'd, but by the reflection of that happiness which you bestow. Tis past midnight. I must not write more at present tho I feel much inclind to.
This morning my Mama came to town with Cousin John. They dined here, and have this afternoon sat out to make a journey to Haverhill. Tis most delightful weather, and I could with pleasure have accompanid them, had it been in my power; Mama has been much out of health this Summer. I am hoping that this ride may be of service to her; especially as she has so agreable a companion. My dear Aunt, we all look with pleasing wonder, upon your Son. When we hear him converse; we think tis the Language of experiencd { 337 } age—so wise, so firm, so solid; tis almost impossible to concieve these to be the qualities of eighteen. Did we not behold sprightliness, ardor, softness, benevolence, and all the youthful Virtues, as conspicuous in his countenance, we should be apt to doubt that there was some mistake in reckoning years. What is there peculiar in the Climate of Europe, that can thus surprizinly mature the mind? I hope he will not find that of America less favourable, to its cultivation.
You say you are to live in Grosvenor Square. Do you not sometimes think, that Lady Grandison Lady G—— and L—— and all the good Folks in the book4 are around you, and your neigbours? The name always brings them to my mind; I should sit my immagination to work to form resemblances of them, and in Idea enjoy the pleasure of seeing them.
One thing I have to request, although I dare say your own curiosity will prompt you to it. It is, that you will visit all those beautiful enchanting, Seats and places that we read about, and are so much charmed with in discription—Lord Coltanes Gardens, Windsor, Bleinham, and Hagley and the Leasomes, above all. O that I could go with you! Methink I should be perfectly happy. My desire to see England is as ardent as ever. I think encreasing. I am a good mind to run aboard a ship, and say nothing about it to any body. Would you recieve such a vargrant? Why Ma'am, it would not be worse, than some better folks than I have done, but it wont do to reason upon the matter. Ships Sail frequently, and here am I at Boston. Tis a good Season. I can stay the winter and spring with you, and return in Summer. The winter I can pass, in the West, with my good Cousins and Uncles, and [in]5 the spring, visit all these fine Seats, and Paridises with you. I dont want to go to Court—and then just take a sail back again. Was there ever a better Scheme? I am sure tis good! But heigh ho!
In The last Letter I wrote you my dear Aunt,6 I believe I mentioned my hopes, that when I got to Boston I should find something, to amuse and entertain you with; but alas I am dissapointed. I see nor hear any thing entertaining. I think my greatest pleasures, amusements and gratifications are all derivd from you and my Cousin. Your Letters, make all, the variety of my Life. A little news I have to tell, but probably it will not be so to you ere this reaches you. Mr. Otis, has shut up!—and this is an event at which we are all grievd and surprizd. Mrs. O possesses a remarkable uniformity of Temper, and is not so much depressd by it as one might expect. Hary looks—very sad. Tomorrow my Aunt the amiable and good Charles Warren, embarks { 338 } for Lisbon! But I am much afraid his passage is for another Port, from which no traveller returns. His health is much worse than when you left us. He looks like death. I saw him pass to day, with his Mama in Mrs. Kiessels Carriage. I believe twas the last look I er'e shall have. Mrs. W[arren]s countenance wore the most expresive anxiety. Poor Lady, my heart aked for her. I think her task must be hard indeed.
This sheet of Paper has lain by so long that I know not what I was going to write on the remainder of it. I have changed my habitations and plans, since I wrote the above. You have heard by former Letters7 that I was going to spend the Summer in Boston, to have a little instruction in musick. Mr. Selbys price was so exceedingly high, that I could not have the advantage, of a great number of Lessons, a dollar a Leson, he chargd. Miss Peggy White has got a new Forte Piano, carried it to Haverhill, and has a Master there who teaches for one Shilling per Lesson. He has instructd a great many Ladies in Portsmouth, and other places. Mama and Cousin John, have been to make a visit to Aunt Shaw. They returnd last week, and Mrs. White and Miss Peggy, have given me a most pressing invitation to spend a month or two with them, and Learn upon her instrument and of her Master. Tis much for my advantage, and Miss White has been so good as to say, it will be a great pleasure to her to have me a fellow Pupil. I believe we shall both learn much better for having, a companion. So instead of tarying 2 months longer in Boston, as I had designd, I quit it, for H, and shall next week go up with Cousin John in the Stage.
I had hoped to have returnd to Braintree, but my interest leads me from it. I shall have the pleasure of more of Cousin Johns company, than at home. This is one strong additional inducement. I have not yet said half a thousandth part of what I thought I had to say to him, tis not yet my turn. I rode up from Boston the day before yesterday with him,8 and I believe tired the poor young Man with my interogataries, but he was patient. He is in fine Spirits. I thought sometimes People would immagine I had a crazy creature with me. He sang some curious songs, in which he thought action necessary, and a Chaise was not a very conveniet Stage, to display His theatrical abilities upon, especially when he was driving. I do not know when I have laugh'd so immoderately.
I believe we felt a little like strangers to him at first, by this time [I] hope he feels and reallizes, that we are most affectionate Friends. { 339 } Since your [abse]nce I have felt an unusual tenderness for <you> my Cousins, who you [lef]t behind, a tenderness, bordering upon (if not really, a weakness) fills my heart, whenever I look upon them, and I feel as if they were more than ever dear to me. One Clause in my Uncles Letter to Papa,9 affected me more than I have been in reading a deep tragedy. I know not why, but I instantly burst into tears, as I read it, nor can I reccollect it without feeling the same emotions. <twas not> “Take care of my Boys in their Orphan state, advise counsel and direct them!” I cannot tell you why, it had this effect, but it touched the tenderest string in my heart. Whenever I can be useful to them either by contributing to their good, pleasure, or happiness, I shall [exert?]10 the extent of my power to do it. My heart cannot know a greater satisfaction! I am much, obligd for the present, recievd by Cousin John. I have no claim, to such kindness, my dear Aunt, but I know that every oppertunity of exerting your benevolence is an encrease of your happiness. Continue Madam, if you can find the time, still to write me as particularly as you have done. By the last Vessel Capt. Solmes11I had not one Letter from you or my Cousin Nabby. Tis the first time, and I must not complain.
Numbers of your Friends and accquaintance in Boston desird me to present their compliments. I cannot name them all. Mr. and Mrs. Foster where I have kept this Summer, present their most respectful compliments, not from personal knowledge, do they presume to offer them, but from a respect they feel for the Characters of my Uncle and Aunt and from an interest they have naturally taken, in your concerns, from hearing and knowing so much of you from us. I must write to Cousin Nabby, and fear I shall have nothing to say, unless I conclude, soon, this long Letter to you.
I am my dear Aunt, with the liveliest sentiments of Love, respect, & gratitude your ever affectionate Neice,
[signed] Eliza: Cranch
If my respected Uncle, thinks, the sincere and hearty good wishes, of, one so little important, worthy his acceptance, please to offer them always to him.
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “Madam Abigail Adams London”; endorsed: “E Cranch Septr 5 1785”; docketed by AA2: “Elisa Cranch sep 5.” Some loss of text where the seal was cut away.
1. AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, above.
3. The latest letters from AA and AA2 that Elizabeth could have read on the evening of 26 Aug. date from 6, 8, and 12 May, at Auteuil, all above; the Adams' first letters from London did not reach Boston until 5 September.
4. All these are characters in Samuel Richardson's Sir Charles Grandison.
5. Here a caret appears above the line, but no word.
6. Of 25 April, above.
{ 340 }
7. See Elizabeth Cranch to AA, 25 April, above.
8. On 16 September.
9. JA to Richard Cranch, 27 April, above.
10. Written over an illegible deletion.
11. The arrival of the ship Olive Branch, Capt. Somes, from London was reported in the Boston Gazette of 12 September.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0106

Author: Smith, William Stephens
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-09-05

William Stephens Smith to Abigail Adams

[salute] My dear Madam

Your benevolence I know will excuse the particularity of this address, when you confide in the assurance of its proceeding from a sincere heart nourishing the most exalted sentiments of the virtue and sensibility of yours. Accept of my thanks for the reply to my note,1 I feel myself complimented by your confidence and beleive I am not capable of abusing it. I hope for an advocate in you, should Mr. Adams think my absence long. Tell him, that—what will you tell him? Can you say with Stern2 that it is a quiet Journey of the heart in pursuit of those affections, which make us love each other, and the world better than we do <?>, or will you say he is flying from—? Hush, madam, not a lisp—but I will not dictate, say what you please. Whatever you say and whatever you do (confiding in the spring of your actions) I will subscribe to it.
Mr. A, I hope, received my Letters from Harwich and Amsterdam.3 I dare not permit my pen to enter upon my journal, least I should tire you. I'll reserve the tales for winter Evenings, when I dare say I shall at least receive your thanks for sharpening your appetite for your pillow, that you may form an Idea of the channel thro' which they'll run. I shall only hint, that I have visited the Cabinets of the Curious both natural and artificial, Palaces, Libraries, Arsenals, fields of Battle, Monuments on those fields, Cathedrals, and have descended with a taper into the sepulchre's, of monarchs—“I took a turn amongst their tombs—to see where to all Glory comes”—and find Royalty cuts but a poor figure here.4 And from the humble Cottage of the impovrished Peasant where he shared with me his peas and his beans, I have crept silently up to the throne of Majesty. Crept Did I say? No Madam. I walked firmly up to it, marking the stages to the last Step of the ascent, from whence with an Eye of compassion, I reviewd the vale thro' which I had passed and with the aforementioned favourite author I asked heaven only for health and the fair Goddess of Liberty as my Companion and all beyond let wild ambition grapel for, and gain. I shall not envy it. Pretty tolerable rant this, you'll say. Well I'll check a Little.
We have been favoured with seven day's steady rain, but this did { 341 } not stop us. But now I'll tell you what did. In the Centre of a Plain in the dominions of His Prussian Majesty, exactly two Sabbath day's Journey from a house either way, the perch of our carriage broke, exactly one inch and a half from the centre.5 You would have laughed at the solemnity with which we got out of it, and gaped at each other, but the worst is yet to be told. The Postilion could speak nothing but German. Miranda, my Servant and your most humble Servant, colectively, could boast of English, French, Italian, Spanish and of cracking Joak's with monks in Latin, but all this Madam would not do, for the Postilion knew nothing but German, and perhaps this was the case for a Circuit of 10 Miles. Now I know you pity me. I cannot expect you will form any right conjectures how we extricated ourselves from this difficulty, and if I were to Attempt to tell you now, I might spoil a good story by endeavouring to bring it within the compass of this sheet. For the present you must therefore only know we were relieved by two Ladies, who by a Kind Stroke of smiling chance were Journeying the same way. Their conduct on this occasion has heightned (if possible) the favourable opinion I have alway's nourish'd relative to the sex, and convinces me we should cut but a silly figure on this stage without them. Notwithstanding great exertion, it was two in the morning before we got in motion again. It is well that those actions which proceed from generosity and benevolence, carry their reward with them. As soon as I was seated, the carriage moved and the Ladies bid us adieu. I could not help exclaiming—Peace, happiness and pleasantry attend your steps ye tender productions of your makers works. May no rough Line, ever cross your path—nor interrupting Obsticle check your passage down the stream of Life. May benevolence alway's greet you with a welcome, and hospitality extend her Arms to receive you. After this, the obligation Sat easier. It was the only return I could make.
The badness of the roads and the delay occasioned by the fracture—(for the assistance we had recieved only enabled us to move with sobriety to a neighbouring Village) put it out of our power to reach Bresleau within the destined Period.6 And Philosophers may as well hope that the transit of Venus will be postponed untill they are prepared to make their observations, as that Frederic will on account of wind or weather delay an hour in the execution of a Military Order. By the Letter to Mr. Adams which this accompanies you will see he is not a man of words, whatever he may be of deeds.7
I this morning entered the field—as [at?] a Military school. I shall be a constant attendant from 6 to 12 every day untill the business is { 342 } over when I shall haste to pay my respects to you. I hope both as a young Politician and as a Soldier (casting a veil upon every thing else as much as possible) to be richly repaid for this excurtion. May I hope, that a Letter will be deposited, with my Versifying Friend David8 at Paris, acknowledging the receipt of this, and informing me how you all do in Grosvenor Square, by the time I arrive there? Yes I will expect it—and as I find I am drawing insensibly to the last page of the sheet, I shall make this period comprehend my best wishes for the uninterrupted happiness of every branch of your family and expressive of the sincerity with which I shall alway's acknowledge myself—Your most obliged Friend and Humble servt.
[signed] W. S. Smith
RC (Adams Papers); docketed in JA's late, trembling hand: “Col Smith 5. Sep. 1785 Berlin.”
1. AA replied on 13 Aug., above, to Smith's note from Harwich, of the 10th, not found.
2. Laurence Sterne, author of A Sentimental Journey.AA's reply to Smith of 18 Sept., below, makes it clear that Smith is referring to his strong interest in AA2, and his feeling that it was best for him to leave London for a time because AA2 was still involved with Royall Tyler.
3. Smith's letters to JA from Harwich, 10 Aug., and from Amsterdam, ca. 15 Aug., have not been found (for the dates at these locations, see Francisco Miranda's and Col. Smith's diaries, in Archivo del General Miranda, Viajes Diaros 1750–1785, vol. 1, Caracas, 1929, p. 353, 358–361).
4. Smith records his tour of the Potsdam-Berlin area, from 30 Aug. to 5 Sept., in considerable detail in his Diary (same, p. 374–378).
5. This mishap occurred on 26 Aug., near a village which Smith calls “Barnstadt,” between Helmstedt and Magdeburg. Smith describes the day in detail in his Diary, using much the same language to express his gratitude to the women who, with their servants, came to his assistance (same, p. 370–371).
6. Smith never did travel to Breslau, which he had planned to visit from the outset of his journey (see JA to Wilhelm & Jan Willink, and to Nicolaas & Jacob van Staphorst, 9 Aug., LbCs, Adams Papers; Smith, Diary, p. 360).
7. In his letter of 5 Sept. to JA (Adams Papers), Smith copied his brief letter of 3 Sept. to Frederick II, requesting permission to view Prussia's military exercises, and Frederick's very brief but polite consent, in French, dated 4 September.
8. David Humphreys, secretary of the American legation in Paris, to whom AA's reply of 18 Sept. to Smith, below, was carried by Col. Franks.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0107

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-09-06

Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams

No 4.

[salute] My Dear Son

Yesterday being Sunday I went with your papa to the Foundling Church,1 Dr. Price whom we usually attend being absent a few weeks in the Country. When I returnd from Church I went into my closet and took up my pen with an intention of writing to you; but I really felt so trist at not having heard of your arrival that I could not { 343 } compose myself sufficently to write to you, so I scribled to your Brothers.2 By the time I had finishd my Letters, I was call'd to tea. Mr. Brown the painter came in and spent part of the Evening. I read a sermon in Barrow3 upon the Government of the Tongue, and went to Bed with one of my old impressions that Letters were near at Hand. This Morning went below to Breakfast, the Urn was brought up Boiling, the Chocolate ready upon the table, Enter Mr. Spiller the Butler, who by the way is a very spruce Body, and after very respectfully bowing with his Hands full “Mr. Churchs compliments to you Sir, and has brought you this pacquet, but could not wait upon you to day as he was obliged to go out of Town.” Up we all jumpt, your Sister seized hold of a Letter,4 and cry'd my Brother, my Brother. We were not long opening and perusing, and I am so glad, and I am so glad, was repeated from one to an other. Mamma did not fail remarking her old impression. The Chocolate grew cold, the top of the tea pot was forgotton, and the Bread and Butter went down uneaten, yet nobody felt the loss of Breakfast, so near akin is joy and grief that the effect is often similar.
Your Pappa had a prodigious quantity of writing to do before, and his packets from Congress just received has increased it much. I know not what he would have done if Mr. Storer had not lent him a hand, and copied his Letters for him. Yet it is a little hard upon him, as he is very buisy in preparing for his voyage. The Prussian Review which was to commence upon the 20th of last Month, was drawing together all the great Military Characters in Europe. It was like to prove an object of vast importance as it was to consist not only of the best troops, but of the greatest number, and to be reviewd by the most celebrated military Sovereign now living. Col. Smith considerd it as an object which merited his attention, and requested leave of absence for a few weeks. Your Pappa readily granted his request, as at that time there was little prospect of Buisness, but it has so happend that from Holland from France, America and here, there has been much to do, and much yet remains undone. Dispatches must be got ready for Mr. Storer who is to sail in a few days. The Col. has been gone a month, we have received two Letters from him5 and may I think look for his return daily. He does not live with us, he has appartments in Leiscester Fields, he always dines with us. I like him much, but I do not rely wholy upon my own opinion. I will quote your pappas words writing of him to the President of Congress. “Col. Smith has been very active and attentive to Buisness, and is much respected. He has as much honour and spirit as any Man I { 344 } ever knew. His principals are those of his Country, and his abilities are worthy of them. He has not the poetical Genius of Humphries, but he has much superiour talants, and a more independant temper as a politician. In short you could not have given me a Man more to my taste.”6 I may further add that he is sedate, not too much given to amusement, and a mind above every little mean thought or action. He appears formed for a Military Life, and will figure at the Head of an Army should we have occasion for him. I assure you I am not without apprehensions that such an event is not so far distant as I once hoped: the temper and disposition of this People is as hostile towards us, as it was in the midst of the War. Pride envy and Revenge rankles in their Hearts and they study every method in their power to injure us, in the Eyes of all Europe by representing us as Lawless, divided amongst ourselves, as Bankrupts. Every hireling Scribler is set to work to vilify us in the most reproachfull terms, and they refuse to publish any thing of a contrary tenor unless you will bribe them to. Much of this bilingsgate is circulated in order to prevent Emigrations from Ireland. If your Pappa had attended to the Letters he has received, and would have given any encouragement, he might have settled whole States, but he has always refused to do any thing upon the Subject. There is scarcly a day passes without applications.7
Our Countrymen have most essentially injured themselves by running here in Shoals after the Peace, and obtaining a credit which they cannot Support. They have so shackld and hamperd themselves that they cannot now extricate themselves; merchants who have given credit, are now Suffering, and that naturally creates ill will, and hard words. His Majesty and the Ministry shew every personal respect and civility which we have any right to expect. “The Marquiss de la Fayette, writes that he had always heard his Majesty was a great dissembler but he never was so throughly convinced of it, as by the reception given to the American Minister.”8 I wish there conduct with regard to our Country was of a Peice with that which they have shewn to its representitive. The Marquis of Carmathan and Mr. Pitt, appear to possess the most liberal Ideas with respect to us, of any part of the Ministry. With regard to the Negroes they are full and clear that they ought to be payd for,9 but as to the posts; they say, the relinquishment of them, must depend upon certain other matters, which you know they were not at liberty to explain in private conversation. But it is no doubt they mean to keep them, as a security for the payment of the Debts, and as a rod over our Heads. They think we are as little able to go to war, as they are. The Bugget has not yet { 345 } been offically opend. A Generous Treaty has been tenderd them, upon which they are now pondering and brewing. The fate of the Irish propositions has thrown weight into the American Scale, but there are so many Bones of contention between us, that snarling spirits will foment into rage, and cool ones kindle by repeated Irritation. It is astonishing that this Nation Catch at every straw which swims, and delude themselves with the Buble that we are weary of our independance, and wish to return under their Government again.10 They are more actuated by these Ideas in their whole System towards us, than any generous plans which would become them as able statesmen and a Great Nation. They think to Effect their plans by prohibitary acts and heavy duties. A late act has past prohibiting the exportation of any tools of any kind.11 They say they can injure us; much more than we can them, and they seem determined to try the experiment. Those who look beyond the present moment foresee the concequences, that this Nation will never leave us untill they drive us into Power, and Greatness that will finally shake this kingdom. We must struggle hard first, and find many difficulties to encounter, but we may be a Great and a powerfull Nation if we will; industery and frugality, wisdom, and virtue must make us so. I think America is taking Steps towards a reform, and I know her Capable of whatever she undertakes. I hope you will never lose sight of her interests, but make her welfare your study, and spend those hours which others devote to Cards and folly in investigating the Great principals by which nations have risen to Glory and eminence, for your Country will one day call for your services, either in the Cabinet or Feild. Qualify yourself to do honour to her.
You will probably hear before this reaches you of the extrodanary affair respecting the Cardinal Rohan. It is said that his confinement is in concequence of his making use of the Queens name to get a diamond Neclace of immence value into his Hands. Others say it is in concequence of some reflections cast upon the Character of the Queen. Others suppose that the real fact is not known. I send you one Newspaper account of the matter,12 and have not room to add more than that I am your affectionate
[signed] A A
Please to remember I have not a single Line from you.13
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed on the last page: “Mamma London Septr. 6: 1785,” “My Mother. 6. Septr. 1785,” and “Mrs. Adams. Septr. 6: 1785.”
1. Sunday fell on 4 Sept.; AA probably began this letter on 5 September. London's Foundling Hospital was on Guildford Street; its chapel, erected in 1747, was the site of several performances of Handel's Messiah, initially led by the composer, and it remained { 346 } famous for its choir, drawn from the hospital's children. After 1760 the hospital did not house foundlings, but illegitimate children whose mothers were known. See Wheatley, London Past and Present.
2. No letters from AA to CA or TBA for this period have been found.
3. The eminent seventeenth-century mathematician and divine, Isaac Barrow, was master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and a teacher of Isaac Newton; his sermons were widely popular in the eighteenth century. JA's library contains several volumes of his mathematical and theological works (DNB; Catalogue of JA's Library).
4. JQA to AA2, 17 July, above.
5. See William Stephens Smith to AA, 5 Sept., note 3, above.
6. To Richard Henry Lee, 26 Aug. (LbC, Adams Papers). AA quotes JA accurately, but omits JA's third sentence, following “. . . any man I ever knew.” That sentence reads: “I suspect, however, that a dull diplomatic life, especially in a department so subordinate, will not long fulfill all the wishes of his generous heart.” In explaining his granting of Col. Smith's request for leave to review the Prussian army's maneuvers, JA adds to the information supplied by AA that Smith “had been attacked with a slight fever, which I know by horrid experience to be a dangerous thing in these great Cities in Summer.”
7. See John Woddrop (of Glasgow) to JA, 22 July and 15 Aug., both Adams Papers; and William Wenman Seward (an Irishman living in London) to JA, 1 Sept., Adams Papers, JA to Seward, 2 Sept., LbC, Adams Papers, and Seward to JA, 4 Sept., with enclosure, Adams Papers. This long paragraph is omitted in AA, Letters, ed. CFA.
8. AA is paraphrasing from Lafayette to JA, 13 July (Adams Papers; printed in Lafayette in the Age of the Amer. Rev., 5:333–335). JA's account of his audience with George III in his letter of 3 June to Lafayette (LbC, Adams Papers) is too spare to have elicited this reply, but Lafayette may have heard a fuller account from Jefferson, with whom he dined in Paris on 4 July.
9. AA refers to slaves taken by the British army from American plantations during the war; art. 7 of the Peace Treaty provided that “his Britannic Majesty shall . . . without causing any Destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other Property of the American Inhabitants, withdraw all his Armies, Garrisons & Fleets from the said United States.” Below, AA refers to Great Britain's refusal to surrender several forts on the Great Lakes to the United States, as provided in art. 2 of the Treaty, until Congress and the several states effectively pressured American debtors to pay their English creditors, as provided in arts. 4 and 5 of the Treaty (Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:155, 154).
10. An example of this delusion appeared in the London Packet or New Lloyd's Evening Post of 26–29 Aug.: “Loaded with taxes, oppressed by poverty, and groaning under the yoke of a junto of arbitrary despots . . . [Americans] now look back with regret to those happy times, when, under the wings of Great Britain, they enjoyed peace, plenty, and real freedom.”
11. 25 Geo. 3. c. 67. See JA to John Jay, 28 Aug. 1785 (LbC, Adams Papers; PCC, No. 84, V, f. 621–624, printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, 2:462-463), which summarizes the act in considerable detail.
12. Not found.
13. This sentence appears in the left margin of the first page, but was probably written as a postcript. There is no mark in the text of the first page to indicate its insertion. JQA's brief letter to AA of 17 July, above, went from New York by the French packet, and arrived much later than JQA's letter of 17 July to AA2, and of 3 Aug. to JA, both above. This sentence is omitted in AA, Letters, ed. CFA.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0108

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Jefferson, Thomas
Date: 1785-09-06

Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson

[salute] Dear sir

I cannot omit by this opportunity acquainting you that on sunday the August packet arrived in which came Mr. Church and brought us Letters from our Son1 to our no Small joy. He arrived the 17 of july after a very tedious passage. He was however in good Health and { 347 } spirits. Mr. Adams has at Length received Some Letters from the President from Mr. Jay and a private Letter from Mr. Gerry, together with some Newspapers and journals of Congress.2 The papers contain nothing very material. Mr. Osgood Mr. Walter Levingston and Mr. Arthur Lee are the commissioners of the Treasury.3 Mr. Lee was chosen a few days before the Sailing of the packet and was just gone from New York. It is said that the commissioners will have a difficult task to bring order out of the confusion in which the late financierer4 left the office. Mr. Rutledge had not accepted his appointment when the gentlemen wrote. Mr. Jay writes that about the 29 of May Lambe sent for the papers from Congress that they were sent, and that he saild soon after.
They are very anxious in America with respect to the Posts especially since a reinforcement of troops have been sent out. The Merchants say that the trade is worth Annually 50,000 pounds sterling.5
From the present movements here, there is no great prospect of obtaining them by fair means. The prospect here, is not the pleasentest in the World. But I must recollect this is to go by the post. Mr. A. is very buisy writing to New York as Mr. Storer is going out in a few days. He desires me to inform you that he would take any dispatches you may have, provided you could trust them here. Mr. Storer was formerly private Secretary to Mr. Adams. I will tuck this in one corner of Mr. A.s Letter.6 Yours, &c.
RC (DLC: Jefferson Papers).
1. JQA to AA2, 17 July; JQA to JA, 3 Aug., both above.
2. Richard Henry Lee to JA, 1 Aug., printed in The Letters of Richard Henry Lee, ed. James C. Ballagh, N.Y., 1914, 2 vols., 2:378-381; John Jay to JA, 3 Aug., printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, 2:418; and Elbridge Gerry to JA, 3 August. All are in Adams Papers.
3. The Board of Treasury (Samuel Osgood and Walter Livingston) wrote to JA on 1 Aug.; Arthur Lee had written on 27 July (both Adams Papers).
4. Robert Morris.
5. That is, American merchants placed this value on the fur trade that centered on the Northwest forts at Detroit, Michilimackinac, Niagara, and Oswego, which the British army still occupied, contrary to the Peace Treaty, to pressure Americans to pay their debts to British creditors. See AA to JQA, 6 Sept., and note 9, above.
6. Presumably JA to Jefferson, 4 Sept., Jefferson, Papers, 8:476-477.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0109

Author: Shaw, Elizabeth Smith
Author: Peabody, Elizabeth Smith Shaw
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-09-07

Elizabeth Smith Shaw to Abigail Adams

[salute] My Dear Sister

The long looked for, the modest, the manly, the well accomplished Youth, is come at last. And had he needed any thing to have made { 348 } him doubly welcome to our House, but his own agreeable Behaviour, the evident Credentials he bears in his Eyes, about his Mouth, and in the Shape of his Face of being the Son of my excellent, and much loved Brother and Sister, would alone have gained him a most hearty Reception.
I must beg your pardon Mr. Adams, for looking at you so much.
Indeed my Aunt said he, I must ask the same Favour for myself.
Never was a youth that bore a greater resemblance to both Parents.
“The Father's lustre and the Mothers bloom.” His looks, and some particular Actions, strongly recall to my mind the happy Days I spent with you, when you first kept House.1 Before my Brother had assumed the Austerity, and dignity of the Statesman, and the Republican.
I hope my Cousin Charles has informed you himself of his favourable, and gracious acceptance at the University. He promised me he would write to you the first Opportunity. As he was now conscious he should obtain his parents favour, he thought he should write with a better grace, and with greater ease, than he could while a matter of so much importance to his Happiness was depending. When Mr. Shaw and my Cousin Charles, returned from Cambridge, they put on long Faces, and attempted to look very trist when they rode into the yard, but I could easily discern by the<ir?> Countenance<s>, (which seldom fails of being the medium of Truth) that Joy, and satisfaction, played sweetly at their Heart. Samuel Walker thinks Mr. Shaw his best Friend, for paying so much attention to him, as to gain him honorable admitance, and he is now the Classmate and the Chum of your Son. They have obtained the Chamber they pettioned for, and I hear are very happy together. They are both at present pleasant and lovely in their Lives, and I hope, will be kept pure, and unspotted from the guilty World. I miss them both exceedingly. Tommy dear Boy, I know must be lonly. But he is of such a pleasant Temper, and happy turn of Mind, that he is loth to own it. He is really an exceeding good Child, and we all love him and [his] obliging Temper, will forever gain the esteem, and good wishes of every-body.
Mr. JQA has been soliciting Mr. Shaw to undertake the direction of his Studies. However pleasing it may be to have so amiable a Youth as he appears to be in his Family, yet he feels fearful, how he may acquit himself of the Charge. To qualify a young Gentleman to enter the University as Junior Sophister, is not what is commonly practiced in the Schools, and must needs peculiar application, and attention, both in the Pupil, and in the Preceptor. By my Cousin Billy's2 dili• { 349 } gence he was advanced half a year, and so escaped Six months freshmanship. The Books <he was?> Mr. Shaw was then obliged to look into, will make it much less dificult for him now to teach my Cousin John. And should he engage in it, I believe I may venture to say, that no one would with greater fidelity, and pleasure discharge their Office.
As to me, I feel no Qualms of Conscience, that I have not done for your Children, what in an exchange of Circumstances, I could have wished for mine. Indeed I take a particular pleasure in serving them, as I consider it, as a medium, through which I am happy to convey my Love, and Gratitude.
I have now my Dear Sister to acknowledge the Receipt of yours dated May the 8th. and 10th. handed me by your Son Yesterday. My Sister and he, are both here, and intend spending a Week with us, and I have stolen from their Loved company to write a few Lines to you, by a Vessel which was built in our River, and is to sail very soon. I will wish it good speed, as it will convey to you an account of your Children, and will bear a testimonial of my Love. What though I cannot give you a Discription of Kings, Queens, Counts, and Countesses, which afford me so much entertainment, yet I can inform you, of that, which is of ten-fold more importance to your Happiness—the Health, and good Behaviour of your Children.
I think Mr. Adams has conffered great Honour upon the University at Cambridge, by chusing his Son should complete his Education there. I wish that all his Sons by their application to their Studies, their amiable, and virtuous Deportment, may follow the Example of their Father, and do likewise.
My Cousin says he will go back with his Aunt, and visit a few of his Friends, and return here as soon as possible. We have a very easy, and fine Conveyance in our Haverhill Post Coach, for him, or for any baggage he may chuse to bring. He need not fear any black Dust, nor the woeful Consumption of an elegant band Box—which to a mind a little less improved than yours, might have produced a fatal Catastrophe.3
My paper is so bad, and the Time is so short that I have to write, that I hope you will excuse its ill Look. I shall send this Letter by James Wilson, who was brought up in Master Whites Store, whom if you see, you will treat as an American, I dare say. If I can possibly get time before Mr. Whites's Vessel sails I shall write to my Cousin. Mr. Shaws and my kindest wishes ever attend you all.
[signed] Eliza Shaw
{ 350 }
The Lace you was so kind as to procure, is a very nice one, and much cheaper than I could get in Boston—8 Dollars is given credit for.4
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mrs Shaw Septer 7 1786.”
1. AA records that Elizabeth Smith (Shaw) spent considerable time with the Adamses in the summer and fall of 1766, and paid them a brief visit in Jan. 1767, all before JQA's birth. She also helped them move to Boston in April 1768 (vol. 1:54, 55, 57, 61, 65).
2. Elizabeth Shaw's nephew, William Cranch, had studied with Rev. John Shaw from April 1783 to February or March 1784, when he entered Harvard (AA to JA, 7 April 1783; CA to William Cranch, 14 March 1784, both above).
3. In her letter to Elizabeth Shaw of 8 May, above, AA had described the destruction of a her bonnet, caps, and handkerchiefs and their box by a bag of coins that she had placed in her baggage near them, on her journey from London to Paris in August 1784.
4. This sentence was written in the margin of the first page, but clearly as a postscript; AA mentions the lace at the end of her letter of 8 May, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0110

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Date: 1785-09-08

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams 2d

N: 9:
All this day has been employ'd in answering Questions respecting you, and all is not over yet. I must mention one Circumstance, although it may appear too trifling. You may Remember, that in your Letters by me, you gave an Account of the Ceremony at Nôtre Dame.1 All the family, were very much entertained, by your Relation, but there was a Question arose to day, what, the Ring was. One supposed the Ring, was a technical term, meaning the Court; another, that it was a band of music, and another, that it was some great personage, present at the time. While the debate lasted I could not conceive what the Subject of Conversation was. At length I was applied to, to inform what the Ring you mentioned was. When I came to see the letter I found it was only a mistake of the R. instead of the K. but had I not been used to your hand writing, I should certainly have read it Ring too. It needed no further explanation to perceive what was meant, by the Ring's being dressed so and so, walking, somewhat, carelessly &c. Mr. Thaxter has been with us a great part of the day. Business and so forth, has dried up all his epistolary ink.
I went in the forenoon with Mr. Thaxter, and was by him introduced to Mr. White, and his family. We can seldom, at first sight form an opinion of any thing more, than the outward appearance of a Person: You have seen more of this family, than I have as yet; so that { 351 } I can only say what my thoughts are, after such a transitory glance. Mr. White appears a very hospitable man; and has much more of the reality, than the show. Benevolence, and Politeness are written too plainly in the Countenance of Mrs. White, to leave any doubt, of their being a Characteristic of her. Peggy did not answer my expectations, as a Beauty. She is uncommonly fair, and has a good set of features, but there is something harsh, if I mistake not in her Countenance. She has grown very fat of late, and is perfectly recovered, of the melancholy disorder she was afflicted with last Summer, and now enjoys it is said, a fine flow of Spirits. A number of young Ladies, were here at tea, and part of the Evening. Among the rest Miss Duncan, Mr. Thaxter's reputed belle.2 She is celebrated for her personal and mental accomplishments. But I shall wait before I give you my opinion of any of the Ladies here, till I have a better acquaintance with them.
We dined at Mr. White's, in Company with Mr. Smith the Minister, of the Baptist Congregation here, and Mr. Bartlett.3 We propose leaving this place in the beginning of the Week, and I hope to be here again by the first of next Month.
This forenoon I was invited and went to an Entertainment, which was quite a Novelty to me, and I know not by what name to call it. Dr. Woodbury of this town, was yesterday publish'd, to Miss Hannah Appleton, (I suppose you know neither of the persons,) and in Consequence of this, was given this breakfast, or dinner, or whatever it is. There were a great number of People, there, all men, but I knew only two or three persons present: I was out a great part of the <Evening> Afternoon, when I return'd, I found Mr. Thaxter, the two Miss Duncan's, and Mr. Allen, here.4 They were engaged in curious Conversation. Mr. Collins the Minister of a neighbouring Town, with his wife, have been here all the Afternoon; it seems one of the young Ladies, thought he had not paid sufficient attention to his wife;5 he had been the whole afternoon with her, and had not said a single word to her, nor so much as look'd at her. Mr. Thaxter thought he had with great propriety taken no Notice of her; there were many things said on both sides, concerning the proper attentions due to a wife; but it was observed that Mr. Allen, suddenly rose, in the midst of the Conversation and took his leave. Mr. Collins soon after { 352 } return'd, and will lodge here to Night. He appears to me, to be at least of a very phlegmatic, cold, dutchman like disposition, incapable of feeling the pleasures that are derived by persons of sensibility from those minute attentions, which it seems he makes but little use of.
Your aunt and I, left Haverhill, this morning between 8 and 9. About 7 miles this side the River we stopp'd a few minutes at Mr. Symmes's, one of the ministers of Andover.6 You have perhaps been at the house. His wife is one of the sprucest, nicest tidiest persons I have seen this long while. I almost thought myself in Holland, when I went into the house. A little further forward we stopp'd at Mr. French's, and there was a contrast. Mr. French as soon as I was introduced to him asked me, how the Doctor did; I knew not what he meant, and was going to ask him, what Doctor; but he repeated his question immediately how does Doctor Adams. He is very solicitous that the title should be given him, for the honour of our University, and never calls him otherwise himself, than Doctor Adams.
After riding, till near 6 this evening, through, very tedious disagreeable roads, we at length arrived at Aunt Smiths where we now are. They are all well; but what think you were my feelings, when I saw those five charming Children, and reflected upon the Prospects before them. I must not dwell upon this subject; it would only raise useless sighs, upon Circumstances, which have too often already pained you.
We dined to day at Lincoln and soon after, continued our Journey, drank tea at Cambridge with our brother and Cousin, and got in Town just at Dusk. You know on this Road, you pass through Lexington and Concord. These places will be looked upon with great veneration by Posterity; and if ever the Spirit of Pilgrimage seizes our Country men, I hope, these <will> may be the places, they will resort to. Si l'apothéose est dû à l'homme, (says the Abbé Raynal, who has often noble thoughts) c'est à celui qui <combat pour> defend sa patrie.
Charles and our Cousin are both well, and happy in their Situation. I intended to visit Mr. Dana, but he is not at home now. Your Cousin Betsey has been very unwell since, we went from here but is now recovering. Uncle and aunt Smith went yesterday, with the Governor, Lieutt. Governor, and their Ladies, to Mr. Gill's seat at Princeton, { 353 } about 50 miles from town. I have been with Mr. Isaac Smith this Evening to a Club; there were present, Dr. Welch, Dr. Dexter, Dr. Appleton, and Mr. Brewster. It was at Mr. Clarke's; the Colleague of Dr. Chauncy.7 This gentleman, has a reputation as a speaker in the Pulpit, and is called a man of genius and learning: you know him perhaps; he holds his head I think about 3 inches too high. Dr. Appleton, is not so handsome a man, as either of his brothers, but has something in his Countenance, and in his Conversation very pleasing; Dr. Dexter you are acquainted with, and used to like him hugeously I am told. The old gentleman does not appear to have such designs as you supposed, or at least if he has does not pursue them with great ardour. I shall not have that rival to fear, I believe. You will perhaps be surprized to see I have found out who the old Gentleman is: but such things will happen now and then. So you see my Prospect of success is much better than you would have thought; strange things may happen yet, and you must be prepared for such.8 The other gentlemen that were present, you know.
I intended to have return'd this day to Braintree; but it threatened to rain, and I was advised to stay. Charles and William, have been in town all day, but we did not dine together. We spent the afternoon at Dr. Welch's. Mrs. W. has not said a word to me, about french fashions, or indeed any other fashions, so I have not yet had an opportunity to display my learning on that subject. The fondness for show, and dress, here, is carried to a greater pitch, than I had an Idea of, but I imagine it will decrease, for although the will is by no means wanting, the power is, and that is a Capital point: Not a few persons have been like the silk worm, first a mean insect, then a tawdry butterfly, and at length again, a worm of the dust. I hope a reform will take place, but absolute Necessity alone can bring it about.
Cousin Betsey came up from Boston with me to day. The air of a City does not agree with her, and she has been very unwell for several days. She is much better now, and I doubt not but the clear unpolluted element, that is breathed here will soon entirely recover her health. She has spent most of the Summer in Boston, to take Lessons at the harpsichord. We found Cousin Lucy all alone; she had been so the whole week.
{ 354 }
I have been all day reading, and writing, without stirring out of the house; Uncle and Aunt return'd from Boston this Evening, as did also Mr. Tyler. I have been looking over all the books that were sent from the Hague. They were very carefully put up, and none of them are damaged at all. I perceive there is one wanting, or perhaps I forgot to send for it. It is a Plautus.9 If I mistake not there is only one, in your Pappa's Library in Europe, and there is none, in the one here.
After attending Mr. Wibird twice to day, I went down with Mr. Tyler to pay my devoirs to Madam Quincy, and afterwards, at Mr. Alleyne's, we found Mr. and Mrs. Guild, with the former: they both look very much out of health. They have been very unfortunate; but I know of no persons in the same situation, that are so universally well spoken of. Mrs. Guild, has behaved upon the occasion, admirably, and what commonly greatly injures persons, in the opinion of the world seems to have been attended with effects directly contrary, with regard to her. Mrs. Quincy inquired particularly concerning Mamma and you: and Miss Nancy often smiled with all imaginable sweetness. At Mr. Alleyne's we found Mr. Boyce, the admirer of Miss Hannah Clarke, and an old gentleman, by the name of Hutchinson; but that is all I know of him.10 I was ask'd, as I often am what part of Europe, I prefer'd to the rest. I think this Question is not fair, in a mixed Company. It has several times embarassed me; for fear I might offend some person present; you remember, how the Chevr. de Caraman, looked, when after he had declared his partiality for Boston, Mrs. B. told him she had never been there.11 I am often exposed to the same danger, but I generally either give an evasory answer, or own my fondness for France, observing, that as it is the part of Europe, which I have seen the most of, my partiality may be owing to that. As yet I hope I have offended no body, and I wish I may always have the same success. Adieu my Sister, Adieu,
[signed] J. Q. Adams
RC (Adams Papers); written on small pages numbered 73 through 80, and 1 through 8; see JQA to AA2, [12] May, descriptive note, above.
1. AA2's letter describing this event, presumably written either to one of the Cranches or to Elizabeth Shaw, has not been found. It probably dated from about 6 May, when AA2 wrote to both Elizabeth and Lucy Cranch (both above). The event was probably the Te Deum of 1 April, which AA2 describes in Jour. and Corr., 1:65–68; and JQA in Diary, 1:242–244.
2. Elizabeth Duncan, daughter of James Duncan Sr. and his first wife, Elizabeth Bell Duncan, would marry John Thaxter in 1787 (JQA, Diary, 1:321, note 1).
3. For Rev. Hezekiah Smith, and Bailey { 355 } Bartlett, who would marry Peggy White in 1786, see same, 1:322.
4. Elizabeth and Margaret Duncan; and probably Rev. Jonathan Allen of neighboring Bradford, Mass. Allen was a native of Braintree. See JQA, Diary, 1:336, 350; William B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, N.Y., 1857, 2:483, note; Braintree Town Records, p. 795.
5. JQA's Diary suggests Nancy Hazen as Collins' critic; the Rev. Samuel Collins of nearby Sandown, N.H., is probably meant here (Diary, 1:322).
6. This was William Symmes, Harvard 1750; he married his second wife, Susannah Powell of Boston, in 1774 (Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 12:582–587).
7. This was apparently the Wednesday Evening Club, founded in 1777, a small gathering of clergymen, lawyers, physicians, and merchants. JQA was a member of the club from 1791 to 1809. Here he names three of the four physicians who are listed in club records as members at this date. Neither “Mr. Brewster,” nor Isaac Smith Jr. is recorded as a member, but a “William Smith,” probably Isaac's brother, is listed. With the exception of Brewster, each of these men is identified in JQA, Diary. See same, 1:324, and notes 2–5; and The Centennial Celebration of the Wednesday Evening Club: Instituted June 21, 1777, Boston, 1878, p. 48–49, 51–52, 142–145.
8. Neither the “old gentleman” nor the woman whom AA2 evidently thought was the object of his and JQA's interest has been identified.
9. MQA eventually contained nine editions of the comedies of the 3d-2d century B.C. dramatist Plautus, in Latin, French, and English, and one Latin edition of Plautus' “Lectiones,” all published before 1785, in France, Holland, Germany, or England. Six of these editions show some mark of JQA's ownership.
10. Mr. Hutchinson has not been identified. “Mr. Boyce” was Jeremiah Smith Boies of Milton, who in September announced his intention to marry Sarah [Hannah?] Clark. See Braintree Town Records, p. 887; Pattee, Old Braintree and Quincy, p. 59.
11. See AA2 to JQA, 26 Aug., note 7, above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0111

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-09-09

John Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My dear Son

I have received your Letter by Mr. Church,1 and am very happy to hear of your Safe Arrival, and kind Reception at New York. You have a good Opportunity, to See the Place and principal Characters, and from the hints you give your Sister2 I Suppose and indeed I hope, you went home by Land, and Saw the Country and Persons you wanted to See.
I want to hear from you at Boston, and to learn what is become of your Samples of Oil and your Proposals for a trafick in that Commodity. Send me the Name of the Gentleman who has the Contract for enlightening thirty Cities in France and his Address if you have it.3
We are comfortably Settled, in this Place, but See no present Prospect of doing much material Service for the Publick. There are Prejudices in the Way, too Strong to be easily overcome. I hope our Countrymen will learn Wisdom, be frugal, encourage their own Navigation and Manufactures and Search the whole Globe for a Substitute for British Commerce.
{ 356 }
But why am I entertaining you, with publick Affairs? At your Age, and with your Prospects, Justinians Institutes or Theophilus's Commentary, would be more proper.4 I would not advise you, to be wholly inattentive or insensible to the Prosperity or Adversity of your Country, but on the other hand I hope you will not Sour your temper or diminish the natural Chearfulness of your Disposition by dwelling too much upon the gloomy Complaints of the times. Letters and Science demand all your Time, and you must prepare yourself to get your Bread. Instead of being able to provide for you, I think it very probable that in a very little time, I shall find it very difficult to provide for myself. I have no longer youth and strength on my Side, and cannot labour as you can and as I could five and twenty Years ago. You must sett an Example of Frugality, Modesty and Sobriety among your young Friends.
I would warn you against the danger of keeping much Company. It consumes ones time insensibly, and young as you are, you will have none to Spare. Choose your Friends with caution and Reflection. There is nothing in which a young Man shews his Judgment more than in this. Have an Eye to the moral Character, and the Virtues and fine Feelings of the Heart in this Choice, as well as to Talents, Genius and Studies.
I See with Pleasure, that your Style is improving and begins to run very easy. It is well worth your while to be attentive to this. You have Time and means to make your Self a Master of your native Language.
My affectionate Regards to your Brothers, and to all our Friends.

[salute] Your affectionate Father

[signed] John Adams
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “My Father. 9. Septr. 1785,” and “Mr. Adams. Septr. 9. 1785.”
1. Of 3 Aug., above.
2. In his letter of 17 July, above, under 29 July.
3. See JQA to AA2, 29 Aug., and note 2, above; and JQA, Diary, 1:319–320, for JQA's delivery of a proposal to establish a commerce in whale oil with France to Samuel Breck Sr. The name JA sought was Tourtille de Sangrain (Jefferson, Papers, 8:144–145).
4. Theophilus was a member of the commission of jurists appointed by the Emperor Justinian to compile his code of Roman law (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale). JA recounts his own discovery of Justinian in the Earliest Diary and Diary and Autobiography; his interest in Roman law, unusual among his common law-trained contemporaries, is the subject of Daniel R. Coquillette's “Justinian in Braintree: John Adams, Civilian Learning, and Legal Elitism, 1758–1775,” in Law in Colonial Massachusetts 1630–1800, ed. Daniel R. Coquillette and others, Boston, 1984, p. 359–418. JQA would first refer to studying Justinian's Institutes in his Diary in 1788 (Diary, 2:461), during his own preparation to practice law. He would eventually acquire editions of Justinian in Latin, Italian, and French (MQA).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0112

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Cranch, Mary Smith
Date: 1785-09-11

Abigail Adams to Mary Smith Cranch

[salute] My dear sister

I have enjoyed very good Health ever since I came to London, untill ten days past. I had about a week since a small attack of the Fall disorder which I hoped I had got the better of. The next seizure was such a swiming in my Head when I laid down in the Bed, as to throw me almost into convulsions. It finally produced a violent puking which relieved me of that, tho I cannot say I feel well. You know I am accustomed to ill turns in the Fall,1 and I fear this damp climate will not be any service to me. The great distance of time which we pass in this country between meals, is unfavourable to Health. I have got wholy out of the Habit of more than two meals a day. We generally Breakfast at Nine, or before, and dine at four when we have no company, otherways not till Six. You must expect to receive visits and pay them from one till four or 5. I have however set a part one day, which is every tuesday to be at Home for company, by which means I know who and who wishes to find me at Home, by their visiting upon that day.
I wrote you by Captain Lyde2 who saild a fortnight ago. Since that we have been made very happy by hearing of the safe arrival of our son! He is with you I dare say before now, and very happy to find himself in his Native Country. I hope he will be cautious with respect to His Health as he has not experienced so hot a climate for many years.
Charles I presume has commenced studient at Harvered College, where I hope he will never give pain to his Friends by any misconduct. How little do Children know the solicitude and anxiety of a Parents Heart, or how tenderly their conduct affects them. Our poor unhappy connexion,3 whose Life has been one continued Error, gives me pain. How difficult to recover the right path when the feet have once wandered from it. How much resolution is necessary to overcome evil propencities? More particularly a habit of intemperence. I never can think of the closing scene of our dear venerable Fathers Life but with an anguish I cannot express; breathing out his last breath and Labouring in the agonies of Death for the reformation and salvation of the prodigal.

“The sweet remembrance of the just”

“Shall flourish when they sleep in dust”4

{ 358 }
How dear to me is the remembrance of my Parents how sweet the recollection of their virtues, how forcible their example? There is a pleasure arising from a connexion with virtuous Friends and relatives, which neither power wealth or titles can bestow without it. This month my mind is always particularly impressd with the recollection of my dear parents.5
How carefull ought young people to be, when they are about entering into connections for Life, to look to the Heart of those to whom they bind themselves. If that is false and deceifull towards the Deity, they can have little hopes of fidelity towards themselves. In short their is nothing binding upon the Humane mind, but Religion.
I hope our sister S-h [Smith] conducts with prudence and discretion becomeing her critical situation and that the Children will prove comforts to her and their Friends. I felt most dissagreeaby the other Day at a circumstance which took place. Col. Smith came in and told me that he had received a very extrodanary Letter from a person whom he never saw or heard of before. He took it from his pocket and began to read it. The purport of it was, that he, the writer had heard of his late arrival in this Country, and of his appointment. Conceiving him to be in an Eligible Situation, he had taken the liberty to request the payment of a debt which he must remember he owed him in such a year, at the time he faild in buisness and fell into misfortunes. As he had never given him any trouble about it, he would consider him so much of a Gentleman as to suppose he would make no difficulty of answering the inclosed order to the House of Champion & Dickenson. He concluded by signing his Name Gorge Erving. The Col. had not gone half through his Letter before I was sensible who was meant, and he would have seen my agitation if he had look up; I did not know what to say, whether to let him know his mistake, or suffer him to marvel at the matter. He had pend his answer and went on reading to me his replie which exprest his surprize at receiving a Letter of that kind from a person wholy unknown to him. That he was quite insensible to the misfortunes he alluded to, as well as to the Debt, for that he was conscious he never owed any person a quarter the Sum mentiond in his Life. That so far from being in Buisness the year mentiond, he was a studient at College. But that if Mr. Erving wish'd any further explanation, he was to be spoken with at his Lodgings in Leister feilds any hour after ten in the morning.6 When I had a little recoverd myself, I told him I could explain the matter to him; upon which he was not less surprized than before, never hearing a Brother mentiond <before>. He was a good { 359 } deal embaressed at having read the Letters, and giving me pain as he saw he had, but there was no fault on either side. I only wish there had never been occasion for such a demand.
Captain Lyde expects to return here in the winter. You will not fail writing me very particularly by him. You know there are certain Matters which I shall be very anxious to know the event of.7 I mentiond to you sending two Guineys by Mr. Storer for my Mother [Susanna Boylston Adams Hall], but upon second thought, I will write to Dr. Tufts to pay her Anually 20 dollars which will be more independent. There is also a black russel peticoat which I never wore but once or twice. I would have you take it and give it to her. If the Dr. has advanced any thing let that go as a part of the 20 dollars. I wish however that she might be benifitted by it. Sister Shaw wrote me that she had carried some things of Tommys to Boylstone. I would not have any thing given there, but what is pretty good. There is (between you and I) more pride than she may be aware of. But if any thing can be of service without the Idea of there being old Cloaths, I wish he may have them.8 I know between all S9 they must have many things which will serve somebody. Let them be disposed of where they cannot give offence. And an other thing I wish which is that any little matter I may send to my Sisters or Neices may be silently received, that I do not want them to say Aunt or sister sent it to me. I wish it was in my power to send them any thing worth notice, but they know the will is good. I should be loth the Moths should devour what I left behind, yet I feel unwilling to have the things disposed of. I hope to come home and use them ere long.
My Love to Mr. Cranch and duty to uncle Quincy, with remembrance to all my old Neighbours who I flatter myself remember me with the same affection which I do them.
How does Pheby. Does her income make her comfortable. If it does not, I would willingly contribute towards her support. Advise my dear sister and believe me most tenderly yours
[signed] Abigail Adams
I must quit my pen to dress. Captain Callihan dines here to day and Col. Franks. Mr. Storer will tarry with us till he sails which he expect in a few days.
RC (MWA: Abigail Adams Corr.).
1. AA first connects some of her illnesses with the fall season in a letter to JA, 8 Oct. 1780 (vol. 4:3). On AA's health, see the indexes in vols. 2 and 4, above.
2. Of 15 Aug., above.
3. Their brother, William Smith Jr.; see note 6.
4. AA quotes from Nahum Tate and Nicholas Brady, A New Version of the Psalms of David, Fitted to Tunes used in Churches, Lon• { 360 } don, 1696. These lines render Psalm 112:6; AA substitutes “they” for “he” in the second line.
5. AA inserted this sentence in the space that she left for a paragraph break. Her mother, Elizabeth Quincy Smith, died on 1 Oct. 1775; her father, Rev. William Smith, on 17 Sept. 1783.
6. Col. Smith's correspondent was probably the Boston merchant George Erving, brother-in-law of James Bowdoin, and a reluctant loyalist émigré with strong sympathies for the American cause who lived in England from 1776 until his death in 1806. The account in Erving's letter to Col. Smith given here places the contracting of William Smith Jr.'s debt to Erving as occurring in the early 1770s, when Col. Smith was still a student at Princeton. See Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 14:151–157.
7. Most likely Royall Tyler's reaction to AA2's decision to end her connection with him.
8. In addition to the matter of pride, AA and JA's nephew Boylston Adams was nearly eighteen months older than TBA, whose clothes he was receiving.
9. AA probably intends the whole Shaw household, including her sons.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0113

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-09-12

Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams

[salute] My dear son

Mr. Storers departure is delayed from day to day so that I fear he will have a dissagreeable time upon our Coast. It gives me an opportunity of adding a few more lines to you. Col. Franks arrived here on Saturday with dispatches from Mr. Jefferson. The Ministers not hearing a Syllable of Lamb, and reports growing every day more serious, tho many of them are really false, yet they have the effect of raising ensurence and greatly obstructing trade. In concequence of which it is determined to send Mr. Barclay without further delay and Col. Franks goes Secretary upon the Buisness which Lambe was Charged with. It is of importance that this matter be kept from this Court, and that occasiond Col. Franks comeing with the dispatches.
Your old acquaintance Stockdale is bought up by the M[inistr]y and receives a pension of 4 hundred per Year.1 It is said he is quite a different Man from what he was when you knew him. Not a single paragraph can be publishd in favour of America, suppose it only six lines under 3 or 4 Guineys. They have offerd a Bounty here of 500 to the British whale man who shall take the largest Quantity this Season, 400 to the next, 300 to the 3d, 2 to the fourth and one to the 5th. In concequence of this a Number of vessels have saild from hence. They take the Mates of the American vessels here and give them the command of a good Ship for this purpose. They have pickd up all the Negroes who were stragling about and starving, and engaged them in this buisness. The M[inistr]y secretly allow any American vessel which comes here to go out in the whale fishery and bring their oil in here free of duty. This is done in order to intice our Whale Men here. At the same time they are prohibiting under the severest { 361 } penaltys any artificer from going to America and prohibiting all hardware tools. The Court Scriblers publishd last week that <your> the American minister had been closeted with the king in a long conference. The concequence was an Immediate rise of stocks. This Manuver was on purpose to try what Effect it was probable might be produced by a treaty.
Mr. Jefferson writes me2 that the Queen of France has agreed in future to wear only French Gauze, that Cardinal Rohan is Still in the Bastile, and that it appears he was the dupe of his Mistress Madam la Mote.
I have nothing further to add but that I found two or 3 stocks Night caps &c which I have sent by Mr. Storer and a pair of Buckles which I have had mended for you. Adieu. Yours &c.
[signed] A A
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Momma. Septr. 12th. 1785”; docketed: “My Mother 12. Septr. 1785,” and “Mrs. Adams. Septr. 12. 1785.”
1. If the Pitt ministry did try to buy Stockdale's support in 1785, the arrangement did not endure. In 1789 the government tried Stockdale for publishing John Logan's Review of the Charges against Warren Hastings (1788), which the ministry considered a libel against the House of Commons. The court, in a major decision affecting British libel law, acquitted him. See JQA to JA, 20 May 1784, and note 2, above; DNB.
2. On 4 Sept., above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0114

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Shaw, Elizabeth Smith
Recipient: Peabody, Elizabeth Smith Shaw
Date: 1785-09-15

Abigail Adams to Elizabeth Smith Shaw

[salute] My Dear Sister

Mr. Storer says the ship in which he is to embark will go down to day and that he shall go on Board tomorrow. I cannot let him depart without a few lines to you tho I wrote you so lately by Captain Lyde1 that I have nothing New to add. I have not been lately either to Court or the Play. I have made some visits into the Country to a couple of families who have been very polite to us. When we first came they got introduced to us, and have twice invited us to dine. Both times we were unfortunatly preengaged. The Gentleman Name is Smith he is a Member of Parliament, and he married into the other family whose Name is Copes. They are very agreeable people and live about 4 mils from Town at a very pretty village call'd Clapham. Next week I propose going to Court as it is the aniverssary of his Majestys Coronation.2 I may probably find some entertainment for you from that quarter.
This week the Theatre at Covent Garden opens and Mrs. Siddons appears in the Tradigy of Othello in the Character of Desdamony. We { 362 } have sent a Week before to engage places. I promise myself high entertainment from this admired and celebrated actress, but heitherto I have seen nothing that I can realish since my comeing from Paris. Of the Theatrical kind I should say.
If I had come to this Country with high expectation I should have been dissapointed, but as I have no taste and passion for Routes, and gameing, tables, &c. I cannot string over to you such a Night at my Lady H's Ball and such a night at the Countess C——s Route or the Dutchess ofs, Card party. I am so little Qualified for my station and so old fashiond as to prefer the Society of Dr. Price, Dr. Jebb, and a few others like them to the midnight Gamblers, and the titled Gamesters, and I am so impudent, impudent the English call it, as to take a pride in acknowledging my Country despightfully as this people treat it. I am neither ashamed of it, or the great actions which dismemberd it from this empire. Some of our Countrymen who mix much with this people, have confessd to me; that they secreat their Country, and pass themselves for Natives to avoid being insulted—but I am loth to part with the Scripture Benidiction, “blessed are Ye when Men persecute and revile you falsly.”3
I know they abuse America because they fear her, and every effort to render her unpopular is a proof of it. They go on deceiving themselves, thinking they can keep us low and poor, but all the time they are making us industerous, frugal wise and Great I hope.
I have sent to Mr. Shaw a little Treatise upon Education which was presented to Mr. Adams by the Author, tho unknown to him.4 Mr. Adams thought it might be more usefull to Mr. Shaw than it could be to him, as it lay more in his particular department and accordingly directed me to send it to him.
I hope all your little family are well, and that you have only exchanged one Nephew for an other.
My best regards attend all my good Friends at Haverhill, to Madam Marsh in particular if the Good Saint is not yet gone to Heaven. Dr. Johnson used to make a practise of praying for his departed Friends. This is rather singular for a Protestant, who universally believe that Death excluds their friends both from the good or evil of those who survive.
But I must bid you adieu as I am going to take a little ride. I have been very unwell for several Days. I am very sensible I want excercise. O that I could go and see my sisters, my Aunts, my cousins.
Once more adieu. Most tenderly yours
{ 363 }
RC (DLC: Shaw Family Papers); addressed by Charles Storer: “Mrs. Elizabeth Shaw, Haverhill”; endorsed: “Sep. 15 1785.”
1. Of [ca. 15 Aug.], above.
2. George III and his queen, Charlotte Sophia, were crowned on 22 Sept. 1761, nearly a year after he ascended the throne.
3. Matthew 5:11, altered and condensed; opening quotation mark supplied.
4. The author and treatise have not been identified.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0115

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Tufts, Cotton
Date: 1785-09-16

Abigail Adams to Cotton Tufts

[salute] Dear sir

I believe that Mr. Storer is going to leave Us in good earnest. He has so long and so many months been delay'd that I knew not when to give him my latest Letters tho I have so little to communicate that it is not of much importance whether my Letter was written a month ago or now. The talk of Captures by the Algerine is renewed again and I fear with two much foundation. Mr. Adams received a Letter yesterday from Spain from Mr. Carmichael1 who informs him that he has vague reports concerning the Capture of two American vessels, and that it was said, the vessels Cargoes and prisoners were imediately advertized for sale. Mr. Storer can acquaint you fully of the measures taking by Mr. Adams and Jefferson, and the persons who are immediately going upon the buisness of a treaty with them, as well as the reasons which have so long delay'd it, the person2 who was sent in May last from Congress respecting this buisness; never having been heard of since. If a measure fails, it is not going right to Court and receiving new orders, but you must cross and recross the ocean before any thing can be accomplishd, which never can take Less time than half a Year.
As to Buisness here, we presume it is hatching. The papers have become more civil and matters more serious. I can only tell you that no answers have yet been received from the Court and Ministry to all the bugget before them. I believe it will take them some time to ponder and digest. Those Houses connected with America are very anxious and I wonder not at it, as our Country my dear sir are most deeply indebted here. They complain most; of want of remittances from Virgina and New York. As to their permitting no more goods to go out, I believe it is a very fortunate circumstance for our Country. Time will shew. But sir can nothing be accomplishd with respect to our foreign Debt; that being still unfunded you may be sure does not increase our Credit, and the forgeries which are circulated throughout Europe respecting the unsettled State of our Government, and { 364 } the confusions and discontent which prevails amongst our people &c; all these falshoods gain some credit with those who are not better informd; and do us injury, especially whilst no method is persued to establish our credit and Sink our National Debt. Mr. A has written to Congress repeatedly and presst this matter with all the energy and reasoning he is master of;3 but heitherto it has accomplishd nothing. The reluctance to the impost in some of the states has I suppose retarded the measures of Congress. But what will be the concequence? The money we have in Holland must most of it be applied to the treatys with these Barbarians.4 The interest of the Debt in Holland has heitherto been pay'd, but how? Why by retaining sufficient of the Capital. This can succeed no longer, nor shall we possibly have credit for a New Loan tho to save us from Perdition at this rate. France is continually dunning for her Interest. In short Sir the embassys abroad, are one continued Scene of perplexity and anxiety. I think I have been told that the Massachusetts have establishd a committe to correspond with the members of Congress. I hope they will think of the importance of these objects. The Board of Commisoners consists of able Men and I hope they will bring order out of confusion, tho I fear they will find the publick money making voyages to China.5 I have been informd that the late Financerer6 lived at an expence of 5000 sterling a year.
But how I run on, excuse my politicks. I feel that I ought to be a help Mate, for really my Friend has sometimes so much upon his Hands from various quarters that I fear it will be too much for him. The Quantity of writing is incredible, for you must reason in writing and every thing must be laid before certain persons7 in writing. Copies of that must go to congress and you must reserve originals for yourself. Communications must be made often to the American Minister in France, all of which must be put into cypher, unless a special Messenger is Sent. The preperations for the present treaty are obliged to pass from France here and then from hence back again. Writing for a long time together affects Mr. Adams's Eyes very much.
But to quit politicks, I hope Lyde by whom I wrote8 is safe arrived. My son too has visited you before this day. My other I hope is in colledge. Mr. Storer will pay you 17 Guineys which you will credit us for. I believe I mentiond that we payd the Bill of Mr. Elworthy upon sight. Mrs. Cranch wrote me respectting my Mother. I wish sir you would pay her 20 dollors per An. Quarterly, taking her receipt for the same. Excuse this hasty Scrawl and believe me at all times most affectionately Yours
[signed] A A
{ 365 }
RC (Adams Papers); addressed by Charles Storer: “The Honourable Cotton Tufts Esquire Member of Senate Boston”; endorsed: “Mrs. Adams London Sepr. 16 1785 Pr Mr Storer recd Nov.”
1. Of 2 Sept., Adams Papers.
2. Col. John Lamb.
3. See, for example, JA to the president of Congress, 10 Jan. (PCC, No. 84, V, f. 367–370; LbC, Adams Papers), printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, 1:472–473.
4. The Barbary States.
5. The “Board of Commissioners” was presumably Congress' three-man Treasury Board. AA apparently refers to news found in several letters, and probably in some newspapers, recently received by JA. On 28 May, the president of Congress, Richard Henry Lee, reported from New York (The Letters of Richard Henry Lee, ed. James C. Ballagh, N.Y., 1911–1914, 2 vols., 2:362–364) that America's first merchant vessel sent to China had returned from Canton with a valuable cargo (see JQA to AA2, 17 July, note 11, above). And on 7 June, James Sullivan wrote from New York (Adams Papers) concerning the trade crisis and the need for a stronger national government to deal with it. In addition, the 10 Aug. letter from Cotton Tufts, above, which JA had probably not received by 16 Sept. (see AA to Cotton Tufts, 5 Oct., below), briefly refers to the state legislature's recent issue of letters to state governors, to the president of Congress, and to its own congressional delegation, all urging revision of the Articles of Confederation to meet the nation's fiscal and commercial crisis.
6. Robert Morris.
7. Presumably members of the British ministry.
8. On 18 Aug., above.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0116

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Smith, William Stephens
Date: 1785-09-18

Abigail Adams to William Stephens Smith

[salute] Dear sir

Col. Franks being detained to day by an accident gives me the opportunity of replieing to your kind Letter2 last evening received; Col. Forrest had inclosed them to Mr. Adams and we were not a little rejoiced to hear from you after an interval of 4 weeks in which we had spent many conjectures where you was at one time, and where you <was> were at an other. Mr. Adams received your Letter from Amsterdam3 but knew not where to address to you, and we began now to look every day for your return.
Mr. Adams has not been impatient tho he has sometimes wished for you, for as luck would have it, he has been obliged to write twice as much since you left him, as for any Space of time since he came here before. But Mr. Storer has been very good and helpfull to him, or I know not what he would have done, as writing only one evening about a week ago brought on an inflamation in his Eyes for several which obliged him almost to lay asside his pen. But his dispatches are now all finish for New York, and for the Barbarians. Do not mistake me Sir, I mean the Algerines and not the English. He will be more at leisure than for some weeks past. Mr. Storer left us on thursday morning4 to our no small regreet. He lamented that he had not Letters and dispatches from you as he Saild directly for New York, but I have the pleasure of assureing you that your Mamma and { 366 } Friends were well in july. My son after a tedious passage of 55 days was arrived. He mentions visiting your family upon Long Island, and that your Mamma had received Letters from you since your arrival in England.5 I have here a Number of Letters and bundles of Newspapers for you and if I was sure Col. Franks would find you in Paris I would send them on to you. But if he should not it would accumulate a weight of postage all ready too heavy. You must write to your News paper correspondents never to seal them up for then they are sent and paid for as Letters. What do you think of having to pay for 60 or 70 News Papers as Letters?
You have found a Letter from me if you have reachd Paris. I wrote by Mr. Short.6 Prudence dictates silence to me, take a draught of Lethe7 and all will be as it ought. There are entanglingment as Lady G. terms them from which Time the great solacer of Humane woe only can relieve us. And Time I dare say will extricate those I Love from any unapproved Step, into which inexperience and youth may have involved them. But untill that period may arrive Honour, Honour, is at Stake——a word to the wise is sufficient.
I depend much upon the cherefull Social converse during the long winter evening which are now fast approaching, many of which we have already spent quite alone wishing for a Friend to enliven the Scene. You know we are not those kind of people who delight in Gambling and Routes and go seldom to the Theater. I was last Evening however at Drury Lane and Saw for the first time Mrs. Siddons.

Grace was in all her steps heaven in her Eye

And every Gesture dignity and Love.8

She appeard in the tradegy of Othello, and acted the part of Desdemona. Othello was represented blacker than any affrican. Whether it arises from the prejudices of Education or from a real natural antipathy I cannot determine, but my whole soul shuderd when ever I saw the sooty <heretik?> More touch the fair Desdemona. I wonder not that Brabantio thought Othello must have used Spells and magick to have won her affections. <The Character of Othello> Through the whole play <is that of a Noble Generous open Manly> the Character of Othello is Manly open generous and noble, betrayed by a most artfull villan and a combination of circumstances into an action that his Soul abhored. <but I So powerfull was prejudice that I could not seperate the coulour from the Man and by which means>
{ 367 } { 368 }
That most incomparable Speach of Othellos lost half its force and Beauty, because I could not Seperate the coulour from the Man.9 Yet it was admirably well spoken.

O now, for ever

Fare well the tranquil Mind! fare well content

Fare well the plumed troop, and the big warss

That make ambition virtue! O fare well

Fare well the Neighing steed, and the shrill trump,

The spirit stiring Drum, the ear piercing fife

The Royal banner; and all quality,

Pride pomp and circumstance of glorious War!

And O you mortal engines, whose rude throats

The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit,

Fare well! Othello's occupation gone.10

You will no doubt visit all the theatres in Paris during your Stay. I think you will be pleased with them. I have been told that your companion is quite an antigallican.11 I however do not regard these Speaches. A Gentleman of understanding such as I esteem him to be, who has travelld merly to remark Men and Manners, will never be indiscriminate either in Praising or Blameing Countries or people collectively. There is something I dare say esteemable in all, and the liberal mind regards not what Nation or climate it spring up in, nor what coulour or complexion the Man is of.
It is Sunday and I have just returnd from Hackney. The good Dr. [Price] inquired kindly after you. When I hear from you in Paris, I shall suppose you be soon returning. Daniel is vastly impatient, and a few days ago sent by my maid to inquire if I had heard from you. I believe he behaves very well during your absence. He is very often here. I have had occasion to send for him sometimes and Daniel is always to be found at home. Col. Franks will tell you that he has been very serviceabl to him since he has been in London. I shall have an <aditional> article or two which Mrs. Barclay will deliver you or send to Mr. Jeffersons for me, in addition to those I have already named, and of which I request your care. As to politicks Col. Franks can tell you all and I am not enough in Love with them to mix them here. Mr. Adams I suppose will write you.12 I have only room to add my compliments and regards to all my Paris Friends and to assure you you have the good wishes of the family for your prosperity and happiness.
{ 369 }
Dft (Adams Papers, filmed at [Sept. 1785], Microfilms, Reel No. 365); notation in CFA's hand: “To Col Smith. London September 1785.”
1. The date is established by AA2 to JQA, 24 Sept., below, which states that the Adamses visited the Drury Lane Theater on 17 Sept. to see Othello; in the present letter AA mentions this event as occurring “last Evening.”
2. Of 5 Sept., above.
3. Dated ca. 15 Aug., but not found; see Smith to AA, 5 Sept., note 3.
4. 15 September. But on 16 Sept., AA wrote to Cotton Tufts, above, that Storer was “going to leave”; on 24 Sept., AA2 wrote JQA, below, that Storer had left on Monday, 19 September.
5. JQA to AA2, 17 July, above, under 31 July.
6. On 13 Aug., above.
7. Lethe was one of the rivers of Hades in Greek cosmology, its name meaning “oblivion.” A drink of its waters caused the spirits of the dead to forget their past lives. In the following passage, AA refers to AA2's relationship with Royall Tyler.
8. Milton, Paradise Lost, viii, 488–489; Milton wrote “In every Gesture . . .”
9. For a similar expression by an Adams of the difficulty in admiring Othello, and particularly the character of Desdemona, see JQA's remarks upon the play and its heroine, expressed in conversation with the actress Fanny Kemble in 1833, recorded in 1835, and published in 1835 and 1836 (CFA, Diary, 5:84–86).
10. III, iii, 347–357.
11. The source of AA's information that Don Francisco Miranda harbored anti-French feelings is not known.
12. No letter or other reference to a letter from JA to Col. Smith has been found.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0117

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Date: 1785-09-19

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams 2d

N: 10
I have been in a manner cheated out of this day by the library; for in looking over the books, and sometimes dipping into one, the fleeting hours (as the poets say) have disappeared; and night in her sable chariot, has performed a considerable part of her course. Your Uncle, went this morning to Boston, as he regularly does, and Mr. Tyler, has been very closely engaged all day.
In the afternoon I went over, with both our Cousins, to pay a visit to aunt Tufts, who has been dangerously ill, but is now in a fair way of recovering. She ask'd abundance of Questions about you, and I felt no small pleasure in answering them. By the way, do you know that Lucy Jones, has an admirer, whose passion seems to outstrip every thing, that Romance can produce; absolutely an Orlando furiosos.1 The son of Mr. Haslet, was suddenly (and to be sure violently) smitten with her charms: he did not, sit like patience, on a marble monument: smiling at grief. But called the Earth; the Sun, moon, Stars, and every other planet, to witness, that she was the fairest, noblest, sweetest, most beauteous damsel, that was ever { 370 } beheld by mortal eyes. In short he was nearly raving. And it has been thought necessary, to keep him, out of her sight, that he might not have a relapse, which would be very disagreeable. While we were gone, Mr. Nash, and Miss Lucy Apthorp, were at your Aunts. And who is Mr. Nash, perhaps you will say. He is the 2d. lieutenant on board his Majesty's ship, Mercury, and was bearer, of some infamous letters to the governor, which you will see in the Papers, (this however is nothing to his disadvantage). While the ship was in Boston harbour, he formed an Acquaintance with Mr. Apthorp's family, and is now returned here on Purpose, to take the Lady. Her father is highly gratified with the honour of such a Son in Law, and I am told, Miss Lucy said it <was> should be just as Pappa pleased. So you see, she has at least been taught the obedience, with regard to marriage; which her illustrious birth requires. In all this transaction, there appears only one favourable Circumstance for her in the Eyes of the world; the gentleman, bears a respectable, and an amiable Character. I am sure she will need such an one, for I fear many trying scenes await her. They are to be married next Saturday.2
I was all day yesterday, packing up my trunk, and preparing every thing to send to Haverhill. This morning I forwarded them here, and wish'd to come myself, to see them put into the stage, that goes to-morrow. But we had an Invitation from Madam Quincy, to dine with her to day, and after a long deliberation upon the matter, I concluded to wait on her. Your Cousins went in a Chaise. Mr. Tyler and I march'd it. We were too late, and as is usual, excuses were made on both sides, though there was no necessity for them on either. Parson Wibird was there: this was the first time, I had seen him, out of the meeting house. Well! you have been in Russia; how do you like the Ladies there? As soon as I had answered he enquired about the French, Spanish, and Dutch and in short of the Ladies in every part of Europe I had seen. At length I said to him, You seem, Sir, to enquire of nothing, any where but the Ladies. Why; to be sure says he, I always make it a Rule, to enquire for the best things, first: and then laugh'd heartily. He was very merry, and now and then paid a Compliment, but as often let fall a Sarcasm, on the fair sex, which is always the way with an old batchelor. Soon after dinner we left them, (I mean Mr. Tyler and myself) and, proceeded this way. We stopped in at Genl. Warren's. Mrs. Otis3 was there: looked solemn; but you know she has a vast deal of aequinimity. Mrs. Warren has { 371 } not enjoy'd for a considerable time past, good health, and looks quite unwell now. When I got here between 6 and 7 this Evening (for it commonly takes me, an whole day, to get from Braintree, to Boston) I was told the post would not go to-morrow, as Mr. Peabody, has broke his Carriage. So I have concluded to send them by a Vessel, which is to sail in the beginning of next week; and I shall go with him next week.
I have been playing Cards, this Evening for the first Time since I arrived: it is not the most agreeable way of spending time, to me: you may remember I was not so fond of it before I left you, as in the beginning of the Winter; and my aversion has rather increased than otherwise. I shall not lose much time, very soon I imagine with them.
I was introduced this forenoon, to three gentlemen in the Profession of the Law. Mr. Lincoln, Mr. Gardiner, and Mr. Hughes.4 The second of these gentlemen pronounced the Oration, upon Independence day. You may have seen the performance. It is one of the most curious thing of the Kind, that I have seen, for a long Time. He has a particular attachment to blank verse, for the whole work if divided into ten syllable lines, would form quite a swelling Poem. Mr. H you are perhaps acquainted with. He is said to be a little Sarcastic, and in a miserable farce, called Sans-souci,5 from a Club, who made last winter a great deal of noise, and that went by that name, he is represented under the Character, of Jemmy Satirist.
I dined with Mr. Toscan, and after dinner went with him to pay my Respects to the Governor, but he was engaged in business; I then paid a visit to Mr. Russel, and saw there, Mr. Seaver, who arrived yesterday, from Russia. Quite a smart young man; and I fancy a traveller. Mrs. Russel desired I would present you her Compliments; and said she had been disappointed, in not receiving, any Letters from you, since you left America. I told her I had always thought, you had written her twice at least, but she said she had not received a line.6 Mrs. Vaughan, and her daughters were there,7 but I did not know who they were, untill after we came away Mr. Toscan told me. From thence we went and drank tea with Mr. Tudor. There was a large Company, but of persons I was not acquainted with. Mr. and Mrs. T, were very Polite, as usual you know. He desired I would make his house, as much my home, as he had formerly my father's. How much that was I do not recollect;8 we had a sort of a Concert, a young french Gentleman was present, who is exceeding fond of music; and { 372 } quite a virtuose.9 He sung and play'd on several instruments. From thence I went and pass'd the evening and supp'd, at Mr. B. Austin's: who was married in the Summer; his Lady's name I don't know. Mr. Ben: Cutler Mr. James Lovel, Mr. Hughes, Mr. L. Austin, and Mr. Tyler, form'd the Company.10 Mr. Cutler, is a very handsome man, and is fully Sensible of it. Somewhat affected; which is not uncommon, in a person celebrated for personal advantages, especially a Man. Mr. Lovel, is perhaps somewhat in the same predicament, though with less Reason. Mr. Hughes told us a few stories, and discovered a little of the disposition, I have already mentioned. He is short sighted: and when he looks steadily at anything, there is always a contraction about the eyes, that is quite laughable. Mrs. Austin, is not handsome, rather otherwise, genteel, talks but Little. The evening was agreeably spent except, that we play'd Cards: we must endeavour in matters of little Consequence, to conform, to the customs of the world, enough to preserve us from the reproach of singularity.
Mr. Nash, and Miss Apthorp were married in the morning, at the Chapel.11 There was a large Crowd present; for you know marriages in a Church, are a great Rarity here. I never saw upon any stage, more strikingly express'd, the different passions that are excited in different breasts by the same Event. Here indeed it was real, and the expression was consequently not so deep, but more affecting. The old man, held up his head; look'd as happy, and as exalted, as he could if he was created peer of G. Britain: very differently from what he did upon a former occasion of the same kind; and in the general opinion he was equally wrong, both times. The mother was exceedingly dejected; I feared she would faint.12 She leaned against a pew, and hung down her head. I pity'd her, very much. The bridegroom was dress'd plainly in his uniform, and his Countenance display'd a proper mixture of joy, and solemnity. The bride was in a dark colour'd lutestring, her hair very elegantly dress'd: she looked like a victim led to the altar, and trembled, like one in an ague fit. And now the matter is over, and there is no going back: but indeed I have great doubts as to the happiness of this match. Can an acquaintance of less than three months, give any two persons sufficient insight, into each others Characters, to assure them, that they may trust to each other their happiness for life? Can a lieutenant of a Man of War, with little, or no private fortune, (as the case is here I am told) maintain a family as handsomely, as this Lady expects? Can a young Lady, who leaves { 373 } every friend and every Connection she has in the world, never to see them more, and goes into a Country, where every body will be a stranger to her, be happy? If these three Questions can be affirmitively answered, Mrs. Nash bids as fair for happiness, as any body I know. Excuse me my Sister, if I thus run on in the Sentimental way, which was in some measure excluded from our agreement, but it comes upon me sometimes unawares, and I often write on a long time before I remember the engagements.
I intended to have gone this evening as far as Milton, and spent the day there to-morrow, but it began to storm about noon, and rained so hard in the Evening, that I was obliged to stay in Town; I went with Mr. Tyler, and spent the Evening at Mr. Gore's. Mrs. Gore is a very sociable little woman, comely; not handsome.13 Mr. Gore told us some anecdotes concerning a Mr. le Washington, who arrived in one of the last Vessels from England. This man, is either a very great knave, or is wanting in Common Sense. With a settled serious Countenance, he tells the most extravagant Stories I ever heard of; People here stare at him, and wonder at his Proficiency in the art of fiction. But if he supposes he excites their Admiration, he is exceedingly mistaken. For I know of no People, disposed more to doubt a traveller's Veracity, than my Countrymen, and I am sometimes afraid to tell real facts, lest I should, gain the Reputation of dealing in fiction too.
As the storm continued as violent as ever, in the morning, I staid in Boston; and went to Church at the Chapel. Parson Freeman, preach'd a very short Sermon, as he always does. He has adopted the anti trinitarian System, and makes use of a new form of Prayer. Many People have followed this new innovation, and I don't see, but there are as many Contests upon religious Points, as in any other-part of the world, although it is not carried to so great lengths. Mankind, will forever dispute whether the egg shall be broke, at the great or at the small end.
After Church, as the Storm had in a great measure abated, I left town and came here. It was about meeting time; when I got to the meeting house so I stopp'd in, and heard our Parson, whose manner of speaking is as familiar to me, as if I had heard him every Sunday since I went from America.
Genl. Palmer and his Lady where here, about an hour, after meeting was over.
{ 374 }
Your Aunt and I, are quite alone, as Uncle went this morning to Boston. Mr. Tyler is there too, and our two Cousins who went last week to see Lucy Apthorp married, and will remain in Boston till Betsey goes to Haverhill, which is to be next Friday, with me. She is going to spend two or three months there, with Peggy White, and to learn to play on the harpsichord.
This afternoon I went down to our house, and stay'd there two or three hours. There is something to me, awful in the look of it now. All within is gloomy, and sad, and when it will look more pleasant—oh! I must not think of that. I very much fear, it will be yet a long, long time before, I shall see you again. I dare not tell our friends here, my real thoughts on the Subject.14
Mr. Apthorp, came this morning from Boston: but return'd in the afternoon; all the family are there, and will spend all this week there. He had invited me, and I had promised to go and see him, so I took this forenoon. He was very glad to see me; ask'd me what passage, I had &c, and soon came, to the Question, of which I complained in my last Letter to you; what part of Europe, did I like best? I told him, I had been most in France, and that might be the Reason, that I was most pleased with it.—Why yes; he believed that France, and the French, were really better than they had been represented. They were certainly a great Nation; and had many good Qualities: but they were not sincere: they would make great Professions; without any meaning. Don't you think now said he, that the genuine English plain heartedness, and real Benevolence, though not accompanied with so many exteriors of Complaisance, are much more noble and manly. I could not answer in a negative way decently, and I could not, with propriety in the affirmative so I turn'd it off as I could.15 But what is your Opinion of England. Do you not admire that Country very much? I thought the best would be, to let him have his own Way, and I agreed with him, as far as I could. Upon other subjects I thought he spoke sensibly, but whenever he came upon the Topic of England; his gratitude, and fondness absorbed every other sentiment.
In the afternoon, I took a walk down with Mr. Tyler, and drank tea at uncle Quincy's: I have every day Reason to say more and more, it is not good, that the man, should be alone. A single life in this Country, cannot I think be an happy life. But do not you be afraid my Sister, that I shall be so fond of a connected life, as to have too { 375 } soon any desire, to enter, in it myself. I well know that Study for years and years to come, is to be my only mistress, and my only Courtship that of the Muses. These sentiments, which my Parents, and dearest friends, have always, inculcated in me, and which my own Reason, and Inclination confirm, will, I have no doubt be lasting. To-morrow I leave Braintree finally for this Winter: and indeed probably I shall not come here again, before next Commencement; for I suppose I shall go directly from Haverhill to Cambridge, in the Spring.
I left Braintree between 9 and 10 o'clock this morning, and got to Boston a little before one. I met on the exchange, Dr. Waterhouse, who has been at Providence these 6 weeks, delivering lectures upon natural Philosophy. He did not know me at first, and I was obliged to introduce myself to him. As soon as he found me out, he was as sociable as ever. I spent part of the afternoon with him. This Evening, I came here, and shall stay here till to-morrow afternoon, with our brother, Who is well contented, with his Situation here, and behaves in such a manner as has gained him the friendship of his Classmates, and given Satisfaction to his Tutor.
In the morning I went and paid a Visit to Mr. Tracey, but he was not at home. Mr. Dana, (or to speak more properly, Judge Dana) is riding the Circuit, so that I could not visit him. At about noon I had a billet from Miss Eliza. Cranch, to inform me, that I must certainly be in town before dinner in order to go with Mr. Peabody to Haverhill. I was to go in a Chaise, and she could not go, because, another Lady, had engaged the remaining place. Off I posted immediately, and when I got here, I found the plan alter'd again. We are to go to-morrow morning at 7. o'clock. I have had nothing to do this afternoon but stroll about the Streets. Spent the Evening at Dr. Welch's. Mr. W. Smith return'd from a Journey, last Evening. He has been gone ever since, I first arrived: I don't hear much said about his being married. Perhaps his time is not yet come.
Here I am at length and am now at my Journey's end. At about <6?> 8 this morning, I was placed by the side of a Mrs. <Brewster?> Webster, in a Chaise; I am not over froward in beginning Conversation, with a person, I am not acquainted with. We rode two or three miles { 376 } without saying a word. At length I made some common place Observation, upon the weather: Yes Sir, No Sir, I think so, was every thing I could draw from her, so upon the whole, I thought I had as good be silent too, and we jogged on from 8 in the morning till 5 afternoon, without saying six words, on either side. I often regretted the Company of our Cousin, with whom I should have been all sociability.
I found all our friends here well; send abundance of Compliments: and Aunt will write I suppose from Boston; where she is going, next Week. And now having brought you to Haverhill, and to the end of the month; I must for the present bid you adieu. Your affectionate brother
[signed] J. Q. Adams
RC (Adams Papers). The text is written on small pages, numbered 81 to 92, and 1 to 12; see JQA to AA2, [12] May, descriptive note, above.
1. Lodovico Ariosto's Orlando Furioso (1532) tells the story of Charlemagne's perfect knight, Orlando (Roland), who forgets his military duty in his passionate pursuit of the princess Angelica. When Orlando discovers that she has married a Moor, he goes on a destructive rampage. MQA has a 1771 Italian edition and a 1780 French translation, both with JQA's bookplate, and a 1785 English translation by John Hoole.
2. On Lt. Richard Nash bearing “infamous letters” to Gov. Bowdoin, see AA to Thomas Jefferson, 19 Oct. and note 5, below.
3. Probably JQA's cousin, Elizabeth Smith Otis.
4. Mr. Lincoln was presumably Levi Lincoln Sr. (not Gen. Benjamin Lincoln, as given in JQA, Diary, 2:index); his colleagues were John Gardiner, author of An Oration, Delivered July 4, 1785, Boston [1785], Evans, No. 19017, and James Hughes (Harvard Quinquennial Cat., p. 195, 1151, 198).
5. Sans Souci, Alias Free and Easy:—Or, an Evening's Peep into a Polite Circle. An Entire New Entertainment in Three Acts, Boston, 1785 (Evans, Nos. 19234, 19235). See Charles Warren, “Samuel Adams and the Sans Souci Club in 1785,” MHS, Procs., 60 (1926–1927):318–344, esp. 335, note, which cites marginalia to a copy of the play at MBAt, identifying another character, “Mr. Bon Ton,” as “Cutler,” possibly the Benjamin Cutler mentioned at note 10. Other marginalia, in the MBAt and the MWA copies, connect certain roles with Perez Morton and his wife, Sarah Apthorp Morton (see note 12, Harrison Gray Otis, Mercy Otis Warren, and other figures who were well known to JQA and his family.
6. Mrs. Russell was Sarah Sever, daughter of William Sever of Kingston, Mass., and Sarah Warren Sever, James Warren's sister; she had married Thomas Russell of Boston in 1784. Her younger brother James was the traveler returned from Russia. See vol. 4:153, notes 1 and 3.
7. Perhaps Sarah Hallowell Vaughan, wife of Samuel Vaughan, a merchant of Jamaica and London, and mother of Benjamin Vaughan, and of William Vaughan, whom JQA had met in London in 1783. Her daughters were Ann, Sarah, Barbara, and Rebecca. See JQA, Diary, 1:198–200, 204; 2:456; MHS, Procs., 2d Ser., 17 (1903):406–409; NEHGR, 19:343, 355 (Oct. l865).
8. William Tudor had clerked and read law at JA's Boston home and law office from 1769 to 1772.
9. This was Mr. Serane (or Serano), whom JQA had met in late August.
10. Benjamin Austin Jr., a merchant and political figure, had married Jane Ivers (DAB). Of his guests, “Ben: Cutler” may have been the merchant, Benjamin Clarke Cutler (Thwing Catalogue, MHi). James Lovell was presumably the eldest son of the Adams' old friend, James Lovell. James Hughes is already mentioned (note 4). L. Austin was probably the host's elder brother and business partner, Jonathan Loring Austin. Royall Tyler was a Harvard classmate (1776) of young Lovell's (Harvard Quinquennial Cat., p. 191, 196, 197; Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 16:303–308).
11. King's Chapel.
12. Lucy Apthorp's parents were James Apthorp and Sarah Wentworth Apthorp. The { 377 } “former occasion of the same kind” was probably the marriage of their daughter Sarah to the Boston lawyer Perez Morton in 1781. James Apthorp was an outspoken loyalist, while Morton was a prominent patriot (Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 17:555–557).
13. Christopher Gore, Tyler's classmate, and later governor of Massachusetts, had married Rebecca, daughter of Edward Payne of Boston, in 1783 (MHS, Colls., 3d ser., 3:206).
14. In his Diary, JQA elaborates: “In the afternoon I went down to our house, and looked over many of the things. I can never feel gay in this house, while its owners are absent, and this evening my aunt accused me of being melancholy; a reproach I am very seldom loaded with. I had a disagreeable headache, and really felt very dull” (Diary, 1:331).
15. JQA recounts this discussion differently in his Diary, principally by writing there that “as I had heard of [Apthorp's] Character before I saw him, I purposely spoke in the highest terms, of the french Nation and their Country” (same, Diary, 1:331).

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0118

Author: Cranch, Lucy
Author: Greenleaf, Lucy Cranch
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-09-19

Lucy Cranch to Abigail Adams

Indeed my ever honoured Aunt I should have been much disapointed if my Cousin had not brought me a letter from you.1 Your pen Madam is never so far exhausted that every sentence that falls from it does not yeild pleasure or instruction. In your letters indeed those qualities are so happily blended that we cannot take from the one without distroying the other.
I hope before this you have heard the pleasing news of the safe arival of your son at Newyork. Many must have been the anxieties of the parents and the sister for the safety of a son and a Brother so deservedly loved. We heard of my Cousin at Newyork six weeks before he arived here. We waited with impatience for him during the vacation which my Brother and Cousin Charles spent here. We heard of him every week. Charles grew so impatient at last that he said if he did not come within a week he would not be glade to see him: I told him he would have a hard task to help it.
I wonder not my dear Aunt that you was unwilling to part with your son. The attachments of nature must be hieghtened on both sides where the Virtues which draw each to the other are so great. He is indeed worthy of his parents, and an honour to them.
Your Orphan Children as my Uncle calls them2 will recieve every attention that is in the power of their friends to render them and as far as is in their power they will supply the place of their parents.
What ever little services it is in my power to do them will ever add to my happiness. It is by those alone that I shall ever be able to show my gratitude to you.
Mama will write and give you all the information you wish for with regard to Charles, who is now commenced Collegian.
{ 378 }
Your last letters3 gave us great entertainment. Your descriptions of Ranelaugh and several other places you reserve for the young folks. Then Madam I hope your neice may come in for a share. The pleasure which I always recieved in reading your Letters, makes me ever feel sorry when a pacquet comes without one for me. Though I see all, yet it does not feel so good, as to have one paticularly for myself. But hush presuming <me thinks> girl you will say, do you expect to be favoured, so much more highly than those that are in every respect so much your superiors. I own the rebuke is just, and will be silent.
Except my muched Loved Aunt my sincerest thanks for the silk. My obligations to you are more than I shall ever be able to cancel. A greatful heart is all the return I can make for your many favours: from your own heart you will recieve your reward.
Be assured Madam of my warmest wishes for your happiness and of my Uncles. And believe me to be with every sentiment of Love and Gratitude your Niece.
[signed] L Cranch
RC (Adams Papers); addressed in an unidentified hand: “Madam Adams—London”; endorsed by AA2: “Lucy Cranch sep 19 1785.”
1. Of [5] May, above.
2. JA to Richard Cranch, 27 April, above.
3. The text is uncertain; Lucy Cranch may have corrected “letters” to “letter” here. Only AA to Mary Cranch, 24 June, above, with its mention of Ranelagh, and AA's intention to “reserve that story for the young folks,” fits this reference.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0119

Author: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Recipient: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-09-24

Abigail Adams 2d to John Quincy Adams

[No.] 7
Last fryday I closed my Last to you1 and Mr. Storer sailed on Monday from Graves End so that it is now on its way to Greet you with health peace and Contentment I hope. A saturday the 17th. we went to see Mrs. Siddons, in the Character of Desdemona. Altho I saw her under many disadvantages, the part not being such as I shold have chosen, and her present situation2 renders it impossible for her to Play so well, as formerly, yet I think She answered my expectations. I did not go into fits, nor swoon, but I never was so much pleased with any person I ever saw upon any theatre. Her Countenance is certainly expressive of every thing it ought to be and She has the most perfect command of it. Her voice is inexpressibly Swet and harmonious. In Short she approaches nearer to perfection than any Woman I ever saw. Colln. Franks had stayed allmost on purpose to see her { 379 } and was, much Gratified. This is a Curious Genious, I assure you. We saw him in Paris you know, and I recollect you did not approve him.3 He has a great portion of vivacity and appearant good nature, which amused us very much. At breakfast and dinner he kept us all upon the Laugh. Even Pappas Gravity was often amused.
In the Morning we went out to hear Dr. Price, at Hackney, the first time since his return from the Country, where he has been for a few weeks. We had four Gentlemen to dine with us, all Americans. A Mr. Beverly from Virgina resembles a little Mr. Short. Mr. Chew, you know his sons in Paris. He is a very great Man in his own opinion and very affectd. I dont like him much. Mr. Waring you know. He took his Leave of us, and sails soon for Carolina. And Mr. Randal who you also know.4 He is quite a favourite with me. I assure you there is something in his manners and behavour that pleases me. I dont mean that he is sans pareil. He proposes going out to New York early in the Spring. He says he thought he shold be the cleaverest fellow in the World, by comeing to Europe but he is monstrously disappointed for he finds no alteration in him self at all, and all he wishes for is to get home.
Colln. Franks set off for Paris. I had forgot to tell you that a Saturday Eve Pappa received a Letter from Colln. Smith dated at Berlin. He sends your father a Coppy of his Letter to the King of Prussia, and His Majestys answer.5 His Letter was to ask permission to be present at the reveiw, every officer being obliged to have Leave from the King. The King, tells him he shall be very happy to see Monsieur la Colln. Smith at his reveiw, and that the permission he has requested is Granted, that he will <Pray the Boon Deiu> Prier le Bon Dieu for the health of Monsieur la Colln. Smith, and, that is his answer. The reveiw was to be finished the 20th. We do not expect Monsieur la Colln. Smith home, till the begining of next Month as he is going by way of Paris to Pay his respects to his friend Monsieur le Colln. Humph[reys].
Your father dined with the Baron de Lynden, after the Levee, and Mr. Trumble and Copely Spent the Evening with us. Mr. West has lately Gained a Great Prise at a sail of old Pictures, which had lain { 380 } a long time in a picture cleaners Garret. He purchased a picture which to every appearance was a ruind painting, being totally disguised by dirt paint &c. The picture had been ordered to be sold for thirty Gunieas, and if it could not fetch that for fifteen. Mr. West observed some parts of it were well painted and, Gave twenty Guneas, for it but upon having it cleaned it proves to be a Painting of the famous Titian. The subject is the Death [of] Actaeon, and he has been offered a thosan Gunias for it already. It was formerly in the Collection of King Charles, and it appears very evident that it was purposely disguisd for it is now said to be as perfect as, ever.6
Being the Anniversary of his Majestys Coronation we all went to Court. There was a full drawing room at least I thought it so, for I was excessively fatigued. The King and Quen Prince of Wales, Princess Royal Augusta and Elisabeth were Present. This is such a ridiculous ceremony that I allways feel provoked when I am Present, to see so many, People, waiting in expectation to be spokent to by the Royal Family, and eagerly sollicitous for their Smiles. Ill tell you what—I like the King better than the Queen. At Least he dissembls better. She is a haughty Proud imperious Dame—and I beleive feel excessivly Mortified to see our family at her drawing room, for which reason, I shold choose to go [often and once atten?] for pleasure no one can ever attend, unless it is such a spighfull pleasure as I shold enjoy. Her Countenance is as hard and unfeeling as if Carved out of an oak knot. It nevertheless expresses her sentiments with respect to us, and we may easily see, that She does not forgive us. Peace be with her. I thank Heaven, that I am not dependant upon her frowns or smiles. The Princess Royal is the handsomest of any of the family that I have yet seen. When she smils She is really pretty, but there seems a great vacancy, in her Countenance, and in all the rest of them. The Prince was very well dressed. He is called in general handsome, but it is a tribute that is payd to fashion I am inclined to beleive rather than spoken from sincerity. He is very fat and looks flushd, report says, it is not (with all honourable virtues).
Pappa dined with Lord Carmarthen and in the Eve Mrs. and Miss Paradise made us a visit.
<To-day> We have been waiting in expectation of receiving Letters from our friends in Boston by Capt. Folgier, who has just arrived. He { 381 } called upon us this afternoon <but> and brought me one Letter. I received another from Betsy Palmer from Mr. Elworthy and these are all that have yet come to hand.7<Tis as> We find our very [family?] had heard of your arrival at New York, and were anxiously expecting to see you hourly. They thought I suppose that the instant you arrived you wold post of to Boston, and they seem as sollicitous for your arrival as if the fate of the Continent depended upon it. Their expectations forerun all reason. I beleive they were tyred a looking for we supposed you not to arrive in Boston before the begining of September, after we heard from you.8
Your reception at New York was such as, I am sure must have been extremely pleasing to you, in particular, “for you know that we all form opinions of Persons according to their Conduct with respect to ourselvs,” is a maxim of yours my Brother and has been a favourite one of mine, also, but I must confess to you that I begin to suspect the Justice of this sentiment. Was the World Honnest, and every one sincere in their proffers of civility Politeness and Friendship, we might have no cause to fear or to arm oursells with such sheilds as suspicion and distrust. But alas it is far other wise.
But I beleive there are many really Honest People remaining. I will not yet turn misanthrop.
This Morning I had set down and given you a detail of matters thus far, intending to send my Letter by Capt. Davis, but your Mamma came in and told me that some body from the City had just told her that Davis had sailed. The Morning was really fine and she proposed going to ride. We dressed and rode to Clapham. The sun shone very pleasant and the Country was beautiful. That rich verdure which I so much admire appeard in full perfection. We first made a visit to Mrs. Smith and Miss Copes, and then to Mrs. Vassall, where we spent an hour. Mrs. V is a little Lofty, but she put on more affability than usual. She is one of those kind of Folks that I should not wish to be mine enemy. The young Ladies, are agreeable enough. There is but one that has any title to beauty and <she> Miss Margret is really Pretty, but a little possitive. They were all very pleasing this Morning.9
Before we went out Count Sarsfield called on your Pappa and they went together to visit Dr. Price. The Count is generally in the Country but comes occasionally to town. Whenever he is here for a few days, he asks Papa which day it is that he is to be his Guest. You know the { 382 } friendship he professes banishes all kind of ceremony, as it certainly ought. I dont know any Person whose Life is more agreeable than this mans. A fortune sufficient to follow the dictates of his inclination which Leads him to travell, to spend one summer in England a second in Holland a third in Spain if he pleases, and known to all Persons of Rank and Character wherever he goes, and universally respected and beloved.
We returnd home about three oclock. Mr. Tom Boilstone dined with us: would you beleive that he intends going soon to France and proposes spending the Winter there. He says he is very much out of health and he looks so, I think. He only wants to Live ten or fifteen years longer and then he thinks he shall die Content but you may be sure that interest is at the Bottom of this excursion. And he seems as sollicitous to affect his plans of trade as if he was not worth a hundred pounds.10
Pappa received a Packet from Mr. Jay to day, from N York, so late as the 26th of august.11 Now how well may I retalliate complaints that you did not write one line. But I learn from the Papers that the French June Packet12 had a fifty two days passage, and a Vessel1 from this place eight weeks, both of which I suppose had Letters for you. I fear you did not receive them before you set off for Boston. <We> Mamma received one day this week your Letter by the French July packet,13 which informs us of your arrival. It would have given us great pleasure if we had not have known it three weeks agone.
To day as we were setting at Dinner. We received a Card from Capt. Hay, who has just arrived from the West Indies, and a Present of a Turtle weighing about an hundred weight.14 This came very opportunely as, your father had invited all the Foreign Ministers and my Lord Carmarthen to dine with him next fryday, and such a Dish as this will not be improper, upon such an occasion. I shall not be able to give you any account of the Folks, as your Mamma nor myself shall not be at home upon the occasion. We have a most admirable friend in Exeter. The week before last we received a Basket containing two fine large salmon, directed to Pappa, and the Porter who brought it told us that it came in the stage from Exeter which was all we could find about it, there being no Letter nor any thing but a simple direction to Pappa.
And the Last week a Porter brought a Box, from the same Place under the same direction which upon opening we found to Contain a Dozen Partriges, but no Letter. We have been upon the round of Conjecture and have concluded they must come from Mr. Jack { 383 } Cranch. He does not intend to be known, to be sure. These kind of attentions are very flattering, but the obligation one feels under for them is not very light, especially when one knows of no good way to return them.
The day we had the salmon Colln. Franks dined with us. He drunk the Health of the Doner in a Bumper, and entitled him Fish Monger to the United States of America. It was the finest I ever tasted, and the Partriges were very fine. They are called Game here you know, and the laws are very strict against those persons that buy it. Indeed a Person who purchases Game is subject to a penalty. It often happens that People of whom it is purchased will give information of the purchasers, and the penalty is severe, so that those People who have not Parks, are obliged to receive it throught the Courtesy of their friends, if they have it at all. Pappa says he intends to rally Mr. Jefferson upon the civilities he receives here, but says I must not let Congress know it for they will asseredly Leessen my salary, and to be sure they have no reason to do that.
By the Way I have forgot to tell you that Mr. Jefferson has, changed his Hotell for one, just out of the Barrier at Challiot, near the Champs Elysées, not far from the Spanish Ambassadors. He found his first Hotell too small, and too far from the <Pub> Walks, of which he is very fond. Petit lives with him and he likes him very much, but Petit would willingly come to London to us, if we would but give Leave. Paulina, soon got into service, and advantageously for herself. The Lady she is with gives her[]15 a year. She says however that she should prefer Living with us.
Lamb has at last arrived, but as Mr. Barclay was engaged to go to Moroco, he agrees to go to Algiers, as <two> a person to each is necessary. Mr. Barclay will I suppose set off soon. Poor Mrs. Barclay, will have another tedious Winter. They have given up their House at Mount Parnassus, and are at Present in an Hotel. Mrs. B. talks of a Convent while Mr. B. is absent. Mrs. Montgomery and her son Bob, have arrived in Paris. Mrs. M. I hear from those who have long known her is as Sprightly as ever but it is thought that she will only be talking of the Education of her son, till he is too oald for to receive an Education. At Present he is under the Care of Mr. Noris who you have not forgot I dare say.16
Colln. Franks says he was at Renelagh17 in the Bois de Bologne, where you may recollect you were with me last summer, the week before he left Paris, and the Queen with Madam Elisabeth and Madame de [Paliniach?], honourd it with their Presence. Her Maj• { 384 } esty has determined to wear none but French Gauze. If you see the English Papers you will see a great deal respecting the Cardinl de Roan, and Madame de la Motte, and some Diamond. That he has been taken up, and Confined is true. It has made much Noise in Paris, but what has been the reall cause, does not appear certain. I wrote you about this in a late Letter.18
Paul Jones, is undertaking a voyage to Kamskatta. The English News Papers say that he is fitting out two Vessels at his own Expence, and that he is enabled to do this by the Prise Money he has lately received. That he has such a project Dr. Bancroft says, who is his friend you know, and he is Enterprising and resolute.19
We went out to meeting at Hackney, and had a violent storm to come home in, which continued all day and night.
Mr. Paradise came and spent the Evening. You would be pleased with this Man as a visitor. He is a Member of the royal society, and proposes, to present your father, provided he is first sure of his reception, and he says he has no doubt of it.20 The form of receiving a Member is this. At a meeting of the society, two members offer, <any> A person they wish to become one, and his Name is hung up, for twelve weeks. At the thirghteenth week they choose [ . . . ] by Ballot. All Persons except Crownd heads, Princes and Ambassadors are received in the above manner. The latter may be chosen without hanging twelve weeks. Mr. Paradise, seems to have been acquainted with all the Litterati of his age. He told us this Evening some curious anecdotes of Dr. Johnson. But in the midst of his Conversation Mrs. Wright came in with such a Budget, and wanted so much private confab, which nobody was to hear except your father, not Wives to be admitted She said, that she kept Pappa an hour hearing her Story.
Now what a Chance for making your fortune have you lost young Man. How say you? Is it not to be retreived? No never. Why I'll tell you. Mr. Boilstone is going to France about his Cargo of oil, that he has just received, and by which he hopes to get an admittance into France in future. Now if you was here, from the Natural benevolence of his Character it is easy to suppose that he wold not object to making you a present of half of it, to go with him and assist him by your { 385 } knowledge of the Language, to persuade the Ministers there to receive it in future. But do not distress yourself at having lost this opportunity—because you might not have found him even so genrous as to propose it.
Your Mamma and myself went this Morning to make some visits. 1st. we called upon Madame de Pinto Lady to the Minister from Portugal but according to the fashion she was not at home. We left our Cards and called upon Mrs. Smith a Carolin Lady lately arrived here. She came for her health, is sister to Mr. Rutledge, and her husband Brother to Mr. James Smith, lately gone to France.21 She is not handsome but there is something agreeable in her manners. She is to dine with us next Tuesday. We called upon Mrs. Church and upon Miss Hamilton of whom I spoke to you in a late Letter. She is to dine with us also a tuesday and I will tell you more about her. Mr. Short fell in Love with a picture taken of her, in Philadelphia tho he had never seen the original, and says this was the Love affair that used to trouble him so much last Winter and made him so Melancholy.
You know not how much I wish you were here. We are so inanimate and stupid without you, that I expect you will hear of me from Bedlam next, as a Melancholy Mad one. I declare I wish you had not gone home. Here you have been gone allm[o]st five months and I have not heard from you but once.22 As soon as I find you negligent I promise you I will write no more, and perhaps you may rejoice at my determination. You taxed yourself with my Correspondence upon such terms as I cannot avoid fullfilling. If I tire your patience tell me so, and I shall not continue to. I am really in earnest, for I really fear that you will be sick of my Letters. I have not been more entertained a long time. Count Sarsfeild came an dined with us sans ceremony and he was perfectly unreserved in the afternoon very sociable and entertaining.
To day is the important day. I can only give you the names of the Gentlemen expected.23 Mamma and myself are going to spend the day with Mrs. Roggers.
We went and found Mrs. Roggers in trouble having lately heard of the account of her Mammas death. She is an excellent little Woman. { 386 } Her kindness and sollicitude to send in all the assistance to her friends that is in her Power must ensure to her the esteem of all who are acquainted with her.
We returned about Nine oclock. The Gentlemen were not all gone. However we did not see them. My Lord Carmarthen told your father he should have been very happy to have dined with the Ladies. Every thing was conducted with propriety and order. Our butler on whom every thing you know depends on such an occasion, is very well acquainted with his business, and gives general sattisfaction. Indeed we at present seem to be well suited with servants. They are all Steady prudent People, which is very essential, you well know, and there is as much harmony as one can expect amongst them. There never will be a perfect agreement unless they are all in one Box.
You have not I dont beleive a finer sun Shine clearer air or more delightfully clear Sky than we have had this day. It has been quite an American day. I have been sitting at my Desk Writing all day, and getting my letters ready for Calliham who dines with us tomorrow, and is to sail the begining of the week. I shall give this and two or three other Letters to his Care.24
About 3 o clock Colln. Franks arrived from Paris again. It was found necessary to make some alteration in the Commissions instructions &c. after Lamb arrived. From Colln. Franks, and other People accounts, he does not appear very well adapted to the business he is going upon they say. He can Speak no Language, for he does not speak even his own English with any degree of propriety, that he seems to have neither knowledge Judgment or Prudence, all of which are very essential for if it should be made Public, it is supposed that the influence of this Country will be made use of to obstruct the making a treaty on any accomodations with those Barbarians. Mr. Jefferson thinks it very necessary that some person should go with Lamb, who can be perfectly confided in and, who possesses what he lacks of qualities for the business. Charles Storer, if he was here would be a likely person, it is thought, as he was willing to go, but this is now impossible. Several persons have been mentiond but no Person applied to as yet. I dont know how it will be determined. Congress seem [not] to have made a Wise choise in sending him. Your father receivd a Letter under the signature of a Capt. of an American Vessell from Philadelphia from Algiers who had been taken sometimes in July. He at first thought it a forgery but Mr. Jefferson { 387 } has another which he knows comes directly from Algiers, and he thinks that it is without doubt that some Ships have been taken by them.25 The week before last there was a Letter in the News Paper signed by Capt. Truxton, which said that he was taken on the 22d. of July and Carried into Algiers, and that the next day after the date of his Letter they were to be sent to slavery, that Dr. Frankling bore it surprisingly. This Letters in a day or two was proved to be a fogery,26 and indeed there are so many and various means made use of here to deceive and mislead People that we know not what to beleive or when to credid what they had asserted.
Madam de Pinto called upon us just now. She was going to the Play, and could not make us a very long visit. She had never seen Mrs. Siddons. This Eve She appears in the Character a Lady Mackbeth. It is said she appears well in this Character. I wish very much to see her in a Character where she will appear to most advantage.
I requested in my last Letter that you would write us by way of New York, and I must again sollicit you to, for I am sure we shall hear very seldom from Boston, from prese[n]t appearances at Least. I suppose the Trade will become less and less, while the present measures are held. Your father has laid every thing necessary before Mr. Pit and has had a conference with him. But he has not received a single answer of any kind or notice of them. The King is advised by People of his Party from America to retain his Navigation act, in its full rigeur tho he has been so effectually deceived by following the opinions of this kind of People heretofore. Yet he does not seem to be any more inclined to disbeleive them than ever. What it will all end in we know not. Your Pappa does not expect they will give him any answer till the Parliament set again which is not to be till February, so that nothing can be done till Spring, Should they be disposed to. The American Merchants will be impatient, before that time, but it is not to be avoided they must know if they know any thing. Many will Judge and condemn without proper reflection it is to be expected.
Not knowing when I might meet with so safe a conveyance for your Watch as by Mr. Short, I wrote to him after he went to Holland, and desired him to take it and send it to me from France. I wrote to Miss Dumas, requesting her Mamma to deliver it which She did, but Insisted of having a receipt of Mr. Short.27 Colln. Franks, has brought it to me and I shall wait your orders respecting it. I thought it had as well be in my possession as in Madame Dumas.
{ 388 }
Poor Lotter who I beleive is as honnest a fellow as ever Lived, has by the intrigues of this Woman your Dear friend been turned out of the House. By Willinks he had requested to have His Livery in [some part?] of it for taking care of it, and keeping it clean, and your father had given his Consent but this Woman used her influence to get [him?] turnd out, after the Poor fellow had <given up his> sold some of his things, and had no place to go to.28
Dft (Adams Papers). The text is written on seventeen small pages; the second through the ninth, and the twelfth, are numbered.
1. Of 26 Aug., above.
2. AA2 refers to Siddons' pregnancy; see AA2 to JQA, 22 Jan. 1786 (Adams Papers), under “Wedensday” [8 Feb. 1786]. Sarah Kemble Siddons, who married William Siddons in 1773 at age eighteen, had five children (DNB).
3. Nothing further is known about JQA's disapproval of Col. David Franks.
4. Of these four men, nothing further is known of Mr. Beverly. JQA records seeing Mr. Chew, perhaps Benjamin Chew Jr., and Paul R. Randall, on 11 May, the day before his departure from Auteuil for America. The Benjamin Chew to whom AA2 refers may have been the pre-Revolutionary chief justice of Pennsylvania and loyalist sympathizer, who was sixty-two in 1785. His son Benjamin Chew Jr., age twenty-seven, had been studying law in London for several years, and returned to Philadelphia in 1786. JQA had met Mr. Waring, perhaps Dr. Thomas Waring of South Carolina, in Paris in January (JQA, Diary, 1:265, 216; Thompson Westcott, The Historic Mansions and Buildings of Philadelphia, Phila., 1877, p. 232–235, 248).
5. See William Stephens Smith to AA, 5 Sept., above.
6. See Robert C. Alberts, Benjamin West, A Biography, Boston, 1978, p. 185, and notes, p. 444.
7. The letter delivered by Capt. Folgier has not been identified; the letter from Elizabeth Palmer has not been found. In a letter to AA dated 23 Sept. (Adams Papers), Elizabeth Palmer mentions having been given a letter from AA2 (also not found, but presumably written in late April or early May) by JQA when he visited Braintree.
8. JQA to AA2, By 25 May, and 17 July, both above.
9. Margaret Hubbard Vassall was the second wife of Boston's well-known loyalist emigré, William Vassall; her daughters were Margaret, age 24, and twins Ann and Charlotte, age 23 (Edward Doubleday Harris, “The Vassalls of New England,” NEHGR, 17:115–116 [April 1863]; Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 9:349–359).
10. Boylston was going to France to negotiate a contract to supply American whale oil. On Boylston's sale of oil to the French, see JA to James Bowdoin, 24 March 1786 (MHi: Bowdoin-Temple Papers, now in Winthrop Papers; printed in MHS, Colls., 7th ser., 6 [1907]:92–93).
11. John Jay's brief letter of 26 Aug. (Adams Papers; also printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, 2:383), acknowledged the receipt of JA's letters of 2, 6, and 17 June, which recounted his reception at the British Court.
12. AA2 inserted “June” above the line; she apparently sent her second, third, and fourth numbered letters to JQA, not found, by the French and English June packet boats to New York.
13. JQA to AA, 17 July, above.
14. This small card, in the Adams Papers, reads: “Mr. and Mrs. Hay, present their Compliments to Mr. and Mrs. Adams, and Beg their acceptance of a Turtle. London Street No. 19 Sept. 24.” Someone wrote “Dove” immediately after “Turtle,” in a different shade of ink.
15. Left blank in MS. Mary Barclay to AA, 5 Sept., above, gives Paulina's wages as 300 livres a year.
16. Dorcas Armitage Montgomery was a widow from Philadelphia and a friend of the Bache family; her son Robert was about fifteen (Jefferson, Papers, 10:282–283; 13:164–166). JQA met Isaac Norris, an American Quaker who converted to Roman Catholicism, on 17 March, in Paris (Diary, 1:236).
17. Ranelagh was a hall for public balls, founded in 1774 on the model of its London namesake. It was located on the west edge of Passy, near the Port de la Muette, a chief { 389 } entrance to the Bois de Boulogne (Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel). Madam Elisabeth was the sister of Louis XVI.
18. AA2 to JQA, 26 Aug., under “Monday 22d [Aug.],” above.
19. John Paul Jones had joined with the Connecticut-born adventurer John Ledyard to mount an expedition in two French ships, with French crews, to open up the fur trade on the northwest coast of North America. Dr. Edward Bancroft was a financial backer of the venture. Determined opposition from Spain, which regarded the area as its domain, and respect for that claim by France, frustrated the effort, which came to nothing (Samuel Eliot Morison, John Paul Jones, A Sailor's Biography, Boston, 1959, p. 341–343).
Jones' proposed expedition did not involve the Kamchatka Peninsula on Russia's Pacific coast, but both Jones and Ledyard would be involved in Russia, quite independently, in the next four years, and Kamchatka was a possible supply point for a European expedition heading into the northern Pacific by way of the Indian Ocean. See Morison; Jefferson, Papers, vols. 8 (Jones), 11 and 13 (Ledyard); and DAB.
20. JQA, and presumably JA, had first visited the Royal Society of London for the Advancement of Natural Science, then quartered in the new Somerset House in the Strand, on 13 Nov. 1783 (JQA, Diary, 1:203, 205). JA was not elected to membership in the Royal Society.
21. Mary Rutledge Smith's brothers were John and Edward, both of whom JA had met when he first served in Congress in 1774 (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:114, 116, 119). Her husband was Roger Moore Smith, older brother of James Smith (South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 4:41 [Jan. 1903]). In her journal entry for his date, after recording the social calls on Madam de Pinto and Mary Rutledge Smith, AA2 criticized, at some length, the European custom of persons not being at home to unexpected callers (Jour. and Corr., [3]:185–186).
22. AA2 had received JQA's letters of 25 May, and 17 July from John Barker Church on 5 Sept. (AA2 to JQA, 26 Aug., above, under “september 5th. Monday Morning”).
23. In her journal AA2 gives several names, saying: “The gentlemen who came were the Baron de Nalken, from Sweden; Baron de Lynden, Holland; Baron de H., a German nobleman; the Count de K., Germany; Count de L., Prussia; Conde de L., Venice; Count de W., engaged; Baron de K., engaged; Chavelier del Campo, Spain; Chevalier de Pinto, Portugal; Chavalier de Pollen, disappointed, by hearing of the death of his mistress, the Queen of Sardinia; [and] several other gentlemen” (Jour. and Corr., 3:186).
24. No other AA2 letters from this period have survived. All of AA's letters to Boston correspondents, from 15 Sept. to 1 Oct., and possibly to 5 Oct., probably went in Capt. Callahan's vessel.
25. Capt. Richard O'Bryen gave JA and Jefferson the details of two captures by the Algerines, his Daupin of Philadelphia, seized off Portugal on 30 July, and the schooner Maria of Boston, also seized off Portugal, on 24 July. See Richard O'Bryen and others (at “Algir”) to JA, 27 Aug. (Adams Papers); Richard O'Bryen to Thomas Jefferson, 24 Aug., in Jefferson, Papers, 8:440–441; Jefferson to JA, 24 Sept. (first letter), same, 8:542–544; and Jefferson to Richard O'Bryen, 29 Sept., same, 8:567–568.
26. The Daily Universal Register of 13 Sept. briefly mentioned “the death of ... Doctor Benjamin Franklin, on his way to America.” On 19 Sept. this same paper stated that “the ship London Packet, Capt. Truxon ... on board of which Dr. Franklin embarked as a passenger, had been boarded and taken by an Algerine pirate on the 22d of July.” On 21 Sept. the story was retracted: “The fabricated letter [from Capt. Truxtun] respecting the capture of Dr. Franklin was a forgery pregnant with the most cruel consequences . . . .” See also the Daily Universal Register, 13 and 14 October.
The Adamses would not likely have been taken in by this report because its fraudulent character was evident in the text itself. On 22 July, the day on which it stated that Capt. Thomas Truxtun's vessel was captured, Franklin was just crossing the Channel from Le Havre to Southampton, and Truxtun had yet to bring his ship to Southampton from London. Franklin boarded this ship at Southampton on 27 July, and Truxtun set sail on the 28th, arriving in Philadelphia on 14 September. The Complete Works of Benjamin Franklin, ed. John Bigelow, N.Y., 1888, 10 vols., 9:261–262; The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Albert Henry Smyth, N.Y., 1907, 9:365–366, 372, 410–412, 463; Jefferson, Papers, 8:585–586.
27. No letter from AA2 to William Short or to Nancy Dumas has been found.
28. The dispute between Christian Lotter { 390 } on one side, and Marie Dumas and the banking firm of Wilhem & Jan Willink & Nicolaas & Jacob van Staphorst on the other, may have begun in the spring of 1785 in an argument over which services were being provided by Lotter, and which by Dumas, in caring for the Hôtel des Etats-Unis at The Hague, of which Lotter was steward and in which he lived with his family. JA remained personally satisfied with Lotter, who in June-July brought to London all JA's belongings remaining at the Hôtel, and through July JA favored allowing Lotter stay at the Hôtel rent free indefinitely, and intended to recommend him to whomever should succeed JA as minister to the Netherlands. But Dumas somehow won this argument, and in September JA, who no longer had need of Letter's services, and who felt he could not justify continuing to pay Lotter a salary when there was no minister resident at the Hôtel, allowed Willink & van Staphorst to settle all wages due to his steward, and to evict him. Lotter was evicted on 26 October. AA2 must have met Lotter when he came to London in early July. See the correspondence between Lotter and JA, and between Willink & van Staphorst and JA, extending from April to Dec. 1785, in the Adams Papers.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0120

Author: Jefferson, Thomas
Recipient: Adams, Abigail
Date: 1785-09-25

Thomas Jefferson to Abigail Adams

[salute] Dear Madam

Mr. Short's return the night before last availed me of your favour of Aug. 12. I immediately ordered the shoes you desired which will be ready tomorrow. I am not certain whether this will be in time for the departure of Mr. Barclay or of Colo. Franks, for it is not yet decided which of them goes to London. I have also procured for you three plateaux de dessert with a silvered ballustrade round them, and four figures of Biscuit. The former cost 192, the latter 12 each, making together 240, livres or 10. Louis. The merchant undertakes to send them by the way of Rouen through the hands of Mr. Garvey and to have them delivered in London.1 There will be some additional expences of packing, transportation and duties here. Those in England I imagine you can save. When I know the amount I will inform you of it, but there will be no occasion to remit it here. With respect to the figures I could only find three of those you named, matched in size. These were Minerva, Diana, and Apollo. I was obliged to add a fourth, unguided by your choice. They offered me a fine Venus; but I thought it out of taste to have two at table at the same time. Paris and Helen were presented. I conceived it would be cruel to remove them from their peculiar shrine. When they shall pass the Atlantic, it will be to sing a requiem over our freedom and happiness. At length a fine Mars was offered, calm, bold, his faulchion not drawn, but ready to be drawn. This will do, thinks I, for the table of the American Minister in London, where those whom it may concern may look and learn that though Wisdom is our guide, and the Song and Chase our supreme delight, yet we offer adoration to that tutelar god also who rocked the cradle of our birth, who has accepted our infant offerings, { 391 } and has shewn himself the patron of our rights and avenger of our wrongs. The groupe then was closed, and your party formed. Envy and malice will never be quiet. I hear it already whispered to you that in admitting Minerva to your table I have departed from the principle which made me reject Venus: in plain English that I have paid a just respect to the daughter but failed to the mother. No Madam, my respect to both is sincere. Wisdom, I know, is social. She seeks her fellows. But Beauty is jealous, and illy bears the presence of a rival.
But, Allons; let us turn over another leaf, and begin the next chapter. I receive by Mr. Short a budget of London papers. They teem with every horror of which <nature> human nature is capable. Assassinations, suicides, thefts, robberies, and, what is worse than assassination, theft, suicide, or robbery, the blackest slanders! Indeed the man must be of rock, who can stand all this; to Mr. Adams it will be but one victory the more. It would have illy suited me. I do not love difficulties. I am fond of quiet, willing to do my duty, but irritable by slander and apt to be forced by it to abandon my post. These are weaknesses from which reason and your counsels will preserve Mr. Adams. I fancy it must be the quantity of animal food eaten by the English which renders their character insusceptible of civilisation. I suspect it is in their kitchens and not in their churches that their reformation must be worked, and that Missionaries of that description from hence would avail more than those who should endeavor to tame them by precepts of religion or philosophy. But what do the foolish printers of America mean by retailing all this stuff in our papers?2 As if it was not enough to be slandered by one's enemies without circulating the slanders among his friends also.
To shew you how willingly I shall ever receive and execute your commissions, I venture to impose one on you. From what I recollect of the diaper and damask we used to import from England I think they were better and cheaper than here. You are well acquainted with those of both countries. If you are of the same opinion I would trouble you to send me two sets of table cloths and napkins for 20 covers each, by Colo. Franks or Mr. Barclay who will bring them to me. But if you think they can be better got here I would rather avoid the trouble this commission will give. I inclose you a specimen of what is offered me at 100. livres for the table cloth and 12 napkins. I suppose that, of the same quality, a table cloth 2. aunes3 wide and 4. aunes long, and 20 napkins of 1. aune each, would cost 7. guineas.
I shall certainly charge the publick my houserent and court taxes. I shall do more. I shall charge my outfit. Without this I can never get { 392 } out of debt. I think it will be allowed. Congress is too reasonable to expect, where no imprudent expences are incurred, none but those which are required by a decent respect to the mantle with which they cover the public servants, that such expences should be left as a burthen on our private fortunes.
But when writing to you, I fancy myself at Auteuil, and chatter on till the last page of my paper awakes me from my reverie, and tells me it is time to assure you of the sincere respect and esteem with which I have the honour to be Dear Madam Your most obedient & most humble servt.
[signed] Th: Jefferson
P.S. The cask of wine at Auteuil, I take chearfully. I suppose the seller will apply to me for the price. Otherwise, as I do not know who he is, I shall not be able to find him out.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Jefferson Sep 25 1785.”
1. The Jefferson Papers (DLC) contains a receipted invoice from: “Bazin Md. Rue des fossés St. Germain L'auxerois à Paris,” dated 27 September. The invoice includes “1. Service de 3 plateaux a Balustrade et perles de Cuivre argenté garnis de glaces,” at 192 livres, and “4. figures divinites de porcelaine en Biscuit,” at 48 livres. The invoice totaled 26417s. 6d; the receipt was dated 5 Jan. 1786 (Jefferson, Papers, 8:549, where the location of the receipt is mistakenly given as MHi).
2. Squibs against JA and the United States from London papers were reprinted in Boston's Continental Journal of 4 August.
3. The French equivalent of an ell; actual measurement varied from place to place.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0121

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Cranch, Mary Smith
Date: 1785-09-30

Abigail Adams to Mary Smith Cranch

[salute] My dear sister

Your kind Letters of July and August are before me.1 I thank you most sincerely for the particular manner in which you write; I go along with you, and take an interest in every transaction which concerns those I love. And I enjoy more pleasure from those imaginary Scenes, than I do from the drawing room at St. James's. In one I feel my self your Friend and equal, in the other I know I am looked down upon with a sovereign pride, and the Smile of Royalty is bestowed as a mighty Boon. As such however I cannot receive it. I know it is due to my Country, and I consider myself as complimenting the Power before which I appear, as much as I am complimented by being noticed by it. With these Ideas you may be sure my countanance will never wear that suppliant appearence which begs for notice. Consequently I never expect to be a Court favourite, nor would I ever again set my foot there, if the Etiquette of my Country did not require it. But whilst I am in a publick Character I must submit to the penalty, for such I shall ever esteem it.2 You will naturally suppose { 393 } that I have lately been much fatigued. This is very true. I attended the Drawing room last week upon the Aniversary of the Coronation of their Majesties. The Company were very Brilliant, and her Majesty was stiff with Diamonds. The three eldest Princesses and the Prince of Wales were present.3 His Highness lookt much better than when I saw him before. He is a stout well made Man, and would look very well; if he had not sacrificed so much to Bacchus. The Princess Elizabeth I never saw before, she is about 15, a short clumsy Miss, and would not be thought Handsome if she was not a Princess. The whole family have one complexion; and all inclined to corpulent, I should know them in any part of the world.
Not with standing the English boast so much of their Beauties, I do not think they have really so much of it, as you will find amongst the same proportion of people in America. It is true that their complexions are undoubtedly fairer than the French, and in general their figure is good. Of this they make the best. But I have not seen a Lady in England who can bear a comparison with Mrs. Bingham Mrs. Platt4 and a Miss Hamilton who is a Philadelphia young Lady. Amongst the most celebrated of their Beauties stands the Dutchess of Devonshire,5 who is Masculine in her appearence. Lady Salsbury is small and geenteel, but her complexion is bad, and Lady Talbot is not a Mrs. Bingham, who taken all together is the finest woman I ever saw. The intelligence of her countanance, or rather I ought to say animation, the Elegance of her form, and the affability of her Manners, converts you into admiration, and one has only to lament too much dissapation and frivolity of amusement, which has weand her from her Native Country; and given her a passion and thirst after all the Luxeries of Europe.
The finest English woman I have seen is the eldest daughter of Mr. Dana, Brother to our Mr. Dana. He resides in the Country, but was in London with two of his daughters when I first came here.6 I saw her first at Raneleigh. I was struck with her appearence and endeavourd to find who she was, for she appeard like Calipso amongst her Nymphs, delicate and modest. She was easily known from the crowd as a stranger. I had not long admired her; before she was brought by her Father and introduced to me, after which she made me a visit, with her sister, who was much out of Health, at the same time that she has the best title of any English woman I have seen to the rank of Divinity. I would not have it forgotten that her Father is an American, and as he was remarkably handsome no doubt she owes a large share of her Beauty to him.
{ 394 }
Since I took my pen I have received from Mrs. Rogers acquainting me with the death of her Mamma. I feard as much from what Mrs. Copely told me the week before.7
I dread to hear from my dear Aunt least the same melancholy tidings should reach me with respect to her. She is at the same critical period of life which proved fatal to Mrs. Broomfeild.8 I will however hope that she may yet be spaired to her Friends. Tho her Health would never permit her to engage in the active buisness of her family, she was attentive to the interest and welfare of every individual of it. Like Sarah she was always to be found in her tent.9 A more benevolent Heart never inhabited a Humane Breast. It was well matched and seconded in a partner equally Benevolent and humane, who has shared with us our former Griefs and will find us equally sympathetick towards himself should so great a misfortune attend him as I fear. Indeed I know not how to take my pen to write to him. I do not wonder that your Heart was affected or your spirits low under the apprehension of losing one so deservedly dear to us all. Should this ornament be broken from the original building it will be an other memento to us of the frailty of the whole, and that duration depends not upon age. Yet who would desire to stand the last naked Pillar of the whole? I believe our social affections strengthen by age. As those objects and amusement which gratified our Youthfull Years lose their relish, the social converse and society of Friends becomes more necessary.

Needfull auxiliars are our Friends to give

To social Man true realish of himself.

But I must close, as I am going to day to dine with my Friend Mrs. Rogers, where I have given myself an invitation, the occasion of which I will reserve for the Subject of an other Letter and subscribe affectionately Yours
[signed] A A
RC (MWA: Abigail Adams Corr.); addressed in an unknown hand: “Mrs. Mary Cranch Braintree Massachusetts.”
1. The only extant letter that fits this description is Mary Cranch to AA, 19 July, above, which she finished on 7 August.
2. A caret appears in the MS immediately following this sentence, but no text that might be inserted appears in the letter.
3. Charlotte Augusta Matilda, Augusta Sophia, and Elizabeth, and George, Prince of Wales, later George IV.
4. Probably Abigail Pyncheon Platt of NewYork City and New Haven, Conn., who had spent some time in Europe with her husband (NEHGR, 38:47 [Jan. 1884]; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:302; JQA, Diary, 1:306, and note 1).
5. Georgiana Spencer Cavendish, daughter of John Spencer, first earl Spencer, and wife of the fifth duke of Devonshire, was twentyeight in 1785. She made a great impression on English society more by the force of her per• { 395 } sonality and her broad cultural and political interests than by her beauty, which several observers praised rather modestly. See DNB.
6. Francis Dana's elder brother Edmund had sailed to England shortly after his graduation from Harvard in 1759, married Helen, daughter of Charles Kinnaird, sixth baron Kinnaird, in 1765, and taken holy orders in 1769. After 1774 he was vicar at Wroxeter, near Shrewsbury in Shropshire. His eldest daughter, Elizabeth Caroline, was eighteen, and his second daughter, Frances Johnstone, nearly seventeen when AA met them. Sibley's Harvard Graduates, 14:414–418; Elizabeth Ellery Dana, The Dana Family in America, Cambridge, 1956, p. 484–485.
7. This paragraph is omitted in AA, Letters, ed. CFA. Hannah Clarke Bromfield of Boston and Harvard, Mass., step-mother of AA's dear friend Abigail Bromfield Rogers, died on 17 August (Daniel Denison Slade, “Bromfield Family,” NEHGR, 26:38–42 [Jan. 1872]).
8. Lucy Quincy Tufts would die at fifty-five in October; Hannah Clarke Bromfield was sixty-one at her death. See AA2 to JQA, 24 Sept., under ““Fryday Eve,” above; vol. 4:348, note 1.
9. See Genesis 18:9.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0122

Author: Adams, Abigail
Recipient: Cranch, Mary Smith
Date: 1785-10-01

Abigail Adams to Mary Smith Cranch

[salute] My dear sister

I told you in my last, that I was going to dine with my Friend Mrs. Rogers. You must know that yesterday the whole Diplomatick Choir dinned here, that is his Lordship the Marquiss of Carmarthan and all the Foreign Ministers 15 in all,1 and to day the Newspapers proclaim it. I believe they have as many Spies here as the Police of France. Upon these occasions no Ladies are admitted, so I wrote a card and beg'd a dinner for myself and Daughter of Mrs. Rogers where I know I am always welcome.
It is customary to send out cards of invitation ten days before hand. Our cards were gone out, and as good luck would have it, Captain Hay returnd from the West Indies and presented us with a noble Turtle weighing a hundred and 14 pounds which was drest upon this occasion. Tho it gave us a good deal of pain to receive so valuable a present from them; yet we could not refuse it without affronting them, and it certainly happend at a most fortunate time. On tuesday they and a Number of our American Friends and some of our English Friends, for I assure you we have a chosen few of that number, are to dine with us.
This afternoon I have had a visit from Madam Pinto, the Lady of the Portugal Minister. They have all visited now, and I have returnd their visits, but this is the only Lady that I have seen. She speaks english tolerabely and appears an agreeable woman. She has lately returnd to this Country from whence she has been 5 years absent. The Chevelier de Pinto has been Minister here for many years.2 Some years hence it may be a pleasure to reside here in the Character of American Minister, but with the present sallery and the present { 396 } temper of the English no one need to envy the embassy. There would soon be fine work if any notice was taken of their Bilingsgate and abuse, but all their arrows rebound and fall Harmless to the ground. Amidst all their falshoods, they have never insinuated a Lisp against the private Character of the American Minister, nor in his publick Line charged him with either want of abilities honour or integrity. The whole venom has been leveld against poor America, and every effort to make her appear ridiculous in the Eyes of the Nation. How would they exult if they could lay hold of any circumstance in Either of our Characters to make us appear ridiculous.
I received a Letter to day from Mr. Jefferson who writes me; that he had just received a parcel of English Newspapers. They “teem says he with every horrour of which nature is capable; assassination Suicide thefts robberies, and what is worse than thefts Murder and robbery, the blackest Slanders! Indeed the Man must be of rock who can stand all this. To Mr. Adams it will be but one victory the more. It would [have] illy suited me. I do not love difficulties, I am fond of quiet, willing to do my duty, but irritable by slander and apt to be forced by it to abandon my post. I fancy says he it must be the quantity of Animal food eaten by the English which renders their Character unsusceptible of civilisation. I suspect that it is in their kitchens and not in their Churches, that their reformation must be worked, and that missionaries from hence would avail more than those who should Endevour to tame them by precepts of Religion or Philosophy.”3
But he adds, what do the foolish Printers of America mean by retailing all this Stuff in our Papers, as if it was not enough to be slandered by ones Enemies without circulating the Slanders amongst ones Friends too?
I could tell Mr. Jefferson that I doubt not that there are persons in America equally gratified with them as the english, and that from a spirit of envy. But these open attacks are nothing to the secret and subtle Enemies Mr. A. has had heretofore to encounter. In Mr. Jefferson he has a firm and faithfull Friend, with whom he can consult and advise, and as each of them have no object but the good of their Country in view, they have an unlimited confidence in each other, and they have only to lament that the Channel divides their more frequent intercourse.
You ask me whether I must tarry out three years?4 Heaven only knows what may be the result of one if any probabity appears of accomplishing any thing. Tis likely we may tarry. I am sure that it { 397 } will be a Labour if not of Love yet of much perplexity, and difficulty. The immense debt due from the Mercantile part of America to this Country, sours this people beyond measure and greatly distresses thousands who never were or ever will be Polititians. The Manufactures who supplied the Merchants, and depend upon them for remittances, indeed I pitty their situation. At the same time I think our Countrymen greatly to blame for getting a credit, that many of them have taken no Pains to preserve, but who have thoughtlessly rioted upon the Property of others.
And this amongst other things makes our Situation dissagreeable and the Path very difficult for negotiation.5
You make an other inquiry too, how your Neice will like to tarry. I can assure you, and all those whom it ever concernd that I have not seen her half so happy and contented since she left America, as she has been for six weeks past,6 and I am persuaded she has no particular attachment there more than we all have in common. The last vessels brought her no Letters but from a female Friend or two. A few lines only have found their way across the vast ocean since last December, and them through the utmost hazard of Barbarians Algerines &c. Who would dare to trust a Letter? But enough I will say nothing, as she wishes every delicacy may be used with respect to a Person whom once we thought better of. But you cannot wonder that she rather wishes to remain some time in Europe than for a speedy return.
Your Nephew you have had with you before now. As he did not arrive soon enough for commencment, he wished to see many Person in New York to whom he had Letters, and as he received much civility there, he did not leave it so suddenly as his Nothern Friends expected. He had permission to remain there a fortnight or more as he found it proper and convenient. I believe he is fully sensible of the necessity of oconomy. I never saw any inclination in him to unnecessary expence. He was my Book keeper all the time I resided at Auteuil and perfectly knows what our expences were; he will be very sensible they are not lessned by our residence in London, where we are more exposed to Company, and obliged to an attendance at Court. It mortifies me that I have it not in my Power to send amongst my Friends many things which I should rejoice to, as there are now so many articles restricted. If any particular thing is wanted by you or yours which I can put into the private trunk of a Captain, let me know it, and you shall have it.
I would have you write me by way of New York during the winter. Cover your Letters either to Mr. King or Gerry; which address will { 398 } Frank them to New York and they will forward them to me. I shall take the same method; as it is not likely any other opportunitys but by the Pacquet will offer. My Paper calls upon me to subscribe your affectionate Sister
[signed] A A
RC (MWA: Abigail Adams Corr.).
1. See the list of guests in AA2 to JQA, 24 Sept., note 23, above.
2. Luiz Pinto de Balsamão had represented Portugal since 1774 (Repertorium der diplamatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:317).
3. In this and the following paragraph AA quotes from Jefferson's letter of 25 Sept., above.
4. See Mary Cranch to AA, 19 July, above, under “August 1d.”
5. All the text from this point to the signature is omitted from AA, Letters ed. CFA.
6. That is, since she had written a note to Royall Tyler, [ca. 11 Aug.], above, terminating their relationship.

Docno: ADMS-04-06-02-0123

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Recipient: Adams, Abigail (daughter of JA and AA)
Date: 1785-10-01

John Quincy Adams to Abigail Adams 2d

I am now settled down for the Winter, and shall be obliged to pay an unremitting attention to my Studies. I am told I have much more to do, than I had any Idea of; in order to gain an admittance with honour, next Spring in the junior Class at the University. In the Greek I have to go from the beginning to learn the Grammar, which is by no means an agreeable task; to study the new Testament nearly or quite through; between 3 and 4 books in Xenophon's Cyropaedia, and 5 or 6 books in Homer's Iliad. In Latin I have little else to go thro' but Horace, part of which I have already done. In English, I have to Study Watts's Logic, Locke, on the human understanding, and something in Astronomy.1 But what good is it to me, to know all this? perhaps you will say. Not much I grant; but it is only the preface, to a request, which I am obliged to make, much against my Inclination; it is, that you would relax from the Strictness of our Engagement untill I get to Cambridge. I shall go into very little Company here, there will probably be a Continual sameness, in every Event that will happen, so that I shall have little to write you that may be very interesting.2 However, two days Every week I will set apart half an hour, to write something to you. If you claim the same indulgence I own I cannot in justice refuse it; and if you have the same Reason, I would not desire to. It would be a mortification to me, to hear from you less frequently, than I do, and I sincerely hope, you will continue to write as fully as you have done; but from the Impossibility I am in of fulfilling entirely my Engagement with you, I must now leave it { 399 } entirely at your own option how often you will write. When I get to Cambridge, I shall not be obliged to study so much as I shall while here, and then I shall probably be able to renew the rule of writing something every day.
Mr. and Mrs. Shaw, the day before yesterday set out, on a journey to visit their friends at Braintree, Bridgwater &c. They are to be absent near three weeks. I suppose you will be curious to know my opinion of the young Lady, that boards here.3 She is in stature Rather short, but exceedingly well proportioned; a fine shape; a most expressive Eye, and very fair complexion: she is not a beauty but has in her Countenance, something, uncommonly interesting. As to her Character, I have not seen enough of it to give it you, exactly: you shall have what I have collected from other Persons, and the little I have observed; and when I become more acquainted with it, I will write you my Sentiments again. She lost her father when she was very young, which has been her great misfortune. She boarded for a considerable time at Mrs. Sheaffe's in Boston, and was drawn very young into the stream of dissipation. I have been griev'd since I return'd home, to see the Education, given to numbers of the young Ladies in Boston. We talk of the follies and fopperies of Europe; but I think we go much further, than they do; we have no Theatres, nor Masquerades I own; but there are assemblies, and Concerts, and Balls, and visits which appear to me, the most ridiculous method of killing time, that was ever Invented. In Europe, you commonly see that Even young Ladies of fortune, have an excellent Education given them, before they are introduced into the world; and they may afterwards make what use of it they please: But here, young Ladies, without fortunes to support show, without titles the dignity of which they are bound to maintain, think it beneath them, to know any thing but to dance, and talk scandal. In this last particular they have attained great perfection. They are carried into Company, while they are by far too young, and are taught, that if they can talk nonsense very fluently, and sit very straight and upright, five hours together in one Chair, they will be most accomplished women; you will think I am too severe; but it is certainly too often the case with our young women educated in the Capital. It has been an essential injury to Miss H[azen]: she has a fine natural genius; but it has been so long employ'd upon trifles, that they have almost become natural to it. Had she always been taught that prudence, and oeconomy, were { 400 } qualities absolutely necessary for young People in this Country; that some knowledge in Literature, and especially in history, was a much greater ornament than a pretty face, and a fine shape; I doubt not but she would be much more universally admired than she is: she has been too much celebrated, by a parcel of fops, and if I am not much mistaken, Vanity is her ruling passion. This however must be said that Nature has been liberal to her in mind, and person, but that her foibles are probably owing to Education. She has worn off many, I have been told since, she came here, and I hope the rest will gradually disappear. Do not mention my opinions concerning Characters, any where out of the family. When I write to you; I en