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Browsing: Diary of Charles Francis Adams, Volume 1

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-09

Wednesday. June 9th. VI.

Attended Prayers, but was very late in getting up. My walk of last Evening had fatigued me so much, that I slept more soundly than usual. As I was absent during nearly all the day’s review I excused myself to Mr. Hayward and consequently made up my Chapters in { 176 } the Bible in the interval. At study bell we attended Mr. Channings first Lecture. It was an introductory one detailing the dangers to which students were liable—they were likely to become too proud of their knowledge and therefore sceptical. He adverted to the danger of falling into a way of studying not for the sake of improvement in their own happiness but to show their acquisition, to be actuated by motives of ambition, and not read books for their sake as pleasure and gratification but as a path to become distinguished. In this way he said the heart became callous to the finer feelings of nature and wholly engrossed in the pursuit of fame. The things which were most to be dreaded by persons in pursuit of knowledge in short, he said, were pride which leads to scepticism, and ambition which destroys all good and moral feeling. He was highly moral throughout. The style is easy and pleasing, the manner is not tolerable. He has never been possessed of the graces and has sundry peculiarities which are certainly not pleasing, I might say, disgusting. I had to complain of his want of purpose in this lecture as I saw nothing in the Essay which had a direct reference to the matter in point. In future I propose to take notes at the time and write his sentiments more fully as I propose to compare them with those of my father on the same subject at some future time. I wish to judge as fairly of Mr. Channing as possible. I have no reason to admire the man and therefore shall be cautious.1
I returned home after a few minutes at the reading room, and prepared myself for a recitation to Mr. Farrar in Trigonometry. He is much of a scare crow to students as he has a greater desire to make them learn really and truly, than any other members of the government. I recited to him not very well however. As this is a study which I do not wish to pursue, I am not anxious. I had intended speaking to him today but I was so hurried by the next division that it was not in my power. I am fixed however in doing this soon as this is certainly nothing but lost time. I might as well undertake to study Hebrew without Grammar or Dictionary. It is sufficiently difficult with2 in either case. We do not come again until Monday.
I finished writing my Journal and read the poems of Mason together with some of the first of Cowper’s.3 I did not think the first very remarkable although the lines to his wife are certainly sweet and pretty. I will not pretend to criticize though as I have never read them before. These of Cowper are very pretty, there is something very interesting in them as they refer themselves to our simplest feelings and are sure to touch them with effort. The little piece on Friendship { 177 } which I read today is as true, as striking as any thing could be made yet it is all drawn from what we must know by the every day experience of human life. It is this power which has made this Author so popular with all classes and which makes him seen oftener on the table than any Poet we have. Some there [are] who are looked upon with reverence and respect but he is always read and always admired.
I began my course in Botany this Morning with a Lesson in Mr. Locke4 and commenced Mitford’s History of Greece5 by reading the First Chapter today. This is principally taken up in a geographical description of the country, and an account of the fabulous ages to the time of the Trojan War. He gives the appearance of history to the stories of the Poets and gives Homer high authority as a Historian. He runs over their origin, which he argues from Egypt, their method of life which was according to all account sufficiently piratical, and their gradual civilization particularly in Attica. One chapter bears considerably on politics as it shows us that at least in this age Despotism was not known or thought of. The accounts of Minos and Theseus give us reason to suppose that this was the original contract if there ever was one in society. To ensure order, a head was necessary, but for that head to have absolute power was as far from their ideas as the cutting off their own heads. I also read my Greek Testament and attended recitation after which I paid a visit to Fisher and came home. I next attended Prayers, after tea Otis and myself went round paying visits at least with the intention of doing so but we found no one at home except Howard. I smoked a cigar with him although he did not appear perfectly glad to see us. Why, I know not. We then returned, having heard nonsense enough, and I spent the remainder of the Evening in reading Plutarch’s Life of Theseus and studying the obscure chronology as well as I could. Finishing this I read two Numbers in the Spectator for amusement and my two Chapters as usual. X.
1. JQA was the first Boylston professor of rhetoric and oratory at Harvard, holding the chair from 1806 to 1809. He had opposed the appointment of E. T. Channing, the third occupant of the chair. When Channing failed CFA on his Harvard entrance examination in Sallust, JQA appealed the decision to President Kirkland, reminding him that the professor might have been motivated by resentment. JQA was given permission to attend the second examination, and this time CFA passed (Duberman, CFA, p. 18).
2. Thus in MS.
3. William Mason (1725–1797) and William Cowper (1731–1800).
4. John Locke, Outlines of Botany, Boston, 1819.
5. JQA’s set of William Mitford, History of Greece, 8 vols., Boston, 1823, is in the Stone Library. CFA, however, apparently bought his own copy. See entry for 29 June, below. A first edition of Vol. 1 (published in 1784) is among JA’s books in the Boston Public Library (Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 170).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-10

Thursday. June 10th. V:45.

Attended Prayers and having looked over my review in the interval, recitation. I was called upon for the first time in a review and recited moderately well. I received a letter this morning from John1 announcing his intention of departing the next day for the springs at a town called Bedford in Virginia. He is to accompany my Mother and Mary in this affair. He also announces his inability to write me in consequence, a thing which I am exceedingly sorry for as I seldom feel perfectly contented unless I receive letters frequently from home. John’s particularly afford me great amusement.
I read this Morning besides my regular Chapters Cowper’s Poem on Retirement much of which pleased me exceedingly. I have not prized this Author as highly as he deserved although I have always admired him. So much striking observation is collected in this poem, the natural agitations of the mind are so accurately described that one can not help being very much pleased with him. I also studied a lesson in Botany. This is a very pleasant amusement in the Spring and as I wish to prepare myself before the lectures come on, if we are to have any, I am now studying it. I did this also last Spring and now merely refresh my Memory. We had no exercise this Morning as the Theme which should have come today is delayed for Examination. I wrote my Journal and spent an hour at Sheafe’s room talking of the Supper which we have in contemplation.
At dinner we were interrupted by the entrance of Tudor who was hailed by general acclamation. His arrival fills up our accustomed society which certainly felt quite a void while he was not here. I spent an hour at Wheatland’s room talking with Burton,2 a graduate and divinity student who belonged to my brother’s class. I talked a great deal of preaching and ministers to him, a subject which of all others [is] to me the most foolish. It is popular here and Wheatland who is a very good young sample of old narrow mindedness delights in conversation of this kind. I shall not attempt to describe the character of this man until we part never to meet again which will soon be and not to my regret for I know not what is the reason but he appears to me at this time to be more unpleasant than he ever was before; he did not seem to relish Tudor’s popularity among us, and scarcely hailed him half as cordially as any of the rest. Could it have been envy, because he knew he could not have been so received? or what? I will suspect but assert nothing.
I read a portion of Mitford finishing the second Chapter which { 179 } treats of their state of society, of the progress of the Greeks in Religion, Government, Language, Poetry, Agriculture, Masonry, Commerce, Navigation, Astronomy, Physic. Also of their Manners. All this is derived from his great favourite Homer whom he quotes for the establishment of all his facts. The history of these books is singular as it is with good ground supposed that the art of writing was not known until long after these were composed. The general hypothesis is that they were sung by him at the Meetings which have always been held in Greece and that they were handed down in this way from one generation to another, being committed to memory by persons who pursued the same practice which has been common with the Welsh [ . . . ] who were very much acted upon by their bards. But still I am inclined to doubt whether poems of this kind could have come down perfect as we find them, they must have undergone considerable correction in later ages when they were first set in order. It appears even so, hardly possible to suppose that any one man could have kept in his memory two such long Poems, knowing also as we do, or say we do, that there was no regular way of singing them, they were composed in disorder and still form so perfect a whole. There is one thing certainly which we can trust to him, for, knowing their unquestionable antiquity, we can have no doubt that he described the manners which were usual in that age. The author’s illustration of them is very good.
I got a Greek lesson this afternoon and attended a recitation to Dr. Popkin, after which I made a short call upon Brenan to inform him of our decision concerning the Supper and read Mitford until Prayers after which we went to Fresh Pond and spent some time in bowling. Met there J. Otis and Bartlett with the latter of whom I had considerable conversation. I went principally to make arrangements but did not succeed owing to Mr. Wyeth’s3 absence. On returning, our Lyceum party went to Mr. Willard’s and refreshed ourselves with a little Porter. Tudor’s presence has inspired us with life and dissipation and we opened the term pleasantly. The evening was so pleasant that I staid out until ten o’clock in the front of the house, admiring the Moon and the beauty of the Evening. After a few minutes at Wheat-land’s where Stackpole and Silsbee were, I came down and reading my two Chapters as usual, I retired. X:15.
1. Missing.
2. Warren Burton, Harvard 1821, who graduated from the Divinity School in 1826.
3. Jacob Wyeth was owner of the Fresh Pond Inn, since 1796 one of the famous hostelries in the Cambridge area; it was located not far from the present water filtration plant (Chauncey Depew Steele Jr., “A History of Inns and Hotels in Cambridge,” Cambridge Historical Society, Publications, 37 [1959]:33–34).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-11

Friday. June 11th. IV:30.

After a very sleepless night, from what cause I know not, I arose, dressed myself and read my usual number of Chapters and the first book of Cowper’s Task. This is a pleasant poem but as it is a commencement of a subject not the most excellent for a Poet’s pen, we must wait till he obtains room for more excursions. I read this Poem just before I commenced Aikin and recollect the great pleasure which I had in it. I am now very curious to see whether my marks will be the same as formerly. I doubt much the strength of my natural taste and consequently shall see what is the variation. I then attended Prayers and after looking over my lessons, recitation. I then returned home got a lesson in Botany and wrote my Journal.
At ten o’clock I attended Mr. Channing’s second Lecture. His style is certainly quite good, he treated today of Rhetoric as a branch of study. He distinguished from Ethics and Logic by embracing parts of both but giving a more extended surface. The one he said treated of moral obligation of the duty of man to God, to himself and to the world, but Rhetoric was connected with their passions and although it’s effects were caused by touching the sense of rectitude which existed in every man, they acted upon those passions of men which Moral Philosophy is intended to bind. He said it was different from Logic as that was merely a dry search after Truth in methodical formulas whereas this was designed to apply these very rules clothed in the beauty of language and all the richness of imagery which the mind of men can comprehend. He then went on to discuss the subjects in which Eloquence existed. Some people had said that Eloquence arose from the subject and that in Law and Divinity it was impossible to be eloquent but it was his opinion that Eloquence existed every where and that it was in the power of a naturally eloquent man (for it is his opinion that it is natural) to be eloquent on every subject, that he could exert his powers of imagination even on things the most dry. This is all just observation and I saw it powerfully exemplified in the case of Mr. Emmet on the Steam Boat question last Winter.1 I did not hear however what was said to be his very finest part which was the close of his speech. The subject was as dry also as any which could have been agitated.
I read a considerable portion of Mitford’s Greece. He treated of the Oracles, the Games and the council of Amphictyons, the three great links, as he thinks of the Grecian people. These gave them a consistency which otherwise they would not have possessed and made them have the appearance to others at least of being a people. The { 181 } influence obtained by the Oracle was not surprising considering the state of the people. The institution of the Games was very good for them as it gave them a character, it promoted taste and elegance for which they were afterwards so noted. I finished this early and copied a piece in my Common Place Book before dinner. Afterwards, I read Mitford’s Appendix on the subject of the Chronology of these times which to be sure is obscure enough. I shall not attempt to make dates but merely to keep the course of events. These to be sure are doubtful enough but I am inclined to believe them. Mr. Mitford is pretty positive in his style of speaking or writing, nevertheless he is a very pleasant author to read. The last Chapter which I read was on the history of the smaller States of Greece which he gives merely to prepare for his great subject.
I then attended Declamation and spoke myself Byron’s beautiful ode to the Greeks in Don Juan. I tried my best but hardly gave the full force of the sublime production. It was difficult. Mr. Channing criticized my rapidity by which I lost some force, of this I was conscious but I am still in a flurry on the Stage, which it is impossible for me to get over. I am happy to think of my own improvement since I entered College and have no fear of any appearance when warmed by my subject. This was the first time that I have ever felt in the least carried away, I wished to be more so but was afraid of extravagance in action.
After this our Lyceum members made a party and went to Fresh Pond where we spent a very pleasant afternoon in bowling, we returned soon after tea time, missing Prayers. I made arrangements with Mr. Wyeth for Tuesday. The Lyceum Club, the regular Members met and went through the regular business of the term. I was elected President, Richardson Vice P. and Otis, Secretary. The same irregular Members were elected for this term. I then called upon Brenan and a few minutes on Dwight—and after settling some Club Accounts with Mr. Willard, I retired—having read my Chapters. XI:15.
1. See entry for 4 Feb., above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-12

Saturday. June. 12th. V:45.

Attended Prayers, read two Chapters in the Bible, looked over my lesson and went to recitation. I went to see the Newspapers but found nothing except the declaration of New Hampshire which makes it pretty decisive as to the opinion of the New England States, five of whom have determined the public opinion by a public manifestation.1 No Southern papers or Mail this morning. I then went home and wrote my Journal and read the second book of Cowper’s Task in which he { 182 } writes with that fullness of heart which will always make poetry good and where he inveighs so bitterly against the vices of the clergy. There is a fine tone of piety and feeling which makes this pleasing. This was all that I was able to do today as at eleven o’clock I rode into town with Sheafe. We went in very quick as the mare, Doty, was in good train.
Arrived at the Marlborough2 the first thing was to go to Mr. Rockford and be served there with a little haircutting which is the great reason I believe of the excess of blood in my head with which I am now afflicted. From here after walking about town a little, I went to Dr. Welsh’s and saw George, and for once found him at home. We had considerable conversation on politics and his appointment to deliver a fourth of July Oration at Quincy. For my own part on consideration of the subject, I do not think it will do him any injury and it may do him some good. I am afraid, he will be led to express opinions which may be used against him at some future time as this is now the practice in this country to call up all old opinions in order to convict a man of gross inconsistency in his course. But this will be avoided in considering his youth, and as he can write and speak well he may make a favourable impression upon an audience not most critical. The Quincy people would be all well inclined to him as they perhaps are proud of our family already. Perhaps it is all which would have brought their town’s name peculiarly into notice.
I also had a good deal of conversation with him concerning his misunderstanding with John, which will, I hope, soon be rectified. I dined with him and had some laugh with Miss Harriet about the family and Mrs. Adams &c. &c. I had the pleasure of eating Salmon for the first time this year and drinking some excellent Porter, after which I smoked a very good Cigar with him. We talked of those cousins of ours in whom I feel considerable interest, the one because I believe her no favourite with her own family, the other because she will be in so very unfortunate a situation unless well married which is very doubtful.
It is one of the worst consequences attending an unfortunate match that the family arising from it must partake in some measure of the sentiments of their parents and consequently are in danger of doing the same or worse. Thus it is with these and even worse as they see but little of the best company. Abigail has received a lesson this winter which will save her from a bad step and I hope the other will.
The Quincy Stage arrived and I was obliged to go in [seek?] of amusement. I rambled about until I found myself near Mr. Hilliard’s { 183 } store3 where I went in and looked over the books there, none of which I was in the least tempted to buy. The assortment does not appear to be a good one. Ever since Mr. Hilliard’s purchase the books have been very far inferior to what they have been before. Mr. Hall,4 it is said, has ruined the importation of valuable books because he has made bad ones so cheap. I then went to the Marlborough with Sheafe who had also dropped into the bookstore and after a little walk went to the billiard room to see Tudor whom we had agreed to bring to Cambridge. We found him here playing and as I had nothing else to do I sat myself down and began to read the Extravagant Burletta of Tom and Jerry5 which made so much noise in Boston last Winter. It is a ridiculous thing without wit but so well describing the humours of high and low life that it takes with the people astonishingly. All productions of this sort will run on the stage much longer than those much superior in point of merit for this has nothing to boast.
At half past six or seven we returned to Cambridge bringing out Tudor, we obtained tea however from Mrs. Saunders’. I spent the evening at Tudor’s and we drank a bottle of Porter. But I was so thoroughly worn out that I could not exert myself to quit even old Mclntire the shoe maker who came up on business with Tudor. He is a queer old put, very amusing generally from his attempts at elegance in language and his singular application of great words. I stayed at Tudor’s until ten o’clock which being my usual hour for retiring I went down stairs and read two Chapters according to custom and went to bed.
My day in Boston was spent on the whole in a manner much pleasanter than usual, George’s being visible for once and being quite agreable has afforded me much pleasure. I still had two or three weary hours and am but little tempted to renew my visit. Indeed I do not expect to go in again until late in the term. I refused to day to go and hear George which hurt him severely, I believe, I must change my mind.6 X:15.
1. JQA was the unanimous choice of New England for the Presidency. Calhoun received the section’s almost unanimous vote for Vice President (Bemis, JQA, 2:30).
2. Located at 11 Marlborough Place (Boston Directory, 1823).
3. Cummings & Hilliard & Co., book-sellers, at 1 Cornhill Street (same).
4. Presumably Lorenzo T. Hall, a printer at Second Street (same).
5. William Thomas Moncrieff, Tom and Jerry; or, Life in London.
6. Thus punctuated in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-13

Sunday. June 13th. VII:30.

My excessive fatigue of yesterday made me sleep until the break• { 184 } fast bell had announced the hour which makes the limit. I found scarcely any one at breakfast. Wheatland and Otis were the only ones who had been there. I spent the morning in a very lazy way. Cunningham came to Otis’s room and I dropped in, we talked for some time on general subjects and I liked him again. His manner injures him very much in the estimation of students, he appears so studied in all his movements, that he excites much displeasure and though desirous to have popularity he scarcely knows the way to gain it.
I had a little conversation with Otis on the subject of the Porcellian Club, after his visitor had gone. I have been anxious for some considerations to get into this society as it has long made me feel angry to have a number of men take any superiority over me on a point which they certainly have but little right to. I am conscious however that things change materially in the world and that I for one take a station as soon as I enter it which is equal in advantages to myself if not superior to any in the class. I find myself well supported by my own friends and therefore care but little as to the local prejudices which have kept me out.1
After some private talk, I attended Chapel to hear Dr. Ware as I did in the afternoon to the President, both exactly according to usual way. I was according to custom, very inattentive. I read the third book of Cowper’s Task and wrote my Journal, this employed me all day, rather lazily, to be sure but I am in the habit of spending a great deal too much time in the latter employment so that I make it a task and a loss of time instead of an improving lesson. My last three days it must be confessed have not been spent in the most edifying manner but I have allowed myself some indulgence for the first half of this term. My father has not chosen to give me anything for employment,2 he may crush my ambitious feelings by this but I have nothing to be accused of, warmly as I am acted upon by my desire of distinction and knowing so well that I am called upon particularly to act as becomes a member of a high family. I feel this responsibility and feel myself naturally able to bear it but how it may result I know not. I read my usual Chapters and part of the Introduction to Anacharsis which is a romantic account of the heroic ages of Greece.3 X:15.
1. Southern students, who went to Cambridge in increasing numbers during President Kirkland’s administration, gradually came to dominate the prestigious Porcellian Club. The club elected more Southern than Northern students in 1820, when JA2 became a member; in 1821 it chose half again as many Southerners as Northerners; in 1822 there were almost twice as many Southern initiates as Northern. Though the new members of 1823, who were sophomores in CFA’s class, included one more Northern than Southern student, { 185 } the club was still heavily weighted against the Northerners. In 1824 seven Southern sophomores and only two Northern ones were chosen. Later nine of CFA’s class, all Northerners, and CFA himself were invited to join, but CFA and his friends refused. Other Northern students then asked to resign but were refused permission, and later seven more Northerners were chosen to fill the vacant places. For CFA’s role in creating and leading a Northern party among the students, first to storm the Porcellian citadel and then to build up the Northern-oriented Society of the Order of the Knights of the Square Table, see entries for 24 and 25June, 23 July, and 3 Aug., below. See also Catalogue of the Honorary and Immediate Members of the Porcellian Club of Harvard University, Cambridge, 1831, Harvard Archives; Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 197–199.
2. In this reference and a later one (see entry for 11 Aug., below), CFA bemoaned the fact that his father was not encouraging and enriching his education by guiding his reading. Only after CFA returned home to Washington to read law and, later, was a student at Webster’s law office in Boston, did JQA become his son’s mentor.
3. The work referred to is doubtless the Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grèce, first published in Paris, 1779, in 7 volumes and an atlas volume. The anonymous author was Jean Jacques Barthélemy, a spokesman of the Enlightenment; his production, though cast in fictional form, with the sages and heroes of Greece taking speaking parts, contains a mass of geographical and archeological information that made it popular as a manual on Greek antiquities. There are two editions of the Voyage in the Stone Library: one in 9 volumes and an atlas, Deux Ponts, 1791; the other in 7 volumes, Paris, 1810. A 1790 edition of the work, published in Paris, is among JA’s books in the Boston Public Library, but the atlas is missing (Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 21).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-14

Monday. June 14th. V:30.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning, read my two Chapters as usual and the fourth book of Cowper, the feelings upon which I have described in my observations on the first part of the same book. I attended a lecture also from Mr. Channing. He went on to examine the subject of eloquence. He said that it did not consist of perfection in any particular quality but in a union of all in such a way as to produce sensations purely pleasing. I do not know what the reason was but my thoughts wandered here and I did not gather all that I ought to have done, he did not appear however to progress much, as he is very general in his language. The style is a pretty one, he is neat and even elegant at times, but there is not much mind displayed and what I am surprised to see, not much classical feeling. The truth I imagine is that this is a quality he is not in possession of. Dr. Ware had a review of the class in Paley instead of the Greek recitation which is now a morning exercise. I did not attend the evidences though for I intend to trust altogether to Providence in my examination.
In the afternoon I read a little of Mitford containing the history of Lacaedemon, of the Institutions of Lycurgus and of the Messenian War. It gives us an astonishing instance of a government which never has since and probably never will again see its equal. The people be• { 186 } came a remarkable one and is an astonishing record of the most persevering and successful victories over the weaknesses and passions of nature. I attended a recitation also in Mathematics in which I was called upon and much to my surprise, passed off quite successfully. I had a little conversation with Mr. Farrar concerning this subject and made an arrangement to study a plainer treatise in case one was necessary. He is a remarkably obliging man and really appears to be more desirous to do good to the constitution of the College by affording the students real instruction, than any one of the rest. I then went to Cunningham’s and had some conversation with him on the subject of his quarrel with Dwight; it is a disagreable circumstance which really I wished over and have made a half day’s exertion but it is too stubborn.
In the Evening, I had intended to have done something but Brenan, Rundlet and others came in so that it was impossible and I was obliged to entertain my good companions with Northern and Southern [pacts?] and the [numerous?] rebellion.1 After the Bible I retired. X:10.
1. This semilegible passage apparently alludes to the sectional rivalry in the Porcellian Club; see note on preceding entry.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-15

Tuesday. June 15th. VI.

Attended Prayers but as usual had no recitation this Morning. I read my Chapters in the Bible and wrote a Theme this Morning on Spring Vacation, quite a pleasant subject. At nine o’clock we were called in to the usual annual examination. This being our third and last but one.1 Few attended, Dr. Porter and Dr. Fiske2 I believe were the only two. Our examination commenced with Enfield and I was taken up among the first on a part which I had not seen. I managed by keeping the book open to read it off and passed decently. We next came to Tacitus in which I was taken up first and came off moderately well. Next came Metaphysics which I most dreaded, the class recited wretchedly until dinner time which suspended my fate. I was however not so badly off as I expected although I have not much to boast as to the goodness of the recitation. Dr. Ware examined us next in Paley and called upon me first by which I was able to recite very decently well. Still I owe part of it to my class mate Ames3 who was sitting behind. The old mole Allen has not the quickness of a tortoise and though desirous, he is ill timed. I am very sorry for the first of these young men, it is matter of great regret that his finances will not suffer him { 187 } to take the situation in his class which both his feelings and his character require. He is a gentleman and an honourable fellow and is more respected among the upper class of young men than any one I know. He is one of the very few in the class who are not directly in our society, whom I like. Professor Willard then examined his four scholars in Hebrew to the amusement of all the rest of the class after which Dr. Popkin closed with Homer which I passed quite well. On the whole, the examination was a decent one, it was not creditable as it showed that the studies had been very poorly conducted. Our good scholars did not do half as much credit to themselves as usual and our bad ones were in character. For my own part I performed my duty decently and that was all. Comparing it with that of the last year it is rather better as I did not go through without a dead set4 in Blair.5 This was given me by the malignity of Mr. Channing who asked me questions which few could have answered. If this was bad, I recited well in Logic, and in Greek, so that perhaps taking the two I was very much as usual in this one. We had no speech and were dismissed at about half past six o’clock.
After Prayers and tea, we as usual with us on the evening of Examination went to Fresh Pond to a Supper. Our party was composed this time, of Richardson, Rundlet, Sheafe, Brenan, Lothrop and myself. Of these the three first and I went up immediately and spent the Evening, bowling by candlelight. Richardson and I beat the other two. This is quite good amusement, and much more interesting than I used to think. It is not equal to billiards though which I think is the most delightful of all mere amusements. At half past nine o’clock the rest of the party had joined us and we sat down to a supper quite as handsome as I wished. It was much superior in quality to the last one and looked really fit for any person to sit down to. I know not what was the reason however but my appetite was not good and I was not able to eat at all to my satisfaction. As I was fixed upon a sober time, I determined to be prudent, influenced partly by the feelings which I saw excited at home, as our members expected to have a crow over us and partly as I saw Brenan was fixed upon the same. And I was not going to expose myself before him unless it was the same on his part with me. My feelings warned me in time and I refused all drinking after this. The conduct of Rundlet and us two influenced materially the joviality of the table and, although very near intoxication, the other three managed to pass off with only muddled brains. I recollected so well the effects of the excessive debauch of last year that I rejoiced much at the course of this. After many a song and poor toast { 188 } we arose and having paid his bill of thirteen dollars we returned home.
The walk was an exceedingly pleasant one. Lothrop and Rundlet were very amusing and although Brenan was too prudent as he was fearful of a discovery, which I thought was not risked in the least, we came home pleasantly, and all retired in very good humour. Rundlet stayed at Sheafe’s. On the whole I rejoiced very much to find this had been a rational supper, which among young men is but too seldom the case. Although some of our party were considerably exhilarated none of them were in such a state as to be unable to take care of themselves. This evening for the first time, I was compelled to neglect reading my Bible but there being no light in the house I retired without. II:30.
1. By college rule juniors at Harvard were examined on the second Tuesday of the third term (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823, p. 16).
2. Eliphalet Porter, Harvard 1777, a Fellow and Overseer of the college, and Thaddeus Fiske, Harvard 1785, another Overseer (Harvard Quinquennial Cat.; Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
3. Seth Ames, of Dedham (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
4. “A complete failure in a recitation” (Dict. of Americanisms).
5. Hugh Blair, Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. JQA’s two sets of the work, published in London in 1793 and in 1796, each in 3 vols., are in the Stone Library. Another copy, also in 3 vols., published in 1789 in Basel, is among JA’s books in the Boston Public Library (Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 29).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-16

Wednesday. June 16th. VIII.

Missed Prayers. At study bell I attended a lecture of Mr. Channings. His subject today he divided into three heads, Demonstrative, deliberative and judicial oratory. He treated today of the first of these, he considered it as the least important of the three as it was used only on occasions of meetings for the purpose of hearing, and not on occasions involving the interest of any portion of individuals. Funeral orations, panegyrics, Orations on annual festivals such as the fourth of July and others. This style of speaking was suited therefore only for holiday occasions. He closed this lecture and this part of his subject with a few observations concerning the requisites for this, of which he mentioned the accurate delineation of character as the most important, that it was not sufficient to speak merely of his qualities as general, such as that he was brave or generous, for this he has in common with thousands, and although some people might prefer a bombastic sounding expression of some common qualities, it exhibited bad taste and showed that they only who had no discernment would do this. Other men would give value to the exact description of some remarkable peculiarity, some feeling for which he was remarkable { 189 } only to these immediately.1 On a judicious selection of these he said depended the principal [...,]2 the force of an Oration of the demonstrative kind. This was a pretty good lecture.
I did absolutely nothing this Morning from a sort of listlessness always following a blow, although I had no headache or sick feeling much to my satisfaction and our good companions lost their expected satisfaction. I regret that I saw this for really I do not wish to think ill of more fellows than I can help. These I have a good opinion of at present and wish to continue. Had Otis possessed one quality more I could have liked him. Had Richardson been in good society he would have made a better companion. Wheatland knew no politeness. Thus it is, I am necessarily debarred by a consciousness of their faults from the intimacy of many whom I have wished to respect. I attended Dr. Popkin at eleven o’clock and recited without having looked at the lesson. This Greek Testament is boy’s play. After it I read the two books of Cowper’s Task which finish it. I did not neglect reading it yesterday but it was done in the examination room and so lazily that I thought it proper to go over it again. I have no remarks further to make on this subject.
After dinner I read a very little in Mitford’s Greece which I shall not notice at present. At two o’clock, I attended a lecture from Mr. Nuttall the Curator of the gardens on Botany,3 a course which I wish to attend as by this I shall ensure regularity and order, to my study of it. To accommodate the Senior members he began his course with the more important parts of his flower, in this way making it quite puzzling to those who have not been over the terms. I have studied them and found but little difficulty in understanding him. He treated today of the calyx or flower cup, its different forms and illustrated them by different flowers. He appears to be an agreable man, and quite easy in his manner. He certainly appears desirous of giving some instruction in this branch, and as it is a pleasing one, I am delighted at having this opportunity of cultivating it. This first lecture was sufficiently simple.
I then returned home and wrote my journal for Monday as I had no opportunity for this purpose yesterday. We then went to Mr. Farrar, Otis, Sheafe, Percy4 and I were all the class. He employed all the time in explaining to us the day’s lesson and by dint of perseverance made us or at least Otis and myself understand it. As to Percy he never will understand anything. Sheafe did not take the trouble. We returned home, for me to laze away my time as I have been during this term, but I do not know why, my hope is that a letter from my father will { 190 } encourage me to continue my studies. I went to the Athenaeum and spent half an hour reading there and then went to Prayers. After which I took a walk with Sheafe and Richardson crossing the Cham, the romantic name of a very pretty stream which winds along here.
Returning, I spent the evening at Tudor’s, reading with him the trip to Paris of Mathews5 in ridiculous style. This, to be sure is a very foolish way of spending my time and really I begin to be very much ashamed of myself. My Mitford has for the last few days been deplorably neglected and I altogether reject all time because there appears so little of it.6 Indeed I have decided I think that the two first years are far the best for reading. When I came down, I tried to read Enfield over but could not, it appeared so unusual to get a lesson, I did not know what to make of it. I read my Chapters in the Bible all and finished the book of Genesis. It is a book I will not criticize although perhaps I ought to. X.
1. Thus in MS.
2. Word omitted in MS.
3. Thomas Nuttall (1786–1859), the noted botanist and ornithologist, who in 1822 became curator of the Botanical Garden at Harvard (DAB).
4. Robert Dow Percy, of St. Francisville, La., a junior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
5. Possibly Henry Matthews, The Diary of an Invalid; being the Journal of a Tour ... in Portugal, Italy, Switzerland and France in the Years 1817–1819, London, 1820.
6. Thus in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-17

Thursday. June 17th. VII:30.

I missed Prayers and recitation this morning as I had not got my lesson and was very sleepy. On getting up, found myself afflicted with a very heavy cold which I had caught on Tuesday night by sitting down at the door after our return. I was somewhat troubled this Morning about my Forensic for which I had made no preparation from some cause or other. Just as I was in the middle of my quandary, Cunningham brought the agreable news of there being none this morning. I was rejoiced at this as it gave me an opportunity to write up my journal in the course of the Morning. I also read Cowpers Tirocinium or Review of Schools. It is a very severe satire upon the present system of large Schools but it gives none in return which is not open to greater objection.
In matter of instruction, I think there can be no doubt, but what private life is the best and also that the morals of a child may be injured by a public education but then there can be as little doubt that a bookish man, a mere student, will never pass off in the world. He can not succeed who is not plentifully supplied with that fashion• { 191 } able quality called brass. He also loses the society of people of his own age and class and all that polish of manner which is acquired only in associating with persons of proper rank. I know well from experience that this is injurious to a high degree to a man. He should take care who has children that while students and acquiring knowledge, they should know the ways of the world and be able to meet every man on his own ground. As to the seduction in a common school, a boy of a moderately strong mind with good principles early inculcated and narrowly observed without his knowledge will pass through the ordeal without material injury and with the good of experience. I am now in the midst of my trial and will know the success of my doctrine by my own case. If not a respectable man at least, it will not be owing to education but to a taste naturally perverted. Cowper was an instance of fear of the world carried to a most extreme height, such perhaps as brings no confirmation to his doctrine. Thus my Morning went and I felt somewhat lighter in spirits as this burden was heavy. Chapman and Dwight were driven in by stress of weather and sat with me until dinner time. I have not seen the latter privately for a great while and wish to speak with him on the subject of Cunningham as I really am anxious to make that matter up.
After dinner I went down to Porter’s Hall,1 understanding that they were going to select Officers from my Class for the next year. There has been much talk of a great competition for it but there was none. North,2 his great rival, has left College and Cunningham was elected unanimously. I was much pleased as this gives the decided triumph to the Northern party in our class, which has so long been in a struggling state. We have had many good men from the South and two or three braggarts for whom the whole suffered. Cunningham declined under the present restrictions, and stated, that unless the government changed their vote concerning the music he should decide against having any thing to do with the matter. As no body else would do any more and the company were not inclined to choose any one else, the company was adjourned until Tuesday when the Officers would report the success of a petition to the Government.3
I employed the afternoon in reading one Chapter of Mitford on the History of Athens, Institutions of Solon, the changes of their government—the Colonies from Greece, the institutions of Archons, Medon being the first, the gradual change to an absolute democracy, the characters of Solon and Peisistratus, the nine archons, the chief, the king, the polemarch, and thesmothetae. The Areiopagus. An absolute democracy appears to me to be no better than decided anarchy, and { 192 } Athens from it’s commencement turned to this sort of government. Lacedaemon appears almost always to have been the most powerful as I think it is the most perfect on record. The Athenians by calling them in to their assistance in the time of Hippias which I am now reading. The books of Homer were first collected at this time or in that of Peisistratus immediately preceding and were set in order as they now are.
I went to recitation in Greek Testament to Dr. Popkin at four o’clock, spent half an hour at the Athenaeum, attended Prayers, and after tea, took a walk with Richardson and Tudor. Upon our return, we went to Tudor’s where we spent the evening. Barnwell4 of his class was there and conversed until half past ten o’clock when I came down to look at my lesson. I did not however examine this trusting to an early hour tomorrow morning. I then read over my Chapters of the Bible as usual and retired to bed having spent my day more usefully than common. XI.
1. There appear to have been two Porter’s Taverns in Cambridge at about this period, one on the Cambridge side of the Charles, near the present Anderson Bridge (Batchelder, Bits of Harvard History, p. 67), the other at Porter Square, in North Cambridge (The Harvard Book, Cambridge, 1875, 2:357).
2. John G. North, of Charleston, S.C., a junior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
3. The sectional rivalry at Harvard which embittered club affairs (see entry for 13 June, and note, above) also affected class politics. The juniors were now electing a captain for one of the companies of the celebrated Harvard Washington Corps. This marching society, organized in 1811 and remodeled in 1822, consisted of four companies, totaling one hundred and twenty men. At its head was a lieutenant colonel. Its grand function was to parade in uniform on the afternoon of Exhibition days (see entry for 29 June, below).
To keep down expenses and to tighten college discipline, a faculty committee, consisting of Professors Otis and Channing, had been appointed on 29 April to consider the future of the military order. On 10 May they recommended that the group be continued, but that in the future it should not hold an encampment, should not be allowed more than six musicians, including fife and drum, and should not be served refreshments after Exhibition day parades. The proposed rules were very distasteful to members of the corps, who enjoyed martial music as well as the traditional gay dinner which capped their public performances. Nevertheless, the faculty approved the new rules on 21 June, with the concession (made, perhaps, as a result of the petition CFA mentioned) that ten musicians, drum and fife included, were to be allowed on great occasions. See Records of the College Faculty, 10:65, 66, 69, Harvard Archives; Batchelder, Bits of Harvard History, p. 65 ff., for a full history of the corps; Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 214–215.
4. William Barnwell, of Beaufort, S.C., a senior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-18

Friday. June 18th. V.

Arose and having read my Enfield over attended Prayers and recitation. I then read Cowper’s Table Talk, which I did not feel at all struck with, some satire in it but he has treated it so much better in { 193 } other parts of his works that this seems to be only the outline of the more perfect picture. He is satirical to a great degree and although more pious than I wish him to be as he inveighs against the theatre, billiards, cards, which I take to be perfectly innocent amusements when not used for any sinister purposes.
I then wrote my journal and at ten o’clock was ready to attend Mr. Channing’s Lecture which was today upon deliberative Oratory or that sort of Eloquence adapted to Assemblies by which he meant a number of Individuals meeting together to consult upon the interests of any number or some national concern. He passed over the Areiopagus and Amphictyonic Council without notice, referred to the Council of Five Hundred and to the favourable opportunity for display of this sort at Athens in the time of Demosthenes. He then spoke of the Romans, their prevailing passion, ambition and this the reason that Eloquence did not flourish till in the decline of the State. He then gave us an account of the opportunity for this kind of speaking in the Senate of Rome and referred to the state of subjection an Orator was in to the people even when he governed them most. He then descanted upon the nature of a popular government and in fact employed half of it in nothing whatsoever to do directly with the subject but a mere essay on government. I was quite dissatisfied with him I must confess.
Coming home I read Mitford’s sixth Chapter in the course of the Morning. It treated of Asia, the kingdom of the Medes and Persians, of Cyrus, Cambyses and Darius and the circumstances which led to the connection between the two people. In fact there is not much in this part which cannot easily be remembered without notes. It is mere history and although the Author sometimes reflects, his observations are always short and simple but almost always somewhat striking. I then finished the first part of the Introduction to Anacharsis. I am not so well pleased reading over this a second time as history because the author deviates into the romantic too often. He intended it probably as a popular work among a large class of the light readers who would like history very well when garnished up with a good deal of imagination and when the fabulous ages particularly can be treated as the author chooses.
I read also almost the whole of the life of Lycurgus in Plutarch and was much pleased with it. I am somewhat of an admirer of his system although he excludes knowledge from his community. He was a remarkable man and performed an astonishing work, he made a very great change by small means and was pure certainly so far as temporal { 194 } desires went. He was ambitious but not of being a sovereign. One of the strongest marks of his sense was I think, not to permit any of his laws to be put down in writing but to take the general sense of the people. As corruption advances, people always become more attached to the letter than to the spirit of the laws and an evasion of the former saves a man even though he shall have done the criminal action. By destroying all opportunity he destroyed all desire.
There are but few actions which can be considered as natural crimes in my mind, perhaps murder is the only one, all others are formed by convention. Theft and adultery were not known as such in Sparta, they were allowed and formed no disgrace to the code. The fact is that we do not think of laws except by the custom of the country and I for my part believe that there are in a savage state no such things as crimes, except murder and rape, which is violating the natural freedom of every individual. That in society other laws are necessary, I grant, and also that they should have the force and consideration of natural laws, I allow also. I was not able to finish this Life before Declamation which I attended and heard Brown1 and Cunningham speak very well.
Immediately after this I attended Mr. Nuttall’s Lecture which was upon the Corrolla of Flowers. He mentioned their different sorts and illustrated them by Examples. He has a very simple and easy way of lecturing which I am much pleased with. I was pretty well acquainted with this part of the subject before.
After his lecture I went and obtained a Chaise and we drove (Sheafe and I) to Lexington. We were caught in a slight shower of rain but luckily it passed off and the weather and scenery were delightful. I went to be patriotic and see the monument of those who fell in the first battle in the revolutionary war in this country. I copied the inscription and shall insert it in my Common Place Book although it does no credit to the Author, I could have done better myself.2 We returned to tea and in the Evening, I attended a meeting of the Knights at Wheelwrights.3 The Porcellians met but decided upon nothing, they all looked blown. XI.
1. William K. Brown, of Boston, a junior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
2. CFA did insert the long inscription in his Literary Commonplace Book (M/CFA/18), p. 290 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 312).
3. William Wilson Wheelwright, of Boston, a senior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-19

Saturday June 19th. VII.

I missed Prayers and recitations this morning unintentionally how• { 195 } ever as I had intended to have been up at all events, my number of misses not being small already. I have failed egregiously in my intention not to miss another recitation until Quarter day.1 I received a letter this morning from my father on the subject which I have written so peremptorily to him. I felt rather fearful before opening it and let it remain on my table until my last morning duty was performed before opening. It was very mild, but at the same time informing me gently that he had a smaller opinion of my prudence than I held, that he had considered my proposition and had some inclination to agree to it but that he wished me to transmit an account of my debts to him in the first place that he might arrange them before he began upon a thorough agreement. I have the satisfaction now to announce to him my freedom except from that at Hilliard’s which I have no reason to be ashamed. I will pursue this new system if he gives me an opportunity although I shall be compelled to retrench my style of living considerably. The change will be a beneficial one to me as it will teach economy, a quality which I only want because I am allowed to run on. I take no care of the matter for whatever I do creates no responsibility on my part whatever. I read over the letter attentively twice, it was short and simple, and determined to answer it fully tomorrow.2
In the mean time I read Cowper’s Poem on Conversation and two or three occasional ones. I might by him be styled one of the impious but I cannot help thinking that few minds have that happy medium which he speaks of, and that it is but too natural for the world to degenerate into bigotry and fanaticism when once their minds have been acted upon by religion, with most people I might call it superstition. I have had but little experience in religious matters, but I do think that I have seen certainly as bad if not worse feelings cherished under the cloak of sanctity than in the reckless character of vice. Not that I would support either but the base hypocrite is far more disgusting to a young man than the criminal. Herein, old people say, lies the danger but for my part I hope I know it well on both sides.
I engaged some days since to go over with Tudor and spend the day at Savin Hill3 which I accordingly did, we went from here at about half past ten and arrived there in a little less than an hour, the day was exceedingly warm and the billiard room to which we immediately repaired was a perfect oven being built of thin wood without plastering, the sun came directly through and made it quite unpleasant. I have not touched a cue before for a year and a half with the exception of a few moments at Nahant, last fall vacation, so that it was not surprising that I played very poorly before dinner while Tudor played { 196 } as well, after dinner I improved and reduced his difference to me materially. It is a very amusing and fascinating game, when one just commences playing well but perfection in it I should think would soon generate dislike. I felt but little interested today for the cues were very poor and the table is hardly worth much, so little care has been taken of it. It used to be quite good when at Neponset4 where I have often played on it with my brother. We dined here and smoked, drank and played all the afternoon. As I improved I took more interest in the game but I was not on the whole very sorry when it became time to return. I was surprised to see the quantity of company here this afternoon all the bowling allies being full, nobody disturbed us however. As “we had only come for a week” to use Tudor’s expression, we paid no immoderate bill although not a small one and at half past seven o’clock we returned home.
I seldom have felt more fatigued than this evening from the continued and unusual exercise of walking round the table. Although this was the case, at ten o’clock Tudor and I went and took Supper at Mr. Willard’s establishment. I was hungry and partook considerably although I was headachish, dreadfully tired and indeed never felt more generally distressed than to night. Returning home, I read my Chapters and sat down a few moments cogitating upon my father’s letter. I found myself nodding so often however that I determined upon going to bed directly. I paid for this however as I had two hours of feverish dozing and was troubled in the night with a horrible dream. XI.
1. The last Friday in June, the day Harvard students’ bills were due (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823, p. 16).
2. CFA had repeatedly asked his father for a monthly allowance, to be paid to him directly and not through his uncle, TBA. JQA thought the sum he requested was more than he could afford or CFA should require. The proposed allowance was, he said, at least double JQA’s own college expenses and half again as much as GWA or JA2 had been given. But before making a final decision, he asked CFA for an account of his expenses, particularly of his debts (JQA to CFA, 12 June 1824, Adams Papers).
3. In Dorchester, three miles from Boston City Hall (Bacon’s Dict. of Boston, p. 132–133). Savin Hill is still a stop on the Dorchester-Cambridge subway.
4. Present Neponset Circle, near the Boston-Quincy boundary line.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-20

Sunday June 20th. IX.

My excessive fatigue and uncomfortable night made me delay my time of rising until very late which made me miss Prayers, a most remarkable number of which I have neglected this last week. Indeed dissipation of any sort has become exceedingly irksome to me as I always feel more contented staying here and doing what I know to be { 197 } my duty. Was not the time of Tudor’s residence here so short and my amusement to stop immediately upon his going away I certainly would not feel desirous of any thing of the sort. I do not wish any more the society of students. My feelings are in a singular state. I feel alienated from all my friends and in their society my nerves are continually jarred. I am again disgusted with the boorish temper of Richardson, with the meanness of Otis, with the narrow mindedness of Wheatland, the obstinacy of Dwight, the rough pawing of Tudor and the nonentity, to use such an expression. It is well for me that I keep such a book as this to vent my angry feelings and not to show dislike except to one. They all have redeeming qualities to counterbalance their peculiar faults except the infinite foolishness of this one who has not even the good temper which I once gave him credit for. Enough of this subject. It is grating to think that I never could continue esteem to any particular individual after I had seen a certain quantity of him. Tudor, I like most because to me he exhibits none of that which makes him appear badly in his conduct to others. I have repulsed even such advances in intimacy as would make me too familiar with any person. I think it the only way to keep respect from others, and good will to companions. A man will not be so much liked but he is raised by tacit consent and always spoken of in terms of respect in like or dislike. There is a good stanza in Cowper on this subject which is too long to quote however, and I know it sufficiently well without.1
I spent this Morning in writing an answer2 to my father’s letter of yesterday which took me considerable time. I stated to him an accurate list of expenses here and informed him that I could not reduce my demands a bit at present. In case I found that more money was on my hands [than] I expected, I would return the sum whatever it was or count it as in my hands for which my honour was responsible. I wish for this as a trial. I wished for the Knight Accounts3 as one and I thank Heaven I am able here to say that I have acted the part of a good Steward.
Dr. Ware preached in the Morning which was rainy and unpleasant, Mr. Jenks4 in the afternoon, his Sermon was highly metaphysical in it’s Commencement, and rather too demonstrative, by this I mean mathematically so, in its close. It was too much of an attempt ending I am sorry to say in a failure. I regret it because I respect the man as being one of my schoolmasters whom I thought well of and almost the only one. He implanted or strengthened in me an early taste for reading by a simple method which I should always recommend to a good schoolmaster. After having got my lesson, he used { 198 } to permit me to read a Plutarch which he kept on purpose in the school and gave it to me as a mark of distinction and scholarship in this way exciting me by every motive which can act upon a boy to gain instruction. I believe it is to this I owe my clear ideas on the subject of history.
I also finished the tenth and last volume of Aikins British Poets today by reading Beattie5 who closes the collection. I have been now three months and five days in it in which I have taken but two holidays and those unavoidably. Of this regularity I have reason to feel proud [since] it ensures to me that method which is of such great importance in future life. Perhaps I have not adhered to my resolution of noticing critically every author but I found it more than I could do upon a first reading which was the case with many of them, at least to give a good one, so that I thought it much better to give a good one at some future time when I could discover all or most of the beauties which have escaped. My comparison in Cowper has made me ashamed as I find that I have not got so much taste as I thought, and also that I have been somewhat negligent in the second perusal as I found out but half the beauties which I observed the first time.
I spent a little while in the Evening with Otis but my day had been so much employed that it was not until late that I could close my Journal. If I only had a little more of my time at my own disposal and less at that of the governors of the institution I should be more willing to remain here. I am however pretty well satisfied even now. At half past nine I read my Chapters which continued this Evening the song of Moses on the overthrow of Pharaoh. I then spent a little while in looking over my Enfield which has become rather toilsome and disgusting now however and went to bed noting also that I resisted an invitation of Tudor’s. X.
1. Doubtless CFA referred to the lines in William Cowper’s “Friendship”:

“The man that hails you Tom or Jack,

And proves by thumps upon your back

How he esteems your merit,

Is such a friend, that one had need

Be very much his friend indeed

To pardon or to bear it.”

2. Missing.
3. CFA was the self-appointed treasurer of both the Society of the Knights of the Order of the Square Table and the Lyceum Club. See entry for 7 June, above.
4. Francis Jenks, Harvard 1817, a former usher at the Boston Latin School, who was at the Divinity School in 1824 (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823; Materials for a Catalogue of the Masters . . . Who Have Belonged to the Public Latin School . . . , Boston, 1847, p. 4).
5. James Beattie (1735–1803).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-21

Monday. June 21st. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Enfield this Morning reading { 199 } my Chapters in the recess. At study bell, I attended Mr. Channing’s Lecture which was today on the subject of modern deliberative oratory in general. He took a view of the different ages, he compared the advantages of the one with those of the other. The modern deliberative Orator he said did not address himself to any but those few who were members of the same assembly with himself. His duty was to act upon them and no one else, he should mind neither the persons on the floor nor in the gallery but merely the ones immediately interested in the business. And to them he was to speak only with arguments founded on the strongest reasoning, he was to affect their heads and not their hearts. On this account modern eloquence had been styled cold, and perhaps it might be so, but it was the more noble, it was an appeal to the understanding and also to the feelings not merely to excite the violent passions. He said the difference between a lawyer and an Orator was that the former was bound to defend his client to the utmost and never to yield the argument, the latter came to the Assembly prepared to be influenced by the strongest reasoning which he heard whether in support or against a measure.
It had been said he was aware by some that this was all fudge, that in a state agitated by violent party spirit a vote was given always on the principles of the side, that an opposition voted against many measures of the minority even when they had no reason but that they originated so. He was inclined to think however that this was not entirely so, and that there always existed a certain portion who were influenced by the force of argument. The Lecture on the whole, was quite a good one and I was much pleased, at the same time convinced that he knew very little indeed concerning ancient affairs of any sorts and was willing to slide over them as gently as possible.
I from thence went to the Athenaeum where I found no news of any importance. I came home, wrote my Journal and attended a recitation to Dr. Popkin in which I was taken up first and being suddenly called upon when I had not previously read the passage, I made a singular mistake which evidently manifested my neglect of the lesson. They are of a nature however not to profit me in reading over as a Concordance with a Testament will serve when I wish to prosecute the study at some future time when my doubts shall have taken some broader head than they have at present for at this time, this could do me no good.
After dinner I studied Botany and dissected flowers until two o’clock but was not successful in any of my trials. I advanced so far last year that now I see nothing to do although I am very conscious { 200 } that something is wanting, principally a knowledge of the terms and leaves. At two o’clock I attended Mr. Nuttall as usual, he lectured to day upon the stamens, a principal and important part of the flower. He illustrated the various classes by examples beginning with Monandria and going through the whole sexual system of Linnaeus. He is so simple that it is impossible to give any thing of an abstract of his lectures. He is also so illustrative that I could do nothing but write all the flowers which would take too much time.
Returning home, I immediately prepared to visit Mr. Farrar. Otis and myself went from our house today, Sheafe returning into the section. We spent half an hour pleasantly enough and derived at least for my part some instruction. He gave me another system to look over at my leisure. After this recitation, I came home and read the seventh Chapter of Mitford which closes the first volume. It continued the history of the rise of the connection between the Persians and the Greeks, the affairs of Persia, the history of Histiaeus and closed with an account of the failure of the first expedition of Darius under Datis and Artaphernes, the victory of Marathon and the death of Miltiades, a circumstance much to be regretted as it shows that the people can easily be made a tool by the designing even against their greatest benefactors. I am afraid that all history will prove this.
I attended Prayers after which, I took a walk with Otis conversing much as usual. After which I employed my Evening in reading the life of Solon in Plutarch which gives an account of the age and the wise men so famous in it. There appear to be many more than seven aspirants however as I counted over ten in this and in Anacharsis where I read a portion of what the author calls the age of the laws. He divides the history into three ages as he calls them; this is the first, that of Themistocles and Aristides is the second, and that of Pericles the third, these two he calls the ages of glory and of luxury. I finished this evening the account of the laws of Solon which are generally well adapted to the people. The author however makes some observation concerning the laws and government which I would desire to reconsider before assenting to them. Thus the Evening passed away much to my satisfaction and I retired with pleasure at the consideration of every duty fulfilled. X.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-22

Tuesday. June 22d. VI:5.

Missed Prayers as I did not awake early enough by about one { 201 } minute. I read my Bible and looked over my lesson and attended recitation, did not recite very much to my credit however. After breakfast I spent an hour at the reading room, then came up and wrote my Journal, attended recitation in Greek Testament also, doing nothing else.
There was much discussion concerning the election of officers this afternoon as the ticket which would have been carried was questioned today. After dinner it was decided. Cunningham was again elected Captain by a unanimous vote, Cenas1 was elected First Lieutenant, with strong opposition on my part however and those whom I could influence. I suspect the vote was a very close one between him and Lothrop. I have a great hatred to the man as he took it into his head to injure me most unreasonably in a variety of ways. I never saw any cause for this treatment of me, and feeling myself far too independent to be made a butt of, I threw up all acquaintance but have never until since the last Meeting of the Medical Faculty,2 tried to injure him; after that difficulty, I thought no further measures ought to be kept. I expressed myself strongly against him this afternoon and tried but did not succeed. I must allow at the same time that he was not unreasonably exalted. As our class is so little provided with men, it is not whom we will but whom we can get. He was not very cordially received.
The next choice was for Second Lieutenant which was obtained by Chapman, a most singular circumstance as it was unexpected. This vote was also pretty close as Lothrop and Otis were his competitors. I voted for him, as I thought without any prospect of success, but such was the result. He was very well received. The last vote for Ensign was the hardest of all. I voted Howard who obtained it by a very small majority, three votes, I believe. He was strongly opposed by the dependent part of our class on the ground of his being a fool, who on the other side advocated Miller who is said to be a scoundrel. The first was preferred to the last, and the malicious part of the class were disappointed. I went for Howard who was at his room, he appeared singularly affected at the news, frightened and at the same time much pleased. He could even under all his regrets, scarcely conceal his satisfaction. Livermore3 was elected Clerk during my absence. Thus closed the election with a result rather unexpected by almost every one. It was satisfactory generally, the only objection to Chapman being in his size and figure, this is not faulty enough however to excite much difficulty.
We returned home and I sat down and read over my afternoon { 202 } lesson, went in and recited or rather went over it with Mr. Farrar as usual, the time being over we returned, I, for my part, getting off very well. I had expected to have been able to read somewhat this afternoon but it was impossible. Cunningham and Chapman came over to see Otis and press him to the acceptance of the place of second Commandant in the Company which he as positively declined. Chapman then came to my room and we talked some time and drank some of my remaining bottle of wine and smoked. Cunningham then came in and finally Lothrop.
The Captain then disclosed to me his message which was the offer of the same place just offered to Otis. I had supposed something of this kind might happen in one of these Offices and had therefore considered the matter and decided that I would refuse it. My reasons I think were strong. In the first place my figure is not fit for it, it was a second offer, my unpopularity, and the excessive trouble besides the expense. These I stated, all but the last, which was in fact the least consideration. They appeared so woebegone though at this result and were so despairing that I was much influenced, every eligible person had declined, and there was not much expectation of continuing the company unless Otis or I accepted. It was an appeal to my generosity as these Officers would lose their satisfaction and their money which is not inconsiderable in amount. I thought also that soon I should like the exercise and that it would promote the good will to me which is much wanting at present, it would set me at least on the par with Otis, who has very much hurt his popularity by this step, and I should no longer feel this galling superiority of a really inferior fellow (without vanity). I have seldom had so much doubt in a step of this kind. We sat till Prayers and after tea I gave my decision in favour of accepting it and so it is. I think, I have acted right.
In the evening after the Lyceum had dispersed from my room where they had collected to smoke and drink wine, I had just sat down to read Anacharsis comfortably for the rest of the Evening when I was called to a Meeting of the Officers concerning the selection of guides. We came to no decision however. Lothrop, Rundlet and J. Otis fill the places of the other Commandants. After some conversation and a number appointed and declined, we adjourned and I returned to my room where I read my Bible and lesson and retired. X:10.
1. Hilary Breton Cenas, of New Orleans, a junior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
2. “The Med. Fac., organized about 1818, was a roaring burlesque upon learned bodies in general and the College government in particular. It had regular meetings, at which a pseudo-professor delivered a fake medical lecture; neophytes were given elaborate fake di• { 203 } plomas; and every few years a fake Latin triennial catalogue was issued.” Although suppressed several times, the group survived until 1905. See Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 205–206.
3. Charles Livermore, of Paxton, Mass., a junior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-23

Wednesday. June 23d. VI.

Attended Prayers, read my lesson over, and my Bible, lastly went to recitation. We this morning had a lecture from Professor Channing on judicial Oratory. He treated of the style of eloquence at the bar and appeared very much to favour this part of his subject. He said that although it was generally thought that law argument was merely confined to the judicious selection of good cases, and the accuracy of the reasoning in the exact case in point, it admitted in fact of eloquence of as high a nature as any although peculiar. He then went into an explanation of the nature of law courts. He said that it had been customary to abuse the profession for the unworthiness of some of it’s members; that people were surprised at so much trouble in collecting the cases apt for a very simple decision. That it was not so much for the giving justice as for establishing a general rule to act upon in all cases in future. In this way, he said the argument merely of the law was sufficiently dry but a person might take advantage of many things, the peculiar situation of his client, the nature of the case, the feelings of the audience. He can dexterously act upon the judges without appearing to, he can prejudice all in his favour, in short he has by far the most extensive field to act upon in the world.
After this exercise, I wrote my journal and attended a recitation to Dr. Popkin in Greek Testament. I read a chapter in Mitford, including the history of the expedition of Xerxes, Leonidas and the battle of Thermopylae, Themistocles, Aristides and the battle of Salamis. This history is the most astonishing of all in the record of mankind, and shows the power and influence of one man over many, how surprising the concentrated exertions of a small people can be even against the greatest force. The character of Themistocles was one exactly adapted to his time, he was one of those lucky spirits who fall in the very situation in which their natural talents can be fully developed. Perhaps at any other time, or had he not been justified by success, he would have been called foolishly rash. But adventurous deeds will only obtain very great fame, when no risk is run little credit can be obtained. The character of Aristides at the same time is remarkable; a person is in doubt which should obtain preference but I am inclined to think that they were both well fitted for their places and would not have succeeded so well in each other’s.
{ 204 }
In the afternoon, I attended recitation to Mr. Farrar and was informed that I knew nothing about Arithmetic which is not far from incorrect, for I have certainly very little knowledge of that part which particularly refers to decimals. Afterwards I returned home, wrote a letter to my father1 concerning my appointment to this Office which I hope will be well received, if not I shall be compelled to borrow the money to support it from my brother. I have not much doubt however as to the success of the application.
After tea, we went down and the First Commandant ranged them in order, they were in considerable numbers, the laws were read as usual, and every thing done in form. Lothrop performed his part very well, although he appeared considerably affected at first. It is singular that a situation of this kind which appears so easy should affect a person so much, but for my own part I could not raise my voice to speak to my section, above the strain of a kitten. The fact is, that there were many critics carping away their spleen at us, and as I feel myself peculiarly situated as I do not think myself fit for it, the place is a trying one. I shall do my best however and make up by my exertions for my natural deficiencies. My section is one which I can easily manage as I know none in it, consequently I hope none will trouble me. Cunningham made a few observations and dismissed the company.
The Officers then went to Cunningham’s room, and we sat there all the evening very coolly doing nothing. I engaged Willard’s hall and Lothrop and Cunningham went to Mr. Porter’s to see about the Supper which is to be given to the last Officers. I had then some conversation with Rundlet, obtained Sherwin2 for my guide and arranged matters regularly, so that we can commence correctly tomorrow night. I then took a short walk with Rundlet, laughing and talking about our probable career and our first debut as Commandants, after which I returned to my room. I spent a little while with Otis laughing and talking about nothing at all and then came down and read my bible and lesson. This day was pretty well employed but I expect my record for this Summer will not be the most creditable to me in the line of study since I am also called absent almost half the time either to reading or practising military. X:10.
1. Missing.
2. Thomas Sherwin, of Groton, Mass., a junior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-24

Thursday. June 24th. VI:5.

Missed Prayers again this Morning through mere negligence, but { 205 } attended recitation. I have got into the habit of sleeping so long that I cannot easily get rid of it. I spent the morning in writing a theme on the subject of the mighty deep and studying my tactics for the Evening. We were all at Lothrop’s the greater part of the day. In the afternoon from some cause or other, I did nothing neglecting even to write my Journal. I do not know what was the reason but I could do nothing all day. The Porcellians met again all day today. I was not able to speak of them last Friday owing to my want of room. It appears that there is a great difference between the two parties as to the election of members from the next class. I am conscious that I am also a great obstacle in this fight between them. They all missed the recitation to Dr. Popkin this afternoon and were so exceedingly warm they could be heard in the College Yard. For my part I am much amused at these proceedings. Dwight looked heated and so did Cunningham this evening. They said, they had been talking very warmly.
After tea, I went for the first time and drilled my section Showing them tonight the position of the body and the direction of the eyes. They are quite an obedient set as yet and appear desirous of progressing pretty rapidly. I was much diverted by their attempts although I kept it all to myself preserving the most solemn appearance. I returned home and had some conversation with Otis this evening not privately however as I wished it because this eternal Richardson was there. It is impossible in this house to keep any thing [in] private communication for any length of time with any single individual. We talked principally about this contest in the Porcellian which has been brewing for a whole year. He is very punctilious in his secrets consequently we can tell nothing as to the actual proceedings. As I am so much in the middle of all this, my curiosity is considerably excited. Thus I was employed until nine o’clock which was the appointed time to meet the other Officers at the Supper given to the Old by the new Officers. I went first to Lothrop’s room where I met Chapman, Cenas, and Otis. We stopped a very few minutes, the Evening was rainy and we hurried to Mr. Porter’s as fast as we could possibly go.
All the Officers of our class were present; of the others, Carter1 and Barnwell, Elliot,2 Blake,3 Emerson,4 and Silsbee. Lunt the Clerk was not at the Supper but came in when the cloth was removed. Livermore was also present. The supper was a very handsome one indeed. I had expected that there would have been some difficulty or at least stiffness, owing to the difference in the feelings of the { 206 } members present of the Porcellian, but all such recollection appeared to be drowned in the cup and these members were as cordial as if nothing had happened. I was placed between Silsbee and Blake, consequently suffered nothing of that stiffness which I should have had almost every where else. I talked some time with the former on the subject of the drill and asked some questions of him which his experience would inform him of. I thus employed the time in the first courses, they passed off handsomely, every one was satisfied to all appearance. When the wine came on, the usual pledging was introduced and I saluted every body round the table. Carter asked me and I drank with him. Mr. Cenas made some advances to an acquaintance but I should like to have his conduct to me explained before I can hail him with any cordiality or even with perfect selfsatisfaction. I should feel myself descending in taking a man by the hand who has to my knowledge deeply injured me at least once, I can say twice. The forms being over, we began toasting, in the course of which many handsome and classical ones were given. Emerson was full of scraps adapted to the occasion, Barnwell delivered a toast after every song which was very frequent, Lunt who is a pleasant fellow joined us and sang right merrily.
The evening waxed extremely sociable, every thing went on right, and we closed the evening with Auld lang syne in perfection. There was a little difficulty in a toast given by Emerson which touched Howard who returned it so handsomely that no one attempted to play upon him afterwards. Indeed I never was so much pleased with his conduct. We broke up pretty late and I returned to my room not having for a long time spent an evening half so pleasant as this. It resembled an old fashioned Supper of many years ago. I did not neglect my bible for I read it in the afternoon. I:20.
1. Charles Henry Carter, of Fauquier co., Va., a senior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
2. Stephen Elliott, of Beaufort, S.C., a senior, who became Episcopal bishop of Georgia and professor of sacred literature at South Carolina College (same; Harvard Quinquennial Cat.).
3. Edward Blake, of Boston, another senior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
4. Edward Bliss Emerson, of Boston, the first scholar in the senior class and the brother of Ralph Waldo Emerson (same).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-25

Friday June 25th. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation in Enfield this morning although I have already taken a very large number, indeed so many that I should not be surprised at receiving a private admonition on Tuesday. I spent the morning in writing up my Journal which I suffered to fall back { 207 } yesterday from a singular feeling of laziness. Indeed, this morning, I scarcely felt in any humour to do more than yesterday, and consequently did not make up more than half what I should have done much to my regret.
At ten o’clock, I attended a lecture from Channing on the same subject with the last. He treated of the difference between judicial and deliberative oratory. He said that it had been usual in this country for the law to be the school of the statesman, but when the country increased and wealth accumulated, young men would study their own profession directly without having any reference to the law, they being influenced by motives of ambition which now can only be considered as secondary, the acquisition of money being the first. To this, I reply, it is true, but when this does come to be the case, the liberties of the country will pass away, for principle is never firm and when money is in hand it is easy to influence by the most unfair means. The method of the lawyer must change very much as he must be open to conviction on the other side of the argument.
What constitutes the difference of effect in two men with equal ability and learning? Their manner. The regular lawyer may rise and give all his arguments thorough clearness, he may state every thing in his favour so as to make a hearer only pity the hopeless task of the other side. But when the opposing person begins, he so throws a covering over the questions of his opponent, he manages his blandishments in such a way that it is impossible to resist him. It is a peculiar power with which some men are gifted which makes the great effect sometimes witnessed in a house of assembly. Thus he took leave of judicial oratory. I went to the reading room and spent some time, came home to dinner and attended Declamation, which was exceedingly short today, and no good speaking. I did not attend Mr. Nuttall’s lecture on Botany this afternoon much to my regret as I wished to hear him through.
I went immediately to take a ride with Sheafe as he was extremely desirous to go and I thought it would relieve a little head ach which I suffered under. We went through Brooklyne on an unknown road which lasted half way to Framingham, then returned, got caught at a toll house and had to pay and stopped at the Punch Bowl for some Strawberries which we obtained in fine order, and enjoyed them very much. On our return however we were caught in a shower which poured down in abundance; the closeness of the chaise prevented our being wet.
We returned to Prayers after which Otis came to me for a con• { 208 } ference in which I was informed of the result of these Porcellian meetings. The affair had come to it’s crisis. Chapman, Cunningham and Dwight had received honourable dismissions, and the rest of the Northern party had asked for them in vain. They are to persist however in their application; he then announced my election as a member and that of Lothrop. In such circumstances, my answer was immediate as the Porcellian Club has no attractions for me, when it would be disgraceful to belong to it. It appears that there had been a terrible uproar which had ended in this way, that the body of the Northern party had left the Club. Lothrop also declined. So that now the Southern party have the rule decisively. The club kept in meeting all the evening and initiated the Sophomores who were admitted now without difficulty, and thus ends an affair which has been brewing this last year. Hunt,1 a Northern Sophomore, has joined.
I drilled my section this afternoon, they performed the facings pretty correctly. In the Evening, my room was full of company. All the Lyceum, Lothrop, Chapman, Otis, filled my room considerably. It is seldom, I am so much honoured, but there is a good deal of talk about this late affair. After my company had gone, I took a sort of an oyster supper with Tudor and Richardson, being the first since I was at home or coming from there last winter. We then returned home and sat down in the entry where we smoked and continued our conversation. I have again become pleased with Tudor but nothing could recover my friendship for the other. Retired without reading my Bible. XI.
1. Charles J. Hunt, of Boston, listed in the 1824 catalogue as a junior, did not graduate (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-26

Saturday. June 26th. VII:30.

Missed Prayers and recitation this Morning although it is among the first in the quarters, and I expect a punishment. I could not help it today and determined not to miss any more this week, not even one prayer until Saturday at least. I spent the morning in reading as much as possible of my Bible and writing my Journal for the day before yesterday which however I did not finish before I was called by Tudor to go to town in a chaise which was at the door. I accordingly prepared myself and went. We soon arrived in Boston and I went immediately to Dr. Welsh’s to see my brother upon the affair of this Company and also upon the subject of the letter which I had received this morning from John1 concerning that very affair upon which I had talked with him at our last meeting. He writes in a { 209 } singular way, speaks of George very affectionately but I know not whether this will last. He also speaks of Mary in a style which I had some reason to expect, but still as I can say nothing, and for the same reason, he cannot, I must leave his fate to Providence. I do think nothing but mutual displeasure will follow that honey moon which is the sole object of his wishes. John writes a little quizzically but generally in a more serious manner than usual. George was at Quincy so after some conversation with Miss Harriet and Mrs. Welsh and a little reading in George’s room besides writing him a note2 I left and went to the Exchange3 to meet Dwight and Tudor in order that we should dine there. I was somewhat sooner than they, but we were all in time. Relf,4 Elliot and Percy were there. The dinner as usual was a fine one and I enjoyed it much. After the cloth was removed I called for some wine and cigars and we sat very comfortably. The other gentlemen not indulging in wine, Dwight sent it over to “those Southerners” to show that although he had quarrelled with them on one point he still kept the politeness which belongs to a member. I could scarcely have expected such a thing ever would have been done by any one of them. Perhaps by the former, by the other two certainly not. I did feel a superiority to the whole of them at that moment which I knew to be natural but when I recollected the state of the College, it galled me.
I was very much amused at dinner time by the conduct of two or three gentlemen at the table. One was a little French buky,5 who he was I know not and care not, his name was Behr, I believe, his silly style diverted me as he appeared about as much of an ape as any man I know. Another was sitting opposite to us who was very inquisitive and talkative, he asked us many questions as to our residence &c. and finally gave his card to Tudor. He appeared to be very much affected by something, for he was calculating in his pocket book almost all the time. He drew out two books, looked over a large number of bank notes and returned them, got up and walked off. This made us believe he was intoxicated but I do not think this warranted by the general conduct of the man and his conversation on the subject of the fire.6 We rose at last, found Chapman waiting for us in the entry according to agreement to go to Savin Hill. We went to the Marlborough Hotel and met them to go off, arrived there we spent part of the afternoon playing billiards, part of it bowling, and the rest eating strawberries and drinking portwine. We played billiards again after the other two had left us to go to Boston and drink tea, I did not play so well as last time, and finally got quite tired, we then returned { 210 } to Cambridge round through Brooklyne as I wished to avoid the town which is always a disagreable place to me.
The evening was a delightfully cool one and the ride was as pleasant as any I ever took. There is something singularly pleasing in these rides from Cambridge, I certainly enjoy them more than those which I get any where else. I shall not forget the pleasant times between John and I. We returned in good time, it being about half past eight o’clock, took a few oysters, and spent half an hour at Wheatland’s. I had a bleeding at the nose this Evening and felt happy that it had not attacked me in the course of the day. I read my Chapters in the Bible making up the deficiency of the last Evening, my regularity does not stand most creditably of late either in my self imposed exercises or in those laid upon us by the Institution. X:15.
1. Missing.
2. Missing.
3. The Exchange Coffee House on Congress Square, built in 1822, four years after the first, elegant structure of Charles Bulfinch burned down (Bacon’s Dict. of Boston, p. 395–396).
4. Daniel Clark Relf, of New Orleans, a senior (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
5. “Buckie,” a perverse or refractory person (OED).
6. On Wednesday, 23 June, a five-story building on Salem Street caught fire, and the roof and two upper floors were badly damaged (Columbian Centinel, 26 June 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-27

Sunday June 27th. VIII.

Missed Prayers, but attended Chapel on one of the warmest days we have had this year. There was no amusement therefore in sitting to hear Dr. Ware and the President prose away the day. To this however we were condemned today, and went through with. For my part I was employed very closely all the rest of the day in writing up my Journal which is no inconsiderable task when it gets in the least behind hand. I had expected to have been able to do a little more, but I was attacked with a considerable visit from Dr. Bartlett as we call him from his size, having a tremendous corporation for a young man. He staid with me about an hour and a half. He came to develop a body of news which he had picked up at different places concerning the late differences in the Porcellian Club. He made out quite a correct story by different pieces of information which he had picked up in the course of his conversation. He used formerly to be more intimate with me than now but I found him dangerous from this very quality of his, that he has a power of making up stories from the different persons he hears them from and retailing them with the authority of one man. As I was his friend, I told him some things which came near injuring me essentially in College. I found out this { 211 } part of his character and although I know he is not guilty of any sinister intention towards me, he might do me more mischief than my most bitter enemy even when he believed he was performing the kindest office, in the world. He is a young man with the best temper in the world, his only fault arising from a wish to be important in the great world, that means the high circle. He therefore makes himself so by carrying news to them and inventing very long stories. He hears something and gives it a relish by stretching it, if he is asked for his authority, you are informed, such a one but that he would not wish to have his name used or that it should be known as coming from him. If however as is sometimes the case he has no authority he says that he is obliged to be secret. After leaving my room he went to Otis and Sheafe’s where he spent the rest of the afternoon. He said there was a report about that I had accepted which I of course told him to deny.
In the evening I took a walk and some strawberries as usual. Spent the Evening as usual in Summer doing nothing at all. X.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-28

Monday. June 28th. VI:5.

Missed Prayers this Morning although very anxious to attend indeed. I had cautioned Sheafe to wake me which he did but my drowsy habits had made me return to sleep, which would have continued until breakfast had I not heard the sound of the last man’s steps on the Lyceum stair case. I might just as well have staid at home for not having prepared myself upon the long propositions, I was obliged to say so when unexpectedly called upon. On this account I was marked absent. I had missed a sufficient number already but this must make me more. I returned home quite sorrowful.
At study bell we attended a lecture in which Mr. Channing gave us an account of that sort of eloquence peculiar to Christian countries, the eloquence of the pulpit; he treated of its nature and history. He commenced as usual with a sort of historical sketch of it’s rise, at first mere exhortations from some particular commandment in the Bible. When however the Jews and civilized Heathen nations came to be converted, the Christians adopted some of their rites to please the one and some of their eloquence of the other. In the mean time he observed that probably the Christian religion owed more of it’s errors and follies to these causes than to any in its whole history. A remark new and much to the purpose. This digressive style is his pleasure. He said that this plan of texts had been adopted for pur• { 212 } poses of advice or consolation, but that now in many cases this had nothing whatever to do with the subject dissected upon. A pretty severe allusion, I thought to some of the Presidents sermons. Mr. Channing amuses himself picking up now and then a straw in his Lectures. With a sweet pretty style he does nothing but go round and round without making any decision as to the real points in question—what Eloquence is, where it is to be found, how cultivated, in whom it flourished in perfection, how gained? The field is wide but never can be thoroughly passed over in such a dawdling way. The man is a man of exceeding small mind. Though judicious in observations of small things, he can embrace no whole, he can take no wide view of the most enlarged issue on the face of the globe. He has improved my speaking, true? but it is only in a few natural observations which my education early in life enabled me to profit by.
Lecture over I returned home and spent my morning doing nothing or next to nothing. I looked over a little testament and attended recitation to the Dr. this noon. After which until dinner time, I was assisting in chalking the squadding rooms. After dinner I attended a Lecture of Mr. Nuttall’s on Botany. It was on the four first classes according to the system of Linnaeus. He continued his system of illustration and gave us a number of examples to examine at our rooms. Returning I read over my Arithmetical lesson, but Mr. Farrar could not hear us as he was very busy indeed. We therefore went and obtained some strawberries and then I chalked my floor which was no inconsiderable toil; as Lothrop had done the same with me I was obliged to assist him in his which was far the most troublesome of the whole. We finished at last but I was obliged to come home and dress myself all over again, the heat had been so powerful, before I could attend Prayers after which I drilled my section as usual, taught them the step forward, which they performed finally pretty well. I am amused at the exercise and begin now to be quite pleased with it. I kept them about half an hour and then dismissed them until tomorrow morning. I then walked up to College with Lothrop who had just dismissed his section and met a number of our class standing near Hollis1 whom we joined and, after arguing sometime concerning the company, separated.
I had a few minutes conversation with Chapman on the subject of Cunningham’s election to our Club here. It is a matter of great satisfaction that if this Porcellian affair has had no other advantageous effect it has had that of uniting Cunningham and Dwight, which would not have been done in any other way. This was what I tried { 213 } to bring about but without success. The two leaders are now united and will proceed I hope with more effect. I walked down to Howard’s with Lothrop, he was not at home however so we returned. After this I spent a half an hour with Brenan in which we had some conversation concerning the disturbance in the Porcellians. He is in a queer plight in this difficulty for he has been well treated by the Northern party and badly by the Southern so that he can take but a singular part in it without inclining either way. After talking some time with him I returned home. X:15.
1. Hollis Hall, built in 1764, and still standing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-29

Tuesday. June 29th. VI.

Attended Prayers this Morning for the first time for some days, and recitation. After breakfast I drilled my squad for half an hour and taught them marching in double ranks. I then came home and wrote my Journal for a little while, but as I had two days to make up, I only finished one this Morning. I then went to recitation to Dr. Popkin after which I returned home and wrote some of the Lyceum Journal.1
At dinner I was surprised by a visit from my brother George who came out today in consequence of a note on Saturday which I left for him. I had some conversation with him on College matters and also on his difficulty with John which will I hope soon be amended. I did not dare however to communicate to him my opinions received by that letter concerning Mary as I think with John such a notice should come from higher authority than that where any misconstruction can be put even upon the best intention. He appears to solace himself with a belief which I hope is authorized but I cannot say I think so. I then spoke to him of his Oration which as he appears to be anxious, I believe I shall be compelled to hear. I would gladly go if these parts did not interfere but it appears to me to be a great sacrifice to give us this pleasure for so much stiffness as I shall meet here.2 I settled with him concerning the appropriation for the dress of the Commandant,3 deciding that I should be credited for that Dante4 until an order should be received to give me the money for this very purpose.
After a little more desultory conversation he left me in the stage for Boston and I went up to Otis’ to look over Trigonometry which we recited to Farrar as usual. After this I returned and wrote my Journal for yesterday which employed me until Prayers. I have been so ex• { 214 } ceedingly busy of late that I have not been able to look at Mitford, six remaining volumes of which, by the bye, were brought to me to be paid for much to my displeasure as I had calculated upon no such thing. My studies of all kinds appear to be given up for the present only to be resumed with as much vigour as possible in warm weather, as soon as the present Seniors have left College. My expenses are now running very full also which must also be corrected when they leave. Evening spent as usual. X.
1. No such journal has been found in the Harvard Archives or among CFA’s own papers.
2. Thus in MS, but the sense is defective; “us” doubtless should be “up,” and “here” is probably a mistake for “there” (i.e. in Quincy, where GWA was to speak).
3. The uniform of ordinary cadets was an amalgam of required college dress and West Point attire. Students were required to wear a dark gray Oxford mixed, single-breasted coat, with claw-hammer tails. Over this the cadets put white crossbelts and a waist belt. An officer wore the same coat, trimmed with gilt buttons and gold epaulettes, white trousers, black shako with fountain plumes, a scarlet sash, white sword belt, and a straight sword (Batchelder, Bits of Harvard History, p. 68).
4. This allusion is utterly obscure. Though the term comes up again (see entry for 22 July 1825, below), it is not certain whether it refers to a book, is a slang expression, or what.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06-30

Wednesday June 30th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation, but very luckily was not called upon in the latter, otherwise I should have been compelled to the same course with the last Monday’s. After breakfast I went to Lecture as usual. The subject today was Pulpit Eloquence in continuation. He began by stating it’s design different from any other sort of speaking as the latter were and merely1 to influence a person’s opinion upon an immediate measure but it was the duty of the first to inculcate principles which were to mould a man for life. He was to act upon their feelings, to produce morality and justice, piety and good conduct to man. He was to teach them their duty to others, and all the important advice for their happiness here and hereafter.
He then entered into a discussion on the nature of God’s temple and the propriety of attending it which did not in my mind have any immediate connection with the subject in question. He then recommended suitable action and propriety in manner. He said it had [been] made an objection here that men did not give sufficient attention to these points, but on the whole he seemed to think they did and appeared to believe the Church would become corrupt as soon as it improved. He said that a gaudy eloquence would be introduced which would destroy all feeling and that the progress of morality would be checked, which was now advancing so fast under the pro• { 215 } tecting care of our clergy. Here I cannot in the least agree with him. That vicious eloquence should be introduced I for my part have not the least desire but that we should not actually suffer under the torment of some of our ministers whilst delivering their Sermons does appear to me to be very much to be wished. That I shall not be more edified by a good Sermon preached by a good deliverer than by our Dr. Ware or President appears to me to be about as incorrect an idea as I can well conceive of. The fact is that this lecture has very nearly made [up] my mind about Channing, for I do think that he knows very little of the real subject which he is treating of and prefers going out of his road somewhat to talk a little metaphysical concerning the pleasures of recollection and to make a pretty quotation concerning Milton than to talk properly on his subject. He might make a moderately good essayist if he chose but he never was meant to be remarkable in any thing. His conducting the North American Review brought but very little character to him.2
I went to try to get a bath but not succeeding, I went to the Bookstore and bought Salmagundi as I saw a pretty copy there which matched the other works of Irving in my possession.3 It is a work of some humour but it is now so long since I have read it, if I ever did, that I should like to go over it again, consequently I commenced it today and was much amused with it’s style. I attended recitation to Dr. Popkin today. He got into very bad humour concerning the lesson as the students laughed at one or two mistakes, which were made. There is more evidence than my simple self to show that there is a habit of neglecting the Testament lessons here.
After dinner I laid down, the weather was so warm it was hardly possible to do any thing else. I looked over the lesson to Mr. Farrar and recited to him very much as usual. He paid us a compliment and dismissed us. I consider him as the only man in the government who appears to know any thing about recitation as an exercise to acquire knowledge, the rest is now all a perfect rote system. Immediately after we got out I went to refresh myself with a bath, in which although a bad one I remained three quarters of an hour. The water was cold and not enough of it. I returned home and employed myself until Prayers in writing my Journal which falls behind hand now that I can read so little. It has now become something of a weight upon a man’s conscience like mine although knowing at the same time that it is unavoidable.
After Prayers, I drilled my section and was honoured by a visit from Cunningham and sundry of my class. They performed very { 216 } well. After squad, I walked up to College, met some of the officers and talked a little with them. As I happened to come across Blake in the mean time, I determined to finish that business concerning my uniform and settle with him which I did and paid him the full value. As I had never been to see him before although I know Blake and Silsbee his chum very well, I spent the evening here and we conversed on the various College subjects which are considered interesting, the company, the Porcellians, not a great deal directly about these last, as these are members and the conduct of the first of them is not much approved in our party. We also talked a good deal about different subjects of little importance, Silsbee having come in, when the bell rung and I returned home. Read my Bible and lesson. X:15.
1. Thus in MS.
2. Edward T. Channing had heen editor of the North American Review from May 1818 to October 1819 (DAB).
3. CFA’s copy of Washington Irving’s Salmagundi, London, 1824, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0007-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-06

Review of the Month of June. 1824.

I have read my Journal over, and find a sad deficiency this Month in my resolutions which were so well formed. I am ashamed of myself and what is more regret to say that this is not a step to amendment. I find a most lamentable want of energy recorded, a great deal of dissipation, my regular habits invaded, and nothing to amend all this but a dry confession of the fact. Money spent without advantage and recitations missed which may bring me before the government. Therefore if my last record was creditable this is by no means so. Commencing, if we take reading, I have finished Aikins Selection, this is creditable as I was regular in that. I have read one volume of Mitford, a little of Plutarch, Anacharsis, and Salmagundi. This has been my occupation for four weeks. I have read all this thoroughly however and the only fault is that it is not half enough. In the description of character, there is no deficiency. I have done to the full what I intended, and my account of Lectures has been generally good. Now I come to the last which is my own conduct: My irregularity in my Bible has been considerable, that in my Journal more than usual, I have neglected College exercises, I have broken every one of my determinations, in short I have but little in this part, to review with any satisfaction.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-01

Thursday. July 1st. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Enfield this morning, after which I read my Chapters in the Bible as usual. I spent the morning { 217 } in writing my Forensic on the subject of language, whether improved by being compounded of other languages. I argued the affirmative and am very much inclined to believe it true, as I think it should be more open to beauties than the other. I attended them and heard as good as any since we have been writing them. Chapman’s was a very good one. Dwight’s I did not hear. We remained here as usual two hours, and I heard some nonsense. Mr. Hedge decided against my position, I did not think correctly for my own part.
After dinner I attended a Lecture of Mr. Nuttall’s, who changed his day, on account of a representation from the government. He treated of the five succeeding orders of Linnaeus and gave us many examples which I noted in my book.1 But which it is impossible to mention here. I then spent a little while at Lothrop’s room reading over the afternoon’s military lesson which does take an amazing deal of time, went home, wrote my Journal, looked over my Greek lesson and attended a recitation to Dr. Popkin as usual. The remaining hour until Prayers was devoted to chalking the right oblique step on my floor at Willard’s and that of Lothrop’s at Porter’s. This is the worst duty of the whole and happy am I that it is all performed. We have now only the manual2 which is the tedious part of our labour, and which calls us out so often.
After Prayers, they received a drill and performed very well; indeed, for new recruits I have seldom seen so much advancement. Silsbee came up to see them, while he was there I was peculiarly anxious that they should do well and was very well satisfied at the result. I gave them some exercise. I went immediately home and read over my lesson before attending a meeting of the Officers which was called at nine o’clock. We went to learn the manoeuvring and had a lesson set to us to read over and understand by eleven o’clock tomorrow morning when we were appointed to meet again. I then went with Rundlet to Mr. Willard’s for some strawberries, he having none we eat some cake and took some wine. Chapman and Lothrop came in and we staid here talking and laughing until late, the party then came to my room, which they soon left and I retired. XI:30.
1. Missing.
2. The Harvard Washington Corps followed “Scott’s drill manual,” as they called the standard War Department Rules and Regulations for the Field Exercise and Manoeuvres of Infantry, which had been prepared by a board of officers headed by Major-General Winfield S. Scott and published in New York in 1815.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-02

Friday. July 2d. VII:30.

I had intended to have gone to recitation but my rest this night was disturbed by horrible dreams and I awoke this morning with a { 218 } bad head ach. I could have done nothing all day, had I gone, for until half past five I had no refreshing sleep whatever. My dreams arising from indigestion were horrible. Such being my feelings in the morning I attended the drill of my section without pleasure and heard Mr. Channing’s lecture this morning without attention. I merely heard him say that there was one peculiarity which distinguished pulpit eloquence which was that no manifestation of pleasure or satisfaction was allowed in the course of an exercise. He then gave a sketch of the history of preaching. After the first preacher it used to be the custom when any sentiment pleased the audience to acknowledge it by loud acclamations and clapping of hands. It had been usual among the earlier divines to address the congregation more familiarly and to receive nods from individuals when they understood the doctrine inculcated; to this he attributes this habit which existed until almost a century ago when it was preached down. He then closed what he had to say with some observations on the popularity of this sort of eloquence. Only very great orators attracted crowds at the bar or in the hall of legislation, but this was always attended and always pleasant. Even the theatre, he said, a place devoted to pleasure, and an amusement which can certainly be obtained at a cheap rate, this was not filled uniformly. This was all which I heard in the gentleman’s closing lecture on sacred oratory. I then went to this meeting of the Company Officers and argued away concerning the propriety of this and that until almost dinner time. We performed every thing which we had been directed to very shortly and the Captain determined we should not do any more until he had learnt the words of command when he could call us together and direct us to proceed regularly in these manoeuvres which he had selected for the year. Thus we adjourned again sine die much to my satisfaction as I doubt not we should have wasted an amazing deal of time, spent some money, and not have done any more than we shall by the present agreement.
After dinner, I attended Declamation. Howard delivered Patrick Henry’s speech, but he could not give the proper force to it. He speaks only pretty well. Dwight delivered Lord Chesterfield’s speech on the Theatre bill. He selects good speeches but not striking ones. Miller delivered one which excited the risible faculties of all [the] College as it was a piece of a man defending himself from murder. The commencement of his piece concerning his own character was so applicable that it struck every one. We were detained very late so that I was obliged to go up immediately to Mr. Nuttall and heard him discuss the nature of the four next classes. I returned home and tried to do { 219 } something but I was exceedingly sleepy and my head ach was still upon me so that I went to sleep and was not roused until Prayers, having had a most refreshing nap. After this exercise I drilled my squad for the last time in the Evening in a room. They did not do as well as I wished them to. Indeed now I am considerably provoked with the section. I then came home again and read my lesson over before attending a meeting of the Knights which was called at eight o’clock.
The Meeting was full this Evening as it was the last time the Seniors were present and we were to proceed to the Election of Officers for the next year and I am forthwith to enjoy in this Club Otium cum dignitate. We proceeded to a choice of them immediately. Cunningham was chosen Grand Master in the place of Barnwell, Crowninshield,1 Deputy Grand Master in the place of Miller, Dwight Secretary succeeding Rundlet, and Perkins2 succeeding to my honour. I was perfectly satisfied with this result, it evidently showed the party feeling which existed in the club as every man elected was a Northerner. We spent the evening very pleasantly indeed. I was diverted with Lowndes3 and Tudor who enjoyed the corner much. Every body appeared in better humour than usual. I staid here at my old room, which was much worse in appearance this evening than it ever was in my hands, until after eleven, when a parcel of us went out and took a walk. Brigham,4 who was with us, being in high humour, sung two or three songs in his best style. After which we returned and went to bed well content. XI:30.
1. Benjamin Varnum Crowninshield, of Salem, a freshman (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
2. William Powell Perkins, of Boston, another freshman (same).
3. Thomas Lowndes, of Charleston, S.C., a senior (same).
4. Benjamin Brigham, of Boston, a junior (same).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-03

Saturday. July 3d. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation again for I could not help it, the lesson was so hard and I had been unwell, which shall be my excuse for I cannot possibly go on in this way, continually missing and continually cautioning myself. The summer is always a bad season for studying as the Evening will never admit of it. After breakfast, I sat down in my room and read over my Journal for the last Month in order to review it which I did this Morning, not with feelings of the greatest satisfaction either. This being done I went to the Bookstore and reading room where I spent the rest of the morning with Tudor. { 220 } I attempted to buy a plate which he had there at somewhat of a bargain but did not succeed. From there I came home and amused myself until dinner with a little of Salmagundi. A most singular assortment of queer ideas and humourous description. More here at dinner than usual, Wheatland, Tudor, Sheafe and Dwight.
I spent the afternoon, employed pretty closely in writing up my Journal which I did and in reading a Chapter in Mitford which I have again resumed. It was an account, today, of the battles of Plataea and Mycale and the final defeat of the Persian forces, very well given indeed. As it is mere description, although very interesting, it has few of the properties of history. I can therefore say but little on the subject. Suffice it that when the prayer bell rang I felt far more satisfied with myself than I have for sometime.
After tea Dwight, Tudor and I took a walk and walking by Mr. Rules’ we went in and took some strawberries. I was much pleased with the walk, indeed my feelings which were so lately affected against my friends are now as much in their favour. The truth is, I have become fastidious and wish to enjoy them alone. Richardson is now such an eternal pest that I can hardly like their society when alloyed by his. It is singular that I should have such feelings towards an individual for whom I was exceeding sorry in the fall but he is a man who pleases better by a distant acquaintance. I do not think any thing but a change in his character could reconcile him to my comfort. Returning as the Evening was a very beautiful one, we remained in front of the house until quite late, and conversed concerning the work of the day. In truth it is long since I have spent a pleasanter evening than this, the more so as I was to incur no consequences in the enjoyment of it. XI:15.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-04

Sunday. July 4th. VIII.

Arose, after having again missed Prayers, but this is as usual for I have not attended one on Sunday morning since the commencement of the Junior year, I might say since the middle of my Sophomore. I wrote my journal in the morning and read a few numbers of Salmagundi which diverted me as usual. I do think however that his sort of wit has too much sameness to delight all the time. I also attended Chapel and heard the President and Dr. Ware deliver consolatory sermons to the widower Professor Willard.
I have omitted to mention, although I have thought of it more than once, the death of Lord Byron in Greece, which is announced in the newspapers. There are but few men in an age of real talent, he was { 221 } one of these few. He had a mind comprehending far more than this earth, there was no subject grand enough for this man’s conception. He strained for more than the lot of man and missed his aim by falling into obscurity. He could not understand the [ . . . ]1 which he himself was desirous to aspire at. His head grew giddy as he ascended and wishing nevertheless to continue distinguished, he plunged into a marsh below. His last productions disgrace him, they do him no honor even for talent; for morality, he never was distinguished.
After dinner it being the fourth of July, we, Sheafe, Tudor, Richardson and myself determined to celebrate it and therefore drank a bottle of Champagne. We toasted the day, the signers of the declaration of Independence and withal I drunk success to my brother John who is on this day, twenty one years old. May he be happy, distinguished, and may he maintain the dignity of the Adams family. I unintentionally almost spent in this way, nearly all the afternoon, and had no power to do any thing but read over my lesson for tomorrow morning and the one for the review. My afternoon went in this way, the Evening was taken up in walking, taking out Mr. Norton’s2 swing post and performing sundry other feats too numerous and too heroic to place in my Journal. I returned home and after some conversation with Richardson which was as usual very troublesome.3 I wonder if I am to be bored with him all my College life. In the Evening I studied my Enfield over again and read my Bible as usual. Went to bed early. X.
1. One word overwritten and illegible in MS.
2. Presumably Andrews Norton (1786–1853), Dexter professor of sacred literature at Harvard from 1819 to 1830 (DAB).
3. Thus in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-05

Monday July. 5th. V:45.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning, being prevented from sleeping by the firing of cannon and ringing of bells by which the celebration of this day was commenced. As the true day came on Sunday, this day was fixed upon as the festival day. Of course we had no exercises after the Morning and I was for once freed from the trouble of squadding my section. After breakfast, we went into the Commons Hall as usual upon such occasions and sung patriotic songs, a custom which has been existing for a long time here but which has been wofully shortened and curtailed of late. Like all the other old habits it is advancing fast to it’s end.
After this we remained in the Piazza of the University until the { 222 } President’s freshman arrived with the parts for next Exhibition, they being our first Majors as we call them. Wilder1 got the first much to the displeasure, I cannot say the surprise of many, who nevertheless hoped Chapman would obtain it. The rest it is hardly worthwhile to mention except where I am directly connected with them. Otis had a part, a Conference with Fisher and Greenough. Brenan and Lothrop had another. I was left out much to my joy as I hope I shall be in every Exhibition for in my mind they are the very smallest things in the world. I cannot relish being stuck in public view, below so many others who will never have an opportunity to come above me again. I am not aristocratic except as to talents and acquirements which I know many better scholars are my inferiors in. I was very glad that Lothrop obtained a part although I must confess it was unexpected altogether. His rank in the estimation of the class would not have entitled him to the fortieth rank in the class.2 Brenan was most excessively discontented because he was put with him, and although he had some right to be, I thought it hardly worthwhile to make so many faces at such a little thing. The members of our society were much gratified at their having parts also, from the reason that they were able to give a treat to them at Fresh Pond as usual. We accordingly went. I drove up there in the chaise which I had engaged to go to Quincy with and we enjoyed ourselves considerably. Many of our class were present together with a few Seniors, meaning Tudor and Wheatland. Otis had gone to town as usual and very much in character.
But I could not remain here long and fulfill my promise or duty to George so although very unwilling I took my departure. In fact I think it was fortunate for me that I went away as I felt the punch which I had taken was beginning to operate. A swift ride cured me of this, though I thought that every thing would be over before I arrived unless I hurried on, which I did amazingly. I passed the meeting house in Dorchester as the Company had formed to enter it, so I thought I should certainly arrive at Quincy when they were coming out. When I got to the house, there was but one person in it and that was “that bright” Miss Samson,3 the antipathy woman. She told me I was too late, which did not deter me from going to the Meeting House and breaking in upon what I supposed Mr. Whitney’s concluding Prayers and I cursed myself over and over for coming at all. The Parson finished what I have often heard before and to my surprise and I will add pleasure George got up and commenced his Oration. It was not in the general tone of pieces of this sort, it was not mere declamation. { 223 } It was a historical account of the causes of the revolution. It was very well written but in my humble opinion appeared to be a little too plain for the learned and a little too obscure for the ignorant. This objection was however overruled. The five closing pages were really quite good, the description of character was quite good for a young man who has studied so little of it in his life. His closing passage was fine. I may risk the imputation of coolness towards him by speaking so qualifiedly, but I cannot talk extremes, I cannot tell him what I did not feel. I will give him my opinion if asked but shall not press it upon any one. The production is not an ordinary one but it is not so extraordinary as many people in Quincy from interested motives would wish him to believe and will succeed in their object I am afraid, if I judge by his usual character.4 I heard his praises sounded far and wide by those very people long before he came home and I know that one sign of them would be to go at him openmouthed. Well did the poet commence his address

“Parent of wicked, bane of honest deeds

Pernicious Flattery.”

He finished and I waited no longer but came directly home, not much pleased with the idea of meeting so much unpleasant company. I first bounced upon Mrs. Smith and Mrs. Cruft,5 who gave me the whole story of their pleasures and displeasures without amusing me much. I then went round saluting my acquaintance, found my Grandfather and was surprised at finding him so well and able to endure the fatigue of the day. It was a proud one for him as he saw his grandson receiving the reward of talent and heard the acclamations with which his name was greeted in spite of Colonel Pickering or whoever else chooses to attack it. It was a proud day at Quincy for the whole Adams family.
After a little conversation we sat down to a collation for about sixty people and I had the pleasure of seeing about ten young ladies on the downward side of life without any beauty to recommend them. I was not so fortunate as to go near them but I was next to one who played more forcibly on my passions, which by the punch in the morning had been roused, nor were they yet settled down. This was no one else than Miss Abby. Something or other, a cap or I know not what, made her appear certainly much handsomer than usual, and I who am just in the heyday of the blood fell most woefully in love with her for two hours, and had I met her alone, should certainly have made an extreme fool of myself. I was too tired however to take the trouble and { 224 } perhaps a very little prudence restrained me. I rather think Miss Harriet saw through me and gave me a cut indirectly. I always suspect something of the kind from her speeches. Suffice it I got through without injury and made myself additionally sensible that I must not play with burning coals. I had some conversation with Miss Thaxter6 of the literary sort as she is a “bas bleu.” I rather imagine I took the right chord there. The Boston company went home and was succeeded by Mr. Marston’s school and the Quincy families who played and danced here sometime. Afterward George came home but I was so exceedingly fatigued that it was out of my power to remain awake. XI.
1. Frederick Wilder, a junior from Lancaster, Penna. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
2. The class consisted of 68 members.
3. Possibly Miss Sampson, a seamstress (AA to LCA, 20 May 1818, Adams Papers).
4. A copy of GWA’s Oration Delivered at Quincy, on the Fifth of July, 1824, Boston, 1824, survives in the Massachusetts Historical Society. CFA’s appraisal of the speech was a fair one; it was dull.
5. Mrs. Edward Cruft (1789–1859), the former Elizabeth Storer Smith, was the wife of a Boston merchant and a kinswoman of the Adamses. See Adams Genealogy.
6. Presumably Celia Thaxter (1749–1829), of Hingham, a cousin of AA. See Adams Genealogy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-06

Tuesday. July. 6th. VIII.

Arose considerably but not entirely refreshed from the dreadful fatigue of yesterday. I have seldom felt more overcome than I did on that day. My feelings having been acted upon in a variety of ways, affected my body almost as much as the exercise which was not inconsiderable. After having taken breakfast I sat in the parlour a little while but found nothing amusing. The girls never become in the least pleasant until the afternoon, and as to the old lady, she never is, to me at least. So that on the whole I thought it advisable to retire, and have no more to say to them. I sat with George half an hour but we could gain nothing from this as I presume he was afraid to talk of his prevailing idea as he knows my character, and I did not feel inclined to hurt his feelings, besides keeping my determination. There was a sort of half stiffness on both sides which we could not get over and which I at last did not attempt. Our conversation was principally concerning the dinner and toasts of yesterday.
As the day threatened rain, I found nothing to keep me here and consequently set off for home and old Cambridge again. I carried George two miles as far as Neponset Hotel as he wished to take a ride and stopped with him a little while at this house. I am glad that I { 225 } came out as my absence would have excited observation. I did not think men were so critical. The absence of all the Quincy family was particularly noticed and George appears to think that he is jealous, I mean the young man,1 for I have always believed my father’s superiority over the old man has been a source of bitterness always to them. They are not a family of talent and have resorted to a mean attempt to raise themselves on the misfortunes of one of our family.2 When my father is not here, he3 is a great man and by his manner excites one to wish him kicked downstairs. I despise a little great man, and I do think Mr. Judge Mayor Quincy has as much right to that title as any man I have ever seen. None of his4 class were there either. George at College did not take the course to make true friends, he did not calculate upon the men but consulted his feelings and taste. Not that I praise his taste, but let every man have his way in this. I hope I have made a better solution, certainly a more respectable one here.
But all these reflections have nothing to do with the principal matter. I thought over this quickly as he was talking of it, and speaking of Quincy, whom he appears to take in the light of a rival. I was in a hurry and therefore left him without much preface. I rode home without stopping and got to Cambridge at about twelve having missed two recitations. The town felt all new to me as if I had been absent for some time and my acquaintance all shook my hand so that really, I began to think a week had passed since I had seen them. From the excitement of yesterday I felt dull also today. Every thing appeared so settled and quiet when I had seen so much bustle that I was unable to do anything. I read my Bible which was somewhat behind hand and wrote one day of my Journal. I also attended a lesson to Mr. Farrar in Trigonometry. He has got quite tired of hearing us in private class and wishes us to catch up again with the class so as to recite with them, a measure which I do not much care about taking.
I spent the afternoon in a listless uncomfortable sort of a way without much purpose. It is the most uncomfortable feeling under Heaven to suffer under. No letters too from home which always makes me feel lonely. After tea, I squadded my section upon the Common for the first time. They did exceedingly well and I received much credit for my trouble. The fact is that the other Officers have been in the habit of keeping their sections on the run all the time, they have given them variety but no principles and consequently they go too fast through all their manoeuvres. I afterwards stopped and talked with Silsbee &c. in front of Hollis5 concerning this company, received some advice from him as to the management of it and then came { 226 } home. I then sat to, to read over both the lessons for tomorrow morning as I am now determined to be regular at recitations for the next weeks. They were easy so I was not occupied very long. I then read my Chapters as usual. Regularity gives me great satisfaction but notwithstanding I have very little of it. One week more frees me from my promise and I have to commence a branch of study which as it directly affects my future means of life, it is my duty, my interest, every thing which can call upon a man in life, to study it. My resolution may be broken but I hope not. I can do no more. If I am weak it is only my misery to be conscious of it. I ought to be more independent. X:20.
1. Josiah Quincy (1802–1882).
2. Presumably TBA.
3. Josiah Quincy (1772–1864), “the old man” alluded to above.
4. GWA’s.
5. Hollis Hall.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-07

Wednesday. July 7th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitations this morning very fortunately, and was called upon in a long proposition, the commencement of which I was prepared to recite. Had he continued one word farther than what I actually recited, I think it would have been not so well. No exercises after the Morning as the Seniors were examined today. I squadded my section in the hall this morning on the right oblique step. I then went and took a warm bath which gave me a feeling of fatigue all day. The rest of the morning was employed in writing my Journal and doing a little at the bookstore.
I made an engagement to take a ride this afternoon with Otis, but while at dinner we were surprised by the cry of fire and a tremendous pillar of smoke arose in the direction of Boston. It was in appearance at the bottom of Beacon street as seen from the tops of the Colleges. Otis consequently hurried into town to see if his father’s was in danger and left me to enjoy the afternoon alone. I therefore took up Mitford again and read his view of the Western Countries politically connected with Greece and of the Grecian settlements in Sicily and Italy. The history was rather uninteresting and merely embraced a short account of the Grecian settlements. A small definition of History I met with which struck me and I shall insert it in my Common Place Book.
I then went to the book store where I met Cunningham who had been into Boston and who told me that the fire had caught in Charles Street, had extended up Beacon Street and had burnt sixteen houses besides stables, barns, shops &c. in great numbers. In short there has { 227 } not been such a fire for a great while, it has taken off some very pretty houses. A great effort checked it at a Mr. Eckley’s1 at the bottom of the street. Otis returned before Prayers. It appears that all the people in the street were in a fright and were fixing their houses in preparation, had moved all their furniture, in short that the mall presented a very queer sight—of furniture, books and every thing else lying without distinction all over the common.2 I was troubled with the ringing here and in fact managed somehow or other to spend an extremely unpleasant day, deriving no satisfaction or pleasure from my own reading or any thing. Indeed I begin to believe that unless soon recovered I shall lose my taste for reading which to me would be the most serious loss in the world.
After Prayers, I read my lesson over and then went upstairs to attend a Meeting of the Lyceum Club which was held tonight for the first time this term at Wheatland’s room. The Members did not arrive until very late, nine o’clock for example. And Otis was tired, Chapman’s eyes by working at this fire were almost out of his head. I know no place where Otis shows himself more unpleasantly than at parties of this sort, he has no sort of knowledge how to please them, he does not become warm but on the contrary, either goes to sleep or complains of something the matter with him. He has not those feelings which make him an agreable companion because he has not any energy in his composition. How few there are in this world who can be called perfectly agreable. How few there are in whom the ingredients are mixed in perfect proportion. If Otis has too little energy, Dwight has too much of it. If the one is easily moved, the other is the most difficult. Positive even when incorrect and the more so when the most are against him. It is one of the faults, I have to find in him. Another is his whimwham, to use the expression of the Author of Salmagundi, his frequent expressions of like and dislike which are unpleasant and according to the strict rule of good breeding, improper.
The society met, Lothrop absent who will not probably join the club this term. Cunningham was proposed and admitted, a little other business was settled and we employed ourselves much in our usual way. We played cards for a little while and gave them up to take a few strawberries after which we resumed our amusement not with much life however, as Chapman was really in pain and Otis “as stupid as a beast.” We therefore threw this up and began with a little singing not however in a very loud strain. Tudor was somewhat exhilarated, from the effect of the end of College life and the variety { 228 } of liquors which he took. I staid here till late and humoured Tudor as much as possible. Richardson is unpleasant at a treat of this kind because he becomes talkative, noisy, and impertinent. Sheafe was sulky. The Meeting however was pleasant as I was in one of my quiet fits3 and amused myself with the nonsense of others. My complaisance cost me a sick fit this evening, thanking Heaven that this is the last. I.
1. David Eckley lived at 8 Beacon Street (Boston Directory, 1829–30).
2. The conflagration began in a carpenter shop on the corner of Chesnut and Charles streets and spread to Beacon Street. Fifteen houses were burned in the two-hour blaze, including the Beacon Street mansions of Tasker H. Swett, Henry G. Rice, William Minot, Timothy H. Carter, Samuel Austin, and Stephen Bean. The Harrison Gray Otis mansion was unharmed (Boston Daily Advertiser, 8 July 1824; Boston Directory, 1825).
3. MS: “fist.”

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-08

Thursday. July. 8th. VI:5.

Missed Prayers but awoke in sufficient time to attend recitation, not in very good time for it, but I was not called upon. After breakfast I attended a squad of my section. My guide was not out so that I was unable to advance them as fast as the other commandants had done theirs. I then wrote a theme on the subject of style, “he that would write, should read.” I was much pleased with the subject and wrote it very soon indeed. In observations on style I cannot help thinking that the most proper are the cautions concerning false taste which is so often prevalent in the style of this century. Reading good books is an excellent preservative against this, as we naturally take our form of expression from them and are disgusted when we meet with any thing which opposes our ideas of nature. I am not so extravagantly fond of natural style as many people but still I like it much. I then carried up my Theme. I insert it here as worthy of remark that Mr. Channing approved one line of my last Theme.
I then went to the reading Room, found no News and was considerably disappointed at not finding any letters for me. Returned home, wrote my Journal and finished Salmagundi with which I have been exceedingly amused. I then went to a Lecture from Mr. Nuttall who discussed the property of the Monadelphia and Diadelphia Classes of Linnaeus. I also attended Testament as it appears for the last time. Dr. Popkin at the close of the recitation gave us his usual words, “Farewell and I wish you well.” Having thus completed an education in the languages, after a study of nine years in Latin and six in Greek, I must conclude by saying that I do not regret this much.
Mathematics over, and Education that trouble of life, at least the { 229 } drudgery of it is over, and I enter upon matters directly pertaining to the course in life which I am about to pursue. The day opens upon me at a distance when I shall be able to go on in that track which I have laid down for myself. Attended Prayers, gave my section an excellent squad upon the wheeling and turning, after which I spent an hour with Rundlet and Lothrop as usual. They are both very good fellows and we amused ourselves conversing for some time after which I came home, a few minutes at Wheatlands, Silsbee there. Looked over Bible and lesson and went to bed. X:35.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-09

Friday. July 9th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Enfield but was not called upon, Mr. Hayward very seldom troubles me with questions now, a very singular but certainly not disagreable circumstance. I had intended after breakfast to have given my squad a drill, but forgot all about the matter and so did they. I then wrote some of my Journal and attended Mr. Channing’s Lecture, the final one upon Oratory. He commenced by wishing to know what Oratory was, and why one Man would please without much talent, while another who was really an able man would be dull? It depended he said upon a natural gift far above art with which some men were able to act with greater force. Art might remedy faults but nothing but nature could make great beauties. He then made some observations on extemporaneous speaking. It had in former times been a habit with the ancient Orators to write their Orations elaborately and when any particular passage pleased to repeat it at other times and in different situations with equal applause. If such a thing were to be attempted now, the man would only make himself ridiculous. The principal part of our Eloquence is composed of speeches at the bar or in Assemblies where they are almost entirely extemporaneous. A good Orator is supposed to be prepared for every subject and ought to act as if he had anticipated every question before it came into notice. He then made a few observations concerning the reasons why extemporaneous eloquence should have such effect with which he closed all he had to say on Oratory. These observations, I do not recollect. Much of this last lecture was a repetition of what had formerly been said in the different parts of the subject. Now he has completed this part of his course, I should wish to know whether I have gained one single idea from every thing he has told me. Whether there is any thing in all these lectures which a man would not of himself, almost immediately observe. Having done with this, I returned home and employed myself all the morning { 230 } writing &c. My letters to and from home have been strangely neglected of late but my Journal and my pleasure has been a pretty incessant occupation. I refer every thing like business to be done, until after next Tuesday which is the day on which we become the highest class in Harvard University.1
After dinner I attended a lecture from Mr. Nuttall concerning flowers which was very interesting but which I could not understand quite so well as I wished to owing to the heat of the room. I returned home at four o’clock and read a Chapter in Mitfords Greece giving the history of Greece until the time of Cimon. Themistocles made the policy of Athens maritime and was among the first in [ . . . ] wealth and power to a nation, to arise from Commerce and naval strength. In those days it was still more advantageous than now because few people were prepared to resist a force of this kind. It is surprising to reflect on the power always acquired in this way by a people, and at this day we can hardly cite a people as flourishing who do not depend very much upon navigation. The English are a striking example of success, as the nation without continual supply in this way could never have supported half what it has been called upon to contribute. The Athenians, hitherto unknown, by embracing this course became powerful and rich and by these means gave that encouragement to literature and elegance which has continued them to this day.
I had scarcely finished my reading before Brenan came in and we conversed concerning the characters of individuals, their ambition, &c. very pleasantly all the rest of the afternoon. He is very agreable when he does not undertake to conceal his natural character for that of a morose man which he seems most singularly to covet. Prayers were delayed half an hour this Evening, on account of the funeral of Gray2 which was attended by the Senior Class. He died this morning after a sickness of about a fortnight. I believe he was a very excellent fellow. The President gave a very feeling Prayer concerning him this evening which seemed to have a remarkable effect upon the students in general. After tea, My section came out with guns the first time and did very well considering. The Evening was a very beautiful one and I spent some time out talking with Tudor, Sheafe &c. concerning the contemplated excursion tomorrow. I then read my lesson over and my Bible but my night’s sleep was not sound. X:40.
1. Seniors were allowed to retire from college on the seventh Tuesday before commencement (in 1824, on 13 July); commencement was held on the last Wednesday in August. In the absence of the seniors, the juniors obviously became { 231 } the highest class. See Harvard Annual Cat., 1823, p. 16.
2. John M. Gray, of Cambridge (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-10

Saturday. July 10th. V:30.

Arose and after reading over my lesson attended Prayers and recitation in Enfield in which as usual I went to sleep. The day was not a fair one although at first there was little appearance of rain. After breakfast we dressed and prepared ourselves for an extraordinary dash. Tudor and myself had agreed to go to Nahant today in a tandem, and accordingly made up a party among our acquaintances to go down. This consisted of four besides ourselves, Dwight and Chapman together in a Chaise and Sheafe and J. Otis. It was the first time Tudor had been in a tandem and I was a little anxious to see his driving but the horses were so well trained and Tudor was so careful that we had no sort of difficulty. It is the most pleasing way of driving in the world I think because it is the most novel and the most scarce. They appear handsomer from the Chaise, I think, than they do as they pass, they certainly make a Chaise go very much easier. We stopped a few moments at Linn [Lynn] to give them breath and then went on again. It began to rain slightly just as we got upon that fine beach over which it is perfect pleasure to ride, and we got to Nahant at about ten o’clock, two hours from the time we started, a distance of about seventeen miles.
Arrived, we immediately went fishing but had not gone before the rest of the party arrived. We all went together but did not remain more than an hour on account of the rain which came on now with violence so that we retreated quickly to the Billiard room. Two Freshmen, Potts and Pringle,1 were there, and as the tables were engaged, four of us went to a bowling alley and spent two hours there amusing ourselves in this way. The tables or alleys are remarkably fine, made of the hardest wood and very accurately smoothed. To a person accustomed to play upon other boards these are exceedingly difficult and I could not calculate upon them in the least in the first part of the time, afterwards however I did better. Chapman and myself beat Dwight and Sheafe very easily. Thus went the morning and we went up to the great hotel with appetites not in the least diminished by the air of the place which is proverbial for being hostile to all dinners &c. No wonder therefore that they charge more.
We sat down to dinner with about twenty five people, certainly not more, perhaps less. The dinner was not equal to my expectations and to my exquisite astonishment there were no silver spoons on the table. { 232 } Heavens said I, is it possible that our good friends the Boston people should be so condescending as to take any thing from something less than silver at one of the most fashionable and the most exquisite places under the sun. The dinner was an inferior one as no company was expected. On the whole I was considerably disappointed in the quality of my dinner considering what I had to pay for it. I came down here to be an epicure and could amuse myself in no way better than if I had stayed at the table of our good hostess at home. I made the best of it however and, as I had an excellent appetite to support me, I did not reject the meal such as it was. For the meats although not delicious were well dressed and tender. Dinner done, the gentlemen called for wine and as it was a particular occasion, we ordered the very best and some cheese. The latter was excellent. The former, although the most particular, was not good by the decision of the Company and we ordered some of another sort. This latter was in my mind much the best and I enjoyed this and a very fine cigar very much better than any thing else during the day.
We did not sit long at table but went off to the billiard room, where we spent the afternoon as we could do nothing in the rain. Otis and I being the only players on one table, were going to enjoy one when Dwight and Sheafe insisted upon being admitted. As these were serious, we could have no pleasure, and it only provoked me as I knew it was my fate to be beaten. Chapman came in and took my side which made the matter worse. I was beaten both ways and now came to play off with Dwight and Chapman. This was a matter of interest to me as the bill had now become a pretty large one. I played first with Dwight, and played remarkably well but got beaten by a lucky scratch. I then played with the other and beat him easily. We then found it was time to return which we did. Tudor bought a dog which we carried home. We arrived safe and after a very few words at Wheatland’s I went to bed. X:30.
1. Hamilton Potts, of New Orleans, and John J. I. Pringle, of Charleston, S.C. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-11

Sunday. July 11th. VIII.

Arose considerably refreshed this Morning, and took breakfast. Found Cunningham here, an addition to our number at the table, and I forgot that Silsbee had been here ever since the death of Gray, and the consequent dispersion of his mother’s boarders. The table is in consequence rather larger than I wish it and I shall not be content until the Seniors leave and reduce it. The character of Cunningham I { 233 } have never given which is surprising as he has always ranked among my friends but the reason is that I find it difficult to judge of it myself. That he is a man of talents of a superior sort, I am exceedingly inclined to doubt, that he is a would be fashionable and lady’s man, I am certain and therefore think less of him, that he is stiff and affected I am also certain, but at the same time I believe he has many good feelings. His friendship is not to be slighted, because he will do a man a service and he is pretty firm. There are sundry reasons which I cannot myself tell, which make him agreable and as he is now endeavouring to correct his faults which certainly want it.1 His habits are acquired and if they once are broken he will become the same natural man which he ought to be.
This morning, I wrote my Journal and attended Chapel, where I heard the President deliver a sort of a farewell funeral Oration. It was a queer mixture of the Lord knows what. In the afternoon Dr. Ware delivered an excellent sermon to the Seniors as parting advice. It was plain and simple and extremely pleasant to a man’s feelings, I should imagine, who was about to leave College. There is a pleasant and at the same time a melancholy sort of feeling in seeing this class depart. Why should I be sorry to stay here, where I enjoyed myself as much as I ever shall in any part of my life, perhaps more? It is because I wish for home as it is now and when I think that soon all the pleasure of that home will be gone, even before I get out, I cannot help feeling sorry. There is a happiness for a social being in the bosom of a family, which I am afraid it is my lot never hereafter to enjoy perhaps, but all things are in the womb of futurity and however anxious I may be to know them, I must e’en content myself with the maxim “Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.”
Such has been the state of my feelings today. I am glad when I think that we stay here but one year more and sorry when these Seniors come to my remembrance. At the same time I am attached to Cambridge and should scarcely feel less melancholy if I had directions to leave it tomorrow, with a degree. My only desire is to rush into the world. I wish to be acting my part like other men and feel now like a small dog trying to leap a wall while the larger ones pass over and squeeling his soul out in a fret because he cannot succeed. This is my first set figure in this book, and perhaps not the most consistent with the rules of style. In writing however I am a racer overleaping all obstacles and never returning over the course. This is my second, and indeed I feel so metaphorical this evening that I shall run over every thing so I will e’en return to my subject.
{ 234 }
After tea I took a walk with Richardson, in which we had some conversation concerning Wheatland with whom he has had a quarrel. He appears to be considerably exasperated against him, on account of an affair about the Major’s detur2 in which I must confess from Richardson’s account of it, I do not think that the former has acted as consistently with honor as he ought to have done. But we must always make allowances for him. Every one who chooses to overstep the rules of honor and good breeding will take the consequences upon his own head. And I believe it will be found that as long as a man [preserves?] them he will pass easily through life. Our walk was a long and a pretty pleasant one as he was in a humour which forbid his making so much of a fool of himself. Indeed could I have the tutoring of that man without the intervention of any body else, I doubt not but what I could make him at least tolerable. I could make him equal to Howard in manners and his own sense, which is a little superior to the other’s, would assist him and make him do. His natural wit, a good deal of which he has, would make him entertaining.
After our return, I went and did some business concerning the Knights with Mr. Willard then came up and read over my lesson and Bible and then went to bed. I did not get to sleep for some time however, as Tudor and Elliot were drinking Champagne, in the third story. X:15.
1. Punctuated thus in MS.
2. A prize of books given annually at Harvard College to meritorious students.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-12

Monday. July 12th. V:30.

Arose and attended Prayers and recitations. I was taken up this morning but it is exceedingly singular, Mr. Heyward gives me but three lines to recite. I do not know what to make of this man’s conduct to me, it is remarkable. After breakfast I attended lecture. Mr. Channing commenced with some notice of the design of criticism and it’s utility. He here diverged from his subject by talking of the few minds governing a whole nation. The impulse which it gives to its feeling and it’s tone. After having said enough concerning this, he brought it to bear upon his subject by tracing the similarity in the school of criticism. A few people of fine taste governed the rest, he said, and by this was meant the general voice commonly expressed upon matters of taste. Comparatively very few of the whole mass of the world know any thing about the matter, the voice of literary men has the power to fix reputation upon a work. Shakespeare it has been said would not have been so great a favourite were it not that Garrick had set him off { 235 } to such advantage, but he thought that the voice of men of learning in general so concentrated, that his reputation might have been retarded, it never could have been finally depressed. It may have been a question, why these men should form themselves into a tribunal to judge of all works peremptorily, and if there was not danger of abuse in this power?1 A few cold hearted critics might exert a dangerous influence upon literature by discouraging even merit, under the influence of private feelings of dislike to the author. He thought though that this could not be the case as there were always men enough to indulge different opinions and that there could be scarce a sufficient coalition to render any injustice. The public voice could not be suppressed by such means as these. It was on the whole not a very bad lecture, his observations were generally just and although rather common place, I expect it. As we had finished Greek Testament we had nothing else to do this day but prepare for a lesson in Paley’s Moral Philosophy this being our next, last, and most important branch. We attended to a get a lesson set but obtained a miss very unexpectedly so that we shall have no morning exercises for this week, a thing not much desired by me as our term is easy enough without it.
I employed the rest of my morning in writing my Journal. I forgot to say that the Bowdoin prizes were declared this morning, one was given for a dissertation on China by Emerson and another for one on the Classics, by Whitman of our class.2 The parts for Commencement were assigned during our absence on Saturday. The first Oration being given to Emerson, the second to Newell.3 The dissertations were read today one in the morning and another in the afternoon but I did not attend either of them as I presumed they would be long and probably dull.
In the afternoon, I attended a lecture of Mr. Nuttall’s at three, it being postponed on account of Emerson’s Dissertation. It was a very good one on the compound flowers, but I had some difficulty in keeping the track with him. He is so rapid in his manner, he gives no time for the examination of the flowers, he himself proposes to you. Returning home I found a message from Mr. Farrar directing me to attend him at his study this Evening but regret that my military engagements detained me. I do think however that this is somewhat of an authoritative step, to call for me when I wish to be absent. I spent an hour talking with Otis upon the subject and then came down stairs again to write up my Journal which now seems to take up nearly all my time. Thus I was going on until Prayers which I attended and gave my squad a drill. They performed the Manual exceedingly well { 236 } and received the credit of the whole company. I think fairly speaking they are the best drilled in the company nor do I take much credit to myself for it, as in my own humble opinion the others do much less than they might. Any thing like telling them is an injury to their feelings, and Lothrop tonight appeared considerably affected because Cunningham told him the plain state of the case. We sat at Mr. Willard’s until nine o’clock, the time appointed for a meeting of the officers at the Captains. We employed our Evening pretty carefully and went through all the evolutions correctly, which we have been accustomed in the former company. We then spent sometime in talking over the affairs of the Company and in discussing the materials before us, so that it was eleven o’clock before we adjourned. I then went directly to my room, read my lesson and Bible and then went to bed. XI:30.
1. A question mark after “peremptorily” has been eliminated, but CFA’s questionable grammar has been left intact.
2. Jason Whitman, of East Bridgewater, Mass. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
3. William Newell, of Boston (same).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-13

Tuesday. July 13th. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation very unintentionally indeed, my drowsy faculties predominating. I heard no bell until the second to recitation which I took for that for Prayers and accordingly dressed and got half down there before I found out my mistake. I regret this as it injures my intention although I was entirely faultless.
We had no Morning Exercises owing to the departure of the Seniors and the consequent ceremony which takes place today. A Prayer was offered at nine o’clock by Mr. Burnap1 for the Senior Class as usual. I did not hear it however. I wrote my Journal at home and was getting along finely when Wheatland came down and gave me an invitation to go up to his room for the last time, and take some of his last offering. Such a call, I could not refuse, and I determined to let this day fall a sacrifice and the last which I should make to pleasure of any sort. I accordingly went up and found our class principally, Dwight, Cunningham and our few fellows. Wheatland, who usually is a damper, was no such thing to day as all fear of College censure was taken off, and made more noise than any of the rest. We sang a number of songs in high glee and finally created such a tremendous roar that Mr. Heyward sent over an extremely polite message, to caution us. It was fortunate for us that this was the case for otherwise we might have staid too long, but as it was just the time for the Oration to commence, we went off. I rather should say, they, because I staid at home a little { 237 } while, then went up the steps of the Chapel, heard the Presidents Prayer which was enough for me and I immediately went away to the bookstore where I remained and read the papers at the Athenaeum until the time that the Oration and Poem were finished. On my return I found the students enthusiastic concerning them, Lunt got some credit for his poem, I am inclined to think these little things bubbles. As to the class’s crying, they, or some of them, are always sufficiently ready to make that appearance, but I was satisfied with the reality of this when I heard Barnwell’s three years since, which in itself never could make a man cry in this world. Nevertheless there were many who tried hard to show some feeling of this kind upon the occasion.
One of our visitors to dine today was Robinson whom I have not seen before for a long time, at least to address at all. He looks well and appears to be in moderately good spirits. I should imagine though, that a day of this kind would make him feel melancholy as he was the cause of the loss of so much enjoyment here and of so much life if I may so term it. He alluded to it but once today and then I thought with some feeling.2 After dinner we adjourned to Wheatland’s room, but did not stay more than a few minutes as some of us were going different ways upon business. I went to Dumont’s3 for some money for the Knights but could not find him. Dwight and Cunningham went to Boston in a Chaise. My mind was in such a state of excitement that I was not in the least able to get my lesson for this afternoon and as I understood this was the general sentiment of the class, I expected a miss somewhat. I consequently made an engagement with Lothrop to take a ride which we did and went that beautiful road on the border of Jamaica Pond and round the cultivated part of Brooklyne. It is one of the prettiest rides which I have ever seen in this Country, the ground is so rich and so beautifully cultivated. We stopped a few moments to refresh ourselves on the road but returned in full time for Prayers.
After tea I was giving my squad all the instruction in the world when a shower put us all to flight in a hurry. I returned to my room and meeting Tudor, we made an agreement to spend the last evening together. Wheatland went in the afternoon. We sent for some wine and spent the evening in a comfortable game of Whist at Richardson’s room. I enjoyed myself considerably as there was no more of that boisterous noise which troubles me so now. We had a comfortable sing but no noise. Our Class had a meeting, at least a number of them at the arbour, to perform the old ceremony of it’s christening.4 There is a powerful spirit of old custom in College even now which creates { 238 } more difficulty to the Government than all the new inclinations of the students. I was glad to find that there could be a Class Meeting although I did not regret my absence as they are seldom pleasant. J. Otis and Dwight came up here, and staid a few moments. I heard the shout of the Class as we were sitting there. We broke up at eleven o’clock having spent our last Evening. I looked over my lesson and Bible. XI:30.
1. George Washington Burnap, of Merrimack, N.H. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
2. A Robinson (possibly John P. Robinson of Dover, N.H.) was dismissed from Harvard in May 1823 for causing “disorders and outrages” (Records of the College Faculty, 10:27, Harvard Archives; Harvard Annual Cat., 1822).
3. John Thomas Philip Dumont, a senior from Boston (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
4. Possibly this was the class-day tree ceremony, during which shouting seniors, dressed in odd-mated clothes, scrambled for a wreath of flowers placed high in an old elm tree, located near Holden, Hollis, and Harvard halls (Cambridge Sketches, ed. Estelle M. H. Merrill, Boston, 1896, p. 91–92).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-14

Wednesday. July 14th. VII.

Missed Prayers and recitation again this morning, although I had cautioned Richardson last night to rouse me which he did, but sleep overpowered me and I fell back again and did not awake until I found Otis laughing at my surprise. I could not help doing so too although it was a serious matter. My negligence has been singular and nevertheless it appears to me impossible that it should have been less for I appear almost forced to every bit of it. I am marked for four recitations this week, two of them I could not avoid. I certainly preferred Mr. Nuttall’s Lecture to a recitation which could not profit me at all and yesterday I could not study.
After breakfast I attended Mr. Channing, who continued his subject of the different methods of criticism. He spoke of the class of Annotators to old books and poets, and also to books which had an immediate bearing upon the professions, these last were the most voluminous, they pretended to explain obsolete or difficult passages and terms, and also to give the sense of their author in their interpretation. This was not productive of much good as every man entertained his own opinion and laid it down in dry prose, so that it was of more injury than it was worth to a good author to break off in a fine passage to examine a dull dry note giving you no information in a great deal of [words?]. The fact was that with these men, the difficulty was that they added notes where no information was wanted and gave no satisfaction whenever some was. He then passed on to notice Literary Reviews of the present day, he sketched their history { 239 } and their influence. The Edinburgh Review he said had obtained an authority over all matters of taste and there were many advantages in it for they checked all incorrect style. But one disadvantage in the system was that it forestalled public opinion, it brought a fashion of superficial reading too much into habit. Persons were contented with extracts and satisfied with the representation whatever it was which the reviewer chose to give to his work. Here was an opening for injustice and a habit which was a bad one.
Tudor went this morning with his puppy and I felt singularly upon [it] for I have become quite attached to him, the traits of his character are so directly catching to a young man that it is impossible not to be pleased with him. His unpopularity at College has been singular, and has originated for the most part in Southern prejudice.
I have never given Wheatland’s Character. It is such a compound of vanity, Narrow mindedness, malignity, and benevolent feeling that I cannot exactly ascertain the true ingredients. His system of bullying, over Richardson and Otis, I did not like at all, and his weakness finally exposed him considerably. His envy made him angry with many here who were in better circumstances and made him slander many unfairly. He had no spirit of justice in his likes and dislikes, and would repeat stories concerning men, of a nature which he knew to be incorrect or exaggerated, without observing the cause however small it might be which made him say so. He was withal kind to inferiors, and to those who were sick, when his envy was laid by any mortification on another, his kind feelings predominated. His prejudices changed quickly when an opportunity offered for soothing them. He loved distinction, and therefore took the character of an eccentric man, or as they call it here, odd. He was in consequence visited respectably without having to support the expense. Above all his ruling passion was Economy. Thus much for him, I shall see him but little hereafter and shall remain content with the idea of having spent a year with him on friendly terms.
We went to Mr. Hedge this morning who read us a Lecture upon the subject of Moral Philosophy. It was attended to very much as usual, and I although I attempted something like it in the beginning, do not think worthwhile to detail it. In the afternoon we went to Mr. Farrar at three o’clock and he kept me up to go through two lessons and gave me something of a screwing as the students call it. He has so much rapidity in his manner that his enumeration of figures confuses a young man and his severity when you are wrong depresses considerably. The rest of the afternoon I spent writing up the Journal { 240 } which has at last I believe got up to its proper regularity and I hope now that the Seniors are gone, that it will not again become a trouble to me. After Prayers, I drilled my Squad as usual, they did not perform at all well and I was quite in a bad humour when I went to the usual Meeting. After which I returned home, got my lesson and retired much on the usual hour. The Sophomores were fined four dollars a man for combination to be absent yesterday from Mr. Hedge. X:30.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-15

Thursday. July. 15th. V:55.

Attended Prayers and the last recitation in Enfield. I am rejoiced at this as it has been an exceedingly disgusting book from it’s length. We commenced somewhere in July and have been studying it the whole year except the first term. It is a work too which by the progress of Philosophy wants much correcting. I do not think young men ought to derive their ideas from a book of this sort, because erroneous impressions are with great difficulty worn off. There is much in Astronomy it appears to me, which might be left off as it hardly is worth the trouble given in studying it. Our next work is Topography and this I believe is our last in the course of Mathematics at Cambridge. This is much consolation to me. For I cannot be pleased with mere mining although we do obtain, I will not say gold for I do not think it so precious, I will say, copper, which makes up by its currency and use for want of value.
This day was our’s as the other division read Forensics to Mr. Hedge in the Morning and in future we have no lesson in the afternoon on this day of the week, for the rest of this term. I wrote my Journal in the Morning and spent an hour and a half foolishly at the bookstore this Morning endeavouring to select a book as a present from Tudor, and did not succeed after all.
I also went to the Reading room and was a good deal affected by seeing a piece in the National Journal evidently from the hands of my father, which possessed all that bitterness and caustic severity which he is so much noted for.1 I regretted this as it will be made a handle against him for accusations which have been made already and although I think that the printers have acted in a most scandalous manner I am afraid that they will turn his own high feelings against him. For my own part however, I am anxious that he should show himself what he is and preserve that lofty character which has been matter of so much satisfaction to himself already. Whether the people of the United States do give him the honor or not is doubtful but were I no relative to the family of this I am sure, that I should think him { [fol. 240] } { [fol. 240] } { [fol. 240] } { [fol. 240] } { 241 } the greatest, I am not certain that I should not say the only candidate, who is fit for the high office which they are putting him up for. He may not, he will not obtain it, but he will retire from his office with the proud satisfaction of having done his duty to his country.
I am satisfied in either way. My opinion would not be altered as to his merit nor do I think that a contrary decision would be the voice of the majority of this people. I returned home considerably anxious and have thought much of this since. I cannot help being interested although I endeavour not to be, and my wish continually is that it was over when I should know what would become of me. The time is fast approaching and a few months more will settle the affair.
I read Plutarchs life of Themistocles, this Afternoon, and read a Chapter in Mitford. The leading feature in the character of this man appears to have been unbounded ambition, he had a high mind which despising trifles looked only to those great ends which were to make him a man, and a hero. The anecdotes told here concerning him tend remarkably to this belief and set off this part of his character strikingly. If he was eager to obtain money, it was only that he might gain more influence, for avarice was no part of his composition. On the whole I think he is certainly as great a man as Aristides. I do not know but that I could say a greater. In Mitford, I got to the time of Pericles, and the end of the first war with Lacedaemon. At this time Athens was in it’s greatest glory, the most powerful, the richest, the most elegant and literate commonwealth of Greece which was the first in arts in the world. We begin here to trace the causes which led to the destruction of this power, which made the people licentious and which finally brought on ruin upon the republic.
I attended Mr. Nuttall’s Lecture today upon the Gynandrous plants and upon the classes of Monoecia and Dioecia of Linnaeus. It was not an interesting lecture nor a very instructive one as it requires peculiar attention to be given to it for some time, a mere lecture being scarcely sufficient to explain even the general character of the flower. I took a nap this afternoon unintentionally by which means I lost an hour. On the whole however I spent the day very profitably and after Prayers gave my section a squad, they did better but not so well as usual, they have exercised so much of late that they are not to be calculated upon so much. My pride has obtained a little healthy mortification by this. After the usual meeting of the Officers I returned home and spent some time in getting the first lesson in Topography, at least not the first but one in Heights and Distances. I then read my Bible and retired. XI:15.
{ 242 }
1. Ostensibly because the National Intelligencer had failed to print all the documents relating to the slave trade convention the Monroe administration had negotiated with Great Britain but instead had published only a selection of the papers hostile to that treaty, JQA had authorized the publication of official papers from the State Department in the rival National Journal. The fact that the Intelligencer was neutral on the presidential question, while the Journal was devotedly promoting JQA’s chances, doubtless influenced the Secretary’s decision. When the editors of the Intelligencer objected, JQA tartly defended his action and announced: “The Secretary of State asks neither the favor or the friendship of the Editors of the Intelligencer.” See his unsigned article in the National Journal, 10 July 1824, as reprinted in the Daily National Intelligencer, 12 July 1824. For further developments in this controversy, see entries for 17 and 20 July, below.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-16

Friday. July 16th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. Mr. Heyward has cheated the class very unhandsomely out of a miss, as is always usual upon entering a new book. The government certainly have some exceeding mean traits in their character and I think this late fine1 is one of the most remarkable instances of this character that has yet been shown. Had they punished them by public admonition, I imagine it would have had the same effect and would have been more honourable.
I attended a lecture of Mr. Channing’s this morning on style which appeared to me one of the best he has yet delivered. The first thing which we do, he said, is to analyze the feelings of the person writing, and his design. His method of expressing himself whether manifesting any force of genius or not. There were two classes of men he said, and with this he commenced his observations upon the utility of books for style, very different from each other but each striking particularly by contrast, the one was that class of men who have always applied themselves to books exclusively and have spent all their days in a library. They will tell that now there is nothing like originality, that a man is little else than a fool who attempts to do any thing out of the line marked out for him by older and standard Authors. What use they say or what advantage can be derived in attempting to do a thing which has already been done better probably than you are able. If you ask them whether conversation is not a good way of procuring knowledge and instruction, they will tell you that at best it is a very loose way of gaining information and that much time is lost which might be employed in study. If you ask them whether it is not well to walk out and study the face of nature, observe it’s beauties and enjoy the productions of the earth, They will say it is wasted time, for what is the use of taking much time to learn that by experience yourself, which you can { 243 } soon get by that of others. Life is too short for a man to obtain all knowledge of personal experience, we must trust to others who have gone before us. It is better to give up some of the knowledge than merely be a book worm.
There is another class as common or more so in the world and far more disgusting, when met with. It is that which rejects all books as the restraints and trammels of genius, which arrogates to itself all knowledge from an instinctive possession, who would only feel curbed by rules, and become tame when they could be great. Many characters there are who do aspire to this eminence but there are very few who truly are in this way affected. There are some. Vanity and Indolence however generally prompt this sort of boasting and are on this account exceedingly unpleasant. He said that reading was principally of use to store the mind with facts and images which by thought become our own. Almost all others may be charged with plagiarism if taking figures from others may be considered so, but he did not think it was. In reading, Ideas did not pass into the Memory sometimes but were retained insensibly as subjects of meditation until they came out entirely new modelled. He then went upon a little Metaphysics, he talked of the operations of the mind while awake and asleep and at last resembled it to a man who could direct a stream through innumerable channels in his garden. He might stop one and open another but he could not create or give force to the stream. A man might give his mind direction in it’s thoughts but he could not stop them or create them. But I have said enough of this lecture although much in the first part I have omitted—the advice as to reading also which, I might judge, was nothing but the medium between the extremes he described.
I employed the Morning in writing my Journal and reading a capital review on the subject of America and abuse of it in the Quarterly, it is a worthy chastisement and exhibits a powerful pen. In the afternoon I attended Declamation. The Sophomores commenced today, they were frightened out of their wits and spoke very poorly in general. After this, I attended Mr. Nuttall’s Lecture on the last class of Linnaeus, Cryptogamia. I read this Afternoon one Chapter of Mitford, concerning the affairs of Greece for the thirty years truce, the wars of Corcyra, Potidaea and finally the grand quarrel between Athens and Sparta. I also read a little of the romantic Anacharsis and looked over my Evening lesson. After Prayers, I gave my squad a drill, they did a little better but not perfectly well. After it was over, I went over to a Meeting of the officers at the First Lieutenants where we practiced the sword exercise, and performed a few of the manoeuvres in { 244 } platoons. The difficulty was however that our drinking provisions fell short very quick, which was a grievous thing to me. I returned home, read my Bible and retired immediately to bed. XI:30.
1. See entry for 14 July, above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-17

Saturday. July. 17th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. Went to the bookstore and Athenaeum, found very little in the papers. Mr. Force has bought the Washington Republican and proposes to publish a daily paper in opposition to the Intelligencer. A number of this latter paper did not come this Morning so that I was unable to see what answer they made to my father. They have the most sliding, misrepresenting villainous way with them that I have ever known in a publication. Though very justly punished, they may do some injury.1 As I am perfectly independent of all this however, I care not one cent.
I returned home and wrote my Journal and read one or two articles of the North American Review. One on the subject of Boccaccio which did not appear of much importance and one on the Tariff which I did not like although it comes from Mr. Everett.2 It appears to me to be reasoning not of the very strongest, but I was in such a languid state while reading it, that I presume it was owing to that. I know not what it is, but my usual energy is gone. Since the interval which I have taken my powers of mind are considerably weakened and any thing but an exciting book puts me to sleep; I am determined to conquer this.
In the afternoon, I remained in my room reading, finished a Chapter in Mitford concerning the first Peloponesian War until the death of Pericles. An account of the famous plague of Athens which made such havoc in the middle of a raging war. The people of this city were unfortunate but the nature of their Government must have prevented their success, for the people had become almost unmanageable. It is a question not yet decided whether a people are able to govern themselves and it is exceedingly doubtful whether even our experiment will succeed. I read the second age of Anacharsis also. He makes romance of history.
I did business with Mr. Porter for the Knights and exchanged my Burns for a set of Johnson at the Bookstore a very advantageous business for me. After Prayers I took a walk with Richardson, returning spent sometime at the Hotel with Dwight and others after which we returned and I read my Bible, having had some pleasant converse with Richardson, went to bed. XI.
{ 245 }
1. The editors of the National Intelligencer denied that they had published a distorted selection of the documents concerning JQA’s slave trade convention (see entry for 15 July, and note, above) but refused to make a personal or political issue of the Secretary’s blunt attack, expressing “our sincere regret that one, who has so many claims on our personal respect, should have permitted himself to use this language” (Daily National Intelligencer, 12 July 1824). The editors then attempted further to pacify JQA by printing all the papers on the slave trade convention in an extra issue of 15 July.
2. Caleb Cushing, “Boccaccio’s Decameron,” North American Review, 44:68–86 (July 1824); Edward Everett, “The Tariff Question,” same, p. 223–253.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-18

Sunday. July 18th. VIII.

Missed Prayers this Morning, as usual with me, this being truly my only morning of rest in the week. As I have not been excused this term, I determined not to attend Chapel today, and seated myself very leisurely to spend a pleasant day at home. In the morning I wrote my Journal and read some of the North American Review. This publication appears to be pretty ably conducted nevertheless and this number has two or three redeeming articles. There is a very amusing review of the late American Novels, giving them the lashing they deserve.1 I do think, the public have been drawn on to encourage some of the most wretched stuff by giving it the name of American. It is my opinion that we have no good writers of a light style in our country with a few exceptions, a very few. All who are good devote themselves to divinity and to politics. We have not become so populous a nation as to make a large tribe of authors, the most miserable beings in existence. Every one can obtain surer and better means of livelihood either from his profession or else from some subordinate one which he privately pursues. Politics engross all the attention of the talent of the country and young men who have ambition have easy means of encouraging it as this people is particularly open to impression.
In the afternoon, I continued with Mitford and finished the Second Volume which brings the History down to the application for peace by the Lacedaemonians. The history of this war is a melancholy account of human nature, cruelty exerted and unbridled, licentiousness of a mob encouraged. The moral sense of the age was not delicate, revenge was indulged to it’s full and society was destroyed. It is melancholy to think of men who really did possess noble qualities destroying themselves for no purpose on earth but the satisfaction of a wretched jealousy. Had this been a united people, it could have governed the world. Valour, heroism, greatness of mind, and love of country were distinguishing traits in their general character. They { 246 } called all foreign nations, barbarians, although they themselves occupied but a very small portion of the globe known as it was at that time, and the noble answer to the Persians dictated by Aristides is an illustrious example of their firmness. The race of illustrious men had now passed away and we now find Athens under the influence of Cleon and fast declining to her ruin. The rest of her tale is but a melancholy account of misconduct, and misfortune. I like the style of this History very well and think the author is desirous to do justice to all parties. He gives as fair an account as possible although he may be influenced a little too much in favour of Herodotus and prejudiced against Plutarch. I do not know that I can speak so certainly on this matter but it appears a little so to me.
Having done this I finished the afternoon with Plutarch’s life of Aristides. As this is all appertaining to the same history, my remarks remain the same. In looking back, over all my employment, I am surprised to find no Poetry or light reading of any sort except Salmagundi for a few days. I am now uncertain which to commence, Cowper or Pope in their unread Poems. My avocations are so numerous now however that I am not certain whether I shall commence till the course of Botany is finished. I read my first lesson in Paley over today. The subject is certainly an interesting one and, treated in so simple a manner as it is by Dr. Paley, I cannot help being pleased with it. I enter into this course with no reluctance and hope sincerely that my good resolutions will not give way in this. I read it carefully over twice and intend every day to pursue the same plan.
In the Evening, I took a walk with Dwight and had some conversation with him on the subject of the Knight Club, on the expediency of admitting any Sophomores. I am decidedly in favour of the measure and he as much against it although I think I can bend him considerably. I returned home and having smoked a couple of cigars at Richardson’s, whom I like better since the Seniors have gone, I read my Bible and went to bed. X:20.
1. The anonymous reviewer of Boston Prize Poems, Boston, 1824, felt that many of the verses “seem to have been written without the aid, and sometimes we should fear without the entire approbation of the muse.” The plot of Hobomok, a Tale of Early Times, by an American [Lydia Maria Child], Boston, 1824, was considered “not only unnatural, but revolting ... to every feeling of delicacy in man or woman” (North American Review, 44:256, 263 [July 1824]).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-19

Monday July 19th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography this Morning. I { 247 } was not taken up as usual. I returned home and after breakfast attended a Lecture of Mr. Channing’s. It was upon the way of writing. He said it was not wonderful that it was an amusement so little popular, for that it required much exertion. A man when he undertakes to write must sit down and first drive away all other thoughts from his mind, he must think upon his subject exclusively, he must not give himself any range in ideas, but must wait and work for his production. It was not proper however when the moment for writing had come to stop the current of the thoughts, as was the case with some in order to correct what had gone before, a person should write upon the impulse of the moment. Nor should he stop until he was to look over the whole for the sake of correction. Nature is the best auxiliary to powerful writing. It was the habit with some to write very quick he said, and they were able to do so from practice and because their ideas always lie on the surface. They have a few common places to say on every subject. Writing of this kind was shallow and weak, however this was not uniformly the case for there were some who could write from the inspiration of the moment as strongly and as richly as they ever would be able to do. These were great and uncommon geniuses, and not very frequently occurring. He expressed himself as fully believing the dictum of seasons of inspiration or at least that men could write much better at one time than at another, which Dr. Johnson speaks so severely of. This man however is no admirer of Dr. Johnson in any thing, and when he does allude to him does not do it with much respect. Though I myself do not think much of Mr. Channing’s method. Study does exceeding well to form a style but practice is as good and, if one can write handsomely without deep study, I think it has more effect. For my own part if study is to form style I do not think I shall be so fortunate as to become a good critic.
As soon as he had finished, I returned home and studied my Paley until recitation time. I have had some idea of making an analysis of this book but on the whole I hardly thought it worth the trouble. He writes in a style so simple that I shall not be afraid to trust it to my memory. At ten we attended recitation and I on being called upon acquitted myself very handsomely. After it was over, he detained us with a very dry lecture upon the subject very little varied from Dr. Paley and an explanation of his system of Utility which we have not yet seen. This over, I spent the rest of the morning in looking over the lesson for tomorrow.
After dinner, I spent an hour at Otis’ looking over the lesson in Trigonometry which was quite long. At two, I attended Mr. Nuttall’s { 248 } lecture upon the Roots and Stems. He gave us examples of the different roots, but the afternoon was so oppressively warm, that I could do nothing. My attention was not in my power. His lecture was very long and detained us until after three. I hurried home, and spending a few minutes more in going over the lesson, attended the recitation. He was so concerned with others that it was not in his power to give us more than a few minutes attention, not enough to approach me with his quizzical face. He has the most singular countenance when he is in the least interested that it is with great difficulty that I can avoid laughing. At last I obtained a respite. This is the most busy day in the week with us, and I have not one moment of leisure time from the Prayer bell in the morning until four o’clock. We have but three more of these however and then enter upon our last College Year. A most august situation in my former recollections when I little thought of being here so quickly. The remaining hours until Prayers were devoted to the writing of my Journal which before I had not been able to touch.
After Prayers I drilled my section but was very much dissatisfied with mine, they never conducted themselves in so shameful a manner since I have had them. They at last made me exceedingly angry and I gave them a lecture individually upon the subject which made some impression upon them. I was afraid that I should get the character of harshness which would very probably be the case from what I have been told as the impression I first make. I was therefore too lenient and appeared too well satisfied with moderate efforts. When I had piqued them they began to do exceedingly well. I was obliged then to dismiss them having recovered my good opinion of them. This is probably the last time they come out together under me. After drill I spent an hour with the Commandants as usual. When I came home, looked over some hard sums without doing them, read my Bible and went to bed. X:40.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-20

Tuesday. July 20th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography this morning and was taken up upon a sum I did not understand but I managed myself from it with success. Indeed this morning I had only time to go to Brigham’s room and look over some sums when the bell rung so that I could only copy them and study the explanation out myself, in the short time of recitation. After breakfast I went to the reading room where I found the answer of the Intelligencer to my father. It is exceeding lame but handles the subject precisely as I supposed it would, taking the ground of magnanimity and forgiveness of injury.1 I was { 249 } angry at the man’s confounded duplicity, consequently did not finish the article but returned home to study my lesson in Paley, the subject today was human happiness. The author has a simple way of writing his opinion without ornament or finish. He writes directly to the point. Attended recitation after which I employed the time until dinner in reading the lesson for tomorrow.
In the afternoon I wasted one hour in conversation with the students after dinner, so that I could do nothing but look over my Trigonometry for this afternoon before the time for recitation. We attended Mr. Farrar but did not recite very long for as usual he had quantities of students reciting to him. I was taken up and recited very satisfactorily to myself. In fact I have been considerably pleased at my recitations of late, because they stand on so light a foundation and I am always in fear that I shall expose my ignorance. After recitation I came home and wrote my Journal, and also read part of Shakspeare’s Comedy of Love’s Labour’s lost. I was surprised to find with what pleasure I returned to Shakespeare after an absence of three months. I read over all his passages with great eagerness and was astonished at finding myself so soon at the third act. I could not finish it however before the Prayer bell rung. The three first days in the week are employed so closely that I have not a single minute to perform any thing but my regular duties, and a little light reading.
After tea I drilled my section which was a new one as the company men sized2 this Evening again in order to admit the honorary members. But we were disappointed as these did not take their places but, acting most stupidly, remained standing there after they had come out for the purpose. I lost one of my men, Atherton,3 in which from some unaccountable reason I felt considerably angry, my interest having risen to a pretty high degree in him. My section were exceedingly troublesome to me and irritated me most exceedingly. Brigham of my class, supposing that his familiarity authorized him to conduct himself as he pleased, was very disorderly. In fact my passions became very highly roused and my next order would have been that one of them should leave the ranks had not they stopped in time. I was in a continual state of agitation however and was not in the sweetest state of mind when I went down with the rest of the officers as usual for refreshment. Lothrop was in much the same sort of humour. It required only a spark to start the flame and Cunningham illadvisedly applied it. I blazed out instantly and we had quite a warm discussion. It would have become exceeding sharp, had he continued any observations upon the subject. He has an amazingly great idea of the perfection of { 250 } soldiers without recollecting that it is not often that men who have been drilled for so short a time can do so well and he ought rather to be mindful of their excellencies than their trivial faults. He has some foolish ideas about the company which experience only will correct. In consequence of this short dispute however, the evening was very stiff and unpleasant. We became all very grim and did not continue conversation with pleasure. We soon broke up but Lothrop and I sat down before the area near Massachusetts4 and vented our illfeelings for a considerable time and becoming soothed in this way I came home and went to bed. X:15.
1. Unappeased by the explanations of the National Intelligencer (see entry for 17 July, and note, above), JQA anonymously published another attack on that newspaper in the National Journal, 13 July 1824, again charging that the editors had garbled the documents concerning the slave trade convention with a view to securing its rejection. The Intelligencer once more defended itself against the accusation of distorting the documents, claiming that it had printed all the papers then available. “With regard to the opposition in the Senate . . . to the Convention,” the editors added, “it is very singular, that, to chastise the Senators who rebelled against the Treaty, the Secretary should have bent his bow at us. . . . We approved the Treaty. . . . But, we allowed the publication of a summary of the arguments in the Senate against the Treaty! Hinc illae lachrymae!” (Daily National Intelligencer, 17 July 1824).
2. In military terminology, to size means to arrange or draw up men in ranks according to stature.
3. George Atherton, a sophomcre from Amherst, N.H. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
4. Massachusetts Hall in the Harvard Yard.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-21

Wednesday. July 21st. VI.

Attended Prayers and, after employing the interval in getting my lesson, recitation in Topography. After breakfast I attended a lecture to Mr. Channing. It was addressed to us particularly, upon forming a style. The young are very often heard to say they are learning to write, a very incorrect expression, for they are more properly learning to express their thoughts not forming collections of words. They read classics and poets, they form their sentences in recitation, but this is improper, for in this way they only weaken an original manner and also original ideas. He would recommend youth to learn the proper and chaste use of language by studying it’s idioms, watching the changes of fashion, what words have become obsolete, gather variety of language from old English writers, from foreign nations, read other languages and compare the force of words. Our genius or the style of writing which we are prompted to, must not be thwarted. Style is the picture of a man’s mind and character. We cannot alter it without doing violence to our own natural powers. A man’s writing is dry, he has not read the poets, he has no imagination, therefore it would be { 251 } exquisite nonsense for him to attempt what is entirely out of his kind. There always is a national strain running through authors of the same country, they have similar associations arising from early habits and education, and consequently express themselves in the same way.
Youth does not write well because it just begins to think, and the mind developes as we grow. Nothing is wanting for style but practice. Rules of rhetoric will not form it, they are only helps by which moderate men will obtain something like a good taste. They will be taught the construction of sentences, the proper application of figures and the way to avoid any ridiculous error, which they could not do with their own natural stock of taste. The desire to imitate great writers only weakens one’s own natural powers, there are great advantages in an original style and every man of good mind should indulge his peculiarities, if within the rules of good taste. A man will express his thoughts in his own way, to be sure he may be plain and without much effect, but his friends tell him of this, and that he has not the smoothness of Goldsmith and his easy flow, nor the sonorous and polished periods of Johnson, nor the well rounded, and easily finished declamation of Bolingbroke. He will then change his own style to imitate the beauties of those three, to combine them, and he will become a mere cypher having nothing of his own to recommend him and not capable of gaining those of his models. It is entirely wrong to break down the independent mind. A little that is all our own is better than borrowed abundance. He then made a few observations upon our literature and our attempts to be free from the charge of always imitating, which [are?] in fair train for success.1 The lecture was a handsome one and I have detailed it considerably by means of some very good notes of Richardson’s.
I returned home and read Paley on Virtue, for recitation. At ten o’clock I attended recitation and was taken up but did not recite as I wished to. I nevertheless did very well. After recitation, I, not being obliged to read over Paley, wrote my Journal this morning. After dinner, I read a little more of Love’s Labour’s lost, read my lesson and attended recitation to Mr. Farrar in Trigonometry which finishes the troubles of this work. I have been amused today at the conduct of Cunningham, he was probably surprised at my sudden burst not expecting it from my smooth temper. I think this will do him good, as he will learn to treat me with a little more respect. A young man has many faults generally and those which he is most apt to fall into here are vanity and self conceit. These have been his lot and it will be long although he attempts now to correct them, before he has success. This { 252 } afternoon, I read a life in Plutarch, that of Cimon, he does not appear to have had many of those marked characteristics about him which other of the Athenians possessed. Fortune favoured him full as much, I take it as he favoured himself. This was hardly enough to account for two hours, but I do not know what better to say for them.
After Prayers and tea I drilled my section and they performed very much to my satisfaction. This was the last time, and I with great satisfaction placed them in line and gave up all orders in the manual. It has been considerable trouble and more irritation than I usually wish to feel. They performed very well in line to night and I retired with the rest with great satisfaction. Our evening meeting was pleasanter tonight than last night but none of the superior officers were present. We remained here in conversation until very late this Evening, as it was the last Evening of the terrible part of our time. At ten o’clock I returned home and spent half an hour in drilling Mr. Richardson who it appears has decided to become a soldier although I recommended him not. Indeed he talked so much in his usual doubting way that I thought it would be better for a few harsh words to decide him in some way. I had a singular tremble which made me feel very sore this Evening. I read my Bible and went to bed. XI.
1. Channing referred to the movement to foster a distinctively American literature, avoiding “foreign ornament” and “images, allusions, and a metaphorical language . . . unmeaning and sickly from abroad” in favor of “nativeness.” See Benjamin T. Spencer, The Quest for Nationality, Syracuse, 1957, p. 63, 82, 160.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-22

Thursday. July 22d. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. After breakfast I sat myself down and wrote a theme upon the subject of Lord Byron’s death. It was very easy and fruitful, although my Class have been assuring me that it is already hackneyed. I commenced with a few observations upon his future character and then went on culling the remarkable parts of his character good and bad, as well as I could within so short a time. I then concluded with my own sentiments upon his character, and quoted the late toast of Mr. Sprague’s which I think is one of the sweetest things I have seen for a great while. I shall insert it in my Common Place Book.1 I was obliged to go to the Athenaeum to obtain it, which delayed me considerably and I was not released until almost half past ten, which was the time appointed for a meeting of the Officers at the Arbour. We all attended and went through the form of Parade, and performed all the evolutions which we intend to do tomorrow night. This employed us all the morning. { 253 } We adjourned to the Ensign’s to appoint Markers which we did and took a little refreshment. Some strong punch upon an empty stomach affected us all a little.
We dined and after dinner, I attended Mr. Nuttall’s lecture upon leaves. The heat of the weather made me so exceedingly sleepy that I attended to very little indeed. The leaves were a dry subject and as I could read my own book exactly as well, I was rather sorry I attended. I know not how it was but I spent the whole of the rest of this afternoon in writing my Journal. The listlessness occasioned by the warm weather destroys all power of fixing the mind in writing particularly. My Journal is a weight and in case I feel it next month I shall take leave to abridge it considerably without feeling in the least as if I had infringed upon my first intention.
After Prayers, we received the unwelcome news that Walley the Sophomore2 had applied for Tudor’s room and would probably obtain it. We had a consultation at which Dwight and Chapman attended and found ourselves in a great quandary upon the subject and adjourned without doing any thing. I was affected with a bad head ach, and therefore was glad to read my Bible and go to bed. Every body appeared to be sick this Evening. X:15.
1. In his literary commonplace book (M/CFA/18, p. 104), CFA did copy the toast Sprague gave at a dinner on 5 July 1824 to the memory of Lord Byron:

“O’er the tomb of Childe Harold Greek maidens shall weep

In his own native land, his body shall sleep

With the bones of the bravest and best

But his soul shall go down to the latest of time

Fame tell how he rose for Earth’s loveliest clime

And mercy shall blot out the rest.”

2. Samuel Hurd Walley, of Boston (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-23

Friday. July 23d. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography, and then came home and dressed myself for I am exceedingly hurried in the morning now. At study bell I attended Parade at the arbour and remained there until Lecture time. Indeed I have found what I expected would be the case, that what with the company itself, the preparations and the thoughts, my time will be very much injured. I have lost two valuable mornings in this week by this way. I attended lecture. It was upon the use of words. I was in no state of mind to attend to it consequently shall give a very brief abstract of it. He said a great deal depended upon the right use of words. That in the first place, words were formed according to necessity and on this account it is that we { 254 } have so many synonyms. Our words are almost all of double meaning and refer as well to the mind as to external objects. It consequently requires some study to understand their application and full meaning. A man should study his mother tongue thoroughly. There are many varieties in the fashions of words although it will not do, to be too bold, to introduce obsolete ones or coin new ones, there are many fashionable writers who will give currency to their own words. The first is that it is becoming more and more usual to draw from the earlier sources of the English language. Formerly the use of literature and language would have been dated in the age of Anne but now we refer to the time of Elizabeth. He then made some observations upon the language of this country. It had been stated that we could not preserve the purity of a language at such a distance from the source of it, that we should only become possessors of a sort of provincial language. It was true that many new words had crept in, such as from the nature of the country must arise, and the mixed state of population might injure it a little, but the very fact that we read all english publications and imitate them is sufficient to prove that we have undergone no material alteration and we are now proving that we can write as well as the English. There are many in this country willing to hazard their reputation for writers upon mere essays in periodical publications. All our exhibitions of talent circulate in this way as we have not yet become a Pamphlet writing or book making country. The lecture was a dry one and the heat oppressive.
After lecture I came home and wrote my Journal which was all I did until dinner time. After this was over I wasted an hour until Declamation. Another division of the Sophomores declaimed today, few did well, Goodwin1 was the only one. I did not attend Mr. Nuttall’s Lecture this afternoon, it was so exceedingly warm, I was overpowered. I spent some time in Dwight’s room, and amusing myself there, after which I returned home and literally wasted the afternoon drinking lemonade at Sheafe’s room. My thoughts were running in any direction but one proper to read in so that I with regret shall be obliged for the present to break a fixed habit at the risk of not reobtaining it. The summer term is not one in which we can speak decisively of ourselves.
This was the evening appointed for the first regular drill with all the Officers, and we discussed the probability of rain to the last moment. After Prayers, it did sprinkle a little, but it only delayed us a half an hour. When we were all ready, and joining the Parade, I was most exceedingly frightened and when I took my station before the { 255 } ranks, I could hear my heart beat as well as feel it. We went through it very well and then marched round the town as usual with us to salute the Professors on the first night of the new company. After a warm march we came home having made about two or three mistakes a piece. My finale on the Evening parade was wretched but luckily no one saw me, it was so very dark. From here, I went immediately up to the Knights meeting. It was quite pleasant this Evening. I obtained Sheafe’s admission and afterwards we admitted some of the Sophomores for the first time and one Freshman. I went as a Committee to see Atherton and Phillips2 who both joined. This was what I wished as we have some intention if possible to raise a Northern party in that class. And as the late discussion in the Porcellians has blown the whole of the Southern proceedings, we have a desire by means of the Club to form an opposing power. After they were all initiated, I spent a sociable hour and3 from the idea of such a trouble over with good success. I then went and took a walk with some of the members of the club and returned home to bed, not reading my Bible this Evening. XI:30.
1. Hersey Bradford Goodwin, of Plymouth (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
2. John Charles Phillips, of Boston, a sophomore (same).
3. A word or more was probably inadvertently omitted by the diarist here.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-24

Saturday. July. 24th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. A very remarkable thing indeed after a meeting of the Knights, as I do not recollect doing such a thing before for a very great while. I have however of late been so exceedingly regular that I am desirous of forming a habit. I find that one miss leads on to another until one gets very much out of his reckoning. I have already indulged too much this quarter. The exertion also after all is not exceedingly great and there is a satisfaction in having done properly which compensates for the trouble. This over, I went to College to see if any thing was going on, found nothing particular except that rooms in Holworthy1 had been distributed to our class, this was not materially interesting to me as I had not applied for one. Dwight obtained a very good one. The day was a rainy one, and after a few minutes at the Bookstore, I went and took a bath—the heat and exertion of yesterday having given me that unpleasant feeling of [distress?] which arises from great perspiration. This over I returned to my room but felt so languid and fatigued from want of sleep, that I could do nothing so that I went to sleep until dinner time. I tried to read a little of Mitford and Plutarch but when I found my• { 256 } self sleeping over the book, I very wisely concluded it would do me no good to read so.
Wheatland came up today and moved his furniture, he appears in good health and in a pleasant, quiet state of spirits. I am more happy to see him so than an inmate of the house. I forgot to mention that Walley had declined coming here since he had been given to understand the sentiment of the house. I am glad he has declined, but I am really sorry for the way we have taken, for he must certainly have felt very severely, the treatment he has experienced from us. It was open and direct insult. It was a thing which would have made me suffer most intolerably, and I do not think that in this case, he has deserved it. We all confess we know nothing about the man’s character, and after the fashion of the College, we abuse him, and will probably ruin his character. I know too well the injurious effects of this course of conduct, to be willing myself to doom a man to the fate of my first prejudice without the slightest pretence to impartiality. I think it is the worst fault of College young men.
After dinner, I employed some of the afternoon in writing my Journal, it hangs exceedingly upon the hands and I am more afraid of my resolution for it, than I ever have been. Perseverance however is my motto and with it I hope to succeed. My duty done, I went over and paid Brenan, a visit of half an hour. We began conversing upon the usual subject, the differences existing in College. He was elected a member of the Porcellians at a Meeting last Night or at least in the afternoon and in his own true spirit declined. He is certainly the most singular man I have met with for a long while. With pride sufficient to fight a host, he has no idea of being subjected to the caprices of a pack of self constituted judges of character. I admire his conduct although I do not think I should have imitated it. Mr. Cenas gained his admission yesterday, a man who never would have got in, had I been a member, or had the club existed as it did some little time since.2 The society has not taken a more proper step than this to injure itself in public estimation. I have become of late exceedingly interested in the politics of the lower class as I wish to countermine all the working of a scandalously arrogant party with inferior means in the Sophomore class. Brenan is a good fellow, very impartial or at least as far as he can be. And I think when he makes an attachment, he is fully sensible of it’s value. I was talking very earnestly with him when his chum and Richardson came in which entirely broke it up. We talked afterwards much in the usual way.
I attended Prayers and then after tea took a pleasant walk with { 257 } Billy Dwight as I call him very foolishly. We had an unusual conversation concerning future prospects and I sounded his feelings more on the subject of his own intention than I ever have yet. His mind is by no means made up and he has not that fixed, settled ambition which I once thought he possessed. He is a young man of remarkable mind, strong, sensible, acute and though carried off by very violent passions, I like his feelings the more for it. I returned and after some silly conversation at Richardson’s I went to bed. X:30.
1. Holworthy Hall, completed in 1812, was the “most desirable place for undergraduates to room” (Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 215).
2. The meaning of this passage is puzzling, both because Cenas had been initiated into the Porcellian Club in 1823 (Catalogue of the Honorary and Immediate Members of the Porcellian Club of Harvard University, Cambridge, 1831) and because CFA himself had only recently declined election to the club (see entries for 25 and 27 June, above). Perhaps in his reference to Brenan CFA is repeating the sentiment he expressed earlier (see entry for 28 June, above) that the South Carolinian must have found it hard to decline an invitation to join the prestigious, Southern-dominated club.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-25

Sunday. July 25th. VII:30.

Missed Prayers this morning according to privilege, which I do enjoy most exceedingly, it comes more pleasantly as it is more rare. After breakfast I did very little until the time for Chapel, merely writing my Journal. I attended and heard Dr. Ware preach an amazingly long and dry sermon, which put me to sleep although I had reasonably refreshed myself last night. The President has gone to the Springs for the recovery of his health which would be in bad order from all the accounts we receive of it in the Prayers.
In the afternoon, I took up Shakespeare’s “All’s well that end’s well” and could not stop until I finished it although I was conscious that by it, I retarded my Journal and every thing else for a season. It was so interesting however that I could not help it. There is much fault in the plot of the play, I think, and generally I should call it by no means one of Shakespeare’s best, yet the humour of the clown is remarkable and Monsieur Parolles is no inaccurate hit at an extremely common character, but nevertheless difficult to draw. I did then intend to have slept away the heat but I recollected Paley was not read which stopped me immediately and I went over it attentively. I was however prevented from studying quite as much as usual by the entrance of Mr. John Howard, who dined here, spent the afternoon at Otis’ and just called in to see me. It is a more difficult thing to get along with this man than with any one I know. He has I know not what about him which debars all conversation on any pleasant subject. His stiffness, { 258 } his affectation and his vanity have so run away with him that it is out of the question to speak of any thing but self with him and this is too sickening for me to attempt. He has some high feelings too, and in a short reference to the conduct of the Porcellians, I was amused at his vivacity, and force in his reply. Thus we remained until the time for another sermon from Dr. Ware which was dryly and heavily passed, in vain attention to him. The Chapel was amazingly warm however and prevented all comfort or ease even in sleep.
After tea, I took a walk with Richardson and upon returning went with Sheafe to Willard’s for a little refreshment this exceedingly hot night. We met Rundlet there and spent an hour in conversation of some sort or other, principally on the old and, I should suppose the worn out subject of College popularity, and affairs. This company has interested us so much of late that we have talked more about it than we otherwise should have done, at least I should for I had no idea of becoming interested in the matter. We remained here longer than I intended and on my return, I found it was the doleful week in which we had to study our lessons in the Evening, which I accordingly did and read my Bible and retired. X:30.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-26

Monday. July 26th. V:10.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. After breakfast attended Mr. Channing’s lecture upon the right use of words. I trusted too much to Richardson’s notes and as he took none, I have very little to recollect. The first part was very much of a recapitulation of what was said in the last lecture, he again spoke of our desire to return a part of the obligation which we have received from the Mother Country and again adverted to our improvements. His general subject in this lecture though has entirely escaped my mind and I merely recollect some observations upon the application of words. He said that there were few words so common place that they could not at times be applied with singular force. He said he thought it was from this that the cold but studied and elegant declamation in well arranged sentences had so little success when compared with the natural effect of a speaker or writer of but common words. From thence he made some strictures upon the Irish Eloquence which has of late attracted so much notice. He regretted it had obtained so much currency here, he feared the taste of the people would be corrupted, it was gaudy, without the least substance. He was happy to say that its effect had not been such as he had supposed at one time it might be. As to the application of words, he illustrated it in Shakespear’s famous expression of “Not { 259 } a jot, not a jot” which he said was more powerful confessedly than an elegant circumlocution could be. His other story or rather observation was concerning a French writer, who in making observations upon Shakespear came to the dialogue in Hamlet where they exchange the watch, and censured the answer to a question “Have you had quiet guard,” “Not a mouse stirring.” He said it ought to have been a long declamation concerning Neptune, which would have in effect made the play a stupid piece of bombast.
After lecture, I came home immediately and read my lesson in Paley over until ten o’clock. He discussed the reasons of Moral Obligation and gave us some specimen of his doctrine concerning utility. I think his argument is generally powerful but I cannot agree with it, there is something debasing in the idea that interest is the only motive which should influence us to a correct course. I wish to have the ground taken which we saw in a previous chapter, that vice gives no more happiness than virtue, and to form on this a system of morals which shall equally apply to all men. I think that this however is a very good system for practical purposes as most men will be governed by what they suppose their interest. I attended recitation but was not taken up. After it was over, I went home and read over my lesson as usual for tomorrow. I believe this to be an excellent plan and I have always wished to practice it but never could succeed until now. I went to Mr. Nuttall’s Lecture at two o’clock. It is a pity he does not adopt the system of questioning more, it would be of infinitely greater advantage, as I can testify, as I certainly learn more in the little while before he commences than all the time that he is talking. The day was exceedingly warm so that it was fortunate our lesson to Mr. Farrar was nothing material or I could not have got it. I attended recitation and as usual recited a very small portion in a very short time. On returning I wasted some time drinking Lemonade at Richardson’s after which I came down and met Whitney here from Quincy with an agreable note from my Uncle to me in which he amply provides me with ammunition to carry on the campaign with success.1 I had a little conversation with him upon the people at Quincy. Mrs. A. has gone to Haverhill. Mr. A. is to follow.
I then employed the rest of the afternoon in writing as much of my Journal as I could, but this weather completely overcomes a man. I could do but very little. After Prayers and tea, the Company came out and drilled for an hour and a half. They performed many manoeuvres but not very accurately. I became considerably flurried by the quick succession of orders but made but few mistakes. The weather { 260 } looked threatening so that we were soon dismissed. After it was over we went down to take some refreshment as is customary with us upon such occasions. The Evening was spent pleasantly. Amory,2 the former first Lieutenant two years since, happened to be caught by the rain here which came on with some brilliant Lightening. He came in and staid with us half an hour. I was much pleased with him, and his conduct, it was perfectly judicious and showed him a thorough man of the world’s best “ton.”
Returning home I spent a few minutes at Sheafe’s conversing with Richardson. I have discovered some thing new in this man’s character since our expedition to Nahant. He is malignantly envious, his little mind dwells with feelings of the worst sort upon the trifling superiority of any one in the smallest thing, and in his foolish way, tries to say things which he intends shall bite. He has got into that way of insinuating faults and qualifying praise which is the sure sign of an envious man. This way of his has a pretty [sore?] effect upon me, and as I am so unfortunate, as to be his superior in fortune, family and education among our friends, I am exposed to a great deal of his insolence. He had a double share this Evening. And as I had felt a little [word omitted] in the Company, a sort of feeling of loneliness came over me when I came downstairs which made me most exceedingly unhappy for a few minutes. I know not how it was but it was one of those moments which are the only things a young man here is exposed to make him feel wretched. They arise from a want of a brother or some family friends in whose wishes for your welfare, you can be perfectly confident. I have many friends but none whom I would trust or confide in at such a time as this.
I went to bed and soon lost myself in sleep.
1. Missing. The “campaign” was presumably CFA’s effort to secure enough money to pay for his uniform and to provide entertainment for the officers of the Harvard Washington Corps.
2. Presumably William Amory, of Boston, who graduated in 1823 (Harvard Annual Cat., 1822).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-27

Tuesday. July 27th. V:30.

Arose and looked over my lesson before Prayers, which I attended, and recitation in Topography. I was not taken up, it being a hard lesson and I not being able to recite, as he supposed. This was not true however for I was. My spirits were in not much better state than yesterday, but gradually I became better and after breakfast laid it down as a rule hereafter to follow, to keep Richardson at such a distance that I could hear no more of his stories nor could be exposed { 261 } to his insulting speeches. I shall as much as possible in future, to [ . . . ] good terms with him, treat him as I did when but slightly acquainted. I wish to try to see if I can succeed in my attempt.
This morning passed singularly quick from some reason of other. I was at the Athenaeum a little while, then transacting business at Mr. Higginson’s1 and finally writing an answer to my Uncle for Whitney.2 I encroached a little in this way upon my hour for Paley and consequently when the time came, I was not perfectly prepared for recitation and therefore did not recite as well as usual. After this, I spent the hour as usual studying tomorrow’s lesson. That today was upon rights.
In the afternoon we had a review with Mr. Farrar of all that we had been over in Plane Trigonometry and we recited very handsomely indeed. This over I did not spend the rest of the day very profitably. I wrote only part of my Journal the whole of which I should have finished.
There is some pleasure, after all, in being an Officer, as it gives some amusement and excitement to the Evenings. After Prayers tonight I scarcely knew what to do with myself so I went and took an extremely long walk with the two Otis’, Sheafe having gone to town. I find that Exercise is a great preservative of health here and that I have not had half the pain or languid or sickly feeling that I had before I was a soldier. I am convinced this is an excellent establishment on this account. And as a proof of it, fast young men are fond of the company merely on that account. Upon returning I came to my room and read and wrote as usual. My Topography, I did not study particularly, as I have not the honour of being taken up very often. Went to bed early. X:15.
1. Possibly Stephen Higginson, Steward of Harvard College from 1818 to 1827 (Harvard Quinquennial Cat.).
2. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-28

Wednesday. July 28th. V:15.

Arose and studied my Topography, after which I attended Prayers and recitation in it. After breakfast we attended Mr. Channing, he continued his observations in purity and precision in language recapitulating considerably. He said that synonyms as they were called should be studied, as there were very few which did not express something peculiar to themselves, and varying in a slight degree from each other, to give, for instance, to bestow, to grant, to yield and many others had some little singularity in their meaning, so that it would hardly be proper to substitute one for the other. It was the knowledge of these { 262 } distinctions which it was so necessary to obtain, the niceties of language would preserve a man always from ridiculous blunders. It might be asked however, what was the use of such minuteness when one could be understood perfectly well without. To this we can answer that correctness distinguishes the gentleman and man of learning from the ignorant and it is the great barrier in society. Having thus closed with this part of his subject, he went on to the discussion of figurative language, first asking what definition there was, he said he had seen none sufficiently correct. Figurative language, it had been said, was a direction of external objects to the mind in order to illustrate and adorn. He thought this hardly distinct however as there was much figurative language which could not come under this application. The lamentation of Eve in the eleventh book of Paradise lost at leaving Paradise is highly figurative but it is all description or at least can not come nearer than that here. The true definition of figurative language in his mind was that which is perverted from its original meaning in order to affect the passions by some striking position. This was one of two which he gave, the other was not sufficiently clear to remember. This neither obviates his objection nor example, in my opinion. He then stated the general use and pleasure of metaphors, and other figures. They gave a finish to style and refreshed the mind by bringing up agreable images. Words are all made to express some particular quality or object and those who keep these remembrances best in mind will take the greatest pleasure in this sort of imagery.
I returned to my room when this was over and studied my Paley until recitation time. It was upon Property, an easy lesson, and I acquitted myself moderately well at recitation. I think his first Chapter upon Property is not a correct statement of things. I see no resemblance at all to our state of society. We collect no heap for one, reserving only our sustenance for ourselves. Every man collects for himself, to be sure, he collects for and pays others, but these do him assistance in turn by which he is enabled to attend to his business more exclusively. And when one robs, he is punished not for robbing or taking from one in particular, but he would suffer the same punishment, if he took from any other.1 I cannot help seeing a great deal of erroneous representation here. Such a state would not be desirable even with the reasons he gives. Thus I employed the morning, and in the afternoon I studied a lesson in Spherical Trigonometry and recited it remarkably well to Mr. Farrar. I know not how it is but I can get along much better with him in the Geometrical parts of the works than with Mr. Hayward. He has more of the spirit and less of the form. I employed { 263 } the rest of the afternoon in writing up my Journal which in this cool weather I have almost succeeded in doing.
Cunningham was taken sick today and went to town, consequently the Company could not parade this Evening. Consequently, Prayers and tea being over, I went and took a long walk with Richardson for a Companion for want of a better. We went to Sweet Auburn2 for the first time this year. Walking there we met Dwight, with whom we came down. As the difficult part of the week was past, which is a great relief to such a student as he is, he was correspondently elated and made the proposition for a sociable game of cards. We accordingly went to Richardson’s where we sat down. As nobody was in the house to fill up the table, we were obliged to send for Chapman. Dwight also sent for a bottle of Old Madeira and we spent a very sociable, comfortable evening. Otis and Sheafe came up afterwards. This was a little like last Winter, except that it was rather pleasanter as it was more close and compact. It was also unexpected. We adjourned after an exceedingly pleasant state of enjoyment, and I came down, read my Bible and retired. X:30.
1. Paley, in his Moral Philosophy, stated that men gathered property in a heap, reserving nothing for themselves but the chaff and the refuse, and they kept this heap for someone, often the weakest or worst member of the group, who spent or spoiled it. Further, if one of the group stole from the hoard, he would be hanged. See Paley’s Moral Philosophy: with Annotations by Richard Whately, London, 1859, p. 103.
2. A picturesque woodland in Cambridge which attracted romantic young people even after it became Mount Auburn Cemetery in 1831 (Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 207).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-29

Thursday. July 29th. V:20.

Arose and looked over my lesson, but felt so much fatigued that I went to sleep again until the Prayer bell, which I obeyed and attended recitation. I was called upon this morning for the first time since Friday, and in consequence was not remarkably well prepared. I was rejoiced at finding two letters for me in the Post-Office, one from my Mother who has at last returned to Washington and seems to write with much more life than usual, and one from John in his usual style.1 It has been so long since I received one before that really my spirits were considerably affected for the better as I really felt as if I had a home again. My Mother does not appear inclined to come on here this summer but I doubt very much whether she will persevere in her resolution. John is as wild and extravagant as usual, talks about a certain Theresa whom he met at Bedford, and became very suddenly exquisitely pathetical.
{ 264 }
I regretted exceedingly being compelled to withdraw from these and commence writing a Forensic on the negative of the question whether, the fear of man in animals arise from adventitious circumstances. Which I argued in surprisingly short time. It was a very easy subject and all my difficulty was that I had such little time left me. After hearing all the Forensics which were very good today and which forced a compliment from Mr. Hedge, I cannot say which my opinion is and am rather inclined to think that it is much like all other questions of this sort, not worth disputing about. This over, being the last Forensic in the Junior Year, I spent the rest of the time until dinner reading the newspapers.
After dinner, I did nothing until I attended Mr. Nuttall’s lecture upon the unimportant parts of flowers, such as the stipella, tendril, spine, thorn and other little appendages. I have got extremely tired of these lectures as I do not learn any more than I already have. Returning home, I still found Chapman and Otis here, playing upon a miniature billiard table. They had been here ever since dinner. It proves the interest of the game that such a wretched imitation should please. I did nothing of importance but write my Journal, this afternoon. As to reading, it appears to me that I have entirely given that up. I am somewhat ashamed but it does not really seem as if I had one moment of time to spare to do anything. I cannot be angry with myself.
I attended Evening Prayers. After tea the Company was ordered out. As Cunningham had not returned, Cenas the First Lieutenant took his place. He was not much in the Company, last year, and consequently had not learnt any thing correctly. This together with the fright came near exposing him considerably. Luckily a gentle rain, as soon as we had commenced manoeuvring, made us return in quick time. And the company was dismissed in a hurry. I escaped with a gentle wetting. We immediately adjourned to Mr. Willard’s where we refreshed ourselves, we wanted it very much. None of us however were in fine humour. These meetings of the officers are not so agreable as I was inclined to suppose they would be. Our tempers are all three cornered and it is only chance which makes them come compactly together. Lothrop appeared in singular humour, at the appointment of Markers which came round tonight. He displayed feelings which surprised me very much indeed. The Northern feelings which I have indulged of late considerably, have had a fine opportunity for being gratified, as the Northern men have been the superior soldiers. But Lothrop, this afternoon or evening, appeared to be anxious to have some Southern man in, before Lowell2 and Phillips upon whom3 I { 265 } was piqued. It was a singular circumstance but had no effect, for my Candidates were carried by a decided vote. I had no idea of allowing a superiority where there was materially the reverse, and thereby injuring the feelings of certainly that portion of the class which we are most bound to support.
The provision for the Evening made by Cenas was most wretchedly deficient, as it was at his room, and I returned thirsty and dissatisfied with every thing and every body and, now that Cunningham is sick, with but a gloomy prospect before me. The rain had ceased and I returned home after having had considerable conversation and some argument. I came back and read over my lesson and went to bed, feeling again dissatisfied and feeling again a sort of disappointment and disgust. The vanity and mutability of feelings was strongly exemplified in these cases as in any I have ever known. I also read my Bible and went to bed. X.
1. The letter from JA2 is missing.
2. Charles Russell Lowell, a sophomore, was a member of the distinguished Boston family of that name (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
3. Thus apparently in MS, but CFA may have meant to write “which.”

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-30

Friday. July 30th. V:40.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography, fortunately was taken up in the Commencement of the review and succeeded very well. After breakfast I attended lecture after having written some of my Journal and wasted some of my time. Mr. Channing commenced his today’s lecture by showing the similarity between the different sorts of figures of which he treats. These to be sure are few enough and herein lies a great deficiency, he made a number of quotations from the different plays of Shakespear and from Childe Harold to prove that personification was only the addition of a few words to metaphor, or rather I mean the contrary. I could make his quotations for I recollect some of them but it would take too much time and paper. He having run over this subject went upon the discussion of the origin of figurative language. He argued against all the suppositions which derived it from a device to strengthen the memory by associations or to obtain fluency. He supposed it to arise from the spontaneous effusion of the feelings. He argued this, because the least polished languages or at least those which had arisen with the least attention were generally the most figurative. The Eastern languages were by far the most glowing ones and these were [ . . . ] the offspring of nature. It was the most striking, the most beautiful way of expressing one’s ideas. It was the { 266 } impulse which acted upon all men of warm feelings, it required no cultivation, on the contrary was checked by it.
This over I returned home and continued writing my Journal and arranging my room which was in a dreadful state of disorder. This took me up very nearly all the morning. After dinner, I managed to waste some more time. Not writing an answer to either of my letters of yesterday. I attended Declamation and heard another division of the Sophomore Class. One individual, Keith,1 amused us exceedingly. However declaimed very well. I was very tired however before all of them got through. It is most extremely dull work, to sit and hear a number of stupid drones murder some of the finest specimens of English eloquence. If it did not excuse us from an afternoon’s Exercise it would be the most intolerable burden which we suffer under, this is the case in the third term of the Sophomore Year and consequently is well known here.
At last after an hour’s siege we were released. I did not attend Mr. Nuttall’s closing Lecture today because The Rangers, a Boston military Company2 who were encamped at West Cambridge sent us an invitation last Evening to go over and see them parade, which we accepted and I accordingly went with Chapman. The remaining officers went together excepting Cenas who stayed at home. We arrived there considerably too early and were exposed to the heat of a most broiling sun without a shade of any sort near the encamping ground. Our Officers were considerably astonished also when they found what good company they had tumbled into, and Chapman could but ill conceal his feelings. We were politely received by two of the Officers, Gardner3 and Baxter, who appeared pretty well, but the Captain did not satisfy us at all. He appeared some what of a puppy but I know not whether this is actually the case. At any rate the manner in which he received us was far from cordial. There was a great deal of company, and I was surprised to find so many ladies in the collection, as I supposed it to be a scene which would not be very pleasant to modesty. Pratt and Tucker4 of the Senior Class were there and were almost the only ones whom I could see of any acquaintance. They paraded but performed their manoeuvres wretchedly. They afterwards went through the drill for the rifle, which I watched attentively as we have some idea of instructing our soldiers in it. I obtained a pretty clear idea of it from what I saw although it was badly done. I could not see it through, so after a glass or two at the camp for I had need of refreshment from the sun, we returned home to be in time for our evening drill. Cunningham returned today, unexpectedly but much to my joy.
{ 267 }
We did not get home in time for Prayers but we took supper and then paraded. The contrast was striking. Our company outdid itself tonight. But one mistake was made and that was owing to a misunderstanding between the officers and the Captain. We all came off in fine humour and immediately adjourned to the Hotel where we regaled ourselves all the Evening. Cenas was not present being a Deipnophagos.5 We had singing, mirth and merriment until a late hour in the night. XI.
1. Omen Southworth Keith, of Franklin, Mass. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
2. First organized in 1813 (Winsor, Memorial History of Boston, 3:307).
3. W. H. Gardner (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 123).
4. William Pratt and Charles Church Chandler Tucker, both of Boston (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
5. Glutton (Greek). There is doubtless a play on Cenas’ name here; cena (Latin) was the principal meal of the Romans.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0008-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-07-31

Saturday. July 31st. VII:45.

Missed Prayers and recitation this morning for the first time for almost three weeks. This was in a sort of dependence upon a report that had gone about that Mr. Heyward was going to give a miss this morning. A report which proved to be incorrect. The larger part of the class trusted to it, I believe. I breakfasted, went to the Reading room and read the Newspapers. George has some handsome compliments passed upon his Oration (which has been printed) in the National Gazette of Philadelphia and the Boston Centinel.1 Nothing else worth observing. I then went to Dwights and spent an hour with him talking and laughing about the Lord knows what. But principally upon College affairs. I cannot lead him to one subject however, that of an alteration of the laws of the Knights. I want to know his mind upon the subject because since this has become the first Northern Club in College, it ought to be something a little more dignified. I then went into a warm bath to refresh myself from the labours of the week, and as yesterday was a most amazingly warm day, it was really necessary. This over, I was all prepared to go to Boston with Sheafe. We went.
I first made a call at the hatter’s to have my cap altered according to a vote of the Officers last Evening. The visors are to be made similar to those of the Rangers. I then went to Mr. Worsley’s2 for a military Coat and finally went to see my brother George. He had not got home so I sat down and talked with Miss Harriet Welsh. She is a singular woman for fluency of tongue, on any subject. She first talked of the probability of my father’s coming and then talked of Johnson, then of George, then of the fire in Boston and lastly fixed upon politics, a { 268 } vehement discussion upon which was commencing when Miss Mary Otis3 came into the room and stopped it. She is staying here while the house is again fitting up, which was damaged by the late fire. I had an opportunity of seeing the ruins today and they looked really melancholy. I also was able to see the other house, that of Dr. Jeffery4 which was burnt first of all, at least the shell of it. This is not so injurious to the effect of the street as that upon the Mall however, which is lugubrious as Otis calls it. Miss Otis is a young lady somewhat over thirty, I imagine who has been pretty but from some reason or other never was married. She is also rather amusing than otherwise. George came in at last but he was amazingly important on account of some flattering letters to him from distinguished individuals.
Two things, I observed in George today which I did not like, an increase of his already inordinate vanity, and a decrease of his never extraordinary manners. I am sorry for this but shall say nothing. I am afraid that my conduct already has excited remark. I will probe my own feelings concerning him to the very core. Am I envious of him? Sincerely, No. I have no wish that he should be less than he is but sincerely wish he may be greater. Otherwise I should not notice so deeply his faults. Am I thoroughly sincere with him? I answer No, because his conduct while at Washington ruined him as to my respect and I cannot entirely forget it. I see his faults, I wish him to correct them but I have no opinion of the man. A thousand little things, when I am with him, make me believe him wanting in common sense and prudence even with all his talents. I cannot think as highly of him as I do of John. I cannot but despise the weak points in his character, to myself why should I hesitate in saying so. I wish him a happy life and a distinguished course but I fear for him. He is not swayed by that high and immutable sense of pride and honour which ought to be the first characteristic of a great man. I had but little conversation with him as he went to Quincy early.
I then went to the Marlborough where I met Ward Marston and had a little conversation with him. Afterwards Sheafe came along and we set off directly for Cambridge, not the shortest way though for we went over the Mill Dam and stopped at the Franklin Hotel5 where we played Billiards the rest of the Afternoon. The table is a pretty good one and very easy to play at. I succeeded in beating Sheafe with some ease. We returned to Cambridge at a little past seven, and took tea after we paid visits to Brenan and to Dwight whom we found reading the new Novel Red Gauntlett by Scott.6 I spent the time until after ten when I returned home and went to bed.
{ 269 }
1. No reference to GWA’s oration has been found in the National Gazette. The Columbian Centinel (31 July 1824) praised the “style, energy, and spirit” of this “literary banquet.”
2. John S. Worsley, of Hobart and Worsley, Tailor, at 1 State Street (Boston Directory, 1823).
3. Mary Ann Otis, daughter of Samuel Allyne Otis and Mary (Smith) Gray Otis (Columbian Centinel, 22 January 1831); see Adams Genealogy.
4. Presumably Dr. John Jeffries (1796–1876).
5. Located on the corner of Congress Square and Devonshire Street (Boston Directory, 1825).
6. Sir Walter Scott, Redgauntlet, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1824.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-01

Sunday. August 1st. VIII.

Missed Prayers this morning as usual and from a slight indisposition sent Sheafe to state it to Mr. Hayward. I employed the Morning in writing answers to my letters received on Thursday.1 I always feel contented when writing home as my thoughts revert there with a sort of calm pleasure as a residence of happiness. I did not write so long a letter as usual today to John, because there was but little material in his own letter to afford me any subject. It was too much on a single subject which is the general fault of his letters. And although Thyrsa is amusing upon the second page, she becomes marvellously flat upon the third. I could say nothing to it all. I wrote to my Mother upon a subject which I have long had in mind, and which it was my intention to dismiss had not she invited me to it in her last. It was upon the state of affairs at Quincy and Abby’s Washington visit. I think I gave my opinion on this subject here long since.
When Sheafe returned, he informed me that Mr. Hayward was unwilling to excuse me unless I felt myself sufficiently unwell to stay away tomorrow from the exercises. This is a singular decision of that gentleman’s. But I took no notice of it, for I felt too slightly unwell to do more than remain in the house all day. I had a little inclination to a nervous head ache which I did not wish to agitate or increase. I remained at home exactly as usual, and spent the afternoon writing up part of my Journal which has fallen somewhat behind hand. I had a singular visit from Mr. Otis2 who had come out to see his son. He not being at home, he came to my room for a pair of spectacles. He looks ill and appears to be breaking down very fast. I have not seen him so near for some length of time, and was surprised at the change. My Journal employed all the time I was not asleep or reading over my lesson in Paley for tomorrow.
After tea I took a walk with Richardson and Sheafe and we collected a number of specimens of flowers. As Nuttall has now finished his course and I have gained all the information I am about to, I intend { 270 } to examine a few examples now and then without any view to forming a collection, but merely to keep my memory fresh as to the general terms and flowers. I found two or three correctly this Evening then read my Bible and went to bed. X:15.
1. These “answers” are missing.
2. Harrison Gray Otis (1765–1848), wealthy Boston lawyer, chiefly remembered as an eminent Federalist and as a participant in the Hartford Convention. For his long and distinguished career, during which he usually supported JA but disagreed with JQA, see Samuel Eliot Morison, The Life and Letters of Harrison Gray Otis, Federalist, Boston, 1913. Otis had a tenuous family relationship with the Adamses. His stepmother, Mary (Smith) Gray Otis (see Adams Genealogy), was first cousin to AA.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-02

Monday. August 2d. V:40.

Attended Prayers and recitation this Morning in Topography. I was taken up first but did not manage well at all. The subject of Projections is an exceedingly dry one, and without much amusement even when we study it, which is not the case with Mathematics in general. After breakfast, we attended a Lecture of Mr. Channing’s in which he continued and closed the discussion commenced last time. But there was not much which could be called new. He talked about the right use of figures and went over the very same ideas over again which we have so often heard. He talked to us about originality and weakness on this point and said as usual. I am glad his lectures are drawing to a close. He has said so little to us of late which is of any importance that really I think it is wasting time. I recollect very little remarkable from all he says. After it was over I returned to my room and read over the lesson in Paley until ten o’clock. It was a discussion of the origin of landed property and the commencement of a chapter upon promises which was our day’s lesson. Mr. Hedge in his observations today upon the fallacy of one of Dr. Paley’s propositions referred us to a work by a Mr. Gisborne1 which he says is a good refutation of his opinions. A book which I shall take the first opportunity to read. The hour after recitation was spent as usual in reading tomorrow’s lesson, and the remaining half hour was spent in a nap.
After dinner I wrote my Journal all the time which I had to spare from Mr. Farrar’s lesson, which did not take me long. We attended his recitation, but did very little this afternoon. In the Evening the Company paraded as usual. Cunningham was bent upon doing one manoeuvre which in my mind, we cannot perform. Be that as it will we did not succeed once tonight. On the contrary, we brought the company into terrible disorder—and I became as usual exceedingly { 271 } irritated. The fact is, I was in bad humour when I came out, as I found we were about to waste the Evening in many useless manoeuvres, and as we have no time to lose, I thought it was shameful. The soldiers were never better inclined, and never were more fooled with. After it was over, there was no Meeting of Officers tonight, luckily for our peace. I went down however with Rundlet and Chapman and we sat there until pretty late. I then returned and went to bed. X:30.
1. CFA’s copy of Thomas Gisborne, An Enquiry into the Duties of Men in the Higher and Middle Classes of Society in Great Britain, 2 vols., London, 1825, is in the Stone Library, along with another two-volume edition published in London in 1797.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-03

Tuesday. August 3d. VI.

Attended Prayers and, after the interval, recitation. After breakfast, I went to the reading room and saw a number of violent pieces against my father which I did not take the trouble to read. They are making a dreadful fuss about the last treaty which I do not understand or at least do not take the pains to examine.1 Time passes swiftly to one reading newspapers so that it was past nine o’clock before I had got seated to my lesson in Paley which was a continuation of the subject of promises. The lesson was easy however and I had got it pretty well yesterday. This plan of mine takes off the burden of the week very much. After recitation I studied as usual and took a nap which is a singular practice I have lately and perhaps not the most proper one. It was a cloudy, gloomy sort of a day however and I could not resist the temptation.
After dinner, I got my lesson in Trigonometry and recited it to Mr. Farrar very well. The rest of the afternoon I employed in writing my Journal which at last I succeeded in bringing up again. I then studied military tactics a little while to understand the principles of what was done last night but I could find no such thing as the evolution we practiced. As it had rained all day, we could not drill this evening and after Prayers, I went and took a walk with Dwight and Rundlet. We had some interesting conversation with respect to the Knights as our course must now be strictly prudent, the other club having met with a misfortune on Friday night which has given the Government a handle.2 I sounded them upon the plan which I have in my head and they appeared well disposed. We then got into a discussion upon Cunningham’s character which was not the most in his praise. The fact is that I have seen too much littleness in this man’s character, too much small vanity and pride which renders any man contemptible with naturally high and correct feelings. He has managed queerly to destroy { 272 } much of his proper tone and has assumed a style which makes him unpleasant. His pride interferes dreadfully in the place where I see him most and where he should have had the least of it. I hope he will improve. When we had returned, I went with Rundlet to the Hotel and we spent half an hour there pleasantly. By the time I spend here I may appear rather dissipated, but I imagine it is in effect less so than I ever was before. I returned home, spent an hour talking in Sheafe’s room and then came down to bed. XI.
1. This was the convention JQA had negotiated with the British for ending the slave trade (see entries for 15, 17, and 20 July, above), which was rejected in the Senate chiefly through the hostility of Crawford’s supporters. See Bemis, JQA, 1:433–435.
2. The faculty admonished juniors Cenas and North, sophomores Potts, Robert N. Carnan, of Baltimore, and Edward Carrington Marshall, of Richmond, Va., as well as a Whitney (one of three then at Harvard) for having a “Festive Entertainment.” Lowndes was placed on special probation for the same outlawed festivity, and sophomores Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte and James L. Murray, both of Baltimore, and Adolphus Peter Jouve, of Charleston, S.C., were suspended and rusticated from Harvard for three months. See Records of the College Faculty, 10:75–76, Harvard Archives.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-04

Wednesday. August 4th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography but was not taken up as usual. After breakfast, we attended a Lecture from Mr. Channing. He talked today of the unity of figures. He said it was important to preserve unity in figures in so far as that they should not be incongruous. There were few however who came up to the exact critical definition of unity, but this was not necessary. He then referred to Shakespear who was seldom within the exact rule although his figures are beautiful. The fact was that with him, he never was bound by rule, he followed his thoughts wherever it would lead, he cared not whither. This was a fault. But then who would think of being able to imitate such faults. Shakespeare stands alone, and when we talk of his faults, we speak of them as of things which we shall never fall into. How was it with Milton, who as he had studied the rules, should have been confined within the strictness of an epic poet. If we go according to Blair’s definition however, he1 is not often correct, which is that the figure should be such as a man might sketch with a pencil. It is not necessary however that we should follow this, as there are many things which the mind can perfectly imagine which the pencil cannot delineate. He is very happy in his figures and his mind appears so rich that it throws forth one after another in continued succession, the last more brilliant than the first. It is his great power so to illustrate by { 273 } a figure as to render it doubtful to the reader which to admire most, the description itself or what he compares it to. He then made one or two quotations or extracts at least, the resemblance of the host of angels in hell to autumn leaves strewed about the ground, a pleasant subject to draw a resemblance from, but one which in this situation creates a greater feeling of horror in the mind than the strongest language could have done. This was a fine lecture so far, the rest was a mere close of the subject by hurrying over the different parts of the subject as to the directions where to draw figures and how to keep them distinct. He gave some instances of incongruous metaphor in which he thought the mind was unconsciously impelled to form these figures not considering the general end of the sense but the particular idea in the passage. Two or three instances such as untying an intellectual knot with a beam of light &c. &c.
After Lecture was over, I returned to my room and studied my lesson in Paley until recitation. The day’s lesson was upon different sorts of contracts. I think his remarks upon debtors are very just as I never have had my mind made up as to the matter. Much has been said in this country on the subject of making a law for debtors but I am in doubt whether it will be of any advantage. It is one of those questions which may be handled with much argument on both sides. I recited what Dr. Paley had to say upon the subject and as I had read it carefully, I did very well. After recitation I came home, wrote my Journal and felt joyful at the end of the week’s labour.
In the afternoon, I went to recite to Mr. Farrar, finishing Spherical Trigonometry excepting a short note. I have succeeded much better in this than I had any idea that I should. I came to my room. The Boston Light Infantry came out and as I wished to see them, I ran down and round by which I missed them as they went by my room. I wished to see their caps. My curiosity being excited concerning military appearance. I did very little I must confess for Dwight happened to come along and we had some conversation concerning the prospect for the Knights which is rather dark as Murray, Bonaparte and Jouve 2d were dissatisfied on account of the late affair in the other club. This course of the Government’s has frightened every body as by this it appears no body is safe from their vengeance. Our club stand their ground pretty firmly however. Few seem to be much frightened. I then had some conversation with Otis upon the same subject. This was stopped by the bell for Prayers which we obeyed.
After tea, the Company drilled without music for the drummer disappointed us. We managed to perform much more without his { 274 } presence than we should, had he been here. Cunningham was not tempted to move them so much. Some of our performances were not so exquisite, particularly the single favourite of the Captain’s. We at last succeeded in performing it to his satisfaction. We did much more, progressing almost to my satisfaction. I made but one mistake and that of very little importance. We were nevertheless considerably dissatisfied with Cunningham. We had a meeting of the Officers afterwards at which we were pretty harmonious. The upper Officers retired before we did, so that we had some opportunity for conversation which did turn out in a resolution I will hereafter mention. Adjourned, I came home and retired. XI.
1. Milton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-05

Thursday. August 5th. VI.

Attended Prayers and, after the interval, recitation in Topography. The lesson was nothing this morning as we went over some of our former ones. After breakfast I sat down and wrote a theme upon the subject of the prejudices against the liberal professions. It was the most difficult for thoughts that I have written for a great while. I could hardly make out any real prejudices. It appears to me that there are none except those vulgar ones which are too weak and coarse to notice. I wrote therefore quite a short theme today. I carried them up, he made but four observations upon that on Byron, which was returned as usual yesterday. I do not believe he read the larger half. I received a letter from my Mother of the most curious sort. She tells an amazingly long story to me about an affair which has happened at Washington, and an attack upon my father in consequence, otherwise a coarse publication against him in one of the vilest of the Washington prints. She appears to be considerably affronted by it—more than I should have thought.1 I rather imagine however, it was for want of something else to say to me.
The day was very fine indeed. I spent the Morning in writing my Journal and in the afternoon went to ride with Allyne Otis in a new chaise. One of the most beautiful establishments I have ever seen. Mr. Read2 has just bought it, certainly the prettiest thing he has ever had. We first passed the encampment of the Light Infantry which looks very pretty—then went on, passed Mr. Amory’s pretty house and went through Watertown and Brighton until we arrived at the Franklin Hotel. We stopped here and played Billiards. I find I am beginning to recover my former game, for I was able to beat Otis considerably { 275 } out of patience. He abused the table and every thing else about it. We did not return in time for Prayers, by about one minute.
After tea, we had a drill, in which for once the Officers were well satisfied. No mistakes of any importance were made. And we progressed rapidly, performing all the usual manoeuvres excepting two. I was much gratified myself with the appearance of the company. After parade was over, we went to the Hotel and sat there as usual. Cenas and Howard had a quarrel on parade. This evening, the representation was made to Cunningham to which I referred yesterday. The Under Officers considered it their duty to state to the Captain that he must retain his dignity more than to address private individuals in the Company, that it was taking away the Office of the Commandant and degrading us in the eyes of our own sections. We had rather a warm conversation on the whole but we did give him a lesson which I imagine, it will not be his turn to correct soon. Hereafter there may be a chance of his erring a little on the other extreme but this is more desirable. We ran a little in double quick time to please the soldiers which had effect. We retired at about ten after having had a very pleasant evening. I returned home, read my Bible and retired. X:30.
1. As an act of charity, JQA, at his wife’s request, endorsed a note for a Mrs. Moulton, of Washington. She was alleged to be a woman of bad character, however, and JQA’s enemies pounced on the story to blacken his name. His chief detractor was John B. Colvin, whom JQA had dismissed from the Department of State two years earlier for neglecting his duty and for lampooning the Secretary in the Washington City Gazette. See LCA to CFA, 29 July 1824, Adams Papers; JQA, Memoirs, 6:94–96.
2. Presumably Joseph S. Read, a saddler located at 11 Exchange Street (Boston Directory, 1820).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-06

Friday. August 6th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. Came home and spent the time until lecture in writing my Journal. Last Evening, I took more Wine than I usually do, which had the effect of making me exceedingly feverish today. A slight head ach came on which I made some attempt to avoid but without success. I could not, on this account, attend so well to Mr. Channing’s Lecture today. It was upon [structure?] of sentences. He said that it was usual to pay considerable attention to these, as to make them harmonize happily. There are many ways of forming them. Sometimes including in one sentence what might be made three or more distinct periods, and at others, writing sentences with much diffuseness every part of which should depend on each other. He referred to Gibbon and made a quotation in three independent sentences were included in one.1 He then went on to notice { 276 } the way which some had followed, of rounding off and forming their sentences in a peculiar way. He did not by any means approve of it. Many had a fashion of contracting their thought and rendering it obscure, merely for the sake of making it correspond with the rest of their sentences, and of amplifying an idea so as to make it weak for the very same reason. This was the fault with Gibbon and it was a great one. It was really a pity that a historian like Gibbon in research and learning should have a manner of writing so difficult to read. He would venture to say that he could not nor could any one recollect one third of what Gibbon had written.
He then spoke of Johnson. When one had been reading one of his long unmeaning sentences, the reader might be tempted to ask what all this meant. But Johnson must nevertheless be allowed to have succeeded admirably in what he undertook. And as he is a single instance, it is hardly proper to make him an example in a sort of style which almost every body else would have failed in. He therefore recommended to us not to cast our sentences but to write naturally and to combine, as much as possible, sound without any injury to the sense. He said after all, he was inclined to think that the prose of some centuries back was the purest and the best. An intimate acquaintance with such writers as Milton, Hooker and others of an age as far back, would make a man more experienced in the beauties of combination which our language possesses, than any of the thousand slovenly or bombastic books of our day. We might charge them with quaintness but after all this may be said to be only the fashion of the day. These men certainly knew more of the powers of the English language than any of their successors. He did not close the subject.
I returned home and amused myself the rest of the morning in reading Twelfth Night which had so many attractions to me that I finished it although my head ach was quite powerful. It is a pleasant play to read and there are many beautiful passages but it is faulty as it goes upon a resemblance which is extremely improbable. This injures it’s effect in some measure but it is Shakespeare still.
In the afternoon, I heard McLean2 declaim together with others in the Sophomore class. He is certainly one of the most natural, least constrained speakers I have yet heard. He delivered a speech in the House of Representatives of Virginia upon duelling in the last session. But one fault I saw and that was, that he was too vapid. Morgan was ridiculous and Palfrey3 was really awful. After declamation was over which was in pretty reasonable season today, I dressed myself and went with Chapman to Medford, first as a ride, and returning rode { 277 } over to the encampment of the Boston Light Infantry where we stopped according to invitation to see their parade. I saw Quincy and Amory the two Lieutenants.4 There was a great deal of company here today and the encampment had quite a different appearance from that last Friday. They went through the Rifle drill and indeed all their evolutions in much better style. But still there is not that correctness which is witnessed in the drill of our corps here. It now became time to return from this scene of dissipation, for such it was and we came down meeting quantities of company going to Mrs. Amory’s party. We did not get back to Prayers.
After tea we drilled as usual and again were exceedingly well satisfied with our companies. They certainly are admirably instructed. We had a little too much of the double quick time and hardly formed columns enough, but the captain in fact is rather afraid of confounding his orders. Parade over much to our satisfaction, we, some of us, went to the Hotel and sat there a little while but I was so fatigued and sick that I went home and, after a little conversation at Sheafe’s, I came down and very quickly went to bed. X.
1. CFA’s inattentiveness is appropriately reflected in this garbled sentence.
2. Cornelius McLean, of Washington, D.C. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
3. Cazneau Palfrey, of Boston (same).
4. Possibly Thomas C. Amory, ensign of the Divisionary Corps of Independent Cadets, and the younger Josiah Quincy, who was an ensign in die Third Brigade, First Division, of the Massachusetts militia (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 122–123).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-07

Saturday. August 7th. VI:15.

I missed Prayers this morning, not hearing either bell. I arose however in time to attend recitation in Topography. After which I returned home and breakfasted. I had no peculiar destination today, having some idea of going with Dwight upon a party somewhere, which I gave up however as I saw he was not much inclined to receive me. I spent an hour this morning at the reading room; the New York legislature have convened and we shall now see what is the result. I suppose the Presidential question will be fully settled at Albany in the course of the next week and one of two candidates will obtain the thirty six votes of New York. Whoever does obtain them will get a large helping hand to the chair. The senate have acted as they did last winter, the House have also done their part so that the difference remains now to [be] settled and how it will be done, wiser heads than mine must determine. I shall wait the result with patience. My father is undoubtedly the most popular man in New York. But management has obtained a superiority there.1
{ 278 }
I returned home and spent the morning quite indolently. I wrote my Journal, and amused myself with Shakespear’s As you like it which delighted me most exceedingly. I was more in humour to laugh at wit or at least at quibbles than I usually am, and this play abounds in them. There are many sweet passages also. The soliloquies and observations of Jaques are admirable, his character is beautifully hit off. I can read nothing else this term, listlessness has made such inroads upon me that my habits of industry are gone, and I know not whether they will come again in my College life.
The Boston Light Infantry passed through for Boston this afternoon appearing very much the worse for their encampment. They have had a very pleasant time for it and have enjoyed themselves very much in it. They are not remarkable for any thing however except terrible dissipation. I then sat down to write my Journal and attempted to do some thing besides but did not succeed. I was compelled to sleep an hour and a half of the afternoon away and waste part of the rest. I can do nothing the remainder of this term. Listlessness is upon me and I feel that I am to do nothing but laze away the time. Luckily Brenan came in at about five and we talked away all the rest of the evening. He visits me when he can find me at home in a leisure afternoon which has been seldom of late. I like his conversation and company very much, he is a much more agreable man alone than he is with company. I am amused at his sarcasm and feigned severity of character. When he first came here, he was dissipated and had not the means afforded him which he saw other young men from his part of the country had, he therefore took it into his head to be melancholy and this affects him more I believe at the present moment than it ought. I cannot help feeling for him as I know was I in the same situation, I should be as weak. This, time should have blunted, and it has somewhat. But still it somewhat throws a gloom over his character. We had some conversation on indifferent topics, a little on Cunningham who is no favourite of his. I do not think much of the man, but still I defend him from motives of party spirit, in some measure, and from a liking of other parts of his character.
After Prayers Brenan took tea with us and I then walked as far as the bridge to Boston with him. Here we had a scientific discussion of character, and a great deal of conversation upon the subject of the party prejudices here, observations upon Miller, Hunt and others and upon the affairs of the Porcellians. I then left him and came home but as it was rather too early to go to bed, I sat down and read two articles in the last Number of the Edinburgh review which I found at my { 279 } room when I returned. One was rather severe. The other was a light review of a fashionable [ . . . ] of French Romances,2 one of which I read in a translation, but the sapient translator did not come to the conclusion of the Edinburgh Review, that it was a satire. Retired early. X.
1. See entry for 8 June, and note, above.
2. “French Romances,” Edinburgh Review, 40:158–169 (March 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-08

Sunday. August 8th. VIII.

Missed Prayers this morning and was at breakfast about the usual time. I employed my Morning in reading Ossian principally and writing an answer to my Mother’s letter.1 I was more pleased with this author than usual this morning because I read more attentively. The figures are remarkably beautiful although they are very much like each other. There is hardly variety enough in them. I used to like detached pieces of it and it was always associated in my mind with the highest flights of poetry—but I never could read it. By this, I find one important thing, that my poetical taste has developed very much latterly. My letter home was a singular one, it had not much of anything. It was a remarkable collection of dangerous expressions and foolish sentences. Some opinions hazarded which would do me no good, if they were known. I then attended Chapel and laboured through a long sermon from the President which was sufficient to disturb a saint. I could not delight in it.
My Bible somehow or other manages to get behind hand every little while although it appears to me, that nothing can be more constant than my attention. I found myself five chapters behind what I ought to be and I can recollect no evening when I missed. I made them up today. I have given no opinion of the Bible, not so much because I have made none, as that I could not do it. I have perhaps also singular ideas upon the subject. I cannot reconcile to myself much of this book with our present code of morals and I am inclined to think that this part of the bible will merely be used as a sort of reading book without any uncommon respect. I may say more when I am nearer to it’s close. In the afternoon Dr. Ware gave us a character of Moses which might have improved my Bible history knowledge doubtless had I attended to it but unfortunately I was asleep.
I read my Paley lesson over for tomorrow and one or two more articles in the Edinburgh Review which is highly critical this time. It had rained and looked so threatening that I did not take any thing like my usual walk tonight but sat in Otis’s part of the evening and { 280 } part in Sheafe’s, doing nothing, but talking most foolishly about nothing at all. I have been so out of the habit of doing any thing in the Evening that it is impossible to read. At nine o’clock I came down, read my Bible, looked over my lesson which reminds me of the unsuccessful week and went to bed. X.
1. Both letter and answer are missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-09

Monday August 9th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. Was taken up and acquitted myself with about as much propriety as usual. After breakfast I attended a lecture of Mr. Channing’s, in which he made a few remarks upon the structure of sentences, in continuation, particularly in reference to their unity. Every sentence he said should be perfectly comprehended by itself. There should be no meaning to hunt for any where else. A sentence should invariably explain itself, and is always faulty, either when it has too much left to be understood, or when words are placed so together as to injure the signification of each other. He had read many authors he said, who wrote well enough except that they had such a fashion of twisting their sentences that it was necessary to go far from the original meaning of the words to get at the supposed meaning of the author. Otherwise the sentence was absurd. This was an evil particularly to be avoided and, although it was not desirable to have much diffuseness as to make style weak, it certainly was proper to have it, of full clearness. A young man if he went by the rules given for criticism by Dr. Blair might find much fault with every author in the English language even the most classical, and would despair but it is by no means necessary to be so absolutely close. It is hypercriticism. His lecture was remarkably short and gave me time to go down to the Reading room and see what the papers said.
The New York legislature will probably do exactly as I supposed, that is, will adjourn without any farther ceremony. The Senate have passed a vote concerning the Governor, the house have passed a vote that it was expedient to pass an electoral law.1 Thus has this ridiculous affair ended, on one side a political job has been exposed, on the other many fruitless conferences to [run?] their candidates for the Presidency. My father in my opinion has lost his election and if it is so, it has been managed by the most tremendous intrigue that has ever been carried on. Men will not hesitate for power to do many exceeding scandalous things. But this is nature and although I cannot help it I am sorry. It remains to see of the seventy five votes in the Legislature { 281 } now how many will be in my father’s favour in November. I must say I have felt considerably interested in this election and cannot conceal that I shall feel sorry if my father does not obtain it. A life, spent in the public service and almost exclusively devoted to it, ought to obtain so high an honour. His competitors are so much his inferiors, also, that it is mortifying to suffer a defeat. This is what my father would feel and this only. His high spirit will ill bear to see a man whom he despises governing a nation partially and feebly. But if so, it must be, I am resigned.
I returned home and read over my Paley lesson but not with so much attention as usual, my thoughts would wander from one thing to another all the time, and it was impossible for me to help it. So that at recitation time I was not so well prepared as usual. I know the lesson well though and went in without fear, I was taken up in the review however and recited very well. After it was over I went home and read tomorrow’s lesson upon Oaths. That today was upon Lies, a very ingenious essay but doubtful. But I did not pay that attention to the lesson, which is usual with me.
After dinner I wasted the afternoon in an attempt to get a lesson in Trigonometry, or rather it’s Appendix. The lesson was not difficult but I only half understood it when I went in. I came off much as usual. I spent the remainder of the day in writing my Journal. The weather has been remarkable today. A perpetual series of thunder and lightning and rain.
After Prayers the Company was not called out but, there being music, there was a voluntary drill. Almost twenty six came out and we, the Commandants, were compelled to tug about with six men each. I never felt so ashamed of myself in all my life. Cunningham as usual gave a number of wrong orders, and we were confused by not performing an order correctly on account of not recollecting the difference between single and double rank manoeuvres. In truth we cut a most lamentable figure, and injured the company considerably, I am afraid. We were dismissed as we found that nothing could be done and the clouds threatened more rain. It was well for in five minutes we had a very heavy thunder shower. Although there was no meeting of the Officers, I had considerable conversation with Cunningham and Chapman after which I returned home, looked very indolently over my lesson, and retired. X.
1. The failure of the New York legislature to pass an electoral reform law, which was supported by JQA’s friends who had formed a “People’s Party” on that issue, caused such an uproar that the governor called a special session of { 282 } the legislature in August. The assembly passed the reform bill, but the senate adjourned without acting. Before going home, however, the legislators, under tight Regency (Democratic) control, removed former Governor DeWitt Clinton, now an Adams supporter, from his post as canal commissioner. The move was a costly mistake for the Regency, since Clinton was popular as the father of the state’s canal system, and his outraged followers gave new strength to JQA’s candidacy. See Dixon Ryan Fox, The Decline of Aristocracy in the Politics of New York, N.Y., 1919, p. 286–293.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-10

Tuesday. August 10th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography in which this morning I was exceedingly unsuccessful as I trusted to Mr. Heyward’s usual forbearance. But I was taken up in a part of the lesson which I had never seen and of course recited very elegantly. After breakfast, I went down to the Reading room. Nothing of much importance. I managed to waste an hour though and came to my room late for my lesson in Paley. This is the only one which I have neglected at all or at least so much that I could not have recited well. I went to recitation at ten o’clock not knowing much about the lesson but trusting to the class going in together and my not being taken up. I calculated correctly. The class were in but half an hour as this was a sort of half-public day here. The students of theology read dissertations today and an unusual quantity of company came to hear them. Mr. Hedge being desirous to hear them, and to give us an opportunity, made us come together and kept us in so short a time. I am sure, I am not one of those anxious to be edified by a parcel of, generally speaking, very contemptible people.
I returned home and read a long article in the Edinburgh Review criticizing a work by a Mr. Brodie called a Constitutional History of the reign of Charles 1st.1 It is a severe notice of Hume’s History of that time. I intend when I again resume my studies to read carefully this part of Hume as it has always been notoriously partial and I shall make my own comments upon it. This review being a whig publication goes perhaps a little too far. How little can we trust to the pen of mortal man, his prejudices will lead him off for ever from the path of right, altho the moralists might lament. The formation of rules is an admirable thing but they go very little way indeed when man is tempted. History after all is only a record of passion and even in it’s composition it mingles the very worst. A man if he wishes to know how wicked the world has been may read history, the same may be said to be sure of virtue, but a perfectly virtuous man is what we have not found, a thorough paced villain is not so uncommon a matter. { 283 } This review was a very long one, I really thought I should not finish it, but I succeeded although my lazy habits were in arms.
After dinner I spent the afternoon in Otis’s room learning Napier’s rules in Trigonometry which I performed very hastily.2 Attended recitation. After this, I spent the afternoon writing my Journal and looking over the book of military tactics. After Prayers, we had a drill. It was an exceedingly long one and very fatiguing. The company at last got to be very mutinous and I doubt much whether they would have served any longer. I was myself in a high flame not with the officers but with the soldiers, and came very near asking Brigham to leave the ranks. He is my most obnoxious soldier and has my most hearty wishes to be absent. We had a meeting of the officers and argued throughout the regulations of the Government, which we find much more galling than we thought they would be.3 We had a thorough discussion and fixed our plan of conduct for next exhibition throughout. For my own part I do not think the Government will take any notice of little infringements. The plan was settled and I was satisfied. After considerable conversation further we adjourned and I returned home, read over my lesson and went to bed. XI.
1. “Brodie’s Constitutional History,” Edinburgh Review, 40:92–146 (March 1824).
2. This entire paragraph appears on a leaf at the end of D/CFA/4 and is preceded by a note reading as follows: “Note to p. 179 [on which the above entry for Tuesday, 10 Aug. 1824, appears]. Owing to a mistake I commenced the journal for Wednesday before I had finished that for Tuesday which I am obliged consequently to insert here.”
3. See entry for 17 June, above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-11

Wednesday. August 11th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. I was left in peace this morning for once. After breakfast, I attended Mr. Channing’s Lecture which was today a sort of treatise upon the question, how far criticism might be applied to style. There was some diversity of opinion as to this lecture, for my own part however good it might have been, I must confess I did not see a great deal of connection in it. He commenced with a few observations concerning the degree of criticism, or of intention to find fault as custom has almost translated it, with which we should sit down to a book. This, he observed, should be but small. A man must read a book to read it properly, as if not only there was no other copy, but as if he had never read a book before. From this he went off again upon the subject of literary reviews, their bad effects in prejudicing public opinion—literary decrees, he called them, issued periodically deciding the fate of all works. Here I lost him for a { 284 } little while and did not come up with him again until he applied the same power of criticism to poetry. He then commenced this question with some remarks upon the absolute requisites for poetry, but a perfect definition of the word could not in his opinion be given. He then said it was like genius, an inexpressible term but fully understood. He had read all the definitions but none came up to his idea of what it was. He talked some time about genius, then reverted to Poetry and extracted from the Edinburgh Review a definition of it by Dr. Jeffrey1 the Editor of the Work. It was to be sure complicated enough and proved that it is hardly possible to give a perfectly intelligible definition of every necessary quality in poetry. The Lecture on the whole was a singular one and made evident to me that he had patched it as he was in a hurry to close a long series of Lectures. This morning was entirely our own as Mr. Hedge had gone to Westford where he is a Trustee to a School. I spent part of it at Cunningham’s room where we went through a number of new manoeuvres. The Fusileers2 passed through today. They have a beautiful Uniform and appear exceedingly well, on the March. They are all Democrats but not very good Soldiers, nor very respectable or at least very high people, as that party here is generally among the lower class.
I employed the rest of the Morning in writing my Journal and talking foolishly with Richardson who was as unpleasant as usual. After dinner I prepared myself very quickly and attended recitation. As it was the last lesson I did not much care how I appeared. I certainly did not acquit myself very well. Thus have we finished with Mr. Farrar. A thing which has been a considerable bugbear without very serious injury. The studies of the Junior Year have almost closed and every man of my class can now look back and ask himself what he has done and how much he has improved. For my own part it would take some time for me to consider the question, and after all I should decide that I had not done as much as I could have done but, comparing myself with others, I have done a great deal. Had my father done as in my opinion was his duty I should have done more.3 My College studies have been moderate in some branches, in some entirely neglected, and in others studied intensely. I have been pretty wild this year, spent a great deal of money and look with a sort of dread upon the events of the next year. I know not but I have a presentiment of something unfortunate which I do not intend to indulge however. I returned home and wrote my Journal and for a rarity I got my lesson in the interval before Prayers. Blake drank tea with us, he has just returned from a Journey and is now ready to take his degree in all haste.
{ 285 }
We came out to drill tonight and I, already prepared for a difficult time, but we succeeded exceedingly well. All our4 difficult manoeuvres were done very perfectly. They were all new, this company was governed last year by an Officer of an amazingly indolent disposition, who did very little and who knew less. It has never been so well commanded, with respect to interest in the company, not even in Peabody’s5 company. The Officers appeared better being generally handsomer and taller men than we. I was perfectly satisfied tonight and attended the meeting of the Officers with pleasure. Much discussion arose upon different subjects which were all settled very easily, at last, and we adjourned very amicably indeed. I returned home, spent half an hour at Sheafe’s, came down, read my Bible and went to bed. X:10.
1. Francis Jeffrey (1773–1850), who was also a founder of the distinguished quarterly.
2. The First Regiment, Third Brigade, First Division of the Massachusetts militia, composed of Boston and Chelsea inhabitants (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 122).
3. See entry for 13 June, and note, above.
4. MS: “are.”
5. George Peabody, Harvard 1823, who was the first commanding officer of the Washington Corps after it was reorganized in 1822. See Batchelder, Bits of Harvard History, p. 67; entry for 17 June, above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-12

Thursday. August 12th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. This is the commencement of the easy part of this term. But little more to do except these miserable lessons in Topography which I do not understand, and which consequently require but little study. After breakfast, I wrote my Journal up by a strong effort upon myself. I overcalculated my strength of mind and perseverance when I commenced this book. And indeed I have not exactly pursued the primitive intention, as I first wished to write whatever I thought in my book, and not have any precise points to arrive at in writing. As I read so little at this season, I can make no observations upon that subject, and I am not thrown sufficiently often into new company to be frequent in characters. My observations are principally drawn from myself. I finished my Journal and then went to the Reading room where I sat until dinner time reading a little Novel called Highways and Byways,1 in other words a collection of stories. I do not like the style and think the incident simple and hardly worth relating. This I have just found is quite a pleasant place to sit and read.
Cunningham came up and told me good news. Professor Everett has sent us an invitation to his house for Exhibition day. By us, I mean the College Company. We had been debating for a long while what { 286 } we should do with ourselves with the present restrictions2 but now our trouble we find was unnecessary. The other division read Forensics this morning; After dinner, I drove the Captain to the Encampment of the Fusileers at Watertown in the new Chaise. I have seen this Howe3 before. His company being at Quincy last year. He is a rough unpolished man who wished to be exceedingly polite to us but could not succeed. He has not been in the habit of being in good society and, although I have no doubt he means well, I doubt exceedingly his power to please. We came up principally to give the Excuses of the Officers and to make arrangements with one of the band for our music next Thursday. We engaged eleven men being one more than we were allowed by the Government in the last regulations which were issued. This is an advantage which the students invariably take and the Government are most angry with.
We were glad to get rid of his formality and preciseness and hastened on to Boston over the Western Avenue meeting quantities of company going out there to visit them. Arrived in town, my first object was to go and see my cap, which is almost ready. I met Robinson in the street and found that George, whom I had come in to see, had not got back from Sandwich. I nevertheless went to the house but I found no individual here. I spent almost half an hour in his room doing nothing in particular, then sprung up, walked back to the Marlborough, met Cunningham and returned to Cambridge in time for Prayers.
After Prayers, we had a drill. The company generally did very well, my own part of it did not perform quite as well as common because my guide was absent and his substitute was not worth much, although he tried his best. I am afraid we shall not go through all the manoeuvres perfectly on Exhibition day. Cunningham has not been through one night yet without giving incorrect orders and we have but two more drills at farthest. The assessment was declared and appeared to excite some little murmur.4 After drill, The Officers had a Meeting and discussed the remainder of their business. We argued over the old questions of yesterday and decided differently on some points. The laws of the Government appear to trouble us most in two points, a return to Prayers and our Music. Of the former we have thought and thought but it is impossible to avoid it so that we shall attend and appear afterwards. The latter we have avoided by getting one piece of music written and making one play two pieces which will be almost as many as we generally have had. Some conversation concerning our arrangements to return the invitation of the Officers, and as usual a great variety of opinions upon the subject. There is sometimes a little warm { 287 } squabbling between our Officers and one contemptible man has often shown himself deficient as a gentleman. Indeed I do think Otis is contemptible, he has shown a small spirit, for his honour in debts is not, and he suffers himself to be mortified by refusals at the different places in turn, without doing any thing whatever to reclaim his character or to resent the insult. He suffers himself to be trifled with by stable keepers most ridiculously and [as] the invariable consequence he lives his character in College. Adjourned, I went home and went directly to bed. XI.
1. Thomas Colley Grattan, Highways and Byways, London, 1823.
2. See entry for 17 June, above, for the new college rules governing the marching company on exhibition days.
3. Joseph N. Howe Jr., one of the captains of the Fusileers (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 123).
4. The annual assessment for members of the marching corps was five or six dollars (Batchelder, Bits of Harvard History, p. 69).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-13

Friday. August 13th. VI:10.

Arose too late for Prayers, to which I trusted last night to copy the sums which were this Morning’s lesson. I nevertheless determined to encounter the risk rather than not attend, and went. I was called upon, and passed off very poorly indeed. Mr. Hayward has been more gracious to me than is usual or pleasing of late. After it was over, I was comforted with the idea that we had no more to do this day. I wasted the morning in a foolish conversation on the subject of political parties and talked with Otis about the difference between the terms Federal and Democrat, which is not very perceptible at present.
We then went to Lecture which was contrary to custom in the Chapel, as a Committee were examining the philosophical apparatus. I was distracted from the newness of the situation in that I was unable to bear in mind so fully his observations of today. He1 began with some observations upon Poetry. A man who wrote, he said, could very properly be called a Maker, and in this way it had been customary to define a Poet from very ancient times. Invention, he said, was one of the principal characteristics. And in it was generally shown the power of the Author. Take Othello, for instance, and require a Narrative or Epic Poem to be made of it. You would observe the method the Poet takes, the arrangement of his incidents and the way he describes. These are the qualities which make a distinction of Poetry from Prose and, without them, we have nothing but measured prose. It was this power which had made Milton, Shakespeare and so many others Poets. He said that Poetry was a combination of Passion and Imagination. These were the acting powers in all the poetry of Byron and Scott. { 288 } All the description was set before one in such vivid colours that the mind cannot help being struck with the pictures. This also in prose fiction distinguished the author of prose fiction who so accurately delineated his scenes that no one could avoid for long the effect of them. He was inclined to believe that this was not all the man’s own doings. That every man immediately pictured to himself a scene where any thing is passing even though no accurate descriptions are used. He has one more lecture which I shall not be able to attend probably. He took notice of the different sorts of meter today merely to pass over them as being out of his limits. I do not think he has filled this part of his subject.
The rest of this Morning, I employed in cleaning my fowling piece and putting all my sporting apparatus in order. I also attempted to end an Article in the Edinburgh Review concerning the West Indies2 but I did not get very far before the dinner bell summoned me. After the meal was over I did nothing for an hour but write my Journal and then attended Declamation. There were as I understood eighteen or nineteen speakers which made it very long. I found much to my surprise that I was to come on at the next time. Walker3 declaimed pretty well but taking it all in all I think the Class is a very inferior one in this point. The exercise was amazingly tedious. I spent the rest of the day at my room as we had another thundering day. It rained also with amazing violence. I wrote my Journal, and was visited by Richardson and Sheafe for an hour. The conversation as usual was insipid. Pacts and College scholarships. These two men are exceedingly amusing to watch. They eternally derive their opinions from others. Sheafe is considerably influenced by me and Richardson, sometimes, when his jealousy or envy at least does not prompt him, and then I have an easy way by arguing against my own opinion. Stability never was the prevailing quality of either of them. The only and the important difference between them is that one has a fine temper and the other has a bad one. We were stopped in our discourse by Prayers which we attended.
It afterwards cleared off but the Company did not drill this Evening. I was quite satisfied on the whole at this decree as we saw the good inclination of the company last evening in it’s vote and those who were of an opposite opinion were not compelled to come out. There was a Meeting of the Knights of the Square Table this Evening at which I attended. It was upon important business. Our future course as a club. After much argument, not much resulted, a committee was appointed to revise the laws at the head of which I was placed, and { 289 } to report next Meeting. Lowell was initiated and we adjourned, The first day Meeting I have ever had the honour to be present at. After this, we, (the members of the Lyceum) adjourned over to the Lyceum, where we played cards4 and drank till eleven o’clock. Cunningham was initiated tonight. We adjourned quite fatigued. I came down, read my Bible, and went to bed. XI.
1. Professor Channing.
2. “Negro Improvement and Emancipation,” Edinburgh Review, 39:118–140 (Oct. 1823).
3. Timothy Walker, of Wilmington, Mass. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).
4. Whist (D/CFA/1).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-14

Saturday. August 14th. VI.

Attended Prayers, but we were rejoiced this morning at finding that Mr. Hayward was absent and consequently we should have a miss. This is a thing which has not happened before for a very long while and was hailed with pleasure by all the class. I returned home and read my Bible. After breakfast I wrote my Journal which took me almost all the morning, the rest, I spent in finishing the article on the West Indies in the Edinburgh Review. It exhibits as dreadful a picture of slavery there as I have ever seen, the Government also is horribly corrupt. As to the plan of converting and civilizing the slaves I do not see how it can be done and they kept in the same way, but he gives some strong instances in favour of the supposition. It does appear to me, a free citizen of a free country, perfectly unnatural that any body else should be suffering the most extreme of torture without power to move in resistance. It is a shocking view of human nature when we look over the larger part, cannot I say all the world. And these men who are eternally crying up liberty and equality of rights are furious in putting them down. Nature is a paradox and daily exhibits examples of the truth of the assertion.
After dinner which was eaten with Sheafe only, I went to the reading room and took up the New Monthly Magazine, the greater part of two numbers of which I read. Not much interesting in it, for I fell asleep in the middle of an article upon the expedition to find a passage North of America.1 I returned home after taking a warm bath on this very cold day. I read a number of Pope’s letters.2 They appear to me by far too studied and cold, indeed they also sent me to sleep, which I did not get over until the bell rang for Prayers which I attended.
Dwight came to tea, he has been away for three days and I went up to his room where I had two hours conversation with him upon different subjects. I talked to him concerning the Knights, and wanted { 290 } to say more but he on the whole turned the conversation. We had some laugh at his account of his adventures at Cohasset and some serious conversation on other topics. He is unquestionably the pleasantest man and the most sensible I find here. I returned home, spent a little while at Sheafe’s and then went to bed. X.
1. John Dundas Cochrane, “Advantages of Attempting the North-East Passage Round the American Continent,” New Monthly Magazine and Literary Journal, 7:393–403 (Jan.–June 1824). CFA probably read the Boston edition of this periodical, originally published in London.
2. CFA’s set of Alexander Pope’s Works, 8 vols., London, 1812, is in the Stone Library, along with another edition of the poet’s writings, 6 vols., Edinburgh, 1764, and JQA’s copy of Additions to the Works of Alexander Pope . . . with Many Poems and Letters of Cotemporary Writer Never Before Published, ed. W. Warburton, 2 vols., London, 1776. Among JA’s books in the Boston Public Library are three sets of the Works of Pope. See Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 199.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-15

Sunday. August 15th. VIII.

Missed Prayers this morning, the last Sunday in the Junior Year in which I have not attended one single one throughout. Whether this is an objection against my conduct I am not prepared to say nor whether I should [have] felt in the least degree better had I been able to say I had attended them all. After breakfast I read part of Pope’s correspondence with Gay, Arbuthnot and others. It is rather amusing but too formal, polished and complimentary for that sort of writing. He says he can trust nothing from his hands in the way of letters strictly confidential and evidently writes for the press. Some of his language I find very queer, many obsolete or ungrammatical words, the comparative degree used improperly, as deader &c. There are some very excellent observations however, interspersed, the letters from Lord Peterborow1 I like very well.
I attended Chapel to hear Dr. Ware in the morning give us a very short sermon upon the books of Moses, and the President, another upon Filial duty. This was one of his curious productions. He began by telling us that as we were most of us so soon to rejoin our parents, he could see no better season than this for inculcating reverence to parents, he then divided the subject into respect, gratitude, love and obedience, and repeated the arguments usually brought forward upon such occasions. For my own part my conscience was not affected by any of his observations so that I had leisure to amuse myself. I wrote my Journal also in the afternoon and continued Pope’s Correspondence.
After tea I went to walk with Dwight and Richardson and talked { 291 } and laughed about nothing. I then went and paid a visit at Bartletts room for the first time for a great while. We had much argument there concerning the Officers of the next company when God knows whether there ever will be a next company. The Southern and Northern feeling will have a powerful conflict in that class. I was surprised to see Bartlett so tainted, but he takes impressions from the first man he meets with. I left him in great disgust and returned home. As it was early and I had nothing else to do, I continued the Correspondence of Pope and finished half a volume this Evening. I then read my Bible and retired. X.
1. Charles Mordaunt, third Earl of Peterborough (1658–1735) (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-16

Monday. August 16th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning. I copied all my sums in the interval and consequently was well prepared for the examination of Mr. Hayward. This over, I congratulated myself upon having finished the labours of the Junior Year. After breakfast, I sat down and wrote my Journal and arranged all my room. The Cambridge Light Infantry started upon an encamping expedition today to Lexington, they did not look exceedingly well. Their caps are exceedingly unbecoming and the Captain looks no better than a stuck pig. They are in single ranks. I read this morning also a little of Ossian but could not do much being pressed for time. At ten, my arrangements were made and I got into a chaise and started for Boston, having determined to visit Quincy for two or three days as the Sophomore Examination today and the Freshman tomorrow made the days at our disposal.1
Arrived in Boston, I first did my business, obtained my cap &c. &c., then went to see George but could not find him at home, he had not returned from Sandwich. I had intended to have gone out to Quincy directly, but from some delay or other, I could not get there by dinner time, consequently I dined at Dr. Welsh’s. Mrs. Otis invited me to a party on Thursday Evening which I am obliged to decline as I shall have no opportunity to go. I had thought it remarkable that she should extend such civility to me as I have never visited her or made any of those advances which are usual on the part of young men. I do not wish to get involved in the society of Boston and I know many people would be desirous to have me visit them, if I visited one, so I make my neglect general. How to avoid such politeness on the part of Otis, I find myself extremely puzzled to know. I dined with the Dr., his wife { 292 } and Harriet very sociably. After which I went off to Quincy, understanding however that there was a Billiard table at Neponset I stopped and played two or three games to try it. It is pretty good except that the balls are by far too large. I then went on to Quincy, found George here and all the family well. Grandfather looks as well, if not better than usual. I had some conversation with him and a good deal with George on different subjects. Abby is the only one of the family who is not here. I felt very much fatigued as I had exercised myself continually the whole day. George was full of his late expedition to Sandwich, talked of it incessantly. I being tired now went to bed. X.
1. Sophomores were publicly examined on the second Monday before commencement, and freshmen followed on the next day (Harvard Annual Cat., 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-17

Tuesday. August 17th. VIII.

Arose but late for this house as they breakfast earlier here than at Cambridge. The day an exceedingly pleasant one and I was left alone here to enjoy it, for George went to town this morning, although I pressed him very much to stay and return with me. Breakfast over, I ordered my horse and took Mrs. Clark to ride. We went through Milton, returned and went through Quincy. She thus obtained an exceedingly good opportunity of showing off, a thing which she delights in. I had some conversation with her on family topics. She is pretty shrewd and fair when her prejudices do not make her extend her stories, and gave me a very good account of the history of the house since I have been away. We must always go to Women for these sort of things for it is never man’s province. Indeed it appears to me wonderful when I see the little things women are always engaged about, and how attracting they make themselves to men in these very pursuits, as it is always a gratification of man’s vanity when he finds his own superiority so evidently allowed. I believe that vanity is much more of an acting principle than it is generally thought and that Flattery is the most powerful engine which can be used to act upon men. It is exceedingly [word omitted] to have a man praise you even though you know you deserve it. This is called by a different name but it is of the same origin. Susan1 was very communicative with respect to Abby, her temper &c. I believe she wished to sound me and see how it went, but I was very open, not caring much how she might make her conclusions. We returned home in time for dinner.
In the afternoon I commenced this new novel of Redgauntlet and progressed somewhat in the first volume. I ordered my Chaise out again however at four and went to Neponset Hotel to play Billiards. { 293 } I met a young man there who did not know how to play and beat him very handsomely. I was considerably amused at his style of playing and recollect when I used to do exactly so myself. This is a very attractive game and I hardly could tear myself away from it. I arrived just in time to save myself from the disagreable obligation of being waited for at tea. In the Evening I amused myself by talking a little to Grandfather who appears to be most melancholy for want of company now. I also read a little of one of Mrs. Radcliffes horrible novels, The Italian.2 I think she is the author, and went to bed very early, IX:10.
1. Possibly Eliza Susan Quincy.
2. A copy of Mrs. Ann Radcliffe, The Italian, or the Confessional of the Black Penitents, which was first published in London in 1797, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-18

Wednesday. August 18th. VII:30.

On this day I am seventeen years old. Early in life and full of hopes, entering into the world at an earlier age than usual, I can look back and say to myself, this has been spent, how? I have had some variety in my course, part of it laziness, part of it study, part of it folly and part of it dissipation. I have thought much for a young man and had some experience and am become somewhat vain. I now am gradually advancing to the time when either my visions will either be realized or else I shall be a—I will not, I cannot predict what. I am thinking sufficiently often on this subject.
I spent the morning in reading the remainder of the first volume of Redgauntlet. I have been considerably interested in the last part of this book although I do not think he has kept the same standing in this. His scenes appear to be made up in the same style but joined together without care. Indeed this author has made one dangerous innovation in letters and that is he writes with so much rapidity that he astonishes his inferiors who endeavour to imitate him. Hence we have such a crowd of novels in our day. Every one writes fast, thinking that he cannot get hold of the public without it. Scotch novels are all the rage and every body who can write brogue writes well. It is a thing to tickle the world because it is so natural. I was thus employed all the Morning and in the afternoon continued select parts of the Italian. This is one of the fashionable stories of the last age when horror presided and the school of mysteries was so much supported. The inquisition in this novel is made quite a good sort of a place, with more justice than I had any idea was attributed to it before.
I could not stay any longer here and therefore ordered my horse and returned to Cambridge in order to be there for drill this Evening. { 294 } I got there to Prayers which however I did not attend. The Cambridge light Infantry returned this Evening. After Prayers we had a drill which I performed with unusual correctness because I was less interested in it than I ever was before. My being absent for some time has affected me strangely and made me enormously indifferent. After drill we invited the Guides and Markers to our usual Evening’s entertainment as a treat or, in other words, a fish for them. They were all there but one and we spent a pretty agreable evening making speculations about the weather, our dresses for tomorrow &c. &c. I returned home, spent an hour at Sheafe’s and then went to bed. X:30.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-19

Thursday. August 19th. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation this Morning, it being the last Exercise in the term. We found the day to be a pretty pleasant one, except that it was likely to be close and hot. I lounged and loitered for an hour or two about the Colleges waiting for the assignment of the parts for the next Exhibition to be declared. I had some interest in the matter myself as I have been talked of for some time as a candidate for one. My rank, I presumed, should have given me one but they did not think so or, from some other motive, I was left out. I was not sorry as I have a contemptible opinion of the exercise and have expressed myself desirous, if the Government would allow it, to be left out altogether. Should this not be the motive, or a desire that I might have an opportunity to rise still farther, I must confess, I should feel a little hurt, for it is depressing me in the opinion of the students and doing me no personal advantage as a recompense. Chapman received the Oration, according to expectation. I went in at different times, to catch a few words of the Exercises. It was a very wretched Exhibition. The parts in my own Class appeared as puerile as those I have seen at School,1 and the Oration fell short most astonishingly. The fact is, I doubt most exceedingly the powerful talents of Wilder, and always have as he, in my opinion, has never been more than a hard student.
This over, I dressed and prepared myself for Parade. We went over to the Captain’s room where we received company, from thence we went to Blake’s, and there formed the Parade. The company looked very well and the Officers were well set off. We went through the ceremony of receiving the standard and, after a recess of fifteen minutes in which we saw company again, we went to Professor Everett’s according to invitation. We were very politely received, I obtained an introduction to Mrs. Alexander Everett2 and had some pleasant { 295 } conversation with her. She is quite an agreable woman. We went away in about an hour, after having spent it very agreably, our troops not in the best state. We marched them some time and then dismissed them before Prayers which I attended in Uniform. We spent the Evening at the Captain’s room in amusement but I was glad to get away to go to bed being much fatigued. X.
1. The Boston Latin School.
2. Mrs. Alexander Hill Everett, the former Lucretia Orne Peabody; her husband, brother of Professor Edward Everett, was a law student in JQA’s office, then JQA’s private secretary in Russia, and, presently, American chargé d’affaires at The Hague (DAB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-20

Friday. August 20th. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers this Morning, arose, and found myself much refreshed. After taking breakfast I went at Chapman’s invitation to Freshpond as he was going to give a treat to the students who were in town, for his part. Almost a dozen went up, most of them are immediate acquaintances, and we amused ourselves in the morning in rolling at ninepins. This did not take with as much effect however as usual and some to rowing and some to sailing in the boats upon the pond. This is one of the prettiest places any where round. The bend of the lake, for I might call it one without impropriety, makes the place on which the house stands a sort of headland or peninsula and the thick shade of the trees on it which grow close gives it at a distance a very pretty effect. We took the largest boat among the whole, stocked it with provisions for a voyage, and went off.
Our sail was an extremely pleasant one, we had a song and enjoyed ourselves considerably, but as I saw we were likely to have a boistrous return, I pressed Rundlet to get home as quick as possible, some of our number not being in a state to behave perfectly properly. I am fond of social amusements but I cannot endure turbulence. It disgusts me immediately. On the whole however we had an agreable day of it and returned at three o’clock pretty well fatigued. We obtained a dinner or rather a desert at home and sat there sacrificing Otis’s last wine, Fay being still present, the most amazing [ . . . ] of the party. He has not arrived at a seriousness of his being so far in College that it is requisite that he should act like a man.
As we were determined to finish every thing which had the appearance of public property, we went to Lothrop’s where we spent the afternoon. I was so tired and fatigued with these scenes however that I wished myself often away. After tea however, I continued, paid a visit to Lunt the Senior and then went to Cunningham’s where we { 296 } continued drinking wine. I was too tired to stay however. The arrival of General Lafayette1 has excited the nation and it will probably be a cause of much festivity here. We argued the possibility of bringing our company out upon the occasion but have not much hope. I went home and very soon retired to rest after a fatiguing day. X.
1. General Lafayette (1757–1834), the ever-popular Revolutionary War hero, visited the United States from 14 August 1824 to 9 September 1825 as the guest of the nation. Enthusiastically welcomed by Americans, he traveled through the eastern seaboard states and up the Mississippi River. In late August 1824 he came to Boston, attended commencement at Harvard, and visited JA at Quincy. See J. Bennett Nolan, Lafayette in America Day by Day, Baltimore, 1934, p. 243 ff.; Josiah Quincy, Figures of the Past, Boston, 1926, p. 86–132.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-21

Saturday. August 21st. VIII.

Missed Prayers this morning, arose, feeling again restored to strength. Found myself on the eve of being deserted or nearly so. Chapman went this morning and all the rest of my acquaintance except Rundlet and Lothrop will be gone before night so I concluded to make my exit for the present. I spent the morning, some part of it at least, reading Redgauntlet which in the commencement of the second volume becomes rather uninteresting. I read three chapters and closed the book without much regret. I then went home and arranged my room as well as possible. I read a few of Pope’s letters and dined. I wrote a letter also to John, which was of some importance as it was of a serious character and in answer to one of a very serious character which I received on Thursday morning.1 There is something going on at Washington to the bottom of which I cannot see. And I receive dark and mysterious hints about the matter in every letter upon the subject of family affairs. George is concerned and, for all I know John, but it is very certain that I have no connection with the matter. I have suffered too much already. John writes with a little bitterness and my Mother with considerable and I am doomed not to know the reason why.2
After dinner I waited for the Stage two hours and was driven to the conclusion that it had left me. Consequently I was obliged to walk into town, which I did for the first time in my Junior Year, in the course of which, I have also walked out here once. I arrived at my brother’s just in time to gain the stage for Quincy. George announced to me that my father was to be off on Tuesday, consequently I shall be obliged to detain my letter to John, for which I am sorry as I might have done some good by it, and I might have prevented some mis• { 297 } understandings which are the perpetual trouble of our house. I see darkness and trouble in futurity and only wish to God time would disclose the worst and that shortly. I wish only the interval of one year and the power of making up my mind to exertion.
I came out to Quincy in the Stage with George, found the family all well and Grandfather in pretty good spirits. After supper I had some important conversation with my brother, and as I deemed it my duty, I disclosed to him what I supposed to be the case at home in order to make him, if he will, know his situation. We sat up long but fatigue at last reminded us of XII.
1. Both letters missing.
2. The difficulty in the Adams household presumably was caused by Mary C. Hellen, who was transferring her affections from her betrothed, GWA, to JA2. See entry for 6 Sept., below.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-22

Sunday. August 22d. VIII.

Arose and spent the morning reading Redgauntlet and writing my Journal. The novel I finished this morning. It is quite interesting in parts but as a whole, I think it comes below St. Ronan’s Well. The parts appear to me to have been laboured and sometimes finished, but the support of character is not perfect, and the close is not pleasing. There are some very pretty letters but on the whole not written with so much life as those of Lord Etherington. Redgauntlet is pretty well carried through and Nanty Ewart’s story afflicted me about as much as any part. There are some fine natural touches in it. The Chevalier is introduced with some effect although I imagine there is no historical ground for the incidents, nor do I believe that there is much probability that the English government would have acted as they are made to here. But when I say this is an inferior novel, it is only in my opinion inferior to his other novels, for I can trace no comparison between him and others. Nothing can be seen in others and [the] many who ape him which partakes in the least degree of his power of description and colloquial ease. He hits off character more as we believe it to exist than any one, although we may never have seen examples. Cristil [Cristal] Nixon is one of his villains but he does not take the trouble to draw him out.
I spent the afternoon also in writing my Journal but I did not make so much progress as I wished. George interfered with me part of the time as he was also desirous of the only accommodations we have here for writing, to write his part, or poem for next Wednesday to his class. I consequently amused myself as well as I could with a French { 298 } novel I happened to find written in the style of the Arabian Nights Entertainment. With this which for its extravagance, entertained me, I managed to pass away the afternoon.
In the evening, I sat with my Grandfather. Mrs. Quincy1 and Edmund were here and conversed most fluently. She was determined not to spare George and she belaboured him with compliments. It is singular but every body compliments him openly and he takes it like a philosopher. I think George’s character is changing and a little for the better. He is more convinced of the necessity of it and more willing to make the change. We had some amusing conversation concerning College affairs and I talked much of my class, many of whom I described. We sat up in this way until extremely late. XI:30.
1. Mrs. Josiah Quincy (1772–1864), the former Eliza Susan Morton, remembered for her beauty and erudition. See Adams Genealogy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-23

Monday August 23d. VII.

Arose earlier than usual this morning in order to prepare for the Stage to go to Boston. I determined to do so because I do not believe I shall obtain an opportunity after this morning. I accordingly went, walked the streets, did nothing and at twelve went to Cambridge. I forgot to mention in it’s proper place, I believe, that I had received an admonition for wearing illegal clothes,1 some time since. I was so unlucky today as to go to Cambridge with one of the Tutors, with the repetition of the offence broad staring in his face. Mr. Heyward reported me. It does not trouble me though.
Arrived at Cambridge I found Mrs. Saunders’ entirely unprepared for my reception consequently I lost my dinner, a conclusion not the most agreable. I spent the afternoon at the Athenaeum quite pleasantly. I commenced a novel called the Spare Wife but I was so revolted by the style, after the manner of the author of Waverly, that I changed it for Percy Mallory2 which was hardly less so. I managed to go on however until I got so interested in the story that I paid no attention to the style. I met Lothrop who told me that they were waiting for the answer of the Government to Cunningham’s request to come out with the Company. The Captain made his appearance and, upon applying, found the Government had declined his offer. This was no more than I expected but I think they pursue a wrong policy in this respect, they discourage the applications of students when there appears to be little reason for so doing, and encourage a feeling of bitterness towards them which does them no good certainly. This was a reasonable request, and it would have gratified the Students very much, but now { 299 } they will only grumble. Cunningham being satisfied went to Boston.
I attended Prayers this Evening, they were thin, and found that my name had not been taken out by Otis as he promised. There was not a single student in town this Evening whom I knew intimately so I took up Waverley and commenced reading the first, and some say the best of the admirable series of the Novels, which I have often mentioned.3 There is something though in the first part of Waverley which is extremely dull and I fell asleep over it more than once. Indeed having lately read nothing but novels I want something exceedingly interesting. I just began to feel excited at the story when I found it time to retire. XI.
1. For a description of the prescribed college dress, see entry for 29 June, and note, above. There is no record of the admonition given CFA in the Records of the College Faculty, Harvard Archives.
2. James Hook, Percy Mallory, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1824.
3. Sir Walter Scott, Waverley; or, ’Tis Sixty Years Since, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1814.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-24

Tuesday. August 24th. IX.

Arose much later than I had any idea of, and after breakfasting, went down to the Athenaeum but could find no news. Cambridge deserted today because La Fayette is to be received with much form and to make his triumphal entry into Boston. Great preparations have been made and it is expected every thing will be very splendid. For my part I have seen many such shows and have ever disliked them. I therefore did not take the trouble to go to Boston today, but went home and very coolly sat down to read Waverley. As I went on, I found myself more and more pleased, there was something so perfectly easy in the incident and the characters are all so interesting, that a man is led on from step to step until he feels quite intensely. I did not relish it by any means the less because I had read it before. It is rather singular that I have often commenced it but could never get over the tedium of the first five chapters and that, although these very chapters contain some sensible remarks, I read it over but never went farther and, when I read the novel, I neglected these Chapters. McIvor is a finely sketched portrait, Flora also except that she has a little more female sternness than is pleasant in association, and Rose is a little, a very little too milk and watery. The old Baron is admirable, but my friend, the hero of the tale, is little more than a puppet. I finished the first volume of Percy Mallory and was obliged to desist as I could not get the second. A very different novel and one which if I ever finish it, I shall notice in it’s proper place.
In the afternoon, I was interrupted for half an hour by a visit from { 300 } Dwight who had just returned from Salem, where he had been on a visit to Wheatland. He appeared in very good spirits indeed. I attended Prayers, for the last time in the Junior Year, and heard a ridiculously affected Prayer from Mr. Heyward on the subject which the President had spoken so feelingly upon long since. He took his last opportunity and made the most of it. At tea the students came in thick, Wheatland and Tudor came back and we looked somewhat like old times again. After tea I took a walk with Tudor and had some conversation with him. He afterwards came to my room where we sat and smoked all the Evening. He does not appear to be in exceedingly good spirits. Something, but I cannot tell what, weighs upon him. After he went, I remained up until I had finished Waverley. XI.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-25

Wednesday. August 25th. VIII.

Arose and walked out immediately to the Athenaeum. The village was becoming very much crowded as it was the all important Commencement day. I remained here until I thought every body whom I knew had got into the Chapel. There is in me an invincible reluctance to accompany any of my Quincy acquaintance to a public place, as I not only dislike the trouble, but they cling so together and in the flock something “outré” is always to be feared. I also wish to discourage the plan of coming to Cambridge as it is not pleasant to me. I myself went out in front of the piazza of the University and waited there while the procession was forming and for La Fayette to arrive. He did at last among the acclamations of the multitude. He got out and was received by the President with an address which he answered. The crowd was very great. He appears to be younger than he really is, about sixty when he is sixty five.1 He is not a handsome man and never was, he has a pleasant eye and agreable expression in his countenance, with a very winning manner which has taken every where. The enthusiasm of the people with respect to him is astonishing, he was almost prevented from moving yesterday and today there was nothing but a sea of heads to be seen. It was rather affecting as it moves the very noblest feelings in the human heart. The services, the age and the patriotism of this man receive no more than their due reward. They, after this ceremony, all walked into the Meeting House where the Exercises were performed. The house was so exceedingly crowded that it was impossible to get in and after one trial I gave up all idea of it. I therefore amused myself going round the Common observing the display of the passions of men. It was a singular scene and for a quantity of rogues, { 301 } knaves and whores matched almost any in the world. Most deficient however in the last mentioned article. I spent much of the day thus but after the parts were over, which I understood were exceedingly fine, I dined and then went to Whitney’s to see Abby and Elizabeth and carry them to town if it was necessary, but it was not. George then made an agreement to come at seven to go to town and go through the ceremony of inviting La Fayette to Quincy, but no George came and I spent the evening at Richardson’s. XI.
1. Actually Lafayette was 67.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-26

Thursday. August 26th. VIII.

Arose a Senior Sophister at Harvard University. Although the day was not fair, company began to flock in from all quarters. And the society began to show their medals. I got a place to hear some of the prize speakers but there were none worth hearing, it was the most inferior exhibition of declamation which I had ever heard at this institution. I could not hear the whole. I went out, visited Silsbee and returned again, but where Mr. Everett was delivering his Oration before the Φ B K1 the press was so very great that it was impossible for me in any way to endure it. I heard him for about twenty minutes and then came off. I think it is a shameful thing that the students at a literary institution should not have peculiar seats provided for them at literary exercises. It appears to me that Collegians themselves are much the most to be attended as their taste is to be formed, and they ought to have full power of forming it. They have not it now as it is impossible for them to obtain any situation of any sort. I could hear no more of Professor Everett and therefore gave up all idea of it. This I regretted as the passages I had heard were really fine and I had understood, since, his final close was quite affecting. He hailed the general La Fayette who was here again today, with remarkable beauty. His oration lasted two hours. A small poem of Mr. Ware’s which came previously lasted about twenty minutes. It was also spoken well of. I was invited to dine at Whitney’s, so immediately afterwards I went up to his room, but I had been paying my devoirs so faithfully to Silsbee’s table that I could eat nothing. I saw my Uncle, and Aunt and George there, sat with them a little while and then came off. I then went and heard some of the toasts at the dinner of the Society2 which is so remarkable for men of talents. There was a remarkable flash of wit kept running on, and for once I wished myself a member of the society. It was but a passing wish and it is only when you see the gold shining { 302 } among the dross that you value it, the dross at Cambridge, at other times is rather supereminent. I then went home and found Tudor with whom I strolled about the tents, saw gambling, cheating, swearing and drunkenness exhibited in their most attractive veins, visited Silsbee’s again for a few moments and returned home to bed. XI.
1. Edward Everett’s address, “The Circumstances Favorable to the Progress of Literature in America,” was published in his Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions, Boston, 1850, 1:9–44.
2. Phi Beta Kappa.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-27

Friday. August 27th. VIII:15.

Arose but much too late for the Stage in which I intended to have gone. I just gave Tudor a farewell. He is going now and will perhaps not meet any of his friends for many years, if ever. He appears to me, from some reason or other, not to be in his usual tone of spirits but I shall recollect him with pleasure, as one of these high souled generous spirits whom one seldom meets in this world. I went to the Athenaeum and, having spent a few minutes there, I went to see the Freshmen who are examined today for admission. I could only think of the time when I was trembling before the Cambridge Government as a suppliant for their favour. I am now under unpleasant shackles but, thank God, I see my way. The class is a small one and not very interesting.1 College is degenerating, it appears to me. I could not sit here long so I went to Brenan’s and spent half an hour with him conversing much in the usual strain. He feels more bitterly on the subject of party differences than he used to, owing to the ridiculous speeches of Cunningham. He told me some things which really showed this man’s folly extremely. I am satisfied with my estimate of the man’s character and am sorry to say my opinion is a poor one.
From here I went home and arranged my room as well as I could. I have managed in the course of the past week to get through a long life of Burns written I believe by Dr. Curry.2 The account given of this man is astonishing. His remarkable powers of mind, his prejudices, and his failings afford one of the most striking pictures for study and observation that I have ever seen. Melancholy as the account is, it affects me more, as with less talents I have seen another example of the same misfortune. It is a subject which has made me think often but it is scarce one to be talked of or written of.
After a Whitney dinner, I got into the stage where I found fifteen and went to Boston, stopped at George’s room scarcely a minute before the Quincy stage arrived, in which I went off. After an unusually { 303 } tedious time of it, we arrived and I found the family much as usual. My Grandfather exceedingly weak, he is evidently departing, I think. I spent rather a dull evening and went to bed early. X.
1. Numbering only 46 members, the incoming freshman class was smaller than usual. The five previous entering classes had ranged from 81 in 1819 to 63 in 1821. See Harvard Annual Cat., 1819–1824. Incoming freshmen were examined on the Friday after commencement (Mass. Register, 1825, p. 129).
2. CFA’s copy of Burns’ Works, with a “Life” by Dr. James Currie, London, 1824, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-28

Saturday. August 28th. IX.

Arose and after breakfast sat down to the important business of writing my Journal which has on account of my frequent change of residence lately, gone very much behind hand. I kept myself writing a considerable part of the morning. My account of this month will be rather short however in consequence of this. I am the more inclined to regret this as some scenes there are in the latter part of this month which deserve more full notice. I might have written much more fully even than is my common custom had I not thought I had better not discourage myself and rather keep the book up regularly than risk neglect. In a vacation, there are so many occasions which call a man’s attention off and he himself feels as if he was not to be under restraint, that it is my principal wish to have no more to do than one or at most two day’s, which were as many as ten at that time.
After dinner I determined to have some amusement and therefore walked down to Neponset where I practiced a little while at billiards. Mr. Miller of Quincy and a brother in law of his, a Mr. Nicholson, came in and I played with them. The former is a fat, prosy country gentleman, who could fill in England the place of a fox hunting Squire exceedingly well, but here, he has wealth, a little influence and pleases himself altogether. A little coarseness and much self importance but on the whole not an exceedingly disagreable man. The other appears to be a very gentlemanly man and quite intelligent. A judgment as to this latter character can hardly be made at a billiard table but I was certainly considerably pleased with his manner. He had not the vulgarity, though this is a little too harsh a name, of his companion. We played sometime and came off almost even all round, I believe. I walked home and felt myself somewhat fatigued as this was pretty active exercise. George came out in the stage this Evening and so did Miss Harriet Welsh but my Father did not make his appearance as was expected. I spent the Evening with my Grandfather, he is more fond of conversation now and less of reading than he used to be, and { 304 } this difference is perceptible. After he had retired, I sat up and talked with George on College and all other interesting subjects until very late. XI:30.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-29

Sunday. August 29th. VIII:30.

Arose but cannot say I was quite lucky enough to [word omitted] breakfast, for somehow or other the family quite forgot me and I was obliged to go without. The house was in a terrible bustle as this was the day appointed to receive General La Fayette. For my own part, I endeavoured to keep myself as quiet as possible all the morning. I did not attend Meeting because I wished to continue the arduous task of writing up my Journal. On this I was employed pretty nearly all the time. I could [not?] help strongly remarking the contrast between a dinner here and one at home, where it is not uncommon and it passes off without the difficulty of a day, but here it is so out of the usual routine that it makes quite a disturbance in the household.
The General arrived at about half past two, attended by his son,1 Mr. Le Vasseur, his secretary,2 Mr. Colden3 and Mr. Quincy. And Governor Eustis4 arrived soon after. The Marquis met my Grandfather with pleasure and I thought with some surprise, because really, I do not think he expected to see him quite so feeble as he is. It struck me that he was affected somewhat in that manner. Otherwise the meeting was a pleasant one. Grandfather exerted himself more than usual and, as to conversation, appeared exactly as he ever has. I think he is rather more striking now than ever, certainly more agreable, as his asperity of temper is worn away. I had the honour of an introduction to the Marquis and that was all. He is a mincing man in his manners, he has much ease and grace and knows the proper side of men. His lot is an enviable one, on the whole, as without being an extremely great man, he has received honors which are the lot of only a few. His son is a plain, simple man without assumption, his appearance is a little against him, but his manner is easy and agreable. I incline to think he is not a man of remarkable mind but will pass through this life with ease and rest without trouble when he dies. Le Vasseur is a genteel man, he is a Frenchman and a pleasant one. Colden is a New York man attached to his suite and is also a genteel man. Mr. Whitney came in pretty late but in a hurry from Cohasset. He had his usual air and placid countenance. This man might well rank as a philosopher if the regulation of his passions was the supreme object for no man was ever more of an automaton or an ass.
Governor Eustis is a man who appears to be very well satisfied with { 305 } himself and with every thing about him. He has gained an elevation which he wished and I presume is content. He is a singular man in his manner but not altogether unpleasant when he makes any exertion. He is much like many other Americans and I may rank [him] among the number who are too indolent often to make an exertion to please, but when they do, are successful.
The dinner passed off without difficulty, I did not get seated to my taste, consequently spent my time rather stupidly. How many people in this country would have been delighted with my situation at this moment, to see three distinguished men dining at the same table, with the reflections all brought up concerning the old days of the revolution, in which they were conspicuous actors and for their exertions in which, the country is grateful! It is a subject which can excite much thought as it embraces the high feelings of human nature. The presence of my father would have been additional pleasure, but he did not arrive and it is probable now that he will not for some days. My grandfather appeared considerably affected and soon rose after dinner was over.
The Marquis had to pass through the ceremony of shaking hands with all the town of Quincy which had collected together to see him. He first stood on the piazza and the men went up one by one, then went into the inner room and there saluted all the ladies. Some company from Boston. I forgot to mention as one of our company at dinner, Miss Pierce from Northampton, a cousin of Miss Hinckleys and acquaintance of Miss Welsh’s. She is not pretty but she is pleasant and gentle, and very ladylike. The ceremony of taking leave was gone through and our company vanished very much to my satisfaction. George went to town with Miss Welsh and Miss Pierce. Elizabeth went also with James Foster who was here. So that the house was more lonely than usual. I would wish to recollect the scene of this day, as the actors will soon depart from this busy scene and memory only will bring to life their looks, their tones, their language. All these things in illustrious men are worth recollecting, and it is one of the most desirable things in great distinction, to be sat up in this way to the observation of the world. There being no body to converse with, I went to bed early. X.
1. George Washington Lafayette (Nolan, Lafayette in America Day by Day, p. 243).
2. Auguste Levasseur (same).
3. Presumably Cadwallader David Colden (1769–1834), a New York lawyer who had served as mayor of New York, state assemblyman, and Congressman (Biog. Dir. Cong.).
4. Dr. William Eustis (1753–1825), the first Republican governor of Massachusetts; he had served as a military physician in the Revolution (DAB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-30

Monday. August 30th. VII.

Arose early this morning as I wished to take advantage of the stage to Boston in order to go to Neponset. The family, or at least the remaining part of it, were almost all upon the wing. Mrs. Clark and Abby were going to Boston and wished me to go very much to attend them which I declined. My Uncle also wished me much to go but I felt no interest in the great military Review before La Fayette which is the occasion of all this disturbance. The good people of Boston are going to display as many of their efficient militia as can possibly be brought out. They will probably make something of a show although it is exceedingly to be doubted whether much of the actual strength of a country lies in the troops of this sort. I shall not trouble myself with a discussion of that sort.
I waited until ten o’clock when I obtained a conveyance in my uncle’s chaise to Neponset where I had determined to spend the day. The house was so exceedingly deserted and melancholy. We arrived at Neponset in time, but it appeared as if Boston had carried every thing away by it’s attractions today. The hotel was almost deserted and I could only get the boy to play with me for any time. When once interested in the game however I forgot the passage of time, missed the dinner hour and consequently decided to spend all day there. I took no dinner and it was only when I found the sun going down very fast that I had any idea of returning. The game becomes still more fascinating as one becomes a better proficient in it. It appears to me singular that so much pleasure is to be derived from it. The accuracy necessary is probably the thing which makes it pleasant. I have improved very much in these few days. Indeed it is very lately only that I have resumed my game, which formerly used to be pretty good. I returned home in time for tea, after which I wrote one day in my Journal in order that it should [not] become again a great weight before me. I had intended to have done more with it but darkness came in too soon. My Uncle came out from Boston at about six o’clock, Abby and Susan came soon after and, last of all, Elizabeth and George. I spent the Evening in my Grandfather’s room, he was very inquisitive about my billiards, and told me something of a relative of ours which I had no idea of. The accounts of the show very great. After supper, conversation as usual with George until quite late. XII.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0009-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-08-31

Tuesday. August 31st. X.

Arose extremely late, the weather very rainy indeed and making it { 307 } evident that amusement must be sought in the house all day. As the morning was pretty far advanced I had only to write my Journal which filled up that part of my time. As I was about yesterday, I was compelled to make it up by industry today. George’s being out here relieved the tedium of the day as I could have conversation with him whenever I was tired of doing any thing else. He is a pleasant young man in conversation, and although I do not think the style of conversation is a very good one for either of us, as it turns too much upon ourselves. The morning went swiftly.
After dinner I sat down and read a little work just published by Washington Irving called The tales of a Traveller Part First.1 It is a general collection of stories told at a fox hunter’s where a party were detained by the weather. These stories related to the author by a nervous gentleman. Some of them are pretty good. His commencing one is a joke, it begins seriously but breaks off in the middle with a joke. They are generally told very ridiculously. The final one is a remarkably fine one and written in as beautiful a manner as I ever saw. It is simple in the plot, two beings, lovers, deceived by a friend, who marries the female reporting that her lover is dead, and when he returns he stabs him. It is a tale of passion but a beautiful one, it affected me as books of that sort always do, I even shed tears when I finished it. To see such a beautiful world as I am willing to think it when I see such a magnificent description of it, and to feel as if you could almost breathe for ever in it, and then to see that world destroyed before you, crushed and yourself a miserable fool of fortune is terrible, it is afflicting to sensibility. But when we look at common life, we do not find half the pleasure which we can imagine but we do find more than the pain. We find rogues, knaves and villains as perfect as possible but we find none perfectly virtuous or perfectly happy. On the whole I was much pleased with the book. After I had finished I wrote some more of my Journal.
I then went to tea and in the Evening sat with Grandfather and George talking about affairs in general, but had on the whole quite a pleasant and rather an instructive conversation. I then went down to Supper after which George and I talked as usual. XI.
1. Washington Irving, Tales of a Traveller, by Geoffrey Crayon, Gent., 2 vols., London, 1824.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-01

Wednesday. September 1st. VIII.

Arose, weather still rainy. I spent the morning in writing my { 308 } Journal comfortably in the house. The weather improved a little in the course of the morning and I accepted an invitation of George’s to go as far as Neponset Hotel with him on his road to Boston, and went. It was late before we got there and time past as rapidly as usual while I was playing billiards. I was not so successful as usual and, being considerably nettled, I do not know how long I should have stayed had not the boy been obliged to go.
I returned home at about half past six o’clock without having had any dinner. The family appeared in some surprise about me, and I was obliged to tell them that in future they need not be astonished when I do not attend meals. They were almost all going out when I arrived, to Mr. Whitney’s to a Quincy party and I was pressed to go but refused. These Quincy parties are the dullest, the most disagreable and the most unprofitable it ever has been my lot to meet with. You do not enjoy yourself while at them nor look back upon them with satisfaction. Mrs. Clark appears amazingly offended with young Whitney for some cause or other and takes occasion to abuse him most exceedingly. She is a singular woman. I am at times exceedingly in doubt whether she has any heart or not. She is a most profound devote but I have always thought her a complete hypocrite attempting to be pious. Her chief motive of action is an ostentation, a wish to throw herself forward into the notice of other people and a desire to be admired by them. She has a deep spirit of malignity and, as an old woman, will be a most exquisitely unpleasant one. My judgment of real piety is always fixed upon a person who says nothing of it, who does not obtrude it upon other people and who governs her conduct by the principles which her bible lays down for her. Who represses malignity, slander, scandal and all the little sins which are incidental to women.
In the Evening I went and sat with my Grandfather and conversed with him as usual upon indifferent subjects. He went to bed earlier than usual tonight and I, after spending a little while in my Uncle’s room, an uncommon thing for me, went down to Supper, where we had a warm argument on the subject of the conduct of the Quincy family which did not end until late. XI:15.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-02

Thursday. September 2d. VIII:15.

Arose and after breakfast as my Uncle wished to write this morning which deprives me of the power of doing so, I took my gun and ranged the woods, with but little success, as I only obtained one bird. { 309 } I found so little prospect that I did not go very far, and returned soon. The remainder of the morning I positively lazed away, doing nothing but looking over the titles of some old books in the library of Grandfather, alias that of Quincy.1 Some of them were exceedingly amusing and, as I was in a laughing mood, I attempted to turn them into ridicule with some little success, if I may judge from the way it entertained him. One book I observed with a singular publisher. It ran thus, “Printed for Thomas Cockwill at the sign of the three legs and Bible in the Poultry!” There [are] a remarkable number of old Books in this Library and many extremely rare and valuable. It is a matter of extreme regret to me that it has been so disposed of. It can not now be helped however.
In the afternoon, I wrote my Journal as usual and came within one day of making it up to it’s regular time. It has been a very great task. My days have not been as long as formerly but it is now principally because there is a deficiency of material to write about. We had rain and thunder and I do not know really what I managed to do, but I came to this determination, to take up some book to read as it was too abominable to spend valuable time with such perfect waste. I am angry and ashamed of myself for my course this last three months but I can hardly perceive how I could have done differently. My time was so taken up by my military service and by my Journal that I could have no time to do any thing else. Indeed when I have finished this book, I shall lay down to myself another system which I expect will be a little more advantageous.2 Experience is the best teacher and, as I find my time too much called upon by this, I shall endeavour as far as is in my power to save it. In this last year it will be of peculiar importance to study and attend to the parts of instruction which are laid down in the College course. They are some of them of exceeding importance to me. In the Evening, I did not sit with my grandfather as George read to him. I wrote to Tudor3 and had the usual talk after supper. XI.
1. To promote education in Quincy, JA not merely gave the town some land (see entry for 22 May, and note, above) but, in 1822, the approximately 3,000 volumes in his personal library. They were to “be deposited in an apartment of the building to be hereafter erected for a Greek and Latin School or Academy,” for the establishment of which part of the income from the lands was to be devoted (Deeds and Other Documents Relating to the Several Pieces of Land, and the Library Presented to the Town of Quincy, by President Adams, Together with a Catalogue of the Books, Cambridge, 1823, p. 12 and passim). As CFA opined, the books were ill-adapted to JA’s benevolent purpose; although an Adams Academy was founded after the Civil War and survived into the early years of this century, the books suffered loss and deterioration through years of neglect, and were in 1893 transferred to the Boston Public Library, where they remain as a special collection in the care of the Rare Book Department. See Cata• { 310 } logue of the John Adams Library in the Public Library of the City of Boston, Boston, 1917.
2. For the plan of CFA’s next extant diary (D/CFA/5), see entry for 26 Nov. 1826, below. The continuation of his present “book” (D/CFA/4) beyond 31 Oct. 1824 has been lost, and only an “Index” of some portions remains to be printed, beginning at 1 Nov., below. See the description of CFA’s MS diaries in the Introduction.
3. Letter missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-03

Friday. September 3d. VIII.

Arose just in time to get into the stage for Boston. I had expected to have gone in a different way but I could not. We got to Boston and as I passed a circulating Library, I went in and got the second volume of Percy Mallory which I commenced reading as soon as I got to my brother’s room. I was rather impolite to him as I did not notice him in his own room. I staid here until twelve o’clock when I went to Cambridge in the Stage. Arrived, I immediately went to my room where they were making arrangements of some sort or other which very much disordered it. I merely staid long enough to obtain the things for which I came and then went to the Hotel where I took dinner, rather a meagre one considering that I had no breakfast but I managed to make it passable and returned to town. I continued Percy Mallory and finished it in the course of the afternoon. I cannot say that I think it well written or well managed, but I think it is extremely interesting. The plot is one of the most intricate, I ever saw, as it runs upon the exchange of three or four children and the consequent confusion. He tries at times to make too much of his scenes and lengthens them out beyond the possibility of endurance. His conversation is frequently flat, as he introduces much in his dialogue which may be very common in conversation but if it is, very certainly it will not bear repeating. It closes well as could be wished and I will not quarrel with the author although I am inclined to believe there is not much probability in the story. He insists that the most improbable part of it is true, in which case, I must be satisfied.
We returned to Quincy in the stage and arrived there safe. The family went this Evening to Mrs. Beale’s to a select party. As I have no taste for things of this sort, I did not attend, but staid at home and spent the Evening with Grandfather. He was in good spirits and talked with more life than usual. He made a Greek quotation which shows his memory not to be impaired. In fact with him, mind is the only thing which is not touched, but the senses by which that mind is conveyed all fail him. The party came home early and we had supper as usual, when we commenced the same course of conversation and did not finish till it was time to recollect retirement. XI:15.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-04

Saturday. September 4th. IX.

Arose and after breakfast, as it rained very violently, I kept myself in the house this morning, following my usual occupation of writing up my Journal which had got one day behind hand by my unavoidable absence of yesterday. My father has not made his appearance yet although he has been expected every day, and I begin to be in doubt whether he will come at all. I employed part of the morning in reading the Commencement of Junius’s letters, a book I have never read much to my shame. I commence it now because this struck me in some conversation which I had with George last night. We happened to be comparing the different styles of Johnson, Burke and Junius and I could speak only very superficially of the two latter. The fact is that I intended to delay reading it until I purchased a copy when I would read it with my own comments at Cambridge where I have accommodations for study which cannot be obtained here.1 At Quincy, I find much for study, much for reflection, much for ambition. Many men have been surprised that in a distinguished family much of the same spirit and feeling is transmitted from father to son, but nothing appears to me more natural. Every thing conduces to it, the conversation perpetually going on, the views laid open before one, the love of distinction which is so easily caught, every thing indeed which we can possibly imagine in the atmosphere, unite in forming it.
The rain stopped and I was obliged to recollect that I was engaged to dine at Mr. Quincy’s today so I went in, dressed myself and set off on my expedition, with George. We arrived there soon and I was ushered into the parlour. We found assembled, all the family, Mr. Ticknor our Professor and his wife, Mr. Samuel Eliot,2 Mr. de Wallenstein, the Russian secretary of Legation at Washington,3 Mr. Sparks of Baltimore4 and William Otis5 came in soon after. After some conversation on indifferent subjects we went into dinner. I happened to sit next to Miss Susan Quincy on one side and my eternal brother on the other. Chance always puts us together most improperly. The lady has always treated me with amazing “hauteur,” more it appeared to me, to play upon my former timidity than from any other reason. This in old time was much and has made me feel bitterly, a great instance of unpardonable weakness, but now, I have sufficient confidence to brave her distance without feeling it. I made it a point, as I was thus situated, to be particularly polite to her at the table, although God knows with how much ill will, and insincerity, for I should have been happy could I civilly have cut her, as we say at College. Pride, I am inclined to think, is the sense of my temper and { 312 } I am not disposed to suppress it. I hate the purse proud ostentation of the city of Boston. It is not the pride I like, it is not mine. That man is to me properly proud, who is sufficiently conscious of his own value to keep him clear from the common herd about. Not piquing himself upon his wealth but on his education, his acquirements, without being to appearance conscious that he is superior to his inferiors, or at least just enough so to keep his station. A really noble man will not wish to show off before others any thing like superiority. I am an aristocrat but not one of Boston. I wish to be as far as I can, the man I describe. I fail very much, I am conscious, but the wish will bear me up and will suppress my knowledge of the weakness of my will.
The dinner was an extremely pleasant one, Mr. Quincy did put off his airs and, although Mrs. Quincy and Susan did not, they could not stiffen the scene, and there was a great deal of mirth and wit in the scene. It is now five years I think since I have been in this house or certainly but once since, and the girls whom I used to see have become women. Of all of them Margaret is the only beautiful one and she has not yet been spoiled by the chill of Boston society though this season will do it. Sophia is the pleasantest. Abby is not here now, when I saw her last I was much pleased with her.6 I had some conversation with Edmund who is quite a sensible fellow but he has a little too much of the student for a man of my cast. We arose from table, went to see the gentleman’s library and then returned. A short interval succeed[ed] before taking our leave in which I conversed with Miss Sophia and then we went. Miss Storer7 was there whom I formerly knew, but so long since that really I did not dare claim the acquaintance. We returned home and found a Mr. and Mrs. Swett8 with others here. I was struck with the contrast in this sort of society and the one I had left but said nothing. After supper, conversation as usual. X:30.
1. CFA did subsequently buy a copy of The Letters of Junius, 3 vols., London, 1812; it is in the Stone Library, along with two other editions of the work.
2. George Ticknor (1791–1871), the first Smith professor of French and Spanish languages and literature at Harvard, and his wife, the former Anna Eliot, daughter of the wealthy merchant and Harvard benefactor, Samuel Eliot (DAB). For Ticknor’s pioneering role in bringing an educational renascence to Harvard, see Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 225–226, 232–233.
3. Julius de Wallenstein (Mass. Register, 1825, p. 228).
4. Jared Sparks, who had just resigned his ministry in Baltimore to become editor of the North American Review (DAB).
5. William Foster Otis, Harvard 1821, son of Harrison Gray Otis (Crawford, Mass. Families, 2:245–247, 249).
6. The four daughters of Mayor Josiah Quincy here mentioned were Eliza Susan, Margaret Morton, Maria Sophia, and Abigail Phillips Quincy. See Adams Genealogy.
{ 313 }
7. Presumably Mary Storer, the daughter of Charles Storer (1761–1829), who had been JA’s private secretary and a member of the Adams household sometime between 1781 and 1785 in Europe. The Storers were related to the Adamses; see Adams Genealogy.
8. Presumably Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Swett, of 12 Hancock Street; he graduated from Harvard in 1800 (Boston Directory, 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-05

Sunday. September 5th. IX.

Arose rather late this morning and therefore could do but little before it was time to attend Meeting. I went and heard Mr. Whitney deliver a Sermon on some subject or other, which I did not attend to. He is an exceeding feeble Sermonizer. I had occasion to be somewhat displeased with a new regulation they have which is to stand up while the singing is going on. This over, I returned home and continued writing my Journal which I continued also in the afternoon and finally succeeded in bringing it up to it’s precise and exact time. It has been something of a labour but it has exhibited my perseverance and I am satisfied. I employed myself the remainder of the day, in reading over the second volume of Percy Mallory, as I had done it very hurriedly before. Part of it requires attention, particularly the trial which consists in the cross examination of an ignorant witness. I read it over with more care and was much pleased with many observations which the author makes in course, as some of them are very striking. He talks as if he was in high life. Who it is, I have forgotten although I have been told.
In the Evening, much company in the house which I did not go in and see. My feelings are singular in this respect. I do not like to see the visitors we have here half the time and can scarcely give my reasons except that I do not feel confident when I see them; there is something so ineffably coarse about one part of the receiving family that I cannot see her move or speak without feeling degraded. It is this which makes me avoid company in which she is, as I do burn with shame when I see her vulgar, dashing manners. This is the truth and nothing but the truth. I am perfectly convinced with the author of Percy Mallory, that unequal marriages are unfortunate things. I spent half an hour upstairs, Mr. Quincy and Josiah there. As John Taylor of Caroline is dead Grandfather had that famous letter of his read to him which is really an honour to him and a great tribute and a deserved one to Grandfather.1 They went away and then we went in to Supper. George and I had some classical conversation and then retired but we were long awake and conversed very particularly concerning Mary. I think myself that it is a disadvantageous match, and { 314 } therefore if it could possibly be stopped, would be desirable. Although I went to bed at eleven it was after one before I slept.
1. JA and John Taylor of Caroline (1753–1824), the brilliant theorist of the Virginia agrarians, disagreed sharply over the principles and the policies of the American government; in fact, Taylor’s An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States (1814) was undertaken in order to refute JA’s A Defence of the Constitutions of the United States of America. Nevertheless the two men remained personal friends, and on 8 April 1824, in his final illness, Taylor wrote JA a farewell letter, praising the President as “a patriot, who I believe has served his country faithfully, and done what man can do, to please his God” (Adams Papers; printed in JA, Works, 10:411–412). See Henry H. Simms, Life of John Taylor, Richmond, 1932, p. 208–209.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-06

Monday. September. 6th. X.

Arose quite late this morning owing to a restless and disturbed night, and after a short breakfast I went into the Office and commenced writing my Journal. I read a little while this Morning and was much amused in doing so, in a book called New Canaan or a description of New England by Thomas Morton1 a man whose memory is well known in our family because he was the first inhabitant of the estate at Mount Wollaston. It is a singular book, but displays much learning and satirical wit and feelings which may have become part of the soil, at least they agree much with mine. Some time or other, I will study the book with all others upon American affairs. I had almost completed my Journal for the day when news was brought to me that my father had arrived, a long expected event had at last happened. I flew in and going in to one room found not my father but a person as dear and less expected, my mother. I then found him. I was exceedingly happy at finding them. She looks quite well, a little pale but otherwise much better than she was last winter. He looks well but very yellow or brown. My Grandfather appeared to be pleased at seeing them although I never saw him more deaf or weak in his voice in my life. He was generally strong though.
After dinner was over, I had considerable private conversation with my mother and had a great deal of the mystery elucidated which I have formerly mentioned. I received a history of the transactions at Washington and became very fully confirmed in my opinion as to our family concerns. George, who had gone into town in the Morning, came out with them. He is in a sort of tantrum of some sort, I do not know what. George knows nothing of the character of my father. He does not appreciate it and can not look upon him with any thing but fear. This is the true fault of his character, he is always afraid of men { 315 } of a certain decided cast of character, he cannot associate their images with pleasure, he has an indescribable and involuntary awe of them. This is the case with my Father, Johnson Hellen and John whom he never can act frankly to. This is the great, predominating fault in his disposition and I am almost afraid to trust the real truth to this paper, which however is only meant to meet my own eye. It is a painful thing to dip too closely into the foibles of one’s friends.
But of one thing I am satisfied, that Mary has been behaving unworthily to George and consequently that if he marries her, he connects himself with a woman who has no personal affection for him and there is the stumbling block. My Mother is half inclined to the Marriage and half opposed, my Father is tacitly opposed. I have done my duty, I have stated my opinion and I am now prepared to have nothing more to do with the matter. I am sorry for John who, I understand, is the victim of her arts, partially, as it is a conflict in his high feelings of honour which should have been spared him. But I am confident absence will cure him at almost any time. She gave me an amusing account of Johnson Hellen’s engagement2 and unfortunate state of his affairs. He puffed and stormed like a wild colt. The affairs of lovers when represented to third persons are ridiculous indeed. She also gave a very affecting account of the state of Mrs. Keating, so very lately Miss Hopkinson. A very fine woman who met in the first half year of her marriage a very uncommon provision, the death of her husband.3
After a very long “tete a tete” we joined the family and spent the rest of the afternoon talking with them. My Mother is the same woman she always was, as pleasing, and as lively. My father is, as usual, unpenetrating. He is the only man, I ever saw, whose feelings I could not penetrate almost always, but I can study his countenance for ever and very seldom can find any sure guide by which to move. This is exactly the manner which I wish to obtain, for were I confident of my features, I should soon be able to throw my expression into it, and in that way manage much better than I could otherwise. He makes enemies by perpetually wearing the Iron mask.
Tea over I sat part of the time downstairs and then with my Grandfather who is more overcome with a sense of his bodily infirmities now than I ever saw him before. He is a surprising man. We conversed there until nine o’clock when we came down to supper. Mr. De Grand, my father’s unfailing attendant, was here this Evening and as usual very privately closeted with him. We came to Supper and he, soon after it, went off. I spent a half hour in my mother’s room previous to her going to bed and then another with George downstairs after which we { 316 } retired and I having decided that it was useless to talk so much, made a successful effort to sleep. XI.
1. JQA’s copy of Thomas Morton, New English Canaan, Amsterdam, 1637, is in the Boston Athenaeum (Catalogue of JQA’s Books). In 1883 CFA2 brought out a scholarly edition of this celebrated work for the Prince Society.
2. The name of Johnson Hellen’s fiancée is unknown. He did not marry until 1829. See entry for 25 April 1829, below.
3. Mrs. Elizabeth Keating, of Philadelphia, a daughter of Judge Joseph Hopkinson (LCA to GWA, 10 Oct. 1824, Adams Papers; JQA, Diary, 1 Aug. 1829).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-07

Tuesday. September 7th. IX:20.

Arose very late again today and found all the family at their occupations and even my mother up. My father looked blue. I went up and sat an hour with my mother and then went into the Office, wrote my Journal, and wrote one page of a letter to John. I have had four pages quietly with me for two or three weeks and have come to the determination for this time to give him a packet. There is much on which I wish to write to him, much of importance, and I shall merely in a few more words urge the importance of an answer, an explicit answer to my questions.1 I was employed in this way all the morning. My father and mother, after having been detained for a considerable time by company, went to Boston. George had gone in the morning. I, after dinner, was compelled to read to my Grandfather, Mr. Everett’s Oration at the anniversary of the Φ B K society.2 I was not much entertained by the first part, but the ten last pages contain the life of eloquence. It is a good work as it is calculated to give a spirit to the country which it ought to have, and will have sooner or later, and it is calculated to revive feelings which can too easily become dormant. The exertion was very considerable to read it to my Grandfather. I was on the whole, however repaid for the trouble.
I then spent the rest of the afternoon reading a novel which my mother obtained somewhere on the road; it is called “the inheritance.”3 I read with such rapidity that I finished the first and commenced the second in the course of the afternoon and evening. It is somewhat interesting. I shall speak more particularly of it when I have got through. The volumes are exceeding large, and I will not deny but at times they are a little heavy though the “tout ensemble” has much sprightliness. It rained all the afternoon and evening and I scarcely expected the family would return. They arrived however at a little after nine o’clock and we took supper together. My Uncle had been gone all day on business or amusement and returned very so-so. We { 317 } managed to spend the Evening very agreably or at least moderately so. After, some conversation with George and my Father on the dinner at Mr. Blake’s4 at which he had been present today. We were not up late tonight and, what was more refreshing, George and I had but very little to say to each other upon going to bed so that I enjoyed a full night’s rest. XI.
1. All missing.
2. See entry for 26 Aug., above.
3. Susan Edmonstone Ferrier, The Inheritance, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1824.
4. Presumably the Adams family friend, George Blake, Harvard 1789, who was United States district attorney for Massachusetts (Force, National Calendar, 1824, p. 200).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-08

Wednesday. September 8th. IX.

Arose and breakfasted, the day bleak and rainy. I consequently remained at home throughout. I spent the morning in reading the novel of the Inheritance and finished it, having been pretty assiduous, since my commencement. It is an amusing book, abounding in light touches of nature but too prosing. Much of the dialogue might be condensed without trouble and less of Miss Waddel, Miss Larkinses and Miss Pratt would be agreable. The close also is too abrupt. We are not made to partake enough of Gertrude’s feelings, and poor Lyndsay appears to be rather rewarded as a faithful servant than an affectionate lover. She is the most natural character for a woman in the book and has but little to recommend her in the mean time. The fact is, women as they are, are generally commonplace. Virtue is not a subject to write novels with, as it must be confessed, virtuous women are insipid and vicious ones disgusting. The style of fashion which surrounds her reminds me of the only fashionable woman I know, which is my mother. The most pleasing woman without hesitation, I will say it, that in this country I have ever met with. Could I meet with such a woman in future life, I think I might be tempted to depart from my rule of life. It appears to me I see others so foolish in their choice, it would be better for me to leave a choice in the hands of my parents, who would judge better for me than I could. I have been exceedingly addicted to castle building of late, the worst thing that can possibly befal a young man. Much company here this morning to see my father, in spite of all the rain.
In the afternoon, I wrote my Journal and the rest of the time was spent in the delightful company of my mother. She is not well today, but as lively as possible. My Grandfather uncommonly strong. I also finished my letter to John,1 making about six pages in all and I hope he will be satisfied. If he reads it all, I shall think him more patient { 318 } than I now believe him to be. We were all engaged to go to Mrs. Quincy’s this Evening but the rain was so exceedingly heavy that we all determined not to go. Monsieur Degrand came out in the middle and had as usual a talk with my Father. I spent the Evening upstairs with my Grandfather and my Mother, as usual, and had a pleasant time. I am sometimes in a very cheerful state when I hear the Storm, particularly when I have a pleasant family circle, but although this is just passable, I was satisfied and retired early. X:20.
1. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-09

Thursday September 9th. VIII:35.

Arose and breakfasted, the day fair but exceedingly cold. I was shivering the greater part of the day. I spent the morning, with my mother, in light conversation. I then went and wrote my Journal. My Uncle and George went into town in the morning and my father and mother at noon, so that I was again left at home alone. I did not employ myself very usefully as I was merely engaged in reading the newspapers and studying the Presidential election. I have been habituating my mind to floating visions of comfort and grandeur. This I regret most exceedingly, but who can govern the wayward turns of the mind. I am so much more attached to the climate and manners of the South, that I have a wish to stay there which can only be gratified by his continuation in office. I will be patient and see the result. I am not very sanguine in the belief of his success. He has so much malignant opposition, so much party spirit arrayed against him that it appears to me almost impossible that he should succeed. His friends also are not as adroit as those of the other candidates.
After reading a number of newspapers, I was reading Mr. Noah’s pamphlet1 when I was suddenly interrupted by Mrs. Winthrop2 and others who came in, to look at the portraits of my Grandfather and my father.3 She is one of the Boston great ladies.
In the afternoon I spent my time principally in reading Junius. I went through the first controversy with Sir William Draper.4 As a writer, he had extraordinary power. His words are all so aptly placed and conveyed such an amazing force, his power of distinguishing the points of attack and his force in pressing conclusions drawn from his opponent’s grounds are models for controversial argument. It is my purpose this next year to pay particular attention to style. I have generally written more by the impulse of the moment and without revising any part, but as I have now by this Journal, obtained one habit, that of writing without difficulty upon almost any subject, I shall try { 319 } the hardest part of my task, that of cutting out what I have written. In this country, to a political man, a powerful controversial style is worth it’s weight in gold and to any other sort of man.
After tea as Mrs. Quincy had [resumed?] her invitation for tonight, I went with the two girls. We met a few of the Quincy magnates and spent the Evening in the usual way at Quincy. It was not an unpleasant Evening on the whole. I talked much with Miss Sophia. Miss Meg looked shy. We came off the last, walk’d, returning, took Supper and retired. XI:30.
1. Mordecai Manuel Noah (1785–1851), editor of the National Advocate, the organ of Tammany Hall in New York City (DAB). The pamphlet was probably the Report of a Trial of an Action on the Case, Brought by Sylvanus Miller, Esq., Late Surrogate of the City and County of New-York, against Mordecai M. Noah, Esq., Editor of the National Advocate, for an Alleged Libel, N.Y., 1823.
2. Mrs. Thomas Lindall Winthrop (1769–1825), the former Elizabeth Bowdoin Temple. Both the Winthrops came from distinguished families, and one of their children was Robert Charles Winthrop. See Crawford, Mass. Families, 1:62–63.
3. Presumably one of the paintings was Gilbert Stuart’s portrait of JA, finished at this time (see entry for 22 Sept., below) and now owned by Mr. Charles Francis Adams of Dover, Mass. The portrait of JQA may have been one of several painted during the last few years.
4. Sir William Draper (1721–1787), who defended the Marquis of Granby against Junius in 1769 (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-10

Friday. September 10th. IX.

Arose and after breakfasting, I read the paper and wrote my Journal, matters of not very great consequence at present. I spent the greater part of the day in the company of my mother, it is so exceedingly attractive that perhaps my duty gives way to it. As my duty at present however is not of any very exceeding importance, my mind is at ease. I have lately come to one determination, after thinking a good deal upon the subject, and that is, if any reasonable subject is given out, to write for the Bowdoin prize even if I should not send it up, and this I make my record.1 All the reading part of the day, I spent in going attentively over Junius as a first perusal. The more I read, the more I admire the style and the more I become impressed with a feeling of the necessity of a forcible one. I will do nothing else while I remain in College but pay attention to it, practically, as well as theoretically and I think a year is but small allowance. I shall be obliged to exercise myself considerably in writing of different sorts and, as there are so many opportunities for writing, I think I shall devote my time most usefully and most economically. I wish I had the power of Junius although it is rather a dangerous one to one’s self. He irritated his enemies to madness almost.
{ 320 }
I had much conversation with my mother about their plans which appear to be, simply, to come and reside here and live in simple, unoffending style. I shall trouble my head no more about it. As George had given me a little piece of business to transact, I took advantage of the return of the carriage from taking my father to General Sumner’s.2 I did not collect the note as the person was gone. I returned cursing the trouble. My mother went to town this Evening to remain until tomorrow. I this Evening studied a large part of the drill of the Light Infantry for the campaign next term. The [next?] part of the evening in conversing with Mrs. Clark on indifferent subjects, principally on some observations of Mrs. TBA’s. I then went down stairs and talked with Uncle some time on the state of my father’s landed property, a subject on which he is ever doleful. My Father having directed me to sit up for him expressly, I was obliged to remain up and amused myself with reading Junius. He arrived at last, which dismissed me. XII.
1. The subjects for the annual Bowdoin prize dissertation competition were: (1) the importance of the study of the learned languages as a branch of education; (2) the antiquity, extent, cultivation, and present state of China. First prize was a gold medal and forty dollars; two second prizes consisted of twenty dollars worth of books. There is no record among CFA’s papers that he entered the contest. Only two prizes are recorded in the Faculty Records, and they went to Edward B. Emerson and Jason Whitman, a junior.
2. William H. Sumner, of Boston, a brigadier general in the Massachusetts militia and a principal developer of East Boston (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 106).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-11

Saturday. September 11th. IX.

Arose a little earlier than I had myself expected considering that I had been up until so late last night. I immediately sat down and wrote my Journal for the morning’s business. My mother was not here this morning, so that I employed my time more than usual. My father went to Boston again today which will be the usual course while he is here. His friends being continually desirous to entertain him and do him honour. In this state of things also, they wish to be particularly marked in their way of treating him. I amused myself all the morning in reading Junius. It is astonishing to think of the power which this author obtained in England by his manner. No man but was afraid of him excepting perhaps Mr. Horne1 and he was afraid of nobody. Sir William Draper was to be pitied as in any other contest he might have come out with some credit but he came across the path of an enormously cruel as well as a powerful man and was treated accordingly. One thing, I am struck with in the remarks of the Commentator, that he is rather servile to the governing power and speaks of { 321 } Junius, the Earl of Chatham and all the other great men of the nation not as Patriots but merely as men swayed by the interest of the moment. Indeed English liberty is but a shadow when it’s greatest supporters are merely venal timeservers. What Junius was, though a matter of great speculation, will probably never be disclosed. He must have been a great man.
Immediately after dinner I took a walk to Neponset and spent the rest of the afternoon in playing, so long an absence has had a little effect upon my play which I did not get over for more than half an hour. I played however with my usual success and gratification. It is unquestionably a most interesting game. I remained until it was so dark, I could not see a ball and then returned home where I did not arrive until eight o’clock. I then read two letters of Junius, particularly the famous one for which the publisher was prosecuted.2 My father and mother did not return home until ten o’clock when we sat down to supper and except a very little time spent in conversation with George, who came out with them, we went directly to bed. XI:15.
1. John Horne Tooke (1736–1812).
2. George Woodfall (1767–1844), publisher of the Public Advertiser, was prosecuted for printing Junius’ letter No. XXXV, dated 19 December 1769, entitled “Junius’s Address to the King.” The printer obtained the celebrated verdict that he was guilty of printing and publishing only, won a new trial, and was freed. (Junius, ed. John Wade, London, 1881, 1:255–256; DNB.)

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-12

Sunday. September 12th. IX:30.

It was so late this morning before I arose that I found it impossible to do any thing before the time to attend Meeting. I went this morning in my mother’s carriage. We had a gentleman from Canton, a Mr. Huntoun1 or some such name as our Minister. I seldom attend to a Sermon but his was so simple yet so sensible that I could not help being pleased with it. Many of his observations though not new were correct and so exactly falling in with my sentiments that really I was pleased. He spoke much of hypocritical piety, and I have had so much of it in one instance in our family that he could hardly have used words which would have been too severe for me. He is much more sensible than the men, we are in the habit of hearing or, at least if not more sensible, he is more interesting. Which with me amounts to the same thing.
I returned home and spent the rest of the morning in the company of my mother. She was as pleasant as usual, describing the different great characters of this country, who are given very satirically indeed, { 322 } even the adherents of my father, she does not spare. At Washington, it is a little different. Singular, I have often thought that our sentiments concerning individuals should change so much as they take different attitudes in the Presidential question. Unwilling as I am to confess it, I must own a power which in spite of my candour governs me. But I shall not feel that as soon as this is over. I shall then have my own enemies in the world to undertake.
In the afternoon, I did not attend Meeting, but wrote my Journal this afternoon and a long letter to John.2 He complains very much of being melancholy as he is alone so that I in compassion address him oftener than I otherwise should. I cannot be said to possess much material but with the little I had I filled three pages and sent them off. I then read a few pages of Junius which filled up the afternoon. Mr. De Grand was here today again and Mr. Webster3 also paid a visit. In the Evening there was a great deal of company here, some people from curiosity to see the President, others as visitors to my father, Mrs. Quincy, Mrs. Greenleaf, Mr. Miller &c. After they were gone, we descended to supper where we sat until it became quite late. Mr. De Grand never takes leave until the last moment. XI.
1. Benjamin Huntoon, Congregational minister in Canton (D/CFA/1; Mass. Register, 1824, p. 90).
2. Missing.
3. Daniel Webster (JQA, Diary, 12 Sept. 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-13

Monday. September 13th. VIII.

Arose earlier than usual this morning being roused by a call from my Uncle to go shooting with him. My father and George went this morning to Boston to go on a sailing expedition in the harbour. I liked it so little last year that I declined going. I was prepared in about an hour and we set off taking the direction of the estate at Mount Wollaston. Not a solitary bird was to be found there and we went further, indeed to the extremity of the land and in this way, I traversed much more of the land in that quarter than I had ever seen before. We found no sport but I saw the place. It is a very pretty situation but one which requires immense sums of money to be spent upon it before it can become any thing like a delightful residence. Much has been expended upon it already but I cannot say that I think it has been done most judiciously or to the most advantage. My father has some plan in view concerning it I suppose; if President he will probably make it his summer residence immediately, if not he will wait until the state of his finances will authorize the expenditure.
{ 323 }
We returned some time before dinner rather dispirited by our ill success as we did not find any thing to exert our skill upon. I spent my time before dinner as usual with my mother and afterwards I also spent much time there. She went to Mrs. Websters1 in which time I wrote my Journal which was all the directly useful which I did to day. The afternoon was very close and sultry and from some unknown cause I became headachish and nervous. Being in conversation with my Grandfather and Mother, I was compelled to repeat so often as he is now troubled with deafness in addition to the rest, that I became ill humoured and I doubt not was exceeding bad company. After tea, I was in company with my Grandfather for the Evening. He is a much less agreable companion than he was a year ago, his own conversation not being so amusing. He thinks less strongly, not because he can not, but I incline to think because he is unwilling to make the exertion. We then went to Supper where we sat until ten o’clock. Soon after which finding myself inclined to be sleepy, I retired to bed. My father did not return here tonight. X:25.
1. Mrs. Daniel Webster, the former Grace Fletcher (DAB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-14

Tuesday. September 14th. IX.

Arose and after breakfasting, took the opportunity to write my Journal, before setting off for Cambridge. I had intended to have gone in order to assist my mother in her plan for tomorrow, but this was changed and I merely went as my father and mother, going to Mr. Everett’s to dine, gave me the opportunity. Cambridge looks extremely desolate and I had the displeasure when I got to my room to find that they were painting it and had deranged every part of my furniture so that it was clear there was no sitting at home to day. We did not arrive until three o’clock and I had to content myself with a meagre sort of a dinner at the hotel of a half a chicken and a beefsteak. These I soon dispatched, and then went and spent half an hour at the Bookstore. I found my accounts in better state than I had expected. I had much conversation with Brown1 on the subject of books. He is a shrewd young man and will get along exceedingly well in the world. He has made me expend a very large sum of money in books, taking advantage of my youth and inexperience. I have however managed to collect a library which is extremely useful to me.
I became extremely tired of remaining here however and determined to go and see if Brenan was at home. I found him in his new room in Holworthy and sat with him an hour. We conversed principally upon the affairs of next year, how now we should be freed from things we { 324 } | view dislike so much. Mathematics would close and I should be forever freed from them. This is a most delightful thought. The idea also of being released from three recitations a day and morning exercises on Saturday is also extremely pleasant.2 He talked much of his future course and he appears as ambitious as any of us. I remained with him until his tea time when I returned to my room and sat there a little while, the carriage came at last and we went to Mr. Everett’s to take up my father and mother, I was obliged to wait here some time, in which I tried to amuse myself as well as I could with the conversation of the different coachmen, before the door. They talked very wisely. At last we started and got to Quincy at nine o’clock. I was exceedingly fatigued so that after going through the mere form of supper, I retired.
1. James Brown (1800–1855), employed since 1818 by William Hilliard, the Cambridge bookseller, was later the founder and co-partner of the Boston publishing firm Little, Brown & Company (DAB).
2. Seniors continued to read Stewart’s Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind and Paley’s Moral Philosophy and, contrary to CFA’s expectations, to study analytic geometry and topography. They also studied chemistry and political economy, and they read the Federalist and Butler’s Analogy. Declamations, forensics, and themes were required the first two terms.
The senior table of private exercises included:
Morning, Monday—Friday   Mathematics and Chemistry   1st term and half 2nd term.  
  Moral and Political Philosophy   half 2nd term and 3rd term.  
Forenoon, Monday—Wednesday   Astronomy   1st term.  
Monday and Wednesday   Theology   2nd term to April.  
Thursday   Forensics or Themes   1st and 2nd terms.  
Afternoon, Monday—Thursday   Moral and Political Philosophy   1st term.  
  Intellectual Philosophy   2nd term to April.  

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-15

Wednesday. September 15th. IX.

Arose, day extremely warm, indeed the three last have been as hot as any part of the summer. We feel it the more too, as it so immediately follows extremely cold weather for the season. I did nothing this morning from languor and as my mother was going to Boston, I determined to take advantage of the conveyance to go as far as Neponset. I played billiards here for a great while but with less relish than usual. My feelings within these two days past have become extremely irritable and my nerves very weak. I do not know how it arose, but I { 325 } spoke snappishly to the family and was surly. It is exceedingly unpleasant to be conscious that you are disagreable and not be able to avoid it. Suffice it to say that I became tired of billiards much sooner than I have any other day since I have been here.
I therefore directed my course home at a little after three having lost my dinner. The walk was exceedingly hot, the sun being in his power yet. I met my father and uncle going to the Governor’s1 to dine, my father appeared to be surprised. I found a surprising difference in myself today and other days, I was weak and very much fatigued at what usually is nothing at all. Indeed I was obliged to rest once and lie down before I got home. Having arrived I found myself in no condition to do any thing so I neglected the writing of my Journal today. My head throbbed painfully and my nerves were in such a state that my arms and feet shook when taken from their support. Indeed I have seldom felt more uncomfortably. I tried to take a little quiet but the children put my rest to flight once or twice, and excited my nerves as much as ever. I did manage however in the course of the Evening to become more composed, although I had to act with some feverish symptoms. Indeed I became somewhat alarmed being afraid I should have an attack similar to the one two years ago.
I sat with my Grandfather all the Evening. He asked me some questions concerning the match between George and Mary, he hardly seems satisfied with it, as I believe he had fixed his heart on a connexion with the Quincys. A thing which would receive more opposition on our part. My mother did not return until near nine and the rest of the family dropped in at intervals. I retired soon, took warm water for my feet and tried to sleep but I could not succeed. IX.
1. William Eustis.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-16

Thursday. September 16th. VII.

Arose feeling quite unwell as I had no rest whatever during the night, and I found myself in a fair way to obtain the dysentery. I therefore took some medicine and determined to remain in the house all day. In the morning I reviewed the twenty five first pages of Paley’s Moral Philosophy, which we studied during the last term. I can merely at the present moment look over it to refresh my memory, at some time in future I shall look over it critically and make my own comments upon it in writing. I then went and wrote my Journal for the day before yesterday which I had not written on account of my indisposition. I could hardly do it today for I was in considerable pain { 326 } all the morning. The heat of the weather which continued had made me extremely languid, and was not favourable to my health. After dinner, which to me was a mere form, I laid down in the hall and slept for three hours which refreshed me considerably. I then went and made my Journal as usual.
My father and mother went to Boston to dine with Mr. Winthrop, one of the Boston great men. They are perpetually engaged in Boston, so that though nominally a visit to my Grandfather, it is rather an engagement in Boston all the time. I did nothing else of importance today, after tea I went to sit with my Grandfather but found Mr. Beale and Mr. Marston in company. I could not help thinking how extremely flat, the life of the former gentleman would be to me and still I doubt not but he is much—much happier than it will ever be my fate to be. I have no doubt but the most contemptible plodder is the happiest man, speaking generally, but for my own part I had rather be what I am. Mr. Marston as prosy as usual. I then went down stairs and spent a little while in the parlour with Elizabeth, the rest of the ladies having gone out to the worthy Mr. Apthorps.1 They soon after arrived as did my father and mother, but there was no supper table set tonight. I wished to have some conversation with my mother but I felt so sick and out of spirits that I could not. Indeed I have seldom spent a more disagreable day. My sickness being of such nature as to pain me, weaken me, and reduce my spirits all at the same time. I retired early. X:10.
1. Possibly George H. Apthorp, of Quincy, whose surname suggests that he was a member of the wealthy Boston merchant family (Pattee, Old Braintree and Quincy, p. 238).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-17

Friday September 17th. VIII.

Arose though not feeling much better in health. What could have brought on my sickness, I am sure I cannot possibly tell, but I am sure it is a pretty heavy one. I reviewed twenty five pages of Paley, this morning, in the course of which much struck me as noticeable which I did not see before. I then went upstairs and sat with my mother and talked with her some time. I also took another dose of medicine. I read a little more of Junius but not much as reading affects me somewhat in my present state of weakness. My eyes also have suffered today. My father and mother went to town as usual or at least a little this side of town to General Dearborn’s.1 I had directions from my father to copy two ancient wills so that besides writing my Journal, I was employed all the afternoon at one of them. It was that of Captain { 327 } Myles Standish, a famous military character among the first settlers of the country. It was not the most entertaining work I ever saw, or did. I only finished his before tea time.
After tea I again was very sick with pain in my bowels and felt most extremely unhappy and low spirited. This is no home for me. All the family are no friends of mine and I am reduced to a feeling of desolation when my father and mother are gone. I have never seen a family in my life in which there was so little feeling for each other as this in which I live. Compared to our own immediate one it seems exceedingly strange to me, but perhaps we may be blest. I am always inclined to become melancholy when not employed and then take dark views of human nature. Indeed my spirits for a long time have not been so depressed as they were this Evening. My patience was worn out and I really felt a wretchedness of the heart. I am a peculiar, a singular being, and under a cold exterior feel intensely, at times almost beyond endurance. I thought of death tonight as not an intolerable evil and rather to be desired than otherwise. I considered I never had moralized on it in my Journal, I thought of Young, and wondered why he should take so much pains to prove a simple proposition. How foolish, how vain all this, I ought to say how criminal. My mother this Evening gave me some laudanum which I had great aversion to taking and which finally I swallowed merely in filial obedience. Nothing else would have induced me at this time. X:10.
1. Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn (1783–1851), brigadier general of militia, lawyer, writer, and collector of the Port of Boston (DAB); he lived in Roxbury (JQA, Diary, under this date).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-18

Saturday. September 18th. VIII.

Arose considerably better than I was before and with spirits considerably revived. I first reviewed some portion of Paley and then went upstairs to see my mother. The weather had changed and had become exceedingly cold. This is the curse of this climate, that there are so many rapid and entire changes. They solely can make a person sick. I then went to the Office, wrote my Journal and amused myself the rest of the morning copying Governor Bradford’s will for my father. An ancient manuscript about as amusing as that of Captain Standish. I have not much relish at this age for antiquities of this sort, I suppose it will come upon me in time however. I just finished it in time for dinner. My father and mother were gone to Boston in the morning to stay all day as usual. My uncle gone to town and I was quite alone in the house. Mr. Marston dined here as usual. I regretted exceedingly { 328 } that I could not enjoy an enormously fine salt fish dinner to day, I did not feel my health sufficiently established to venture upon vegetables.
In the afternoon I spent some time looking over more tracts and documents of my Uncle’s and then sat down to write a letter to John.1 I got through the first page and part of the second when I happened to stumble upon politics and say something which was not altogether consistent with prudential maxims. I on the whole determined to scratch it out and this created such an ugly place that I left the paper to another time. I then went into the house and amused myself with Junius which I read again with avidity. The commentaries are generally correct but sometimes have a little too much partiality for the crown side of a case. I was much interested by a biographical sketch of Charles Fox and could not help thinking that there were many points of similarity between him and the present Henry Clay. The same powers and the same vices. I continued reading this author until I was called in to keep company with Grandfather who was alone. I sat with him reading scraps from newspapers &c. until his time of going to rest. My father and mother returned at this time with George. I had some political conversation with the two latter in which it was intimated that the horizon was darkening. I afterwards had conversation with George upon many subjects, but none of any interest which I have not often mentioned. XI.
1. This letter was never sent; see entry for 20 Sept., below.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-19

Sunday. September 19th. VII:45.

Up early this morning and for once breakfasted with the family. The weather misty, rainy and exceeding disagreable. I did not attend Meeting all day but spent the morning with great idleness talking in a cold chilly room with my Mother and George, talking about Father’s plans for the future, which—at least one of them—was undergoing the [ . . . ] of her criticism and ridicule. I was perfectly agreed with her and on the whole was much amused. We afterwards fell into an argument occasioned by some of his boastful speeches concerning the superiority of this part of the country, in which I took up the other side of the question, and we digressed from this into an argument as to the puritan settlement, in which he as usual talked extravagantly and I did not deliver my true sentiments because I wished to put a stop to his rant, I call it nothing else. He has this intolerable habit of speaking in superlatives which always provokes me and there are times when I cannot but come out sharply and he does not proceed.
{ 329 }
In the afternoon we entered into conversation again and talked of much which I did not dare to put into my Journal at present. It was upon old times, and was merely an explanation of much which would excite the blood of a Pagan. I am sorry but I cannot agree in some points with the opinions of the family. There is much unaccounted for in the history of my earliest years not affecting me but my mother. George and I had a little warm talk here. I then sat down and read the second Part of Irving’s Tales of a Traveller. I must confess I do not think so well of this as I did of the first. It has but little to recollect with pleasure. Every thing in it is commonplace and an attempt to make something out of common nature without colouring highly which in my opinion is impossible. Indeed I think Mr. Irving must change his manner or he will lose his reputation.
Mr. Degrand and Mr. Sprague were here this evening and spent the Evening here. They are both political men, the latter in the legislature of the State, and Editor of a Newspaper in Salem.1 He is rather a pleasant man and he conversed upon the subject which is most his own, politics, and as he appeared to have pretty correct views of things, he was not tedious although Mr. Degrand compelled him to remain to his usual hour. I then talked a little with Uncle and George soon after which I retired. XI:30.
1. Joseph E. Sprague, with whom JQA had “a long conversation ... on the subject of the Vice-Presidency” (JQA, Diary, under this date).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-20

Monday. September 20th. VIII:55.

Arose and after breakfast reviewed a part of Paley as usual. It was a part which is the driest and least interesting of all we have studied. After this was over I went up to see my mother. She was exceedingly unwell today and I was really terribly apprehensive for her. She appeared so dreadfully affected by chills. I finished Junius in her room and on the whole conclude that I have never seen a more powerful display of eloquence in any work which I have ever seen. So much force of the language, such a happy distinction in terms and such a peculiar application of ideas, if I might so express it, as I never saw before. I wish to see one or two of Johnson’s Pamphlets and shall then compare them. Thus my time went and writing up one day of my Journal which I unaccountably neglected heretofore.
I then dined and in the afternoon continued my duty to my Journal after which I wrote to John.1 I concluded not to send my former letter as at this time almost every thing is dangerous and as I have understood that it has been the practice at least at one office to read all { 330 } letters. This Country though the purest under the Sun is going to ruin. I am in perfect despair for republics and can only abuse human nature. I am growing more and more attached to the idea of private life and can only lament the necessity of the name of which I am so proud. My letter to John was very melancholy as indeed I felt so, for my Mother’s sickness has made me thoroughly unhappy. I never felt more like cursing the world and all that is in it. I was inclined to repine bitterly. I went in and found my Mother in extreme pain, and did not dare leave her for a moment lest she should faint away. It was as bitter a time to my feelings as I ever had in my life. The house was lonely, every body out in the Evening at a party, and my Mother usually attended with so much care was now without a person almost to assist her. I felt her state. I remained with her all the Evening until she retired when I went to my Grandfather’s and sat with him. No conversation, for I was in no humour to keep one up, he retired. Soon after the family came in, My Uncle a little elevated. I sat talking with him and George much longer than I wished but his perpetual conversation delayed me. XI:5.
1. Letter missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-21

Tuesday. September 21st. IX.

Arose and was greeted in the first place by a letter from John.1 It was a long one but not very satisfactory. On the subject on which I had particularly written he is silent or, rather, evades it by complaining of my handwriting which he seems to have been able to read in every place except in that one. I am sorry for the result as I understand precisely how to take this way of his. I shall therefore close the subject. After breakfast I read my usual quantity of Paley which closes what we studied during the last term.
I then went to my Mother’s room and found her much better. She was preparing to go to town and to go through much labour in the day. She has invited Miss Elizabeth to go to Washington this Winter. After she had gone I went and wrote my Journal, in the middle of it I was surprised by a visit from my classmate, Charles Foster. He had brought a Miss Garland here to see Abby. He is an exceeding good natured, pleasant sort of a young man, although not one of my intimates. I like his manners which are very unassuming but he has too little energy or character of any kind to please me. He dined and spent part of the afternoon here and I was quite rejoiced to have such a windfall for company. She is an exceeding forward, pert young miss who has an idea that every body admires her. She might do as a little { 331 } “piquante sauce” for a half an hour’s amusement but I should enter a vehement protest against her manners. They went away at four and I spent the rest of the afternoon reading more of the famous Essays called the Crisis written by Thomas Paine2 which are said to have had such powerful effect in the time of our revolution. They are an imitation of Junius in coarser style and although evidently well adapted to excite a people are not to be recommended for imitation. I was struck at his frequent calls upon God, that God whom he afterwards forsook.
After tea I went in and sat with my Grandfather. I was not in a talking mood and he is so but seldom now so that I spent, I might almost say, two silent hours. Suffice it, they hung like lead upon me. I afterwards had some conversation with my Uncle about the election and then retired. George disturbed me unexpectedly late in the night. X.
1. Missing.
2. Thomas Paine, The Crisis, originally published in thirteen numbers, some separately and some in newspapers, 1776–1780, and afterwards issued collectively.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-22

Wednesday. September 22d. VII:30.

Arose and after breakfast read twenty five pages farther in Paley as a sort of preparative to the commencing lessons next term. I then went upstairs and continued reading the Numbers of the Crises but I do not find them interesting. Mr. Stuart the painter came out here this morning for a final sitting for my Grandfather. I saw the portrait which is a remarkably fine one.1 Stuart is a singular man, a wag, but rather a disgusting object than otherwise. He is said to be habitually intemperate and his appearance confirms it. My mother returned this morning from Dr. Eustis’s where she had been all night exceedingly ill and went to bed immediately with a high fever. I know not how it was but I have seldom felt a more deep and bitter feeling of melancholy than I did today.
After dinner I sat in the Office and mused. Deeply dejected I can’t tell on what account. My mother’s sickness was the principal cause of the effect on my spirits, and my loneliness and the unsettled state of the Presidential election which so bewilders my future views. I think I could be content at the result were it either way but this doubt is torturing. I am anxiously wishing to get back to Cambridge because there I am more removed from the contagion of politics and have much of other and truly much more interesting business to me personally. I mourn when I am at Cambridge but I think there are few places { 332 } where I could be happier. It is employment which is my great delight and the contrast between this place and that is striking.
After writing my Journal I went to my Mother’s room: the rest of the afternoon was spent there. She appeared to be exceedingly unwell, with much fever and complaining of pain in her head. I could do nothing but try and amuse her and divert her attention from her pain but it is more pain to me to see her. I tried my best however and she talked with a little life though not in her common style. I spent the Evening here also doing my best to amuse her. I left her hoping Heaven would restore her for her Journey. I spent a dull half hour with my Grandfather and then came down stairs where I had another dull half hour with my Uncle. This is the [worst?] of all, he has taken a fit and the house now seems scarcely the residence of a family but of many cold hearted individuals. I could not bear his nonsense tonight so retired. IX:20.
1. See entry for 9 Sept., and note, above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-23

Thursday. September 23d. IX.

Arose and after breakfast read over twenty five pages more of Paley which finishes all that I can do farther this vacation. I have read about four of the lessons which we shall have in the Commencement of the term. I then went to see my Mother on whose account I have been exceedingly anxious and dejected. I found her very much better but exceedingly weak and her head still affected. She commenced today the great business of packing up to return. I performed it principally for her as I was desirous to save her the trouble and that she should avoid any unnecessary exertion. I was in her room the greater part of the day that she should not have an opportunity of thinking of her sickness and of becoming dull. I only took about half an hour in the afternoon when she was lieing down to write my Journal. I was extremely lowspirited even today although one great cause was taken off, but another was put on for the state of my Uncle at dinner today disgusted me exceedingly and I was anxious to get away to avoid a seige which I dreaded. My mother did not go down. I spent the whole day in this way not doing any thing of importance but paying my duty to my Mother to whom I have become far more attached than ever. Although I am obliged to differ from her in opinion sometimes, and am forced to make a harsh judgment upon some of her actions or wishes, still there is something inexpressibly delightful in her manners and her affections are most powerful. The ways of kindness are not { 333 } known to many who by no means want the will and I have this exemplified very strongly in the family.
I sat with my Grandfather about an hour in the Evening and he appeared to be in better spirits than usual. My father and George arrived from Salem much earlier than I had expected and had a long tale to tell of their adventures for they appear to have been moving ever since they left here. The former appears to be in very good spirits, and talked more than usual. I had an argument with George which was tolerably warm. I am convinced it is impossible to live with him and like his temper. I sat up with George a little while downstairs before retiring. XII.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-24

Friday. September 24th. VIII:40.

Arose and after breakfast commenced my preparations for departure. This house is today to lose many of it’s late inmates, some perhaps never to return to it. I did not feel extremely grieved at going as it is not a place of happiness for me. I am too much attached to my own little personal comforts to be perfectly content where I cannot enjoy them all. I had a little and very little conversation with my Father on the subject of my debts and future situation but I obtained my request and am in future to act somewhat more like an independent man. I am to have no further connection with my Uncle but I am to receive monthly payments from George at the rate of fifty dollars a month. After this very satisfactory communication and a leave taking of my Grandfather, who seemed to be in low spirits enough, I departed with George in a chaise and took the direction to Boston through Cambridge at which last named place, I stopped to enter my name and prepare my room for my reception tomorrow. I then went to town and arrived at Mr. Cruft’s at the precise time that my Father and Mother had got there from Quincy. I dined here with her and the family. I like Mr. Cruft although he has very little of the courtier in his manners. When you know him however to be so entirely sincere, it makes up very considerably.
In the afternoon I did two or three little services for my mother and rode out with her but spent most of my time in her company. Mrs. Pickman was here this Evening, the sister of his wife.1 She is a good sort of a woman without much beauty or much any thing to recommend her that I know of. Mr. Cruft did not come in until pretty late, but the Evenings grow quite long. Soon after tea my Father and George arrived from Mr. John Welles’s2 where they had dined. Mr. { 334 } Pickman came in and then the whole of Fosters who came in and sat until it was time for me to go. I took my leave and walked with George to his room stopping to inform Elizabeth when she should be ready tomorrow and bid her Goodbye. I had some conversation with George on “secrets worth knowing”3 and then went to sleep. X:30.
1. Mrs. Benjamin Pickman Jr. (1794–1863), the former Hannah Smith, daughter of AA’s cousin William Smith (1755–1816) and sister of Mrs. Edward Cruft. See Adams Genealogy.
2. A Boston merchant, banker, insurance company executive, and city councilman (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 172, 180, 188).
3. An English comedy, by Thomas Morton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-25

Saturday. September 25th. VI:15.

Arose and dressed myself quickly in order to get to Mr. Cruft’s in time to see my father and mother again before they went. We got there soon and breakfasted with them. The stage arrived earlier than was expected but we delayed them. Our leave was taken at last and I felt inclined to be sorry for a few moments and but a few. I think I am much happier when they are not here as they come now, for I am so anxious on account of my mother’s health and every thing is [so] out of order and regularity that I have but little comfort. This is the last time however that such a visit will be made. I received a letter from John1 at Mr. Cruft’s which confirmed me in my opinion on a certain subject, if I was in any degree doubtful before. After they had fairly started, I went to my brother’s room where I spent the morning, reading and talking with him. While here, I ran through a small publication lately made, called the Manuscript of Knickerbocker Jr., a close imitation of Irving and a total failure. I was very much disgusted. I arranged my accounts, received some money and talked politics with George until the Cambridge Stage came, and called me to the old town of towns which I return to with pleasure increased by the idea that I am on the last heat of the race.
I was employed part of the afternoon in again arranging my books which the late painting has very much disordered and then wrote my Journal which had fallen back two days as I had no opportunity of writing it yesterday. Sheafe arrived yesterday, Otis and Richardson were here early in the afternoon so that the whole future Lyceum had got here in excellent Season. It looks and feels small as we have been accustomed to think of six inmates to it. They came down and sat with me sometime except Sheafe, who had gone to town, and we talked on old matters. Moreover we all appeared exceedingly glad to get back again which is a sure sign that College is not such an unpleasant place { 335 } as it might be. I was at Otis’s part of the Evening and writing up my Journal in my own, making up my Index,2 taking up my Bible and finally reading Pope’s first Moral Essay on the characters of men, in this way resuming all my old associations and retiring content. XI.
1. Missing.
2. For a description of CFA’s “Index diary” (our D/CFA/1), see Introduction.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-26

Sunday. September 26th. VII:30.

Missed Prayers this Morning commencing the year in no better way than formerly. I met at breakfast with all the remaining members of our assembly. Chapman, Dwight and Cunningham all very well. After breakfast, I returned to my room and went through my business very fast indeed. I brought up my Index entirely which had been neglected much longer than I had any idea of. I also wrote my Journal previous to attending Chapel in the morning and hearing the President deliver a Sermon on the death of Mrs. Farrar, the wife of the Professor who died this vacation. I was looking nearly all the time at the Freshman Class which appeared to be exceedingly small. It does not fill the seats at all and is said to be the smallest class for at least ten years, which is something of a shock to the College government. They have not expected such a blow so soon.1
In the afternoon I went to Otis’s room and spent part of the day there, over a comfortable glass of wine. I employed myself also part of the day in writing a long letter to John2 in pretty severe terms, answering the two which I received last week from him. I am not inclined to indulge in sarcasm but I thought I was obliged to after such a singular evasion on his part of what certainly it was fair to ask. If he retorts snappishly, which is very probable, I shall say nothing more. I again attended Chapel and heard a Sermon from Dr. Ware most of which I attended to. It was an address to College and more particularly to the Freshman Class. It was sensible and affecting, much in it which made me think, Experience is a singular teacher and at Cambridge comes too late. The Freshmen all look like children and make me think of a parcel of babies still in leading strings. There is not a manly looking animal among them.
After tea I paid a visit to Fay and to Dwight, took a short walk, read Pope’s Second Epistle on the Characters of Women and a Tract of Dr. Johnson’s called the False Alarm—written to prevent the effects of the representations of Junius respecting the Middlesex Election. I did not think it very powerful. I spent an hour at Otis’s in company { 336 } with Rundlet and Fay, and closed the Evening by reading a number of the striking maxims of Rochefoucault.3 X.
1. For the size of the freshman class, see entry for 27 Aug., and note, above. The marked drop in enrollment was indeed a blow, for Harvard had just lost its annual state subsidy of $10,000, appropriated since 1814, and the legislature, influenced by a campaign among orthodox Calvinists against Harvard’s theological liberalism, had voted to charter Amherst College. See Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 218–220.
2. Missing.
3. A copy of François de la Rochefoucauld’s Maximes et réflexions morales, Amsterdam, 1780, is in the Stone Library. A Paris edition, published in 1777, bearing JA’s autograph, is among the President’s books in the Boston Public Library (Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 140).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-27

Monday. September 27th. VI:10.

Missed Prayers this Morning although awake before the bell rung. I was in time however for recitation but did not attend it with much advantage to myself as upon being called upon, I was obliged to declare myself not prepared. After recitation I stated the reason to Mr. Hayward but he laid open no way of avoiding the difficulty. After breakfast we attended a Lecture from Mr. Everett at the Philosophical room which is no place however, fit for such purpose. His course today was short, merely laying out his ground and stating the kinds which he should divide it in; his manner is good for Lecture as it is simple, easy and clear. He has a singular way of dwelling upon an adjective even when connected with a substantive which should receive the accent. It was his course he said to give an account of Grecian literature. He then made some observations upon it’s originality and antiquity, the first composition was earlier than that of the Oriental tribes and, if we except a portion of the Hebrew writings, theirs were the first literary efforts. It is on this account that we are indebted to them. It is for the influence which these attempts exerted upon future periods that we look up to them. In this Lecture, he intended only to explain the general nature of his topics and his future course. He would first treat of the origin of the language, although he should not take much notice of the argument concerning the Phoenicians, as it is certain enough whatever they may have contributed to the Greek language, none of their own productions, if they ever had any, have ever been received by us. He should first notice the legislators, such as were only known in fable and mythology. This he called the Anti Homeric age.
Then he should treat of Homer and of Hesiod. He should then treat of the Lyric writers such as Alcaeus, Sappho and others which he should call the Classic Age. The succeeding time was remarkable for the commencement of prose writing with the invention of paper re• { 337 } ceived from Egypt, which was so remarkably late as only the seventh century before the Christian era. He said his course as far as here would [be] in regular chronological order but in future this mode would be too arbitrary and only create confusion concerning the different sorts of authors. He should treat of Pindar alone as he is the sole author in his species of writing. He should then go on to speak of the dramatists, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. It was remarkable that these lived so nearly in the same age as they are found to have when we reflect that Aeschylus was engaged in the famous battle of Salamis, Sophocles was chosen leader of the band or chorus to celebrate the victory and Euripides was born on the very day.
He should then treat of the historians, the most remarkable of whom were Herodotus, Thucydides and Xenophon. Also he should notice Ctesias and Heraclides Ponticus who are not known to us as only small fragments of their works are preserved. Next came the philosophy which he should treat of entire, down to the destruction of Greece. Then the Orators and then some miscellaneous notices which could not well be classed under any of these heads. Next he should describe the Alexandrian age from the establishment of Christianity to the downfall of Greece the most learned if not the most illustrious age of Greece. Lastly came the ecclesiastical age in which the propagation of letters in the west of Europe took place, with some observations upon the formation of the language of Modern Greece. A subject not exactly connected with his but which might be advantageous. This is his plan.
He closed the lecture with some sort of an address to us. He said that we must be aware that we had come to a time of life when our minds either had or shortly would take a graver cast, that we were to acquire a habit of forcing attention, the only way by which our future studies could be advanced. We were not to make amusement our principal object and we must be conscious, we could hardly receive much here. We were progressing into a time of life when we should become fully sensible of the worth of literary acquirements as we had less opportunity from attention to our various professions of increasing them. He therefore recommended to us to pursue while the time was given us those branches which would be of so much advantage and solace in future life. This was a short lecture so that I know not what I shall make of long ones. After we had come out of this I returned to my room, wrote my Journal and read Pope’s Third Essay on the use of Riches. These do not strike me so much as they did in first going over. I also continued reading Rochefoucault.
At eleven o’clock, I went in with the class to Mr. Farrar for a lesson { 338 } in Astronomy which is our morning study for this term. He laid his plan before us which was that we should read over this work of Ferguson’s on Astronomy,1 which is our Text book, and he should ask questions upon it which he should illustrate as well as he could from the instruments in his possession and by familiar conversation. This man is the only one who understands the method of instruction. After a few observations upon the value of Astronomy as a Science, he dismissed us. I spent the rest of the morning in attempting to select a speech for declamation and at length fixed upon that one of Henry’s, which is so often spoken.
After dinner was over, I went to the library to obtain a book for our next Forensic which takes place unexpectedly on Thursday. I did not succeed however. I then employed myself the rest of the afternoon in studying a lesson in Paley which was a remarkably hard one. It was on Simony. I shall be compelled to change my plan of study this term as we have the afternoon without division so that I shall be compelled to study two hours every day upon the same lesson which will make it somewhat fatiguing.2 After recitation was over, I went to Brenan’s room and spent the remaining few minutes before Prayers. It is a singular sort of a change, moving into Holworthy. But every anticipation is so pleasant that we are considerably borne up even under a hard load of studies.
After tea, I settled myself down comfortably in my room for the evening. I employed myself in reading Rochefoucault’s maxims which I do not find, generally speaking, so extremely striking, but I am willing to attribute this to the extension of the truth of them which now makes them appear Commonplace. I also thought upon my Forensic but could not come to a great deal of matter in point. I managed to write a number of hints tonight upon the subject which however cost me the Evening. I again attempted my Mathematics and failed again. I found I could do nothing, so coolly turned back to see what I could do on the subject at it’s commencement, and found myself in a similar predicament, so I went to bed in despair. X:30.
1. JQA’s copy of James Ferguson, Astronomy Explained upon Sir Isaac Newton’s Principles, London, 1785, is in the Stone Library.
2. See entry for 14 Sept., and note, above, for CFA’s academic schedule.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-28

Tuesday. September 28th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning, was not called upon, fortunately, or it would have been the worse for me. I must despair of again making a good recitation in this branch of study.1 After it was { 339 } over, I returned home, read my usual Chapters in the Bible and dressed myself. I know not what is the reason but I do not desire a happier life as to personal comforts than I lead now. My room is my pleasure and I feel exceeding little inclined to pursue the dissipated course of last year. My friends will not allow it indeed, hereafter, but I do not know that I shall not be weak enough to pursue a similar if not a worse course than before. I am the creature of inclination by far more than I wish to think myself.
At study bell, we attended Mr. Everetts Second Lecture. The period anterior to the oldest writings is one which from the nature of the case could hardly give us much light as to it’s history. We can very fairly conclude that nothing but theory could be brought forward concerning it. We could collect only a little from the books of the Hebrew which were in a later time written in that language. Excepting an explanation of the settlement of the aborigines in America, the Bible affords us as good a history of the first formation and extension of Man as could be found and appears perfectly probable, and the remarkable similarity which exists in the language and worship of the people of the East and West would authorize the supposition that they had been derived from a common stock and after separation had changed and differed in the course of time. But2 the history of the principal tribes of the earliest times appears to have a veil drawn over it which it is impossible to take away. Inquiry is vain. As the time in which events take place is near to us, we see the first causes of things and are able to trace events of importance even to the minutest incidents. Time destroys these recollections and particulars are dropped for want of notice in records. As we recede from a hundred to a thousand years we are satisfied if we can mention entire dynasties and merely give a character to an age. We are surprised when we consider how little we know of the history of Carthage, once the rival of Rome, and how doubtful we are of the derivation of the twelve tables which fixed the greatness of the last City.
The early history of Greece has become extremely involved in fable and the identity of men can with great justice be questioned. The accounts of centaurs and other beings who partook of the nature of deities is so mixed in with the early traditions that it is impossible to know what to extract in order to reduce the account to probability. Indeed it is hardly desirable to know any further, as we may with ground suppose that the early compositions have been dropped only because they were worthless; a language and it’s history is only remarkable so far as it exerts an influence upon the character of the { 340 } literature of the nation and for this period only is it worth knowing. The true place for commencing antiquarian researches is where we become supplied with authentic tradition and this is only at a comparatively recent period. It is a remarkable thing in instituting a comparative view of the two great ancient nations that one is indebted to the other for all it’s literature as nothing in the Latin language can strictly be called original if we except the letters of Cicero. It is also remarkable that we are indebted to Rome almost exclusively for our law as Greece had but little knowledge in that science. To Greece we owe our finest models in the drama, in poetry, history and all the organization of modern letters. Greece also transmitted it to us through the fugitives of Constantinople when we were in the lowest state of ignorance. It is also remarkable that their decisions in taste are not controverted to this day, our ways of writing being similar, the peculiarities which critics call romantic belonging rather to the philosophical than to the literary character of modern works. As an instance of this force of antiquity, he mentioned the drama which may divide a play into four or six acts with as much propriety, but no instance of one in either of these divisions ever has or probably ever will succeed. While we derive from these countries the two great branches of literature and law it is somewhat remarkable and unaccountable that we derive our religion from a separate disconnected nation and that, too, the most inconsiderable in ancient times. The study of letters in the Greek language has indeed an intrinsic value and while there is sympathy between mind and mind, the catalogue of distinguished men must excite the admiration and respect of every age.
He then came to notice a controversy which arose concerning the relative value of the ancients and moderns. A great many men had advocated the superiority of the former and forgot to pursue the principle that merit and not age was to be praised. Instead of adhering to their superiority, we ought to be glad when we discover that we really improve upon the ancients. Indeed it would be singular if, according to the natural course of things, having the assistance of these as models and so much experience and wider fields of knowledge, we did not at least equal, probably surpass them. He then illustrated by mentioning a master and his scholars. It would be unreasonable to suppose that a scholar was doomed to remain at the same point exactly where his instructor left him, that he never was to exceed him in any thing. Were this the case the world would ever be at a stand. Indeed only Narrow minded men start with the assertion that this inquiry alone is worth prosecuting. A real scholar will ever disdain these little literary fac• { 341 } tions. He then gave a brief view of the controversy. It was not a new one as Horace, Cicero and Quinctilian.3 The first took the Greeks as his model, admired them and followed them but he did not approve of calling every thing good only because it was old. Cicero supported the dignity of the ancients. Quinctilian, in comparing the rival merits of Cicero and Demosthenes, declares finally in favour of the former but at the same time declares that he shall be much attacked on this account. The revival of letters in Europe was the era of pedantic and unmeasured admiration of the older writers. And any thing was admired which came from the hands of Aristotle and Homer.4 The first formal controversy on the subject was started by Alexander Tassone, preceding this, Annibal Carlo had published a work at Modena called “Various reflections” in which he attacks these two venerated authors. It is a book of much ingenuity and independance but not much learning or taste.
The question was again revived at the close of the seventeenth century by Perrault5 but in this controversy all those who were most able in themselves to be arguments to defend the moderns were on the other side of the question. It originated in a Poem of this man’s which was read at the Academy in which he depreciated the ancient authors and set them below a large list of names among whom but three have come down with distinction. The rest have sunk in oblivion or under ridicule. Fontenelle6 can be ranked on his side of the question and could hardly be called unably defended by a man of his talents and character. Boileau, Fenelon and Racine, three bright examples in favour of their argument, came out against them. It was remarkable that Perrault did not endeavour to reconcile the first of them by placing him on his list instead of irritating him as he did. In England the controversy was agitated about the year 1690 by Sir William Temple who, for a man of his usual sense, appears exceedingly prejudiced on this subject. He argued that there was no merit to be brought forward in modern times and, singular to observe, did not recollect the names of Shakespeare and Milton, of Locke and Newton and Boyle. He was answered very fully and triumphantly by a man named Wotton.7 He closed his lecture by an anecdote illustrating the fanaticism of men and attachment to old prejudices, that upon the discovery of the circulation of the blood, Dr. Harvey when first disclosing it states that he lost all his practice and none could make a Physician over forty years old believe it. After it was fully allowed, a reaction took place and men said it had always been known and even wrote books to prove that Solomon was acquainted with the fact. I have been very diffuse in this { 342 } lecture but I do not know how to condense it. I shall in future attempt to discover a plan. Much, I have left out even now.
After lecture, I went home and read over Ferguson upon the first part of the Solar system, but when taken up, I knew nothing about the distances. In the afternoon I wrote my Journal, studied my Paley, attended recitation and Prayers, returned home and spent the Evening well in writing my Journal, reading an Essay of Pope’s, and making an attempt to acquire a little of a review in Topography but did not succeed as usual. X.
1. Mathematics.
2. CFA carelessly wrote “in” (editorially deleted) as the second word of this sentence.
3. Thus in MS.
4. CFA originally wrote “Plato,” and then overwrote “Homer.”
5. The French poet, Charles Perrault (1628–1703).
6. The French author, Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657–1757).
7. Henry Wotton (1568–1639), English poet and diplomat.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-29

Wednesday. September 29th. VI.

Attended Prayers this morning although tardy, and recitation afterwards in which I escaped by not being taken up. Returned home, dressed for the day and after breakfast attended Mr. Everetts third Lecture. The etymology of language and their origin have ever been a study among men. Considering the changes natural by transmission, it is remarkable that the radical forms are still the same. It is therefore not at all singular that men should attempt to obtain history in this way. Inquiries have given the origin of the Greek to the Hebrew, to the Celtic, the Flemish, the German. A writer of the present day is still more extravagant than Father Hardouin1 which was that German was the court language of Rome. Father Hardouin professed to believe that the Classics were all fabrications by monks in the dark ages. Others have derived the language from the Jews, the Phoenicians, the Goths and Finns. Some have supposed it the original language, Von der Hardt has supported this last opinion. He maintains the opinion that the Gothic is the parent of Latin and Greek with some appearance of probability. Previous to the arrival of the Phoenicians, the Pelasgi existed and it is supposed by some that the Poems of Homer were originally written in this language and afterwards written in the Greek. Marsham2 maintained that the Egyptian was the original language and so did Lord Monboddo,3 and many other opinions.
Two considerations account for so many theories. One, that as so little real authority remains, there is full play for the imagination as the period we are speaking of is carried back to at least 2000 years { 343 } B.C. We are authorized in saying that there are no remains of the language which was original and therefore there is no ground on which to argue. We have witnessed the changes of language in a time so much shorter that we can easily see the uncertainty of any conclusion with respect to the Gothic claim. The Greek is a derived language as indeed is every language of which we have now any idea, or knowledge. A few words generally find their way into every language from another which do not however justify any claim to forming them. We have an example of the possibility of influence in the case of the Island of Malta which the Saracens possessed for a long time in the middle ages. On this account there are a great many remains in the Arabic language, many therefore have to trace these to Carthage and Phoenicia for its origin.4 It is a fallacy however, he thinks, to call languages derivative. Those which produced a national literature should be considered original, and critics should call them so. Etymologists might call them otherwise. Different dialects of Dutch, Flemish, high German, low German, Swedish, Danish &c. are of the Northern stock. Italian, French and Spanish are all from the Latin, yet the members of one nation cannot understand the conversation or language of another. Whatever has been added or changed to the original, which was the same to all, must be original.
There are also the four different dialects of Greece which require more study to understand, the dialect of Homer also which is peculiar to him. But it is not for the grammar of a language that it is worth noticing it, [it] is for the character of the literature of the nation to which it belongs. Originality belongs to this as much as it does to the language itself. Italy wants drama, France wants history and other nations are also deficient in some particular branch which constitutes the peculiarity in their language. Though the Athenians affected to be indigenous, Greece was generally settled by the Pelasgi, barbarians of whom it is a question whether they were aborigines like our own or derived their origin from the East. It is sufficiently certain that there were emigrations from Egypt and Phoenicia about sixteen centuries before the birth of Christ. Four of them are mentioned in history, that of Cecrops in 1556, of Danaus 1485, Cadmus 1493 and Pelops 1350. As these dated [i.e. dates?] are not by any means certain, we may call it generally in the sixteenth century previous to the Christian era. There is certainly a great similarity between the Greek and Oriental languages. There has been of late years a doubt of the identity of such a person as Cadmus or of his ever having existed. It has been generally supposed correct because Cadmus, or [Redden?] as it is in the Oriental { 344 } language, signifies the East so that merely the use of the word has made us suppose it a proper name, but he did not incline to see any reason for this and supposes we might be led into a mistake by our over vigilance and then cited an example exceedingly apt to the purpose. If our history should by some calamity or accident be entirely destroyed and a mere tradition exist as to the history of Columbus, future critics might with the same ground suppose him to be a fabulous character as his name which is Colon in Spanish signifies a (first) settler, and consequently men might say that he was only the first settler and called so by way of distinction. Also of Cabot whose name cabbotir in Italian and French means to explore.
He considers the Greek language as a compound language but it appeared to him, he said, that the Pelasgii far outweighed the oriental. From political and moral causes, he should argue this as it is most probable that men will always take the common terms in use among the larger part and use them as their own. Indeed we are the only example in which the language of emigrants did not vary by that of the nations and this was only because ours was more of a case of extermination and we kept ourselves a single separate body by which it was impossible for our language to be corrupted. He then urged us to recollect and keep in mind these facts, as the Oriental emigrations were the first starting point of the history of the literature of Greece. It is rather remarkable that no native stock has ever grown to the highest excellence and [he] closed his lecture by showing in this case a similarity between the animal and vegetable world in which many trees will remain barren until engrafted with another stock when they will produce luxuriantly.
After Lecture, I returned home and read over my Astronomy, attended recitation where Mr. Farrar explained to us [with] much sense more of the Solar system. I wish and intend to state also his remarks, as he is as much of a lecturer as any other almost. He explained to day the distances of the planets and corrected any erroneous impressions we might have from seeing his orreries.
In the afternoon I wrote my Journal and got a lesson in Paley, and the Evening I employed in finishing a long day’s Journal and in reading Pope’s fifth and last Essay, with the Messiah which, to my shame, I have not noticed before as remarkable. I thus spent the whole Evening in reading and writing for a few moments at Mathematics after which I retired. X:25.
1. Father Jean Hardouin (1646–1729).
2. John Marsham.
3. James Burnett, Lord Monboddo { 345 } (1714–1799), Scottish judge and philosopher.
4. Everett’s second point, as CFA confusedly noted, was that some words are “common to many languages in consequence of the original community of stock” (Everett, Synopsis, p. 2; see entry for 1 Oct., below, for an explanation of this source).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-30

Thursday. September 30th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation, and was again reprieved for a time. I now think that every escape is something. After breakfast, I attended Lecture as usual. He today discussed the origin and progress of alphabetical writing, an inquiry into which, he said, had a material effect upon the question of the authenticity of the oldest writings. There were three distinct processes to be gone through, the one which invents the signs of objects and adapts oral sounds to them, the other which notes them down and a third which would be to associate the other two, and make them represent each other. The first process is the most wonderful of all. The imitative faculty is most powerfully implanted in us and we soon learn to make figures upon paper resembling certain objects and then use them as the signs of these objects afterwards. Previous to this, all communication must have been oral and the history of a tribe could only be transmitted by heads of families and priests, the one who would notice what happened within their own circle and the other the religion and rites of the people. We have reason to suppose that pictures were the commencement of Hieroglyphical writing. Mexicans carried this sort of communication to very great perfection, probably as great as possible, but from it’s nature this sort of language must have been very obscure, and from this cause probably arose alphabetical writing.
This change must have taken place from the perfection of [a] third process which, as he stated before, was the association of the oral and graphic signs. Hieroglyphical writing was unavoidably obscure, as it confounded frequently the signs with the emblems which represented the ideas. Eichhorn1 has made an ingenious conjecture concerning the story of Herodotus, concerning the army of an Oriental prince or, as we may suppose, of Sennachieb [Sennacherib]. This historian says that while in Egypt he understood that this army had been destroyed by mice, who coming to the tents ate off the strings of their bows and the straps of their shields, by which they were made defenceless and perished by the attacks of their enemies. Now in Egypt the mouse is the symbol of destruction and there was a statue of a king there holding a mouse in his hand, alias destruction, but some person, it is supposed, knowing Herodotus to be a stranger, passed off this trick upon { 346 } him, and he wrote this among other[s] as doubtful stories in his history. Hieroglyphics have come down to us as remaining from many monuments. Those on the [monuments?] are the most frequent and on the sarcophagi, both inside and out, also upon some obelisks. The Rosetta stone, as it is called, has an inscription in hieroglyphics, in Coptic, and in Greek. Ammianus Marcellinus has preserved the Greek interpretation of these on one of the Roman obelisks which he showed to us as well as an engraving of the obelisk itself. No successful attempts have ever been made however to decipher them. But one man has ever succeeded in the least and he has merely with reason argued that these figures which are surrounded by parallellogramic line, or rather curve, are proper names, so that we are authorized in making our first assertion, as this has given us no clue, and we may rather believe that there is no interpretation to be obtained for them as they express no language. This species of writing was more used in Egypt than elsewhere but it is supposed that they had an alphabetical character also.
The progress and utility of alphabetical writing was of course affected by want of materials to write on. The earliest in use for this purpose were stone, metals, wood, bark of trees, skins and linen. Bricks or tiles were used at Babylon, hard wood was also in use which was covered with a thin coat of wax and was written upon with a thing called a stylus made of steel and coming to a point; the other end was flattened and served to efface what had already been written if correction was wanted. The laws of the twelve tables and the public acts at Rome were written on bronze plates and laid up in the aerarium,2 copies of which were distributed among the provinces. At the time of the burning of Rome under Vitellius, three thousand of these were destroyed. There is a large brazen plate at Lyons taken from the bed of the Rhine which contains an harangue of the Emperor Claudius. The original law for the ejection of the Bacchanals mentioned in Livy as a Senatus consultum was dug up in Calabria in 1640. He showed us a copy of it. Preparations of linen were also made which were covered with wax. It is probable that the books of Moses were written so and the books of Homer, if written at all, were probably in this way also. Skins of animals were prepared with wax boiled with the lees of olives. Mr. Gifford, the famous editor of the Quarterly Review,3 was so poor, it is said, that he used to write his poems on smooth pieces of leather at the intervals of his work in a saddler’s shop. Cleanthes, it appears, wrote down his master’s lectures upon muscle shells and the shoulder blades of oxen. The seventh century before Christ under Psammetichus, inner bark of trees was peeled off with a needle, dried { 347 } in the sun and polished when it was written upon with a reed, having the appearance of paint. But this preparation, as given in books, does not correspond with the examples which we have which look like a coarse cloth. This was probably used by the poets Alcaeus and Sappho.
The introduction of paper was subsequent to the age of Homer. It had an effect on letters in Greece similar to that of the invention of printing on literature in modern times. The Herculanian rolls are the oldest specimens we have of the papyrus and they have been so decomposed by heat that we cannot judge of them. The use of it continued until the eleventh century A.C. Parchment was perfected by Eumenes, king of Pergamus, as being rival kings in their desire to obtain libraries, Ptolemy had forbid the exportation of Paper which however was thus without avail. It was used generally in Europe in the seventh Century, Cotton paper in the eleventh and linen in the fourteenth.
Lecture being over I went to Lothrops and learnt my directions for the Commencement of the military campaign, then returned to my room and wrote my Forensic on the subject “whether Moral Obligation implies a future state of rewards and punishments.” I was on the affirmative. After dinner I went and gave my company a drill in the rifle exercise, then attended Forensics. They were pretty good, generally speaking, and Mr. Hedge very simply stated the case and decided in favour of our side of the question. I returned and wrote my Journal. In the Evening I visited Brenan, queried the Freshmen a little and then returned, sat in my room some time and then dispersed for a half an hour in which time I finished my duties and then went to Sheafe’s where we met again with the addition of Rundlet and Fay (by we I mean the Lyceum). After they had gone we went into Otis’s and drank Porter and conversed making it quite late before we retired. XII:15.
1. Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (1752–1827), Orientalist and biblical scholar at Göttingen.
2. The state treasury of Rome, which was kept in the basement of the Temple of Saturn (Harper’s Dict. of Classical Lit.).
3. William Gifford (1756–1826), the first editor of the Quarterly Review (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-01

Friday. October 1st.

Attended Prayers this morning and recitation in Topography. I was called upon today and acquitted myself with mediocrity. Making one week over, out of eight which we have before us. I returned home, dressed myself and after breakfast attended Lecture. It was today the history of the Anti Homeric literature, the subjects of which are those { 348 } which we have still remaining of the works of that time, those of which we have authentic accounts, the works themselves being lost and lastly the authors of these works. Three periods may be assumed in the early history of Greek works and although we rank Homer our first author, he does not come until the close of the third period. A peculiar character is to be ascribed to that age when man was just emerging from the barbarous into the heroic state which itself was semibarbarous. The first period above mentioned consequently comprises the age of the earliest lawgivers, founders of tribes, priests, inventors of arts, founders of cities and reformers, whose communication with their fellow men was in an unusual strain, but who can by no means be considered poets in the sense in which we use the term. Of this number were Orpheus, Linus, Amphion and Musaeus, if we ascribe to them any actual existence. They were not poets but only higher wise men, but as the changes between the ages was great as the progress of civilization, it is probable they had nothing to leave worthy of notice.
The second period was that of the sacred songs of the temples, of triumphal hymns in the families of the heroes and the songs of the bards like those in more modern times. Here was more probably the rise of Poetry as an art. It is highly probable that many of these came down to a much later age although they have become unknown in any time which we have records of. The songs in the temples came down and were preserved long after they had become unintelligible. Homer mentions the song of the Salii which was sung but of which nobody knew the meaning. Something similar may be found in our version of the Bible in which there are some words which have lost their meaning but which are preserved because it is not thought worthwhile to affect the associations which are natural to the mind and which would weaken our respect for the sacred scriptures, were we at liberty to expunge at pleasure. This species of writing would however sink naturally also, by the transition into a more polished age.
The third period is that in which poetry was made a single branch of application and was gradually brought to the perfection which we behold in the books of Homer. No one will suppose that a book like the Iliad or Odyssey of Homer could be the first composition in any language. It is so artificially formed that with all the allowance in the world for the native power of creative genius, and all deductions for the work of subsequent critics, there is an art to be seen and traced which could not have proceeded but from a long series of efforts. They may since have been adapted to each other and more highly polished { 349 } and suited to an after age, but nevertheless they are still very much too great for a first exertion.
We are thus prepared to analyze a few of the accounts which we have received of the early authors and which has been perfected for us by the patience of criticism. Fabricius has given us seventy names. We will therefore attempt a few. He previously however noticed a list of names in the synopsis Article 6. of authors of works of reference, for the history of Greek Literature.1 The first class comprise the names of the primitive heroes, Prometheus, Hercules &c. The first was considered as the great leader of the arts and age in this early stage. Chiron, a native of Thessaly, which country appears to have been the cradle of the arts in this country, a curious circumstance when we find it had relapsed into proverbial ignorance and barbarism in the flourishing times of Athens. It has been usual with theologians to attempt to identify every name in ancient history with some one or other of the names in the old testament, thinking in that to make a regular historical account of all ages to agree from different authorities, but it only rendered the Christian account suspect, he thought. Hermes was according to the ancient accounts the author of alphabetical writing, of Geometry, of medicine, of the lyre of seven strings and many other arts, from which it would appear that he was a tolerably versatile genius. He has many works charged to him but they are all fabrications of different periods, two or three of them Arabian, and others in the middle ages or earlier, their names are in the synopsis. He was supposed to have been the [ . . . ] who pursued alchemy as a study; it did not arise until the third century after Christ. He was also called Theuth [Thoth] in Egyptian and Teut in German. Horus and Zoroaster were the last. Of this last he spoke largely, or rather of his supposed work, the Zendavesta [Zend-Avesta] which was said to have been discovered and translated in the eighteenth century by du Perron, a Frenchman.2 Sir William Jones however did not allow its authenticity but argues it as merely tradition which has come down in the East from a much later period. He however thinks that there are two Chapters which appear to be somewhat authentic, even if this is the case the work is extremely valuable. Eichhorn has also added another passage to the number. He is supposed to have existed in Persia in the seventh Century before Christ. From lecture I went home and wrote my Journal which occupied me very nearly all the morning.
I spent half an hour at the reading room and after dinner went to declamation. It was my turn, but I did not [word or words omitted] and my excuse was not accepted. I offered the speech of Patrick Henry { 350 } on the Virginia resolutions and it was accepted. I could find no other. I spent the afternoon committing a piece of poetry, a little song of Waller’s3 to a rose, according to an intention of mine to commit to Memory a certain portion of Poetry in a certain time in order to improve my memory. I also read Thomson’s Autumn, not having had an opportunity to read it at the appointed time. I nevertheless took the commencement of this month instead, to which the poem as strictly applies. I was more pleased than ever with it, the appeal to Industry delighted me very much. Thinking of that song of Wallers, I was struck with the similarity of one of the ideas with one of Grey’s [Gray’s] which has been much admired. “Full many a flower” &c. My afternoon was in this way very agreably taken up.
After Prayers, we drilled in the Corps, which as usual put me into a terribly irritated state, I believe much more pain has issued from serving in my capacity than pleasure. After drill, I was a little while at Otis’s and the rest of the time in my room. We this evening enjoyed the first privileges of the Senior Year by having no lesson on Saturdays. I wrote a large part of my theme and mused away some time.4 XI.
1. The “synopsis” to which CFA alludes is Edward Everett’s own Synopsis of a Course of Lectures on the History of Greek Literature. This octavo pamphlet (extant incomplete copies contain 108 pages) is without author’s name, place, or date of publication, but presumably was printed at or about the time Everett began lecturing at Harvard in 1819. From entries below it is clear that CFA usually carried his copy of the Synopsis to class with him and used it to verify names, dates, titles, and the like in Everett’s learned discourses. CFA’s copy has not been found, but a copy in the Massachusetts Historical Society has proved useful to the present editors for the same purpose and especially in making sense of the diarist’s badly punctuated and sometimes garbled sentences. For an excellent account of Everett’s classical and philological training in Europe and the impact of his lectures at Harvard, see Orie W. Long, Literary Pioneers: Early American Explorers of European Culture, Cambridge, 1935, p. 63–76.
2. Anquetil du Perron (Everett, Synopsis, p. 7).
3. Edmund Waller (1606–1687).
4. CFA also took a walk (D/CFA/1).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-02

Saturday October 2d. VII:30.

Missed Prayers this morning and did not arise until breakfast time. The class as usual were alarmed by an ambiguous expression of Mr. Hayward’s and only had their fears quieted when they found that he had only resorted to one of his usual tricks. At study bell we attended a lecture of Mr. Everett’s. He commenced with an account of the names included in his second period in which he includes the authors of the sacred songs of the temples, heroic hymns and songs of the bards. Of these there are two names, Phemius and Demodocus, rendered remarkable by being mentioned by Homer and the Sibylline { 351 } | view Oracles. The history of these he said would take far more space than he could possibly allow to the subject, he should not therefore go into [it] but refer us to an essay upon the subject in Mitford’s Greece which he said was worth reading. Origin of them probably was in the superior wisdom and sanctity of individuals who foreseeing events with more clearness took upon themselves the power of inspiration. They afterwards fell into the hands of the priesthood by the natural course of events. Learning being exclusively theirs. These oracles did not confine themselves by any means to Greece. They existed and had influence in Asia Minor, in the Islands and in Syria. The ancient authors mention many but those of the Sibyl were the most famous. The etymology of the name is doubtful, some derive it from Διος βουλη1 which it was supposed to express. There are at least twenty different derivations of the word, some say more. Ten sibyls were named by Varro, whose names are inserted in the synopsis Article 8.3. The first was supposed to be the daughter of Tiresias, the second existed previous to the Trojan war and foretold it, the third was consulted by Aeneas, the fourth belonged to the islands and flourished about the 10th Olympiad, the seventh is mentioned by Euripides, the eighth by Justin Martyr who says there were twenty four books of her sayings in the 120th Olympiad. All these were in circulation at Rome except the Cuman [Cumaean] which the Senate suppressed as it was the most holy; they only consulted it upon solemn and important occasions and acted by it’s decisions.
History of the Sibylline Oracles at Rome is singular. The story of their being offered to Tarquin the proud is well known, in nine books and an exorbitant price demanded, which offer being refused, she burnt three and offered the remaining six which being again refused, she burnt three more and demanded the same price for the remainder. This time she was successful and obtained her price. These books were preserved in the Capitol in the temple of Juno under the care of the duumviri appointed for that purpose, the number was afterwards increased to ten and then to fifteen. One author says that in a later age the number was seventy, which proves the office to have been held in great estimation. There is an abbreviation for their title which I do not recollect but the explanation is duumviri sacris faciendis. He said while on this subject, it was worthwhile to mention two or three of these, which we should often meet with in Latin History. The master of the mint for instance had his duty thus written—A.A.A.F.F.P. auro, argento, aere, flando, feriundo propositius. So also a common inscription upon the old Roman tombs, C.S.H.S.T.T.L. communi sumptu haere• { 352 } | view dum sit tibi terra levis. H.D.V. caro datu vivit. The oracles were destroyed at the burning of the Capitol under Sylla. They were replaced from all parts of the world as works were collected from all parts of the world, examined and some of them selected, and placed in gilded cases in the temple of Apollo from which they were saved at it’s conflagration. It was the part of ecclesiastical discernment to see the use such things might be put to, they have frequently in them the sign of a fish and this is also seen on the tombs of the early Christians. The origin of it is this, the initial letters of the words they used, in the Greek language formed the word Ιχθνς or Ιησου Χριστου Θεου υιος σταυρος.2 This proves the works fabricated which are called the sibylline Oracles.
A work now extant under the name is of this sort, it was written by the christians who were aware they would obtain much influence if the predictions of the Pagans were according to their wishes. He then entered into a short analysis of this work. The first book is a close imitation of the creation according to the book of Genesis and a prediction of our Saviour which proves his work to have been written since the Christian era. The second was a mere general prophecy of future events. The third was concerning Antichrist, but it has always been a matter of question among men to decide whether by this personage Nero was meant or Martin Luther. She also declares herself to be the daughter of Noah. The fourth treats of the destruction of kingdoms and the last Judgment. In the fifth, she calls herself the sister of Noah and gives a list of the Roman Emperors by their initial letters. In the sixth she gives the account of the baptism of our Saviour, the seventh gives an account of the happy state of the righteous and the eighth foretells the judgment of nations. Most of this was fabricated in the early part of the Christian history with some scraps collected of the old Sybilline books and woven into the work. There have been a large number of fabrications of a similar sort.
After Lecture, I returned home and wrote my Journal for the day before, which employed me all the remainder of the morning. In the afternoon, I wrote a letter to Tudor3 concerning his affairs here, in which I stated to him very simply the whole of the affair. I think it singular that he left town without paying a private debt to me, but such are young men. I dislike human nature more every day and am more disgusted with the young men than ever. I then committed a piece of poetry according to custom which passed off the afternoon with a visit at Morse’s to [buy] some furniture.
In the Evening, Fisher paid me a visit, the first for some time. { 353 } After he left, I corrected my theme and then went up to Otis’s where I found Fisher. I had intended to stay only ten minutes and stayed a very long while for, happening to fall into quite interesting conversation, and being over a very good fire, we sat and sat until the clock warned Fisher to go home and me to come down to my room, in which I had no inclination to sit with no fire, and at such an hour, so that after reading my Bible I retired at the hour of XII:10.
1. The will of God.
2. That is (transliterating the Greek), the word Ichthus or Icthys (fish) could be formed by using the initial letters of the expression Iesous CHristos THeou HYios Stauros (Jesus Christ, Son of God, the Cross). But either Everett or CFA mangled the expression in question, for the last word should not be Stauros but Soter (Saviour).
3. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-03

Sunday. October 3d. VIII.

Missed Prayers this morning and arose late to breakfast, after which I sat down and wrote my Journal, which, with some time taken up at Otis’s room, passed off very nearly all the morning. I attended Chapel and heard the President, and only heard him, for I sunk into my usual apathy and was conscious of nothing passing before me. This is the most singular state in the world, and I believe if I am ever entirely devoid of thought, it is then. My mind appears to be in a state of inattention, and although sometimes it wanders off to distant scenes, it is more than half the time in a state of sleepiness which is vacancy. I think the greatest metaphysical truth that I have seen is that when the mind does not think, it goes to sleep.
Returning, I wrote more of my Journal but I spent the whole of the afternoon in Richardson’s room conversing with him upon political subjects. What was the inducement I cannot tell but it prevailed. I talked about the political struggle which is now so soon to come on and stated my opinion prudently and at the same time decidedly. I am afraid, I shall have a pretty hard course of conduct to pursue here among the students at the time of the heat. It is a terrible situation. A man’s father to be thus buffeted and exposed to all the falsehoods, misrepresentations and slanders which scoundrels please to make. I am sick of political life but I see no other course to take, to be a private man would injure me as something is expected and to be any thing except a lawyer or a political man is not my turn of mind.
In the afternoon Dr. Ware talked to us of Moses, not much to my edification. Why do I hate that man? In the Evening, I first took a walk, returned home, wrote my Journal to the end, then went to { 354 } Richardson’s where I found Rundlet, Fay, and Brenan came in soon after.1 The second is now in fear of a dismission and appears much troubled.2 I heard some news today that we were going to have Mr. Ticknor’s lectures in future, in the evening, added to all our other duties.3 If true, half the benefit which I expected to derive from my last year here will be lost, and upon this idea, I retired with melancholy reflections. XI.
1. Thus punctuated in MS.
2. Richard Sullivan Fay’s fears were unfounded; he graduated with his class in 1825.
3. George Ticknor’s lectures on French literature, which CFA summarizes in the following pages, were an outgrowth of his studies abroad. With Edward Everett he attended the University of Göttingen in 1815–1817, and he later studied also in France, Spain, and Italy. For an account of Ticknor as student and as teacher, see Long, Literary Pioneers: Early American Explorers of European Culture.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-04

Monday. October 4th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography this morning as usual. After breakfast also, I attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture. He commenced today with the third class of those who preceded Homer and under whom Poetry was formed into an entirely distinct art. We have among these Olen, Thamyris and Tiresias. The [first] of these was a Lycian by birth and a quotation is mentioned from Callimachus in which he is mentioned. It is given in the synopsis. His origin agrees also with what we know already of ancient Lycia, and it’s early refinement; Pausanias makes him a Hyperborean. In the early times, when men had but indistinct notions of Geography, they supposed the earth flat and that beyond the Northern regions was situated the residence of perfect happiness. On this account they were called Hyperborean. The second, Thamyris, is mentioned by Homer for his contest with the Muses and is called a Thracian by him, which country seems to have the priority in advancement. Thamyris was reported to be blind. It is rather a singular thing that in ancient times almost every man who was distinguished for talent was said to be blind. If we can consider it worth our inquiring, we should ascribe it to the known superiority of the blind in memory. He then went on to consider two prose writers who are said to be authors of the present age of which we speak and of whom we have fragments. The first is Sanconiathon. He is called a native of Berytus by some, others suppose him a Tyrian. He wrote, it is said, in the language of Carthage or the Punic. According to Eusebius, the writings of this author were translated into Greek and he has preserved fragments of it. Authors { 355 } have supposed that this Philo Biblius, who was the translator, compiled these fragments from ancient genuine manuscripts and added interpolations of his own, which is probably the correct opinion. They contain a version of the Jewish system of the formation of the world and the Platonist doctrines of the middle ages, and he made a quotation to illustrate with. These fragments were translated by Bishop Cumberland and notes were added and a commentary who [which?] attempted to prove that these fragments contained in themselves a series of profane history for three thousand years from the creation. His object, it was said, was to prevent the growth of popery. The work is never read now and it is only to be regretted that he, being so learned a man, should have so mispent his time. (Poor man, he was only doing what a thousand men are doing every day. Who shall decide what is [a] wise pursuit or what is not? “Vanity of vanities all is vanity.”)
The next work is evidently one of a later age but the extravagance of ancient authors compells us to put it before the Trojan War. This work is the Periplus or navigation of Hanno, a Carthaginian Prince who made a voyage of discovery beyond the columns of Hercules. He wrote down what happened and this is the result. It is supposed that he introduced many of the fables which were ever after told in Greece and elsewhere. Some have said that he had written a full account of which the work in two folio pages is an abstract, this latter is all we have. Fabricius however has supposed that this is all the work and with reason. He is said to have gone with 60 sail and thirty thousand men which in the commencement renders his account exceedingly improbable, but when we recollect how extremely liable ancient manuscripts are to be incorrect in numbers, we are prepared to make large allowances for them, and as there is only a small mark as a distinction between three thousand and thirty thousand, it is very probable the latter was placed there instead of the former which is about the correct number. There is some of the marvellous in the account but not more than we are prepared to find in any work of travellers who are liable to be incorrectly impressed. When going along the coast of Africa, he says he saw some blazing mountains. Now although we have no instance of mountains of that sort in our day yet we have blazing mountains nearer home which ancients would not believe. And they may have ceased burning as the volcanic matter became exhausted. Travellers he will1 had made the Patagonians at different times twelve, nine and seven feet and a half when it is not probable that in fact they are much larger than Indians generally. It is impos• { 356 } sible that the theory of Vossius2 as to his being of the Ante Homeric age. It is improbable as no works have been written at that early period in prose. This itself is a convincing argument so far, but the antiquity of the ancient researches in navigation are proved from the knowledge that the Carthaginians sailed round the strait of the Mediterranean. They knew a course also by which they sailed in the Boristhenes, thence by a short land carriage, they got to the Vistula and so they went round through the straits. In these times the doctrine was that the earth was surrounded by the sea but this they imagined to mean a river only, conveying a very different meaning from ours to us. There is a passage in Tacitus in which he mentions that Ambre was obtained in abundance among the Germans with whom it was most common and who called it Glasium from whence evidently the derivation of glass.
There is also a question as to the next person, Orpheus, who has some works ascribed to him as an Ante Homeric author, whether he was really a man, but this was fully answered in a former lecture. A quotation of Aristotle’s opinion in Cicero was considered as favouring the assertion that he was not. It has since however been considered as meaning that the works under his name are not really his and not that he did not live. Neither Homer nor Hesiod have mentioned him which is accounted for because he formed the mysteries for which he is distinguished which were not organized until after them.
Returning home I read Astronomy, attended recitation, and heard some remarks from Mr. Farrar upon the four new Planets and Herschel.3 A little I might wish to have noted but I have not the time. He merely stated the way they were named, first called by the Patrons of the different discoveries, afterwards after they themselves,4 and finally they obtained the regular names of the ancient mythology. After dinner, I read Paley but did not get my lesson well although I attempted a great deal. In the Evening, I gave a drill to my company after which I did not attend Mr. Ticknor’s lecture tonight but sat down at Otis’s and the Lyceum played a game of whist after which I had some conversation with Otis and then retired. XI.
1. Thus in MS, for “said”?
2. Sentence scrambled in MS.
3. Sir William Herschel (1738–1822), the English astronomer who discovered Uranus.
4. Thus in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-05

Tuesday. October 5th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation and was very unexpectedly called upon by Mr. Hayward. I however managed pretty well—these recita• { 357 } tions are rather farcical excepting with a few. After breakfast, I went to Lecture but forgot to carry with me my Synopsis which will perhaps affect the regularity of my notes. He continued today his account of Orpheus where actual evidence is granted by all ancient authors. He was a native of Thrace, the land first cultivated in Greece. His geographical situation was exceedingly well adapted to have made the country a literary one, no region indeed could have been more happily calculated to have been the cradle of Greece. The names and worship of the muses, and all the religious mysteries commenced in Thrace. Pieria, Rhodope, Haemus and Strymon are all classical names and all Thracian and were the first adopted in literature and poetry. It was the highway from Asia to Europe and consequently improved the earliest. It was also open on three sides to the sea and received all the new acquirements both of Asia and Europe. Thus it was three or four centuries preceding the time of Solon and Lycurgus.
We do not however understand the causes why Thrace declined while the other parts of Greece were developing themselves. There are now extant four works which are asserted to be his, the names of which are given. The learned have differed very much as to these works, [which] some authors have supposed very ancient, others very modern. Gessner1 published an edition of these works with a commentary and two dissertations upon ancient navigation. Here he attempts to prove it to have had it’s origin really in Orpheus’ time and his argument was a pretty good one. Schneider, Tyrrwhi[tt] and Hermann2 considered them as of the second or third century of the christian era. The latter has written a work on the peculiar character of the genius which distinguished him in which he examines critically the progressive modification of Hexameter verse, showing the gradual changes which it underwent from the time of Homer until the age in which the sort of verse was remodelled by Nonnus.3 He examines the Trochaic caesura in the fourth foot, the lengthening of doubtful vowels, the hiatus and several other signs by which he proves that the poem could not have been composed in an early age when these refinements were not introduced.
The oldest period which the poem which principally engrosses notice, the Argonautica, is assigned to is the time of the Persian invasion of Greece. They are generally attributed to Onomacritus an Athenian priest who being detected in interpolating the oracles of Musaeus was expelled from Athens by Hipparchus and took refuge in the court of the Persian king whither he carried his oracles, and he incited Xerxes to the undertaking an invasion of Greece by suppressing { 358 } the unfavourable responses. It has been translated but this account is all suspicious.
The Lithica, or the next work given to him, is asserted by Tyrwhitt to belong to the age of Constantius when the first edict against magic was issued. This book, as from it’s name may be collected, treats of the magical properties of stones, twenty two species of which it examines. Ruhnkinius4 thinks the style too good for that age and refers it to the time of Domitian under whom philosophers were subjected to banishment and all sorts of punishment. This man was an extraordinary scholar, his life was written by Wittenbach and is well worth reading as a specimen of the best Latinity in modern times. These decrees against magic were to give us a clue to the date of this work and consequently it is referred with reason to these two times.
The hymns are supposed to be older than either of the two before-mentioned. They are analyzed by Tiedemann, and although some small fragments are inserted in the whole, it is in it’s present state, a fabrication of the era when christianity and Platonism were so singularly mingled. The same may be said of the fragments, but they contain some valuable remains mixed in. He mentioned a song and the sixth which [is] a splendid ascription to Jupiter. These fragments, we must recollect, are obtained from the quotations which Greek writers have made in their own works; thus these were obtained from Eusebius, Clemens Alexandrinus and others of the middle centuries. He then noticed the editions of the author, for the first time he has done it to any, he distinguished the Princeps and the Optima, the former being the first and the latter the best. One published at Florence in 1500 is the first, Gessner’s in 1764 was considered the best until that of Hermann came out which has scarce a superior in the whole field of philological discussion.
I returned home immediately and employed myself this morning in reading my Astronomy, to recite which I attended as usual. Mr. Farrar has a singular way of questioning us, as he does not confine himself at all in his questions to what he has given us as a lesson. He lectures in the mean time, at least familiarly instructs us. We today learned of him all the new discoveries in Mercury and Venus and [he] explained to us the principles by which we obtained a knowledge of the different situations of planets at different times with respect to the earth. He went on so fast here however that I found it impossible to follow him, and my ideas are not clear upon the subject. After Lecture or recitation, he showed us an orrery on a large scale and the motion of the bodies exhibited. It is a very ingenius work indeed, { 359 } made by a Mr. Pope of Boston, bought by the Legislature and presented to the College. It exhibits the motion and situation of the Sun, Mercury, Venus, the Earth and its moon, Jupiter and four Moons, Saturn and four, which was all the Solar system at that time known. These severally turn on their own axis and crossed the Sun in proportional time. Thus the mechanism is exceedingly complicated, it is not very valuable now however as much has been since found incorrect which was believed at that time.
After dinner I spent an hour and more making a bargain for some candles which I incline to prefer to lamps. They are rather more expense but I think them so much pleasanter to sit with that I shall be willing to pay the difference. At any rate I can go back again to the others if I do not like these. Having returned home I was in no mood to study so that it was late before I had got fixed and still later before I could bend my mind down to my lesson. I think I was less prepared today than at any time since I have been in Paley. I was not called upon however and only blamed myself for not having kept my resolution of knowing the thing for the thing itself. Morals are a study which like all other studies is dry in parts but ought not the less to be learnt. After Prayers and tea, I gave my company a drill in the Rifle exercise until seven o’clock, it being a beautiful moonlight night. They progressed and improved rapidly.
I detained them until the bell rung for Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture when I dismissed them and immediately hurried in to hear him. He had already commenced and the room was so full it was not possible to obtain a good seat to take notes. I tried however. He has cut short his course very much and to my great regret had noticed Sully and Montagne last Evening. He commenced tonight an account of Corneille. Pierre Corneille was born in Normandy, the country which nourished the literature of France, he was educated by the Jesuits and bred to the law. He did not pursue his profession with much pleasure, although he applied for and obtained a low place under the government, which he might even have continued to fill without distinction had it not been for an accident which gave his genius it’s direction. When going once to visit a lady with a friend, they each agreed to pay their court to her and he succeeded but in [incurring?] her regard. He then wrote the Comedy of Melite in consequence. This being more successfull than he had any reason to hope he wrote five more Comedies in succession. He had not however yet found his place. In 1635 he wrote Medea and in the year following, the Cid. From this time until 1642 he wrote only two Comedies which added nothing to his reputa• { 360 } tion, and the total failure of the last warned him, as he said, to quit the Stage. He therefore retired, and as he had many religious fears that what he wrote were only so many splendid sins, the natural affect of his education, he spent six years of his life in seclusion making a version of Thomas a Kempis. He came forward again however in 1659 and gave a number of new plays, thus he continued until 1672 not materially increasing his reputation, when he retired altogether and spent the rest of his life in the manner directed by his early bent. He died in 1681, not rich but very well rewarded for the exertion he had made.
As to himself, all we know of him is that he was simple in his manners, rather negligent in his appearance and too independent of the Court to promote his own advancement. But it is in the history of his genius that we are most interested, as being the cause of the reformation which took place in French literature between about 1630 and 1650. It is he who unites the classical days of France with those which immediately precede him. We think of him too much with later men and we should always rather consider those who were before him than those after. We bring too much into our own times, the more we examine him, the more we shall find that he belonged to each age in part. His spirit gave the impulse to the literature of the age of Louis 14th. while he himself was not quite clear of all the faults of his predecessors. He knew nothing of the three unities5 as these had not at that time acquired such a commanding influence as they have since possessed. He had but one of these, that of time. The plot of Melite is clumsy and the fifth act is entirely useless, but he gave the strain in a more native and simple expression, and his wit was by far better than any which had yet been seen on the French stage. This play was at first but little understood as the people had not yet become alive to quiet and sprightly wit. Afterwards it filled the house. Comedy had not hitherto been so well known in France. Next came Clitandre, which may with truth be called a successfully bad comedy. In 1634 La Veuve came out, the story of which is well [ . . . ],6 the characters are well supported, the style is pleasant and many very comic situations. It had a long success.
Next came la Galerie du Palais and next the suivante, 1635. It was at this time that the unities were formed by Chapelin.7 This is the first part of Corneille’s history in which he wrote many good things but nothing extremely remarkable; he was controlled by the opinion of his time. In 1635 Medea made it’s appearance, formed from the ancients in a regular and more elevated style. In 1636 The { 361 } Cid appeared, a piece which excited a greater interest than any since the time of the Greeks. It was drawn from the Spanish of de Castro. Cardinal Richelieu became offended with him and he influenced the Academy considerably in their decisions. In 1639 Les Horace appeared, which was condemned by the Academy but supported by the people. In 1639 Cinna, which was most important in it’s effects as it fixed the victory of Richelieu and his unities, being written in that style. As to the unities, he mentioned that Aristotle never thought of introducing such unities as all he says is merely to procure that of action. He then entered into a discussion upon the ancient Theatre with which he closed and I closed the Evening with my Journal. XI.
1. Johann Matthias Gesner (1691–1761), librarian and classical scholar at Göttingen (Harper’s Dict. of Classical Lit.).
2. Presumably Professor Johann Gottlob Schneider (1750–1822), of Breslau; Thomas Tyrwhitt (1730–1786), of Oxford; and Professor Johann Gottfried Jacob Hermann (1772–1848), of Leipsic (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 3:11, 2:419).
3. An Egyptian poet of the 4th century after Christ; see Everett’s Synopsis, p. 14.
4. Professor David Ruhnken (or Ruhkenius) (1723–1798), of Leyden (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:456–460).
5. The so-called Aristotelian unities of time, place, and action, which under the influence of the French Academy, founded by Richelieu, became rigid requirements in French drama.
6. Illegible; possibly “managed.”
7. Jean Chapelain (1595–1674), a dominant figure in the French Academy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-06

Wednesday. October 6th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. After breakfast, I went as usual to lecture. He commenced today the account of Musaeus. He was the scholar and imitator of Orpheus and Linus. He was by some called the founder of the mysteries, his name has led to the supposition that he was not actually a man, but this, as he had already mentioned, was no way of judging. Almost all ancient and many modern names having meanings of some sort attached to them. He is supposed to have been an Athenian and to have lived 1253 before Christ. Many works were ascribed to him under a variety of names, mentioned in the pamphlet.1 He was highly respected, as may be proved by the decision mentioned yesterday concerning Onomacritus. Orpheus is made in the present hymns to ascribe his first to him and Virgil makes him first of the Elysian bards. He is supposed to have been the son of Eumolpus, itself a name signifying a good singer, who led a Thracian emigration into Greece, two or three generations before Theseus. It is very probable that he flourished at Athens as this city had already begun to flourish. It was the only place for a long time which had received a fixed permanent population by it’s navigation. { 362 } It’s being surrounded by mountains in the north and the isthmus in the south, it was comparatively safe from the incursions of enemies.
But notwithstanding the credibility of traditions concerning him, his works are lost. Plato, Aristotle and Pausanias have preserved Fragments but it is impossible to believe their authenticity. There is one work with his name but writers with only one exception ascribe it to the age before Nonnus, as the work of an Alexandrian Grammarian of the eighth century. The names are given in the pamphlet. It is the story of Hero and Leander, so well known it does not require mentioning. Father Hardouin argues that as a medal existed representing a man swimming across the Hellespont, that by it was meant a great exertion of strength such as man ought to make, and that the motto meant the strength of a man instead of Hero and Leander. This is a fine specimen of Father Hardouin’s general force in criticism and in plausibility, he mentioned the other day. The work though much valued at the revival of letters is now very little read. The princeps edition is one of the Aldine press.
Suidas speaks of an author older than Homer by the name of Palaephatus. There were four of the name, one of whom wrote a work which is partly extant now. We read part of it in the Graeca Minora. They were concerning the fabulous parts of mythology, giving explanations to all the accounts which are related. These explanations are all made by the Alexandrian Grammarians as it is very certain no ideas of the sort ever existed in writing concerning the sacred parts of their religion. The style is so mixed moreover that it is very possible that much in it is of very high antiquity with large interpolations. There are two more Greek authors of the Anti Homeric age, of whom only Latin versions are supposed to exist. One wrote, Isidore says, of the wars of the Greeks and Trojans, his name was Dares and he was a Phrygian. AElian says, his Iliad was extant in his time. The Latin work now extant treats of the fall of Troy. It is supposed to be a translation made by Nepos and sent to Sallust with a letter which is inserted in the pamphlet.2 This is not known to be the version of the Greek work noticed by AElian. Fabricius supposes that AElian referred to a prose work and consequently to one of later date, but he thought from the context which he quoted that there was no ground for such an hypothesis. The work extant would of course not be a translation of it. The work extant is a prose summary of a Latin Poem written in the dark centuries.
The second pretended Anti Homeric author is Dictys of Crete. He is not spoken of by any ancient author whatever. John of Antioch first { 363 } mentions his book on the Trojan War in six parts. He is said to have been a native of Greece and wrote a journal of the Trojan war on the bark of the linden tree which was buried in Crete. At the earthquake in the time of Nero, this chest of tin which contained the book was thrown up, found and sent to Rome where it was translated by Septimius, according to the account given in his own preface to the history which is also inserted in the pamphlet.3 This work is by some supposed to be a fabrication of the age of Diocletian, though not written as Perizonius intimates with any intention of opposing Christianity. Some people have supposed it original in Latin but the more probable account is that it was translated by Septimius. [Laccaus?] asserted that no Greek text of it is extant but Leo Allatius states that there is, although he mentions no particulars.
After Lecture, I went home and read my Astronomy over. I do not think the work a good one for instruction. It has nothing clear and distinct in it, one has to refer from one part of the book to another and then back again, receive impressions entirely incorrect in the mean time, which you have only to get off your mind again. I have gathered but little even from his lectures. He today explained the motions of the satellites of Jupiter, and calculations made on them. He also explained the theory of gravitation round their primary, as it appeared to be a law among all that we know, to present the same side always. This is not the case with respect to the primaries revolving round the Sun as they are at a distance too great from the Sun to feel it’s effects so powerfully. He explained the reasons why we saw the shadow of the satellites of Jupiter upon that body, when they were passing before the Sun and on the whole was unusually amusing today.
After recitation and dinner, I sat down and got my lesson in Paley. We are now upon a part of his work which I can see but little objection to but which I feel to be a system of morals adapted rather to make me a villain by seeing how easily the barriers may be broken than by really making me conscious of principles, bind me to a regular course of action.
The afternoon over with Prayers, I spent an hour writing my Journal and then attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. In 1642 [1643] Corneille presented the Menteur, a comedy which made an example upon the French stage which awakened Moliere. In 1646 he came out with Rodogune a play which he himself preferred above all others but the four first acts are entirely sacrificed to form the tremendous power of the fifth. Next came Don Sancho of Arragon, a piece drawn from { 364 } the Spanish of Lope de Vega—it is full of wild and romantic incident but it fell at last—it failed upon representation. This reminded him it was time to leave the stage, as has been previously mentioned, and he did not come again upon it until 1659 when he wrote Andromeda and Psyche and for the thirteen years following he wrote twelve pieces, none however so good as his former attempts. Hitherto he had enjoyed the field undisputed, without a rival, but now he was about to find an obstacle in a man who was to be a rival and in time to become his superior upon the French stage, in 1664.
Racine at this time produced his Andromaque in 1667. Henrietta, the princess who was at this time residing here, determined that these two great writers should take the same subject and she managed it so that they knew nothing of what each other were doing. Thus they produced at about the same time the tragedy of Berenice. She had formerly been in love with the king, but as policy required a separation, she had given way. This sacrifice to principle is so similar to what she had read in the story of Berenice in Tacitus that she requested a play to be made of it. That of Racine’s was represented a week before Corneille’s and was completely successful, while the other as totally failed. He afterwards produced Surena but he felt that it was time for him to retire. He had written much lately but there was no probability he would ever equal what had gone before. Racine had now come out with Iphigenia and was evidently fast eclipsing him, he therefore employed himself in writing afterwards books of a religious nature such as the version of Thomas a Kempis which are of little or no value. He was the author of thirty four dramas and by it was the founder of French tragedy and comedy. A revolutionary movement had commenced in the preceding age and he was under its influence. The power of the nobles even had been crushed by Louis the 11th and liberty was gone. This was what galled Corneille and many passages of the Horatii breathe principles which evidently show a violent contest in his mind between his natural feelings and his desire to please the reigning power.
He then summed up in more space than I can give the character of the man which he said we liked when we discovered what was really his own. Racine was born in 1639, at five years of age he became an orphan, he was educated at Port Royal and would never have been distinguished had it not been for a chance ode to Cardinal Mazarin which attracted notice and was followed up by another to the Queen. They neither have much merit but they got him a pension. In 1664 he produced les Freres Ennemis, a regular play but not at all predic• { 365 } tive of his future merit as a writer. He said more which I shall insert in my tomorrow’s account as I have filled enough today. I returned home, wrote my Journal, spent half an hour with Otis and retired.
1. See Everett’s Synopsis, p. 17.
2. Same, p. 20–21.
3. Same, p. 21–22.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-07

Thursday October 7th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation, was called upon and acquitted myself as well as usual. After breakfast attended Lecture which consisted of observations upon the Anti homeric writers as he had given them. These works he said had been [ . . . ] upon for the sake of making a regular series until the time of Homer but true authenticity begins with him. The causes of the greatness of the Greeks is a question often discussed. We do not treat of the respective merits of nations standing on the same point of refinement but we inquire into the first efforts of humanity which will of necessity happen in some age or other. On this account, before the Homeric age, local causes had little influence in directing light to particular parts of Greece. No division of tribes had been made nor was there any distinction of country made. Indeed as to the reasons for different sorts of improvement in different situations, we can make out but few after assigning some gross, geographical causes. The inference which was drawn by Rousseau, although it has obtained much notice, is not correct, that a man when in a savage state must be in a state of nature. A man is truly in a state of nature when all his faculties, mental and bodily, are developed to the greatest perfection and not as in a savage state when he knows but half himself.
But the first fact we have in Grecian history is that improvement was capricious, and the second, that where once commenced, it all tended to that part of Greece which afterwards became the metropolis of refinement. There was no political distribution so late as the Trojan war and but one tribe, the Achaeans, had a name. Before that, exploits and expeditions were conducted by families and merely concerned them, there was no great national spirit, though it was evidently increasing. Of this sort of expedition are the three cases mentioned in the pamphlet, the Seven against Thebes, which has since been the subject of a beautiful play by Aeschylus, The Cretan under Theseus and the Argonautic, as piracy at that time was not considered blameable. These deeds had their effect by introducing much refinement { 366 } into the country and prepared them for the Trojan war which was the first thing which brought them all together, and by it’s length formed a union, as they soon discovered that without it they never could hope to succeed in the object of their contest.
Modern criticism has doubted the whole history of Troy, but those who doubt it ought to bring as probable an account of the rise of the Greek character. There is a great similarity between this history and that of the Crusades which first gave a character to the different nations of Europe. But he assumed for a moment the Trojan war as actually having happened, and observed that the consequences of it did not answer the first promise, as for sometime the nations were engaged in civil broils and local contests which checked the progress of civilizations. Four tribes were formed however which may be reduced to two, the Ionic and the Doric which last was not settled until the return of the Heracleids [Heraclidae] after the Trojan war. These internal troubles however had one good effect, by settling Asia Minor with Ionians who founded many extremely flourishing states. It has been urged by English writers with respect to this country that no colony could ever equal it’s parent but here we have in the very first example in history a contradiction of the assertion. For while improvement was arrested in the elder country Man’s genius had reached it’s achme in it’s first flight and the books of Homer were produced. We are in possession of poems which after all deductions, were substantially composed in Ionia, and which have never since been equalled. They had a great effect upon the literature of the country although not so much as could have been expected had it not been for the troubled state of the times. The heroic age passed away and with it went all attempt at equal excellence. The Cyclic poets succeeded, of whom he will speak hereafter. The most glorious effect of Homer’s poems was that it gave such an impulse upon the national spirit that Lycurgus, who in his institutions was opposed to the admission of literature and who being a Dorian was bound to oppose an Ionian poet, nevertheless had them collected and brought to Sparta to animate his country men with a national spirit. Solon did the same at a later period.
After Lecture, I returned home, copied my Theme and carried it to Mr. Channing. He informed me that he never read my themes, indeed he treats me in a way so singular that I do not know what to make of it, and only hope to have some future opportunity of repaying him. I spent the rest of the morning in writing my Notes out which is a most interminable labour. In the Afternoon, I found that if on Saturday morning we had obtained one gratification, we had lost another in { 367 } having an exercise now, but I found we are rather on the winning side as we gain every Saturday and we lose only every other Thursday. I paid considerable attention to my lesson but he went upon the other side. This is an excellent way Mr. Hedge has of confining himself to the one or other half of the class and in this way putting a part, at least, out of all anxiety.
After Prayers the whole battalion drilled for the Rifle Exercise and most heartily disgusted me with the Company. I feel mortified at the way I had been treated and grieved for the conduct of men or rather boys tonight, I made a formal complaint against Brigham and am determined never to have him in my company again, this I also stated, and that I should resign rather than see him there. My feelings had been irritated to an uncommon degree, and I had tried what consisted with my duty to myself, this having failed, the same principle actuates me to my decision. Our drill having been so long, I had no opportunity to go home and obtain my note book so that I could take no notes this Evening and shall have to depend on my memory and an illegible manuscript of Sheafe’s. Human nature is a singular contradiction. I did the very thing at Mr. Ticknor’s lecture, to tease him, which had been done by others to me. To be sure, I did not disgrace myself, but was merely foolish and have since been ashamed.
Alexandre may also be called not much of a tragedy. In 1667 however he1 produced Andromaque, being 27 years old. In this he evidently manifested that he had caught the spirit of the Ancients. Love is the plot of this play, a passion on which almost all later pieces have turned. In 1668 he produced the “Plaideurs,” a Comedy which he imitated from Aristophanes. This is divided into three acts and although not a perfect Comedy is a most exquisite Farce. He hit off with true Attic wit the wretched manner of delivering judgment in law and may be called an admirable model. This play did not succeed first, but when represented at Versailles before the King, he, though a grave man, was continually laughing during the whole piece. It became of course a favourite at the court and has continued ever since to be represented with applause upon the French stage. In 1669 Brittanicus came out, a play which had cost him much labour, indeed more than any of his others, but which at its first representation scarcely passed without condemnation. The subject is drawn from Tacitus and is one capable of high finish. The play has since risen to it’s proper place and is now very popular. In 1670 Berenice appeared, the success of which has been already mentioned. In 1672 Bajazet appeared and Mithridate in the year following. Voltaire, who has a right to judge upon such an occa• { 368 } sion, pronounces Iphigenie, his next play which came out in the succeeding year, to be the best piece on the French stage. The characters are marked and prominent, his diction is exquisite and his manner is elegantly fluent. The second quality he probably possessed in greater perfection than any other French author. In 1677 Phedre was represented. This was his final piece and it was not destined to pass through without undergoing the severe criticism of a party who were jealous of his success and could not forgive him for surpassing Corneille. They consequently excited so much opposition to him that it affected him very much, he felt offended at the attacks of his rivals and was deeply wounded at the reception of this last of his productions.
He determined to leave the Stage and at the age of 38 he took farewell of the stage. At first he thought of entering a monastic order but at last he determined to retire and devote himself to educating his children. His character instantly changed with his course of life and he became insensible to the favour of the court and to the fame of his works. He was appointed in conjunction with Boileau, an intimate friend of his, historiographer to the king, a place to which he was by no means suited. Religion which had so early taken hold in his mind again took possession of him and he became melancholy. At this time Madame Maintenon had become the wife of Louis the 14th and she had formed a College for young females at St. Cyr. These used to [ . . . ]2 parts of plays and found it difficult to select those which should be entirely proper to represent them. She therefore applied to Racine to write one according to her conception which should be perfectly fitted for such a purpose. I must restrict myself so I shall write a continuation when I have leisure. After returning home, I spent the rest of my time in writing my Journal. X:30.
1. Racine.
2. Overwritten and illegible; the sentence as a whole is somewhat garbled, but its general meaning is clear.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-08

Friday. October 8th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning as usual. The room was rather empty this morning but I was not called upon. After breakfast, attended Lecture as usual. He gave us today an account of the controversy relative to the authenticity of Homer. In ancient times, he said the opinion entertained of Homer was unanimous, he was regarded as the first both in age and merit. Some quotations to prove this are made in the Synopsis. Zoilus and his followers attacked { 369 } him, but it was not at all as not being an author, but merely making small objections at the probability of events, and other trifling matters. He suffered dearly for his temerity, for he was stoned to death. The only questions which were discussed in antiquity any way similar are whether the whole of the Odyssey was authentic, some believing that it really ended with the 296th line of the twenty fifth book. Others doubted whether the Iliad and the Odyssey were composed by the same author. The first doubts of a higher nature arose in the age of Louis the 14th and were started by the before mentioned Perrault, who in a quotation made in the pamphlet expresses the opinion that these books were composed by divers authors at different [word omitted] and were the best that could be collected out of a great many which were composed and sung all over Greece. An opinion a little similar was expressed by Dr. Bentley in England.1 Perrault argued that it was evident there were many authors concerned in this production as the native city of Homer never could be determined. Seven cities laid equal claims to the honor of his birth and it is very probable they each had equal reason. Bentley differed from this part of his opinion. He was a man whose erudition and penetration was only equal to his want of judgment and his want of taste. This was proved by his notes to an edition of Horace, but as they were in Latin, Scholars only perceived it, and he would have saved his character had he not undertaken an edition of Milton which made the thing evident to every body. He ascribes them in his opinion (which is also quoted in the pamphlet) exclusively to one individual and states that “he wrote the Ilias for the men and the Odyssius for the other sex.” This doctrine it will be perceived is essentially different from that of Perrault although it has been thought much to resemble it.
These opinions do not appear to have been much noticed in England or on the continent so that one author on the subject asserts that no one ever had doubted their authenticity, he probably never having heard of it. And so far from affecting his reputation, it rather increased the examination of the poems. “An inquiry into the life and writings of Homer” by Blackwall2 but published anonymously gave an impulse to the study in England which was much increased by Robert Wood’s3 Essay on the original genius of Homer. The former is an ingenious but superficial work, the latter is one of great value and influence. It was reviewed and much praised by Heyne.4 He was also the author of travels, he went to the plain of Troy and examined it for the direct purpose of comparing it. What we call the plain of Troy is thirty miles inland which does not agree at all with Homer’s account. Wood { 370 } supposes an earthquake to have taken place but he announces it gratuitously. An opinion however which in his work he happened to express, that these poems could not have been committed to writing, became the strong hold of the future doubts. Wolf,5 next only to Heyne in Germany, immediately prepared and brought forward an edition of Homer in which he was much assisted by the appearance of Villoison’s6 edition with the scholia. And in five years he produced his edition with a preface in which he states his theory which is that these poems were composed at different times by different persons and afterwards collected and wrought up into their present form. The time was a good one for his purpose, but still the public were doubtful, and he himself in his statement is timid in announcing it.
Heyne reviewed the work and intimated in it that Wolf, who had been his scholar, had received the first suggestion from himself. This offended the latter personage and he answered with virulence. The contest between Wolf and Heyne therefore was not as to the authenticity of the works of Homer, as it has been generally supposed, but merely as to the priority in starting a theory. It is unfortunate that Wolf’s Latinity is extremely obscure, and even after numerous perusals no one is sure that he has seized the correct meaning of the author. This turn however in the controversy affected scholars powerfully and little doubt remained as to the correctness of the theory.
Lecture over, after toiling over my Journal a considerable time, I determined to free myself for the rest of the morning and therefore sat down and read an Article in the North American Review upon Italian Poetry.7 It is only to be felt by a person who has been going through as much laborious drudgery as I have, when he gets a moment to sit down and read an entertaining book. I enjoyed myself more in running over the delightful account of Italian Poetry than I could have done any coarse pleasure. There is something so voluptuous, so sweet, so melodious in my associations connected with it that I read with delight, and this was really a well written Essay. It was quite a good account of it’s course.
After dinner I was again employed upon my Journal and making a list of books in every branch of literature such as would entitle a man to be called a man of reading. This is a delightful amusement as it flatters literary ambition so intensely. I attended Declamation in my turn and declaimed, it being my last appearance but one, I hope upon this Stage. I delivered part of Patrick Henry’s speech and in what I believe to be it’s proper spirit. I have spoken it often, having studied it with very considerable attention. Chapman and Cunning• { 371 } ham declaimed, and in my opinion failed altogether, but I will not pretend to say that my standard of speaking is a correct one. Few young men know what declamation is and they rave and rant, have no idea of what the speaker intended and then call their exertions good. After this, I spent the afternoon comfortably at my room writing my Journal. The Medical Faculty met but as I have taken somewhat of a disgust to all College affairs, I would not attend and from subsequent accounts I have reason to be joyful.
I will here continue my notes to Mr. Ticknor’s last Lecture. I had mentioned that Racine had left the Stage in consequence of the opposition excited against the fine plays of Iphigenie and Phedre but I did not say that this opposition was excited by Rochefoucauld, de Nevers, the Duchess de Bouillon. These last had attempted to obtain the failure of these plays, by making Pradon, an insignificant author, to write on the same subject, obtained their representation the same night, filled the house for Pradon and kept out the people for Racine and thus succeeded. This affair cost the nation 28000 francs. I have mentioned the other particulars of his life until the time when Madame Maintenon asked him to write a play on some sacred subject. He being much troubled by this application, applied to his friend Boileau for advice, who at this time was considered an Oracle. Strange to say he was advised not to attempt anything for he would assuredly fail. Racine could not refuse the solicitations of the queen and therefore resolved to write. He selected for his subject Esther which was more dramatic than tragical and more lyrical than dramatic. It was represented in 1689 with the most splendid success. Madame de Sevigne who had been a bitter enemy was converted by it. In 1691 Athalie appeared, the subject of which is also drawn from scripture. This play again excited the enmity and malignity of his opponents and they determined he should not succeed. They managed so well as to put it down entirely so that no one even took the pains to read it. At this he felt entirely discouraged and gave up writing. Nor did he live to see his play take the place which it afterwards did in literature. Being overpowered with the conviction that he had entirely failed, he wrote but one play for the next and last eight years of his life. This was not published. He died in 1699, aged 60 years, his faculties not in the least impaired, he may rather have been called in the flower of his strength.
I did not attend Lecture or drill this Evening as I went into Boston with a party of young men to see Mrs. Duff8 in the part of Hermione in the Distrest Mother.9 In making up my judgment, I must confess, { 372 } I think she failed, she does not understand her part, she appeared to me to attempt to express what she was not able to, and to be conscious that she was trying to be a first rate actress. She ranted, she expressed her changes too quickly and exhibited no nice gradations of feeling between them, and I concluded in short that I had never seen her in so inferior a performance. The afterpiece was Paul and Virginia10 and was wretched. Two European dancers exhibited and quite shocked the modesty of our New England manners. Mrs. Henry as interesting and as voluptuous as usual. We supped at the Marlborough and returned early. XI.
1. Richard Bentley (1662–1742), the Cambridge scholar (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:401–405).
2. Thomas Blackwell (1701–1757) (same, 3:61, note, and 491).
3. Robert Wood (c. 1717–1771), whose Essay appeared in 1769 (same, 2:432).
4. Christian Gottlob Heyne (1729–1812), professor at Göttingen (same, 3:36–40).
5. Friedrich August Wolf (1759–1824), professor at Halle (same, 3:51 ff.).
6. Jean Baptiste Gaspard d’Ansse de Villoison (1753–1805), professor at the Collège de France (same, 2:397–398).
7. North American Review, 45:337–389 (Oct. 1824).
8. Mary Ann Duff, one of the great actresses of the generation (Odell, Annals N.Y. Stage, 3:209).
9. A translation by Ambrose Philips of Racine’s Andromaque.
10. A dramatic version of Paul et Virginie, by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-09

Saturday. October 9th. VII:45.

Missed Prayers and arose in time for breakfast and attendance upon Mr. Everett’s Lecture. He continued his former subject today by repeating the last parts of yesterday’s Lecture and noticing the assent of scholars to this new theory. The only attempt of importance to controvert his doctrine is made by Hug of whom he will say more presently.1 In 1802 the long expected edition of Homer by Heyne made it’s appearance simultaneously at London and Leipzig. It was furnished with notes and excursuses at the end of each volume and in the last he deliberately advances the opinion that these works were composed in the manner mentioned by Wolf. This edition was very severely criticized in the literary Journal at Jena during the whole season in which it appeared. Wolf was supposed to have been concerned in it’s composition and it had considerable effect in embittering Heyne’s old age. The theory was attacked in France by Mr. St. Croix2 but with not much effect. Wolf’s work was noticed in England by the Critical and Monthly reviews very favourably, though the authors of the notices did not appear conscious that he had proposed any new theory, probably not seeing through the difficult Latin in which he has enveloped it.
{ 373 }
This is the history of this controversy, he now commenced an analysis of it. Some people might ask the reason why the authenticity of Homer should be doubted any more than that of Virgil and other authors of high antiquity. It is this, that we have a series of authors since the latter who date in regular order down from him and who make mention of him. A want of this testimony would immediately be decisive in a case like that of Virgil’s, while it does not affect that of Homer, as he is removed 800 years from the commencement of the series. Besides it is well known that in the most ancient times men made no mention of such things as is proved in the case of Thucidides who in all his work makes no mention of Herodotus. This want of testimony does not therefore amount to proof but requires rigid examination. Wolf therefore arranged his argument in a way to meet such questions. It may be found in a quotation in the 21st Article of the pamphlet.3 He denies that the introduction of the art of writing could have taken place before the Olympic era although he does not deny that they might have been known by some.
His arguments to support this are that no book of any sort is mentioned by any one in any age as having existed in the age of Lycurgus and that succeeding. The subsequent introduction of paper must have been the time at which the use of writing became familiar, and that the use of prose begun in the 6th Century B.C. was almost synonimous with the use of writing. There are but two passages in Homer which bear the slightest appearance of an acquaintance with writing. They are referred to and the latter is quoted in the pamphlet but they prove that marks only were made at that time which were only known to the person making them and rather prove that writing was not in general use. Wolf is certainly right here. He then goes on in his argument and calls in question all the oldest literary inscriptions. He rejects those mentioned by Herodotus and with reason. Others also which admit of more question, such as those brought to France by the Abbé Fourmont.4 No travellers however have ever found any inscriptions like those since and the Abbe says he caused them to be destroyed which is very doubtful on account of the Turks and the improbability that he would not bring forward for the confirmation of other travellers what would otherwise be so suspicious. Travellers since have all denied the existence of such inscriptions. Mr. Knight5 has proved they were fake by a singular mistake made. The Abbe instead of using the common word for Lacedemonians, introduced one and quoted Hesichaeus [Hesychius] as authority. This word has since been found in Hesichaeus to be two, the word and its meaning, joined together by mistake { 374 } of the copyist, and the Spartans quoted as authority for its use in that way.
I spent the morning writing my Journal, after dinner went to town in the Stage and went directly to my brother’s. I found him there and we had some conversation on indifferent topics. He then went away after settling further affairs with me and giving me some money. I remained and read the third Part of the Tales of a Traveller which is rather better than the second but still much ado about nothing. I returned to Cambridge again, finished my Journal, made a call at Brenan’s, was not admitted and spent a pleasant and comfortable evening at home. I read some more of Rochefoucauld’s maxims and indulged in the luxury of leisure. XI.
1. For J. Leonhard Hug’s work, see Everett, Synopsis, p. 31.
2. Guillaume Emmanuel Joseph, Baron de Sainte-Croix (1746–1806) (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:397).
4. Abbé Michel Fourmont (1690–1745) (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:390).
5. Richard Payne Knight (1750–1824), whose collection of ancient bronzes and coins is in the British Museum (same, 2:434–435).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-10

Sunday. October 10th. VII:30.

Missed Prayers and arose just in time for my breakfast. I am now always the last in these days at the morning meals, as our acquaintance are extremely regular. I for my part feel more isolated here than usual, I find but a very few who can be even acquaintances and I find none who can be friends. While Chapman is good natured, he is a superficial observer. Dwight is a very warm hearted man but he knows very little of the more delicate emotions and he plays with them too roughly while Cunningham is taken up entirely with his own person, “egoiste” to an unpleasant degree. Otis is from some reason or other no fit companion for me, he is a cold blooded toad and withal the pink and essence of politeness and Sheafe, although a pleasant fellow, is not of my temperament. As to Richardson, he is too disgusting a trifler to name. Now I am alone and disgusted at heart as I sometimes am, I generally preserve the same tone towards them. I employed my Morning in reading the North American Review which is not of much importance. I also made a sort of overlooking of old papers and burnt many useless ones. This, from their perpetual accumulation, is a regular business with me two or three times a year. I then went to Chapel and heard Dr. Ware discuss the life of Moses with unwearied assidity [assiduity?]. He has been upon this subject for a long time.
In the afternoon, I employed my time principally in writing my { 375 } Journal, which has been about half my duty this term. I am determined as an example of perseverance to carry through this work but I am pretty well resolved never to commence another in the same style. It is making a labour of what should only be an amusement. And although I have but little doubt that it has been a very considerable improvement, I wonder why I am ambitious to improve, for what can there be in future life for me to look to with an expectation of being happy? And although there is much for which I am about to exert myself, I am sure that it will all be for the empty world, which has been so frequently in my thoughts of late. The influence of the election upon the passions of men has been the principal cause of my thoughts on this subject.
Indeed I have been of late days in exceeding low spirits and cannot ascertain the cause. I have been in the habit of attributing it always to Ennui, but now I am fully and more than fully employed and still this hangs over me. It renders life hardly worth possessing. I went to Chapel this afternoon and enjoyed a very comfortable nap during the service. The President doled out his usual quantum and we came home. In the evening, I sat down and determined to write to my brother John1 and pour forth my sorrows to him as being a natural friend of mine. I had no hope of saying any thing when I first sat down but I went through my usual dose in a very short time. Indeed I think my power of scribbling has very manifestly increased since I commenced this book, my next labour will be to prune, a task which I intended to have undertaken during the present term but which I have been compelled to postpone, by the announcement of so many lectures and studies of different kinds. I ran up and spent half an hour in Otis’s room just to pass away the time and talk with him as I felt too low to read. I was somewhat better when I returned.
I missed a lecture on Friday to Mr. Ticknor which has been matter of much regret to me. He treated of Moliere in it and is said to have delivered a handsome lecture. The style of Everett is remarkably simple and dry and is a mere close narration of facts at present, while that of Ticknor is extremely ornamented, elaborate and polished. His sentences move too much on axles, they are mechanical almost in their construction. I can not help laughing sometimes at his metaphors which are at times extremely Commonplace. He indulges also in favourite phrases and is so invariable in the time of his periods that it is quite fatiguing to follow him. Indeed the Lectures are a pleasant sort of instruction but how hard are man’s internal dispositions to idleness, that even this must be an exertion. I wish I could think better of human { 376 } nature and human resolution. But to judge from myself, and I am not very weak compared with my neighbours, I cannot but think resolution is a shadow. I read a little and then retired to bed. XI.
1. Letter missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-11

Monday. October 11th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this Morning as usual. After breakfast attended Lecture. Mr. Everett continued to day the analysis of the controversy concerning Homer. Mr. Raoul Rochette,1 a learned Frenchman answered those objections made by those travellers in a very strenuous argument, but many of the leading charges are not noticed, and particularly the one mentioned concerning Hesichaeus. And it may be fairly concluded that they are substantial. The principal ground on which the inscriptions are supported as genuine was that the Abbe was entirely ignorant of the Greek language. This however must be overstated as the Academy would not have recommended nor the king sent an ignorant man upon such an expedition. And afterwards he was employed in arranging what he had found, for a length of time sufficient to have gained a knowledge of the language from it’s foundation.
The most suspicious circumstances against him are these, 1st the highly finished form in which the inscriptions exist, which makes it evident that they could not have been made on the spot, and no traces have ever been discovered of these monuments and he has never referred to or spoken of any drawings made at the time he saw them. 2dly. that he himself has made mention of only three in his memoir upon the subject whereas his collection contains nine. We see no reason why he should not have mentioned them all at once, if he had not been preparing them and was only hindered by his death from producing them. These are reasons of Mr. Everett’s, which occurred to him when he saw them. He took the trouble to copy them when at Paris but his labour was lost with the package in coming over here. In consequence of these reasons, he agrees with Wolf in rejecting them as monuments of the 8th century before Christ. Mr. Buh believed that they were made a century after Christ. Dr. [Corrar?] who is now at Paris believes that they were imposed upon Fourmonts credulity.
Mr. Hug’s work is the only considerable one in opposition to the opinion of Wolf. He argues that writing was known much earlier than Wolf’s theory assumes. In the age of Solon laws were hung on wooden axes and Hipparchus had moral sentences engraved upon statues on the road side. These facts do not indicate want of writing among the { 377 } higher class and rather exhibit an incitement to improvement in the lower. The late introduction of prose also does not prove by any means that all writing was as late. If the science of writing was known at all, there is no reason to suppose it would not record longer or smaller poems. The Greeks themselves speak of writing as of very great antiquity. Aeschylus, who in all accounts of ancient manners is the best authority, speaks of the inscriptions upon the shields of the seven against Thebes, and refers the invention of writing to Prometheus. Had the use of writing been introduced only a century and a half before him he would not have dared to have asserted the thing so.
Mr. Hug then examines the inscriptions already mentioned. He supposes them to have been really copied, from inscriptions, a part of which were very ancient but more had been added and corrected in later times. He dates their appearance in their present form in the sixth century. But Mr. Hug’s principal point, and one which proved would settle the question, is that Lycurgus obtained a copy from Ionia, of the poems of Homer. Four authorities are quoted for this assertion. These are mentioned in the synopsis.2 They are not of a perfectly convincing nature. Mr. Hug’s third period is that of Homer himself. The anecdote of Bellerophon which has been before alluded to, proves at least the use of signs. The nature of the poem also, he argues, necessarily requires the use of writing. He consequently analyses the Poem and endeavours to prove that the Iliad must have been written on one plan, and that the separate parts, as they were mentioned in Aelian with various names adopted according to the variations in the story, were all made aptly to each other. They all had a relation to each other in the commencement. And from these considerations he argues that these are the works of Homer. Here he makes two remarks confirming this conclusion, that the period of Wolf, elapsing between the introduction and use of writing is altogether contrary to analogy, and that too much stress has been laid upon the want of poets intervening. Many authors and works are mentioned although the latter have not come down to us. Mr. Everett supposes some political course must have assisted in their suppression. Some of their works did last for a time and there must have been a secret motive for their destruction.
After Lecture, I heard a report that the class had permission to leave Mathematics for any other study, and accordingly made my arrangements for the change. I intended to have studied Euripides, and in this way to have some benefit from the disposal of my time, but upon application I found that this permission was only extended to the lowest scholars in the class and I was very politely informed that { 378 } I was not among them, which I always believed before. I requested Mr. Hayward however to mention my statement to the Government. I attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation and after dinner studied Paley and attended Mr. Hedge but was not taken up, a singular thing. The Company had a drill at noon and it was attended by the higher Officers; we were excused.
In the Evening, I sat with Otis a little while and afterwards attended Mr. Ticknor, having obtained a seat very much more to my liking. I regret somewhat that I was compelled to miss the other night but the hour is such that I shall pay very little attention to punctuality or regularity, as I have no idea of becoming a perfect galley slave. It is a hard thing here that they load us with recitations which we do not like and punish us if we do not pursue them, in addition to Lectures which we are willing enough to attend and take advantage of, if they are at reasonable season. He had got to the Femmes Savantes, Moliere’s last work; tonight commenced with this. It was written the year before his death as an attack upon Madame Dacier and others who had attacked his Amphitryon. In it the Abbé Cottin3 was particularly marked and indeed almost every character had some person in view. Although with but little foundation he has made an admirable comedy of it. His plays are all according to the strict rules. It may be asked how he could write with so much ease in a way which so much shackled Moliere4 and to this it may be said, that the difference is owing to the difference between Tragedy and Comedy. It creates many fears to the powers of genius in the former, whilst it is probably of some advantage to the latter, as being able to suppress extravagance. Moliere had in the course of his life possessed all the advantages for the observation of character and had improved them. He had been in almost every grade in society and had taken off the comic situations of all. Indeed his works may be truly called a gallery of pictures all drawn from the life. Moliere had also studied books but his originality cannot well be questioned. He owed but little to others whilst his successors owe almost all to him and it was Racine’s opinion that he was the greatest genius of the age of Louis 14th.
He then commenced with Boileau. Nicholas Boileau was born in 1636 and died in 1711. He was thirteen years younger than Moliere and three years older than Racine although he was the survivor of both. He was educated to the law but gave it up in disgust and studied theology until he obtained a place in the Sorbonne with 800 francs a year. His early character by no means foretold satire and a story was related of the father who predicted of his [words omitted] then the very { 379 } reverse of what they turned out to be in life. He gave up his place however in the Sorbonne and in 1677 was made in conjunction with Racine historiographer to the king. After Racine’s death however in 1699, he never went to court being offended, it is said, by some impertinent speech of the king which hurt his feelings. Indeed he possessed excellent feelings and was steady in his friendship to Racine and Moliere. His general character as a man was good and he died respected and esteemed at the age of seventy five.
The time in which he lived was favourable to the particular course he took and he accordingly succeeded without obstacle. In 1666 when he was 30 years of age, he wrote seven satires, or at least he published what were written some time before. They have much art, elegance and colouring but little of natural unborrowed strength; they showed too much he had been pursuing the classics. He was also affected much by the writers of his day. He afterwards added five more. The 10th is a close imitation of Juvenal and the last is admitted to be a failure. There is much knowledge of human nature in them and of the principles of versification. The ninth is the best of them. They are not however his best productions. In his Epistles, twelve of which he published at various times between 1669 and 1695, he is more powerful. There is much richness of thought in them. He tried some smaller works and songs which he failed in, in his prose he is pure but without variety. The Lectern appeared between 1672[1674]–83, a mock heroic well written but too long. Two last cantos fail. There is in it however much grace, correctness and elegance. His last work was his Art of Poetry—and he who understands it all, knows all requisite to form the taste and model the Genius of a Poet. There is nothing in it however which proves him a skilful writer as he is almost always in a negative sort of instruction.5 This work was extremely circulated and has placed him at the head of the government of style.
Lecture over I returned to my room after a short visit to Dwight and wrote my Journal. XI.
1. Désiré Raoul Rochette (1783–1854), the archeologist.
3. Molière satirized the Abbé C. Cotin (1604–1682), a poet, preacher, and member of the Académie Française, in the character Trissotin (originally Tricotin) in Les Femmes Savantes (Anatole Loquin, Molière, Paris, 1898, 1:495).
4. Thus in MS. Probably CFA meant to write “Corneille.”
5. Sentence and sense garbled.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-12

Tuesday. October 12th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation as usual in Topography. Part of the { 380 } class have seceded so that the room is not very full. The next point of investigation is according to the words of Wolf, the character of the rhapsodists, thus began Mr. Everett this morning. He mentions what he supposes three errors in the common opinion concerning their profession. The first is the confounding those of the early ages with the worthless persons who arose under the same name subsequently and who are mentioned with contempt by Plato and Xenophon. The supposing from a mistaken derivation of the name, that it was their profession to compile worthless centos,1 as they were afterwards called, from the productions of Homer. That these were confined to this poet alone. Wolf on the contrary supposes that they were dignified and authorized agents for transmitting the works of all distinguished Poets of the time. That being poets themselves, they varied according to the occasion, the structure of these poems, from which origin proceeded the various readings which we have of the author. It is necessary therefore to suppose a sort of composition corresponding to this way of publication. And if there was no other way of producing a poem, but by teaching it to the rhapsodists, one like this of 15000 lines could not have been conceived. And supposing Homer to have been a man of the greatest genius that man ever has or ever will see, it is impossible that even then he could have done this. But it is to be observed that this reasoning takes want of writing for granted. We have no historical ground for supposing that the rhapsodists were of the character stated, and we diminish their importance precisely as we increase our supposition of the knowledge of writing at that time. Homer makes no mention of such persons but speaks on the contrary of the bard as a separate and distinct profession. The French in fact have treated of Homer too familiarly doubtless, but the Germans have gone very much too far in the opposite extreme and have exaggerated the difficulty of producing poetry without writing. We have instances even now of improvisatori who have cultivated this power to great extent, one particular instance he mentioned which has been in many of the late newspapers, of a man in Paris who has delivered a whole tragedy in five Acts without more than a few minutes preparation, a fact of which there can be no doubt.
The third point of Wolf is the internal structure of the Poem. This is an analysis of the whole poem too long to state in a lecture, the general sum of which is that The Odyssey is allowed to have unity but the Iliad is not—still he argues that either might have been the work of a succession of rhapsodists. Mr. Hug in his analysis argues and infers the reverse. Wolf has had many followers, in this inquiry, the reasons of some of whom are in the 38th Article of the pamphlet.
{ 381 }
The last point in Wolf’s argument is the external historical testimony beginning at the earliest period. We have already considered the introduction of these books into Greece by Lycurgus. The next in the order of time is concerning the labours of Solon and the Pisistratidae for the restoration of them. Diogenes Laertius quotes from Diuchidas an account that Solon first caused the rhapsodists to sing these poems. A Greek expression follows which explains the manner and is variously translated, but the critics think in its proper connexion and place. Similar efforts for the restoration and preservation of Homer are ascribed by the grammarians to Pisistratus. A fabulous account is given by Diomedes which has since been copied by many. It states that Pisistratus, wishing to collect these verses which in his time were repeated in detached portions by the people, sent heralds over the country, proclaiming that every one who knew any of these verses should upon repeating them to him receive a certain sum of money for every verse, that in this way a large number were collected and every man was paid even when he brought verses which had been repeated before. This mass was referred to seventy grammarians, each to produce an arrangement of them; when they reported, that of Aristarchus was preferred. This is an anachronism however as Aristarchus did not live until long after. It is an absurd fable but is nevertheless adopted by Barthélemy in his Preface to Anacharsis. Cicero has attributed the arrangement of the books to Pisistratus, others to Hipparchus. Wolf with this argues that these attempts were not confined to any time, but that they were made at different periods and to a greater or less degree by various persons who might possess portions of the materials, an idea confirmed in the Scholia by the frequent mention of the arrangers as peculiar officers.
After Lecture, I returned to my room and spent the morning writing my notes. I did not read over all of Ferguson this morning as I was peculiarly employed. I attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation. He lectured in his way today upon the spots on the sun. I shall not give any account of them in this book as I have already more to do than I can well make way with. I shall therefore take the whole course in regular order from a copy which is already in the possession of some of my classmates. In the afternoon I attended recitation in Paley as usual and in the Evening, we had a common drill. The privates performed well and revived my liking to the company, which I must confess had very nearly become extinct.
After drill, I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. He went on tonight with La Fontaine. He was born in Normandy in 1621, where his father was supervisor of woods and waters. He studied Latin at Rheims and entered a religious house which he soon left however as not con• { 382 } sistent with his spirit. No symptoms of talent made their appearance in him until the age of 22. This was excited much as Corregio’s was, on seeing a painting of Raphael’s, for he having heard an ode of Malherbe’s, fancied he could also write and therefore became a poet. His character was always remarkable for a childlike simplicity. He was married by a family arrangement and was not happy until he left his wife. Some say that in Belphégor he characterized her. The Duchess de Bouillon, she who had so conspired against Racine, had sense and taste enough to discover him. He always lived with all the carelessness of his character, he was almost adopted by Madame Sabliere with whom he lived during twenty years, and was so domestic and simple an animal that she said once upon being asked who was in the house, that nobody was there except her cat, her parrot and La Fontaine. When she died, he would have been left again upon the world had he not been supported by the Duke of Burgundy and then again adopted by Madame Herval [d’Hervart], in 1694.
He did not value his own talents sufficiently, not that he was not conscious he possessed some, but from his simplicity he did not give them their due weight. He failed in his love elegies and his religious poetry, his pieces also for the Theatre all failed although there is much humour in one of them. We have his letters, his epistles in verse, ballads and the tale of Psyche, a beautiful romance drawn from the story recorded in Apuleius. But in his Tales and Fables we find him shining forth in the natural power of his character. This sort of writing indeed was peculiarly well adapted to it’s display. His fables are in twelve books, the first of which did not produce much effect. Madame de Sevigne, who is a good chronicle[r], says that they were good but some part was tiresome, the feeling soon changed however and they were pronounced delightful. In his tales he shows his talent still more by the variety and originality of his ideas but it is unfortunate that they are indecent and thus their whole effect is ruined.
Next came Pascal who was born in Auvergne in 1623. He was instructed by his father first in the languages and then in mathematics. I shall pass over the early symptoms of his genius as too numerous to mention, suffice it that he made a Geometry for himself. At 16 he wrote a treatise on Conic sections, at 19 he made a machine and at 23 he wrote a treatise on the subject of the vacuum. His physical strength could not endure it, he became fanatical and distempered in mind, he was austere in his life beyond endurance. He wore hair cloth for a shirt and a girdle of wire with points. His famous letters were written however after his derangement. These letters called Lettres Provinciales2 had a tremendous effect, were condemned by parliament and stopped by the Pope. They exhibit however every kind of eloquence. He did not finish them as he stopped in obedience to the Pope’s orders.
After Lecture I returned home and wrote my notes for last nights lecture, read Burke’s observations upon Taste3 and then retired for the night. XI.
1. A composition formed by joining scraps from other authors.
2. Les provinciales, ou les lettres écrites par Louis de Montalte à un provincial de ses amis, published in 1656.
3. JQA’s set of The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, 8 vols., London, 1792–1827, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-13

Wednesday. October 13th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning, without any thing uncommon happening. After breakfast, I attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture as usual. He closed the controversy with some remarks on the last points of it. The traditions concerning Solon at that age certainly favour Wolf’s hypothesis. They are not however directly inconsistent with the common opinion concerning the unity and authenticity of Homer. It is not at all surprising that Homer should have come down in detached portions when we consider the want of materials for the preservation of works and the practice of recitation easily accounts for the scattered state of the poems. Subsequent authors moreover, when Libraries were made for the express purpose of preserving entire books, have come down to us in a similar way. The different parts of the Testament even were collected at different places.
Another strong argument against Wolf’s theory is that no such thing has been mentioned by any ancient author whatsoever. Had it been a fact that these poems were formed by many, it would have been { 384 } recollected for many ages and certainly a sufficient number of years does not exist between Solon and the last of these poetical composers to admit of a total oblivion or account for the want of any tradition of such compilation. We must observe also that this is a question not of the fabrication of the poems at a later date, as is the case with Ossian, but merely of the writing of the poems of which an author would have been proud to declare himself the composer. Perrault, to be sure, regards the contest of the seven cities as some argument, but this is merely an inference, and it is evident that no single, abstract conception of the unity of Homer could have been formed, had many authors been known to exist and had the poems been gradually perfected according to the present argument. Finally it is worthy of remark that Wolf and his followers are not at all confident in their own assertions. These, if brought to a strict test, amount to no more than that the present form of the Iliad and Odyssey, the division into books, the insertion of some of the episodes with scattered passages and many single lines, are to be ascribed to the rhapsodists and grammarians. That they were in a simple and shorter form and that there is no absolute historical certainty about the person of Homer.
Men when in contest are very apt to go further than they intend and in this something may have escaped from some of the advocates of the theory which the [other] party do not allow. Indeed by a quotation from Wolf’s own preface in the synopsis,1 we can see that his statements go no farther. Such are the merits of the most important question in Greek literature. Those who incline to support Wolf in his theory have a great argument and much plausibility on their side. The popular doctrine rests on the consent of ages. His [Everett’s] qualified statement of the theory is one which he thinks will unite most probabilities, as by it we can believe in one sublime poet for the author, whilst we do not contradict the known laws of human and intellectual progress.
He then went on to the life of Homer and mentioned the accounts of him which have been written. One [is] ascribed to Herodotus; ancient authors mention his having written such a life but this is not probably it. It is quoted by no ancient author. There is a life of Homer ascribed to Plutarch which is quoted by Aulus Gellius. The work does not however correspond with these citations. One author has supposed Dionysius [of] Halicarnassus to be the author. There are three short lives in Greek prefixed to a work of Allatius de Patria Homeri of which two are anonymous. The first is by Proclus. But the most convenient works on his life are those of Madame Dacier and Pope prefixed to { 385 } their translations of the poems and that of Blackwall. We can only make inferences and deductions from the entire want of certain knowledge, and his omitting to mention himself in his poems, a custom which prevailed among the ancients but the reverse of which now obtains. We suppose him a native of Ionia from his geography and his hymn to Apollo which however is not correct ground. As to the time, a variety of opinion has been held. He has been placed between the sixth and tenth centuries before the Christian era. His description is minute of the siege of Troy but he says he was not near the time. Some have placed him before the return of the Heracleids (Mitford and Haller) but the Ionians did not emigrate until two generations after that.2 He has been fixed with most probability 900 years before Christ, 130 after the return of the Heracleids and 270 after the Trojan war. Herodotus agrees with this by placing him four hundred years before himself.
Lecture over, I returned home and sat myself down according to my usual way to write out my Lectures. I did not read over the Astronomy so that I did not know any thing about the recitation. It was upon the Moon today. After recitation I returned home and employed myself in a similar way. The afternoon was taken up in studying the lesson in Paley as I was confident that I should be called upon which was the case.
After Prayers we had a good Rifle drill and then attended a Lecture of Mr. Ticknors. I took very full notes of a very beautiful lecture but I shall be compelled to condense them very much. Pascal, he said, had given the direction and tone to French eloquence and had shown what it was capable of in the pulpit. Bossuet arose and carried it to it’s height. He was born in Burgundy in 1627, his education was private. He retired to Metz, was made a canon and there studied the councils, the scriptures and the fathers to prepare for those attacks upon the reformers which he commenced in 1655. The reputation which he thus acquired soon called him to Paris and in his sermons he so pleased the two Queens of England and of France that in 1661 he was called to the court, before which he delivered discourses that year and the lent of the year following. In 1669 he was made a Bishop and still remained about the Court. The next year he was appointed preceptor to the Dauphin and laid out a plan for his education in which all the learned men were to contribute. It was for him that he wrote an abridgment of history, an account of the reign of Louis 14th and a system of religious classics. It was for him also that he wrote the excellent Essay on universal history. In 1681 he was promoted to the { 386 } more valuable bishopric of Meaux. The elector of Hanover had proposed a meeting between him and a protestant which was agreed to but it had the same result with all affairs of this sort, no success. He then attacked the sect of the Quietists of whom more will be said hereafter; he was always ambitious, great and successful. He enjoyed the office of counsellor to the king which he held until his death which happened in 1704, he being 77 years old. He wrote above 100 works which fill twenty quarto volumes. Many of these are in Latin and a larger part controversial. He was a Doctor at 25 and dedicated a thesis to the Condé by which he gained his favour. We find [him] at the hotel de Rambouillet in Paris leading the wits of the day. He did not come forward in his strength however until he was forty three years old when he immediately became the head of the clergy, which he kept until he was 73. Though for the last ten years of his life he did nothing half equalling his old effort, he made important additions to his universal history. His works were almost all written to increase his power and do not for the most part come within our jurisdiction.
His Doctrine he published in 1671 as an answer to the Protestants and it may be considered the best answer which has ever been given to the reformation. The argument is logical, acute, the proportion in style is elegant and it’s compactness is perfection to it. Bonaparte, if such an authority is to be quoted on such a subject, said that but for this treatise he should have been a Protestant. His Discours sur l’histoire universel was published in 1681. It is more of a discourse indeed than an item of events, but in his sermons we find most splendid specimens of French eloquence, although not the first in the language. He here yielded the palm to Bourdaloue3 and with more effect as it was done with grace. His funeral orations however were the very greatest things which were ever delivered. He then analysed the species of writing and went on with considerable eloquence to speak of the contrast between the men and the [ . . . ] he has given. It is a duty but little proper to a Christian minister. This was certainly a beautiful specimen. He was undoubtedly the father of the Gallican church whose rights he ably defended. He was inferior to but few of his rivals; indeed Bourdaloue excelled him as they lived in the habit of writing touching Sermons.4 Not that Bossuet might not have succeeded, but that he would not. Of his great rival Bourdaloue whom Mr. Ticknor also mentioned, I cannot say any thing today but shall continue writing notes out whenever I have the leisure.
After Lecture, Chapman and one or two more of us went to Mr. Willard’s and spent a considerable quantity of time. I staid quite pleasantly and talked with him; afterwards, returned home and wrote { 387 } out my notes, a long labour when I felt very much more like sleeping. I am anxious for the time to come when I finish a drudgery of slaves.
2. CFA wrote: “. . . but the Ionians did not emigrate until after that two generations.”
3. Louis Bourdaloue (1632–1704).
4. Thus apparently in MS, but the sense is obscure and some of the words in this sentence are less than perfectly legible.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-14

Thursday. October 14th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography as usual. After breakfast went to Mr. Everett’s. He was treating today of the works of Homer. The first mentioned is a work in 305 [294] hexameter verses called Batrachomyomachia or the battle of the frogs, of which he gave an analysis. It is mentioned as his work in the Life ascribed to Herodotus. Plutarch and Henry Stephens [Stephen] ascribe it to Pigres who lived at the time of the Persian invasion. Modern critics are divided in opinion with respect to this poem, but sundry internal marks prove that this is not the work of Homer. The irony, the jests upon the Gods, the use of writing tablets and the trumpet, and a variety of circumstances go to prove that it was written in later times. These are all put down in the pamphlet.1 The poem has often been imitated, one of the most important is the Galeomyomachia [Galeomachia], a dramatic piece in Iambics written by Prodromus, a native Greek, in the 12th century.
There are many others besides. There is a translation of the battle of the frogs which is a very good specimen of modern Greek. It was first published by Crusius and is written in political verses. This is a sort of verse which was of very ancient use and has since come into fashion with a popular author who has employed [it]. It consists of seven trochaic feet and was supposed to be called political from the adaptation to poems on civil occasions. But they have been called so in distinction to ancient verses as the word can be made to mean modern. They are to be found in the ancient version of Virgil of Ogilvie [Ogilby] a specimen of which he gave us. They must be read by quantity and not by accent as is done by the modern Greeks. They are found in the ancient comedy. There are many hymns attributed to him which are popularly believed his, but there have not been wanting persons who refused to believe that any of his works have remained except the Iliad and Odyssey. The hymns of Homer are now generally ascribed to the Homerides, men who followed him and who by their imitation of him obtained that name. An analysis of them will show { 388 } that they are neither the production of one age nor of one author. He accordingly entered into an analysis of the different hymns to Apollo Mercury, Venus and Ceres. It would take by far more time and space than is necessary to give it at length, particularly when it is contained in the pamphlet to which I have already often alluded.
The fragments of Homer consist of sixteen epigrams and some quotations from ancient poems ascribed to Homer such as the Margites, Cypria, the lesser Iliad, all which however amount only to seventy lines and are consequently very insignificant. He then concluded with mentioning a few authors who might be valuable to consult upon the subject.
After Lecture as we had nothing more to do for the rest of the day, I determined to go to Boston, and accordingly rode in with Chapman. We went round to Roxbury and I met with an accident in driving. I pique myself a little on driving and wish to improve so that I was sorry for the accident. It was very trifling but nevertheless I thought it ought not to have happened. Arrived, I went immediately to my brother’s room where I did not find him, and as I supposed he had gone for the morning, I went upon the common to see the review. Met Lothrop and Pratt and Stackpole there with whom I had some conversation. Returning to George’s room, I found he had been and gone, for he went off to Quincy with Mrs. Bailey2 so that I should not see him until night. I remained and dined with the family at Dr. Welsh’s, after which I went to see Mrs. De Wint3 who was at Col. Pickman’s.4 She has just come on and looks quite well I think. It is sometime since I have seen her, but it is of not much importance how long, for it is mere formal civility between relations. The Colonel was quite polite, he has rather a pretty house than otherwise. At least it looks comfortable; he is unfortunate in his marriage however as I suppose he wishes descendants.
I remained here a little while only and then went to see the review of the remaining regiments. I wished to see them go through the drill for Light Infantry but they did very little of it. I then tried to find Chapman to tell him that I should not go out to Cambridge tonight as I thought it was too much to come in again to find George, the expense attending such another visit being considerable. I spent the rest of the afternoon in his room reading Madame de la Roche Jaqueline’s account of the War of La Vendée.5 It is an interesting and a curious history as it gives an account of a state of society, which if to be relied on as true, must have been extremely pleasant, and certainly for this part of France, the revolution could not have been a desirable or even an equally pleasant situation.
{ 389 }
I accomplished a good deal while here but as I thought that I did not go away from Cambridge to read, I might as well after tea attend the play. George came in and after our meal drove me down to the theatre. The play tonight was Tom and Jerry, a farce which has had a most amazing run, and I have always been surprised at not having seen it before. It has had success merely from it’s being a slightly exaggerated specimen of dissipated life. The events follow each other so rapidly and there is so much show and glitter that it seizes with the common people. The scenes in low life also come nearer to the ideas of the generality of the world than the stiff laboured forms of tragedy or the light wit of polished comedy. I think however that it holds out evil in most attractive colours as it shows a parcel of dashing young blades running their course of dissipation and ruining themselves, or at least doing their best for it, but being saved only by a turn in the plot, which will scarcely fall to the chance of any unlucky wight6 who might feel emulous of their great deeds. I was highly diverted however and heard it through with pleasure. The afterpiece was called the “falls of Clyde”7 and was one of the sentimental cast, of which I am not extremely fond. Mrs. Henry looked as beautiful as ever. I met then my classmates Cunningham and Fay, the first time I ever met either of them here. I retired very well satisfied as Mr. Finn8 was again upon the boards; he is undoubtedly the best actor here.
I returned to my brother’s. I know not how it is but I like him very much less than I used to. He has got into the world and is thinking upon entirely different concerns, his tastes are entirely different, and we have but few common topics of conversation. John is and always has been more to my taste, and although I suppose time will make changes in him also, yet they are not of such a nature. His temper hitherto has suited me better. I sat up with George sometime talking upon different subjects and without much interest. My day’s excursion had been very considerable, and I felt fatigued and on some accounts low spirited. These I shall mention tomorrow. It is a singular thing that I of all persons, who dislike most troubles and embarassments of a certain kind, should always be so unfortunate as to fall into them. George was not amusing so that I was sleepy soon and retired. XI:30.
1. Everett, Synopsis, p. 48–49.
2. Mrs. Jeremiah Bailey, of Wiscasset, the former Charlotte Welsh, daughter of Dr. Thomas Welsh. See Adams Genealogy.
3. Mrs. John Peter de Windt (1795–1852), the former Caroline Amelia Smith, a niece of JQA. See Adams Genealogy.
4. Benjamin T. Pickman, a Boston merchant (JQA, Memoirs, 9:163).
5. Mémoires de Madame la Marquise de Larochejacquelein, Paris, 1815.
6. A human being, man or woman (often implying contempt or commiseration) (OED).
7. An English melodrama by George Soane.
{ 390 }
8. Henry James Finn (1785–1840), an English actor, who later managed the Federal Street theater in Boston (Hornblow, Theater, 1:292–293).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-15

Friday. October 15th. VII:20.

Arose and dressed myself, my brother according to his usual custom having arisen much earlier—his custom of late I mean. I breakfasted and during the morning read much farther in the Memoirs I took up yesterday but I did not have time to finish them. I applied for my money to George, according to arrangement, but I found the bank rather deficient, a curse which I have so often felt and which I had congratulated myself was not to happen again. This was the occasion of the trouble yesterday. I received a sufficient sum however to clear me at Cambridge for the next three months as to debts although I shall be compelled to resort to the old mode of getting myself along. I then took a walk about town and at twelve went to Cambridge in the Stage. I dined in a hurry and at one went out to practice the rifle exercise which we performed quite well today. I then went to Declamation which was not remarkable today and employed the rest of my afternoon in writing my Journal which by my one day’s absence had fallen behind hand. It is now a much more serious matter than ever to miss a day although it has always been sufficiently difficult to make it up. I was constant to it all the afternoon.
In the Evening after Prayers we had a regular drill and were more of soldiers than ever. Indeed we were much delighted with the conduct of the company tonight and felt exactly as we wished to with respect to the men under our command.
After drill although somewhat fatigued at this double exercise, I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. I shall however fill up what I left [out] in the last lecture which I attended. Bourdaloue the unattained model of the pulpit eloquence of France was born in 1632 and educated a Jesuit. That body always knew how to cultivate the talent which would most promote them, so that they soon called him to Paris which happened in 1669, and in 1671 at the age of 38 he had no rival, which continued until his death in 1704. He was during this time the most popular and successful preacher in France. His works are in 16 volumes octavo, all sermons. There is in them greater conciseness, greater persuasion and more sincerity than in those of Bossuet. His logic is compact and his strength irresistible. He is perhaps less touching than Massillon1 but it is natural that force of character should spring up before tenderness and the assertion has been justified by the experience of all ages. Without great exertions he has equalled Bossuet and checked [him].
{ 391 }
Fenelon might have been his rival had he not been above ambition. This man from his genius, his labours and talents was entitled to be called the champion of the Church, but he had not the desire. He was born in the South West of France in 1651 and educated at home, from whence he was sent to College where he was distinguished. Indeed at 15 he preached. At one time he determined to be a missionary and move to the settlements in Canada but his family diverted him from it. At 24 he conceived the project of a mission to Greece and wrote a letter to that effect which fully discloses his enthusiasm. At 27 he was made superior of the new Catholics [ . . . ] he governed with success for 10 years. He was then sent on a mission to Poictou to quell an insurrection of the Protestants. He only agreed with the king that force should not be used and he was successful. The deep feeling in that part of France which showed itself in the revolution may fairly therefore be attributed to him. In 1689 he was made preceptor to the Duke of Burgundy. But he had been successful too long, intrigue arose and oppressed him. He was too powerful for the favourites of the court although he never used his strength, and they made a handle of his intimacy with Madame Guyon2 who was at the head of the quietists in France. In 1695 however he was made Archbishop of Cambray which placed him at the height of power. Bossuet attacked him and influenced the king who caused the Pope to condemn Fenelon’s answer and finally he was exiled to his Archbishopric. His Telemaque completed the King’s anger and he caused the man’s name to be erased from the list of his household. Fenelon endured it all with most perfect patience; he retired to Cambray where he remained for the rest of his life. He obeyed with most perfect submission the orders of the Pope and read from his own pulpit the condemnation of his book. This is the “Maximes des Saints.”
I have got thus far and have only finished the preceding lecture so that I shall only be able to give that today, reserving the remainder for tomorrow and Sunday, in which days I have no observations to make in addition. I wrote until I was half asleep, after I returned, when I thought it best at once to retire. XI.
1. Jean Baptiste Massillon (1663–1742), bishop of Clermont.
2. Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte-Guyon (1648–1717).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-16

Saturday. October 16th. VIII.

Missed Prayers this morning without my intending it in the least. After breakfast attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture. I regret that I was absent yesterday morning as I had wished to keep the course of all { 392 } his, although many of them and that one of yesterday in particular, are not of a particularly interesting nature. He went over all the scholiasts of Homer today—the most considerable are Didymus a grammarian of the Age of Cicero who is supposed the author of all the smaller scholia in the Oxford editions of the work. Some however of these mention authors who existed later than the age of this Didymus of whom we speak. The commentary of Eustathius is much more distinguished; he was a native of Constantinople and educated there in the twelfth century. A catalogue has been made of 45 pages of authors whom he had read and quoted but his erudition has been exaggerated. He read no ancient author of any note who is now lost. Owing to the scarcity of books in the middle ages, it was the habit to comprehend as much as possible in a single volume and hence the most famous codices of Homer include the scholia in the way of marginal notes. But there appears to have been no original criticism from the time of Porphyry to Eustathius, as all these scholia except the Venetian appear to have descended from a common stock. These Venetian are the most famous, they are valuable for their appeals to old authors, to old political manuscripts and to ancient scholiasts not known to us. The origin of it is not known. This was the work which gave the impulse to the study of Homer at it’s publication by Villoison. The Göttingen Journal has given an analysis of all the scholiasts we now have. These are held in too great veneration at the present day and indifferent books have obtained under the name of scholia much respect.
Translations of the poems of Homer have been made in almost every language, many and the most important are mentioned at full length in the synopsis. The origin of the prose Latin translation attending most of the copies of Homer is not distinctly known but it has been supposed to have been generally made by Schrevelius.1 The best translations into English are those of Pope and Cowper. Cesarotti’s, in the Italian, who has very much changed the poem. He has omitted the repetitions, shortened the prolix speeches of Nestor and cut off the episodes, he has even altered the name of the poem. The German by Voss2 is an imitation of the ancient hexameter. He then went over a list of the principal copies of Homer, and as it was very little more than a mere enumeration of the copies which are put down in the synopsis, I scarcely think it worthwhile to repeat it. He only stated that Heyne’s copy was indispensable to a student of Homer. He made rather a sarcastic observation when speaking of Clarke’s3 edition. He observed that we probably were personally acquainted with it. { 393 } It has a Latin version which has probably been consulted by every man in the class. He has thus finished with Homer. I am surprised that he confines himself so much to dry detail as I think from the very nature of the subject he should attempt to give ornament, and particularly where it could be given to so much advantage. He has all the display of his learning but he must be confessed to partake of the German character he mentioned.
After lecture I went to read the newspapers, found nothing but a nomination of Professor Everett to Congress and a letter of his which appears to me to be as great a curiosity as I have ever seen.4 The election is at a dead stand, I think as every body seems to believe, exertions are useless, it will go to the House without any doubt in my opinion. I received this morning a delightful letter from John,5 long enough to make up for the deficiency. He writes much more agreably than usual, as he has less levity and seriousness, although it does not amount to morality of the rigid sort or to sentiment. He mentions every thing that is passing, and what is very pleasant, my mother’s safe arrival at Washington after very considerable fatigue. This raised my spirits which once inclined to be quite low and I felt well all day. I was employed a larger part of the time in writing off my Journal and the rest in company with Richardson.
I will now take Mr. Ticknor’s last night lecture. He passed through the remainder of Fenelon and Crebillon6 last night and commenced tonight the series of French Comedy since Moliere. Comedy he says dates from the time of Corneille’s Lyar7 1643. Moliere came on soon after and brought it to perfection for a long series of years. The comic writers were mere imitators of Moliere without any originality or pretence to new qualities, with the exception of a little lively sprightliness. The first man who can be said to have differed materially was John Francis Regnard8 who was born in 1656 and received a good education. Travelling and gaming appear to have been the great objects of his life. In the course of his various voyages, he once met with a misfortune. He was taken by Pirates and carried to Algiers where he was sold for a slave. Being an epicure however he was soon promoted to the place of his master’s cook. From here he was carried to Constantinople where he came very near losing his life for an affair in the haram of his master. He got his liberty in time however and returning wrote a romance called the Provinciales [La Provençale]. In 1681 he again left Paris on an expedition to Lapland, and after going farther than any countrymen had before gone, he left a boasting latin inscription upon the rock. He wrote eight pieces { 394 } for the Italian and a number for the French and died in 1710 in a singular way, recorded in his life prefixed to his works. Eight comedies are entirely his own, others he wrote with [other?] men. Le Joueur appeared in 1696 and is his best effort; it is drawn from the best rule, personal experience. He then analysed the plot. Le Distrait, and les Menechmes appeared; these were neither of them very remarkable but the Legataire Universel appeared last in 1705. The whole plot turns on the fourth act; the abstract of it gives us little of peculiar talent but there is a gay spirit, a liveliness and ease of tone which equals or even surpasses Moliere. These are his distinguishing characteristics. He is the only considerable variety from the school of Moliere for one century.
The next change introduced was that of the “Comedie Larmoyante,” or as it should be interpreted, the whining Comedy. This was made by Monsieur de la Chaussé.9 He was born in 1692 but did not write until he was forty one. He was the author of “la fausse antipathie” and the “Prejuge’s a la mode,” the first a poor play, the second not much. The “Gouvernante” appeared in 1747. This is called his best play. It is a sort of dramatic romance and nothing more, an extreme. He died in 1754, 62 years old. Denys Diderot who carried this to its extreme, was the son of a cutler, he is more famous for other works than for his plays. He is the author of the Pere de Famille and Fils naturel, sentimental to excess, consequently improbable, but perfect in what they set out to be. This closes Comedy, none of importance after this and no tragedy excepting Voltaire. This is the order of the light drama school of Moliere, Regnard and Comedie Larmoyante.
I wrote to John10 this Evening, and spent some time sociably with Sheafe and Richardson in the latter’s room. We also took supper at Willard’s. XII.
1. Kornelis Schrevel Schrevelius (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:492).
2. Johann Heinrich Voss (1751–1826), professor at Heidelberg (same, 3:61–63).
3. Dr. Samuel Clarke (1675–1729), of Cambridge University (same, 2:413, 3:13).
4. Dissatisfied with the regular congressional nomination in the Middlesex district, a group of JQA’s supporters met in Lexington on October 14 and, influenced partly by the fame of Everett’s recent Phi Beta Kappa address and partly by his well known friendship for the Adams family, nominated the Harvard professor. In accepting, Everett said he personally favored JQA for the Presidency but expressed the hope that his congressional contest would not turn upon the presidential question. See Frothingham, Everett, p. 87. How little Everett’s wishes were to be respected is indicated by the ease with which CFA jumped in the very next sentence to the presidential race.
5. Missing.
6. Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon (1674–1762).
{ 395 }
7. The Liar or Le Menteur.
8. Jean François Regnard (1655–1709).
9. Pierre Claude Nivelle de la Chaussée.
10. Letter missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-17

Sunday. October 17th. VIII.

Missed Prayers, and as I did not feel exceedingly well, I thought it would be some relief to me to remain at home all day. I would not attend Chapel. I was very lazy part of the day, writing my Journal and closing a letter to John. I think one of the greatest signs of my improvement the past year is my facility of writing. I formerly thought a letter could hardly be three pages long without requiring an exertion but now I can scarcely compress what I have to say in four. I have no time to devote at present to correction and am afraid to read over what I write so that my letters depart with all their faults and imperfections upon them. I wasted the afternoon, for finding my letters growing so upon me, and not considering them of much value at least any early ones, I determined upon reading over my old files from my young friends five or six years since and casting them into the flames. They called up many recollections and I felt as if I was parting with my oldest and most sincere friends. I could scarcely think of any thing but the repeated assurances of affection which came from Dawes; they appeared so natural. I am marking out for myself a course in which I lose all the friendship which so pleases and enlivens life. It is the most heartless thing in the world. My nature too is social to an extreme and it is doing strong violence to it. Ambition, pride and all my other feelings contribute however to excite me.
I was all the afternoon working thus and in the evening after a visit to Sheafe, I sat down and read Burke’s inquiry into the origin of the sublime and beautiful. It is strictly philosophical light reading. I cannot help being amused with it so much that I read it superficially. Some observations I am not entirely inclined to agree to, such as that smoothness is an essential to beauty. Smooth things are beautiful but some rough things are so also. I progressed very rapidly in it and had more of an evening’s reading than at any time since the commencement of the term. I finished the night with reading Dyer’s Grongar Hill again which I find to be a prettier thing than at first I supposed it. I also read the First book of Beattie’s Minstrel, as sweet a thing as I wish to see. There does not appear to be much plan in the poem as it was left, but the melody of the verses is remarkable and the sentiments are some of them very much in consonance with my own. I then retired. XI:30.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-18

Monday. October 18th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning to Mr. Hayward with usual success. After breakfast attended a lecture from Professor Everett. He began this morning with Hesiod and his lecture was of a sort rather more amusing. The works which remain to us under the name of Hesiod have not received the notice which they merit and which they held in antiquity. Velleius Paterculus in a passage quoted in the pamphlet gives him high praise,1 which Wolf in modern times has repeated. The same question with that concerning Homer may be agitated here, and is only less interesting, as the shortness of the poems is an answer to many arguments which apply to Homer and makes it less worthwhile to contest. Much doubt has existed as to the real time of Hesiod; he has been placed before, contemporary with and after Homer. An argument is drawn from some lines of his concerning the rising of Arcturus which it was supposed might be calculated so as to fix his time. This was attempted by Longomontanus, Kepler, Riccioli and Sir Isaac Newton. The first made the calculation and supposed, to make up for a difficulty as he brought this much earlier, that Hesiod did not speak of it as it was in his own day but 270 years previous. Sir Isaac Newton came to a very different result. On the whole nothing can be made of it. The reasons why are to be found at length in the pamphlet.2 But little is known of his life and that is collected from his own works. He mentions a poetical contest at the funeral of Amphidamas, king of Euboea in which he obtained a prize. From this, arose the fabulous story of his victory over Homer. Origin of this may be traced in some grammarian who supposed that as Hesiod lived at the time of Homer, this last must have been his rival, and that at the contest the decision was made unjustly in favour of the former. The accounts of the death of Hesiod are equally fabulous.
Hesiod is to be considered as the head of an ancient Boeotian school of Poetry in the same way that Homer is head of the Ionic. There appears to have been a remarkable contrast between the early and late character of this part of Greece. Hesiod and Pindar are not by any means men by whom we are to judge that a country is stupid. The fact is that the proverbial character of stupidity did not attach itself to the inhabitants of Boeotia until after the time of the Persian invasion and it was probably in consequence of their conduct in it that they received the epithets which have ever since stuck to them.
The works of Hesiod have a twofold character; they are partly didactic and partly mythological and epic. This may probably arise { 397 } | view from his poems being compilations or from his versatility. His works and days is very unequal in beauty, it has some fine passages and is remarkable for having relics of a mythology still more ancient and more romantic to use the modern word than the one usually known to us. His next poem is the Theogony. It is of an entirely different character from the Works and days. It treats of the creation of the world. It is valuable as a treatise displaying the old opinions but it gives no mythology. It is probable that these works were formed into their present state in the age of Pisistratus by the Διασκευασται3 whose business I have before related. This is most likely the case with all the present works of this bard. Some passages in this last work are fine.
After Lecture, I returned home and was quietly sitting at my Journal when I was surprised by a visit from a new classmate of mine, Mr. Prescott.4 I used to know him pretty well in my dissipated days, but I had left off his acquaintance and was not inclined to renew it upon visiting terms. He indeed did not intend a visit to me as he mistook my room for Otis’s. His character for years has been very bad, he has indulged in all the wildest excesses and has hardly given it up now. He and Hunt and Loundes make a set of curiosities. His visit was pretty long and he was guarded in his conversation, which however is moderately agreable. I went to recitation in Astronomy as usual.
In the afternoon, owing to a large dinner, I could not study at all and went to recitation quite unprepared. Mr. Hedge came upon our side, surprised us and called upon me, but fortunately it was in the review so that I managed to pass off. We drilled as usual and did very well after which I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. He went over many of the inferior branches of French poetry. Two more important forms of the French drama appeared—the serious opera first introduced by Corneille in 1650 which is an exotic from Italy where the love of music had prevailed over the drama. It is a sort which does not succeed much in France. The French opera is proverbial for it’s magnificence and it’s wretched singing—the comic opera has been more successful. This also arose in 1650. No considerable author can be mentioned however who has not succeeded better in the other branches of literature. In Lyrical Poetry there has been but little success. The French seem to have failed in this branch almost entirely. There is but one exception. There is very little of the lyrical character in Malherbe, more of it in the choruses to Athalie and Esther, the place perhaps where we should not wish to find it.
The only instance where we find regular lyrical poetry is in J. B. Rousseau5 who was born in 1669. His father was a shoemaker but { 398 } gave him a good education. He published a book at 20 and was so entirely given up to his literary pursuits that he refused a place of very considerable profit from the government because he thought it would interrupt them. A satirical piece of poetry appeared of little merit which he was charged with and, in consequence of which, a prosecution was entered against him which was decided unfavourably in 1712. He was exiled but received very friendly treatment wherever he went. He became melancholy however, refused all compromise in a noble answer which was given to us. As to the charge, we have not much right to doubt his innocence. He died in exile in 1741. His plays are bad, his epigrams are pretty good, his epistles are inferior to Boileau’s, but his character rests upon his lyrical works. His cantata, a new species of verse introduced by Rousseau, he does not like. The mixture of mythology in them makes them cold and stiff. The Odes are very good. The first book is a bold paraphrase of the psalms of David, the second of them is the best specimen but they are not equal to the English on the same subject. The second book consists of moral odes. There is not much poetry in it, but his character rests chiefly on the third book. These odes were mentioned and severely criticized. Mr. Ticknor evidently did not like the man’s poems.
We pass from here to fiction, and at this place Mr. Ticknor gave us a history of the rise and progress of romantic fiction. It’s common stock, the story tellers, the ballads, chivalrous romances, historical romances which are the different steps in the progress. Madame de la Fayette6 was the person in France first to touch upon the more natural feelings of the heart. She was born in 1633, lived a wit of the hotel de Rambouillet and [was] a woman of powerful influence as well as an authoress. She died in 1693 having produced many works of which Zaide [Zayde] in 1670 and the Princesse de Cleves in 1677.7 These he analysed. They are old fashioned romances.
I returned home, finished Burke’s treatise, which however I should like to read again, read the second part of Beattie’s Minstrel and spent the remainder of the Evening in Otis’s room, chatting and drinking Porter until quite late in the night. XI:35.
1. See Everett’s Synopsis, p. 62.
2. Actually, according to Professor Everett’s account in his Synopsis, p. 63-64, the age of Hesiod might be computed within 70 years because of the rising of Arcturus.
3. Literally “arrangers,” meaning revisors or editors.
4. Edward Goldsborough Prescott, of Boston (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).
5. Jean Baptiste Rousseau (1669–1741).
6. Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, Comtesse de la Fayette (1634–1692), whose novel, La Princesse de Clèves, was published in 1678.
7. Sentence defective.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-19

Tuesday. October 19th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. Our lessons are very much easier than they were a little while since. But it makes exceeding little difference to me. Mr. Everett went on with Hesiod today. The third work he said was the Shield of Hercules. This has been generally considered spurious or as a portion of some larger work of Hesiod relating to the ancient heroines of fabulous ages. This portion however is no work on the praises of heroines for it entirely refers to the armor of Hercules, excepting in the fifty six first lines which gives rise to an hypothesis first started by Heinrich1 which is very probable. It is that these lines which refer to Alcmene, the mother of Hercules, really did belong to a large work on the subject of heroines by Hesiod, and were afterwards prefixed to an account of the hero which was made by some other person, probably a Theban celebrating his divinity, as was their custom. Two scholia moreover speak of this as a fragment of this work. The catalogue of heroines. The work is simple, but still has a more artificial manner of composition than the other productions. It has supplied some imagery to Milton.
Here Mr. Everett entered into a discussion concerning genius, merely as connected with this observation, saying that Milton was not affected at all by having read so much, in his own original poems. That genius did not [ . . . ] at all in any peculiar form. Some had thought it was crushed by learning but the fact is it will rise above every situation. He then gave instances of men in every situation and with every degree of learning illustrating this position. Only about two hundred lines remain of the rest of the books ascribed to Hesiod and these are of little importance. The editions are put down. The principal scholia are those of Proclus, a few remain of Didymus, many other anonymous ones. The edition of Robinson2 contains the argument concerning the rising of Arcturus. It has been translated three times into English, once by Chapman in 16183 a faithful and vigorously executed work, and although with the quaintness of the age, it has some purity. The next is by Cook in 1728 which is a heavy performance in rhyme, that by Elton in blank verse is an exceedingly well performed work. There is a very good preliminary dissertation upon the subject of his life and works in this edition and it may be considered a specimen of excellent criticism. The names of the rest of the works ascribed to Hesiod are set down in the pamphlet. The works of Hesiod have not yet received from the learned the attention they merit and there is yet no thoroughly good edition of them. He then went on to speak of the Cyclic poets, the age they flourished in, and { 400 } the reasons why they received this name. He said nothing however in today’s lecture concerning them which was not in the synopsis and consequently it is not worth while to copy it.
I returned home and was employed all the morning writing. I attended recitation in Astronomy. Mr. Farrar detained us much longer than usual in a dissertation of some length upon Comets, their appearance, and the theories respecting their course. As I have not taken notice of his course here,4 I shall not say any thing of this except that we were rather fatigued. After dinner I attempted to study my lesson but found myself entirely unable to do so. I was so exceedingly sleepy that I was obliged to indulge and sleep away part of the afternoon. This I could do with more safety as Mr. Hedge unquestionably would not call upon me and I felt little interest in the particular subject on which the lessons this week treat. After Prayers we had an exceeding good drill although our captain now and then makes himself too great a man. Weakness is inherent in man and every step I take makes me believe it more closely. Fancy makes fools of us all and gives us all the little pleasure we have in the world, for reality would cause nothing but wretchedness.
I spent a few moments at Chapman’s and then attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. I mentioned in my last notes that he had passed over Madame La Fayette but I regret very much I was not able to write more at length. A Lady at that time did not dare to put her name to a work so that Segray’s [Segrais’] was attached to her’s, but there is no doubt that they belong to her. This anecdote is all I can add. This evening he continued his account of serious prose fiction. The next fashion, he said, were imitations of Richardson who had by this time become known. Then we may merely mention the coarse pictures of Rabelais and Scarron5 and pass on directly to Le Sage6 who was born in 1688. He took to reading Spanish and from thence his character was formed. He first was a mere imitator but his talent would not allow him to remain long in this humble sphere. He extracted the subjects of his best stories from Spain and Spanish character but the description is all his own. In 1707 he produced his Diable boiteux, here a short abstract was made of it. He in this novel, under Spanish costume, takes off many of the reigning characters of the day at Paris. The coquet is Ninon de L’enclos, Baron stands for another &c. Of his Guzman d’Alfarache which is a translation from the Spanish and the Bacheler de Salamanque, he would say but little as he wished to come directly to Gil Bias which first appeared in 1717. He then commenced a regular critique of this work. It wanted unity entirely, he said. Take the mere story: it is { 401 } an account of the adventures of a rogue who by any means which come in his way, manages to rise from the lowest to the highest order of society. Take it in this way and it would be hard to find any one who would read it. But with all the variety, the delineation of character, and the power of generalization which it possesses, it certainly lays claim to be the very first in its kind. The Spaniards have laid claim to this novel and bring forward a work which they assert to have been the original one but there is sufficient internal evidence from the characters of the men in the book and the knowledge of the country that a foreigner wrote it. There are two or three very great geographical errors. There was no successful attempt after this. Crebillon the younger tried and produced a bad imitation of Fielding.
He returned again to Eloquence, and made some remarks upon the reasons why only certain sorts of eloquence flourished in France formerly, which were sufficiently Commonplace. Suffice it that pulpit eloquence and that courtly [word omitted?] was the form in which it appeared. J. B. Massillon was born in 1663 and appeared the year that Bossuet and Bourdaloue died. He gained great reputation but was not promoted during the life of Louis 14th. He afterwards obtained the bishopric of Clermont. His sermons amount to more than a hundred and are divided into panegyrics on the saints, conferences or instructions to young clergymen and the “petit careme.”7 Two or three beautiful quotations he gave us. He has not so much power perhaps as Bossuet, nor so much cogent, philosophical eloquence as Bourdaloue but in sweetness, gracefulness, dignified excellence, he has no superior. As a suite of sermons, those of the petit careme, in number eleven, are the best he has left us. There is more art to be found in the formation of his works than had been usual, and more attention to the mechanical arrangement in order to produce effect. He died in 1742 at his see, out of debt as a clergyman should. After Lecture I returned home, read a little of Akenside which did not much please me, a chapter of Campbell’s Rhetoric8 and retired. XI:15.
1. Karl Friedrich Heinrich (1744–1838), professor at Kiel and, later, at Bonn (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 3:109).
2. Thomas Robinson, Oxford 1737 (same, 2:479).
3. Presumably George Chapman (c. 1559–1634), the English scholar (same, 2:241).
4. CFA wrote up Professor Farrar’s lectures in a separate notebook (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314).
5. Paul Scarron (1610–1660).
6. Alain-René Le Sage (1668–1747).
7. The little Lent sermon.
8. George Campbell, The Philosophy of Rhetoric, 2 vols., London, 1776.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-20

Wednesday. October 20th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning as usual. Mr. Hey• { 402 } ward being extremely complaisant, I was free with a remarkably easy passage. Mr. Everett lectured as usual. He continued his notice of the Cyclic Poets. He also discussed the origin of the term, which however is entire in the pamphlet.1 His result was that they obtained their name only from the choice of the subjects of which they treated. They are generally dull and servile poets which explains a passage quoted from Horace. They were imitators of Homer but it is extremely probable that these were the sources from which the works of Homer and Hesiod were interpolated. It is doubtful whether many of these poems survived long in Greece. The fragments were collected and made models for imitation by the Alexandrian School who then put them forth as the true original poems. Some of these still exist. One by Quintus Calaber, hereafter to be mentioned, who flourished in the sixth century and wrote a poem in imitation of the lesser Iliad of Lesches. One of Tzetzes is still inferior, a writer “who lived” says Heyne “I will not say flourished.” These ancient poems are principally interesting to us in connexion with the Aeneid of Virgil who drew many things from other sources than Homer and probably differed from him. Macrobius asserts that he borrowed from Pisander which is not true and proved so by Heyne. Two poems are the principal guides of Virgil when he departs from Homer, the Lesser Iliad of Lesches and the sack of Troy by Arctinus the Milesian. The first is ascribed to Homer himself in the life attributed to Herodotus. Lesches is however generally reputed the author. Nothing is known of him but that he was a native of Smyrna. We hear of his poem from the mention made of it by the ancient authors who have come down to us. From Aristotle, who gives its argument. It is remarkable that it has given eight subjects to the Attic stage while the greater work has given but two. We know something of it from the Iliac table, a curious relic, the object of which seemed to be a sort of synopsis for schools as it contains the subjects of the poems both of Homer and the lesser poets, roughly sketched, also the names of the authors &c. He showed us an engraving of this Iliac table, which is preserved in the capitol of Rome, after lecture was over.
The other poem is the sack of Troy by Arctinus the Milesian, which we hear of through Proclus who is [the] great authority for the other poem also. The Iliac table contains another work of this author, but not this, although it probably furnishes some materials for it. Of this class of poets Heyne makes two observations. It is to be wished that some person should make an accurate treatise upon them, should compare and collect the fragments. In this way he would do the { 403 } greatest service as he would illustrate the classics which is all the object we have in view to know them. It is also to be observed and to be regretted that the greatest sacrifices in Greek literature have been made in times when there were abundant means to preserve them.
After lecture I went to the reading room and saw nothing but electioneering manoeuvres which now fill the papers. I soon returned to my room and spent my morning writing notes. Attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation and lecture which was a continuation of his observations upon comets. In the afternoon, I was again extremely negligent in my lesson. Mr. Hedge came upon our side in the review and put me in a fright for a little while. I escaped however. We had no drill after Prayers as usual, the Juniors being in somewhat of a complaining humour and the weather being bad.
In the Evening I wrote my Journal and attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture which was quite a pleasant one to me as I was enabled to judge of the works he talked of. The next branch which he should take up he said was that of Epistolary composition. The person who most distinguished herself here was Madame de Sevigne who was born in 1626, and being an Orphan, was educated by her Uncle. In her youth she was not handsome but striking, and although receiving the usual instruction of that period, it was very deficient, and probably contributed to her success by throwing her upon her own exertions. She was married at 18, and a widow at 25, and spent the remainder of her life in attention upon her son and daughter, more particularly the latter, whom she perfectly doted upon, and whom she watched with so much attention in a sickness as to injure her own health, in consequence of which she died in 1696 being 70 years old. To prove how great her purity was, no scandal which was so common with the characters of that age, has ever attached to that name. She was neither a “prude” in early years nor a “devote” in her age. Her letters to her daughter are the only productions we have of her and are models. The loss of them would not only have made a chasm in the literature of France but in that of the world. Her grace and imagination, the confidence of her sympathy, the pictures of the society of that age render her letters brilliant, faithful and interesting. She gives an admirable view of the illustrious days of Louis 14th. There is a vivacity of manner and happiness of detail which can be found nowhere else. But her last and prevailing merit is her affection for her daughter which gives her letters the appearance of a whole—an inspiration which imparted it’s power to whatever it touched.
{ 404 }
After her there were a diversity of authors. Madame de Maintenon wrote and she is perhaps the best of the series. Correspondence degenerated a little too much into scandal, and although all the works in this way are amusing, they are merely a reflection, although a correct reflection of the manners of the court, and therefore they finally become tiresome. Among these may be counted Madame Deffand, Madame Espinasse,2 Voltaire, and many others. The next branch which he takes up is that of History which the French have never been successful in, at least in formal history; they are generally long and dull. Mezeray, Father Daneil, St. Real and Vertot3 have all written but not remarkably well. In a branch of history however, Memoirs, they have been exceedingly successful and they have written much. He mentioned Sully in his first lecture which I did not hear; he tonight treated of Cardinal de Retz. He wrote Memoirs in four volumes. Few books of a more amazing character have existed, they display at length the intrigues of the French and are most remarkable for their exhibition of personal vanity. This man was born for intrigue but his indolence deterred him from gaining any thing by it. His life is a continued example of the deepest intrigue without any result of importance. The mountain was perpetually bringing forth a mouse. His book is entertaining as a perfectly measured display of himself and his times. He here shifts away with a mere mention of the rest of this branch as a very large collection.
He next came to Rochefoucauld who was born in 1613 and whose education was neglected, which made him think probably, and the author of a book whimsical, original and false. In his Maxims he thought selfishness the only motive of action. He was a man who did not believe in the existence of virtues and with these opinions it is not surprising that he should die little regretted except by his immediate circle of friends. Of La Bruyere I shall speak tomorrow. I returned home, wrote a theme, sat a little while with Richardson and then went to bed. XI.
1. See Everett’s Synopsis, p. 72–74.
2. Marie de Vichy-Chamroud, Marquise du Deffand (1697–1780), and Julie-Jeanne-Éléanore de Lespinasse (1732–1776).
3. François Endes de Mézeray (1610–1683), Gabriel Daniel (1649–1728), César Saint-Réal (1639–1692), and René Aubert Vertot (1655–1735).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-21

Thursday. October 21st. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography this morning and after breakfast went to Lecture. He began today with a period of far greater certainty as to the persons and productions of the ancient { 405 } Greek authors. Probably arising from the introduction of writing. His lectures assume more interest also. Few remains exist of the class of lyrical poets who carried their art to such perfection and effected the change from the epic to the classical age of Greece. Archilochus is the first of those poets. He was a native of Paros and supposed to be the author of the Iambic verse. Little is known with respect to the events of his life. He speaks of himself as having thrown away his shield in battle, when he was serving the Thasians [Thracians], for which afterwards it is said he was expelled from Lacedaemon. Others say that it was for his verses which he first produced upon the violation of a treaty of marriage with Neobyle [Neobulé] by her father Lycambes. Archilochus as the fable tells, forced all the family to suicide. Horace who imitated his verses as well as his cowardice, speaks of him in allusion to this. He obtained such a reputation by these verses, that he extended his satire and did not even spare his mother. He lost all his friends in consequence and became poor. He wandered about and finally died but in what manner is uncertain, although many anecdotes are told of it. His poetry was held in high repute, many authors quoted in the pamphlet give him great praise. His name became a proverb as every thing that was severe. Annio in the middle of the 15th century forged works of Archilochus the historian which never existed.
The next poet we come to is Tyrtaeus. There is much diversity of opinion as to the time when he lived, probably about the 24th Olympiad. The principal events in his history are well known, at least as they have been handed down to us. Nothing can be certainly said as to the motive Tyrtaeus had in going to Sparta. Did we know more of the private history of the time, the reasons which influenced the [work?] in it’s singular decision, we might probably find this account perfectly agreable to natural and historical probability. It is by no means inconsistent with nature that he was at Sparta in the time of the Messenian War and that he excited the citizens powerfully by his odes. Martial music and warlike songs were of great importance in ancient times and it is the common opinion that the warlike elegies of Tyrtaeus were chanted as the songs of onset, immediately previous to joining battle. There is an interesting dissertation upon the subject in a late edition by Klotzius.1 He was said to have been the inventor of the trumpet by the use of which the Lacedemonians conquered the Messenians. The trumpet is certainly not mentioned in Homer. There are extant four of his elegies. It is singular by how small and capricious a chance the poems of many of the ancients have been continued down { 406 } to us. These have been obtained only by the fortunate circumstance of being quoted by other authors. Lycurgus preserved one in this way and Stobaeus the other three. Some small fragments also remain. The best edition has been referred to. This was a Lecture rather more entertaining than usual and he will now quickly proceed to a more fruitful subject. I shall be able to collect in this volume all that is contained in his pamphlet. His other lectures I shall be obliged to write out in another form.2 My Journal could not contain all without abridgment.
I returned home and wrote a correct copy of a Theme on the subject of the Novels of this country. It was an ample field for discussion and I only had to regret that I was so limited in time and space for I believe I could have written very well upon the subject. As it was I threw together a few ideas upon the subject and carried it up to Mr. Channing. I then had the morning before me but I received a letter from Tudor3 by the mail which made me unfit to do any thing, and strange to say, I went to the book store and reading room where I wasted the morning. I seldom go to the reading room but my want of something to do attracted me there today and I went over all the politics of the day. A tiresome affair as ever was but there is a singular sort of interest created in reading it. Not much satisfaction after it is over however. I have to accuse myself of having neglected my duty however entirely, this morning, and without excuse. As Mr. Hedge had been so cruel as to come upon our side of the class yesterday, I knew that I should be called upon, and as neither my own personal feelings nor the importance of the lesson called upon me to study it, I determined to absent myself, for the first time since the commencement of the study. I wrote my Journal, which employed me the larger part of the time until Prayers. I was however free for the Evening. All the time before Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture I employed in reading Akenside’s Pleasures of Imagination. The second part I was very much delighted with. The only fault I have to find is that he continues some periods too far. The second cannot embrace the whole.
I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture as usual, but in the mean time, I shall fill up the deficiency in last nights lecture. La Bruyere was born in 1639, and in early life patronized by Bossuet and was made reader to the Duke of Bourbon, which he continued to be all the rest of his life. He died in 1696. He translated the characters of Theophrastus and attached some of his own to them, and interspersed the whole with maxims, moral sentences and observations upon { 407 } nature. He drew from this entirely and displays close thinking. So that if this work is not the first in its kind, it is so nearly perfect, it need fear no rivalship. He thus went through all the departments of French literature and now he goes on to speak of Voltaire, who took up the whole of this Evening’s lecture. Monsieur Voltaire was born on the 20th of February 1694. He was educated by the Jesuits and in his youth changed his name, as was the custom in France. Early in life he fell into the society of profligates, who frequented the house of the famous Ninon de Lenclos, and it is here probably that he first imbibed the prejudices against religion for which he was afterwards so remarkable. He was writing his first tragedy at the age of 18 and was introduced to this society as a remarkably promising young man. Voltaire was shortly after, on the death of Louis 14th, accused of writing a satire upon him which appeared in the papers, and he was put into the Bastile where he remained thirteen months and finished a tragedy and commenced his Henriade in the mean time. At the age of 24 he offered Oedipe and continued offering new pieces for 60 years.
Being exiled from Paris, on what account we know not, but ostensibly for an unsuccessful tragedy, he travelled all over the country, went to see J. B. Rousseau with whom he quarreled, although he was in the wrong. Nothing ensued but a witty remark which has attached itself to one of Rousseau’s Odes. He then retired to England (1726) where he formed an acquaintance with Pope and read many of the standard works of English letters. He was also at work upon the Henriade. His Brutus made its appearance in 1730 when he had returned to Paris and was again exiled; in 1732 Zarie [Zaïrie] appeared. Weary, he retired to Champagne with the Marchioness de Chatelay [du Châtelet] and continued writing; Merope appeared in 1743. As he was an intimate of the king of Prussia who was now becoming powerful, he became of use to the administration who sent him to Berlin on a private mission for to negociate.4 From this time during the life of Madame de Pompadour, he enjoyed more favour from the court and in 1746 succeeded in becoming a member of the French Academy. He again retired to Champagne and again returned to Paris before 1750 when he accepted the invitation of the king of Prussia who offered him a residence and a pension. Here we commence perceiving his avaricious disposition who5 demanded 1000 francs for his own travelling expenses and as many for his niece. These latter were refused and had not his vanity induced him more powerfully, he would not have gone. He was well received and remained for { 408 } some time, but gradually differences arose and misunderstandings which were increased by Maupertuis and others about the court until he determined to depart. A ridiculous farce ensued; he was arrested at Frankfurt and sent an humble letter to the king which is his disgrace. He was released, and happening to travel through Switzerland, he became pleased with the country, and after trying many places where he was detested on account of his infamous Pucelle d’Orleans, he finally settles at Ferney, a little distance from Geneva, after about sixty years of perpetual agitation. Vanity appears to have been his ruling passion. He lived at Ferney twenty years, if he could be said to live there, when his heart, mind and thoughts were all fixed in Paris.
At last he appears at Paris in 1778 at 84 years of age and repeats a play to the Players. This exhausted him so that in his sickness a clergyman was called in and he signed a subscription of faith which he did his best to ridicule after his recovery. On the 30th of March he went in form to the Academy, who dispensing with all their rules went out to meet him. The streets were lined with spectators who cheered him as he went. He attended the Theatre where he was received with the most rapturous and continual acclamation, his [ . . . ] was [ . . . ] and the evening could hardly proceed for the shouts of the multitude. A day of uncommon glory. Soon after, in order to study twelve hours without cessation, he took large quantities of Coffee, which made him feel unwell. He, having heard laudanum was good, obtained some, which with his usual impatience, he took in large quantity and died in consequence, an example of restlessness without a parallell in history. I have got thus far only in his life.
After lecture, I felt like amusement and the Lyceum met in my room over some Whiskey punch, and I had some serious conversation with Richardson. XII:15.
1. C. A. Klozius, whose edition had appeared in 1767 (Everett, Synopsis, p. 82).
2. CFA continued to write out his summaries of Professor Everett’s lectures, but he kept them in another notebook after 3 November. See Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314.
3. Missing.
4. Thus in MS.
5. Thus in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-22

Friday. October 22d. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. After breakfast went to Mr. Everett’s Lecture which he commenced with an account of Alcman, whose name is not often repeated but who is remarkable as being almost the only poet of whom the Spartans can boast. He { 409 } was by birth a Lydian and flourished in the seventh century before Christ. He is distinguished as being a specimen of the Peloponesian Doric dialect. The fragments remaining from him are very inconsiderable, about 130 lines, no single piece containing more than four lines. He is reported to have been the inventor of amatory songs, and some say the father of lyric poetry, but this cannot be attributed to one alone. A notice of an epitaph said to be his is on the third article of the 33d page. Alcaeus is the next poet. He is supposed to have lived at the end of the seventh century before Christ, he was a native of Mytilene and an ornament of the Aeolic school of lyric poetry. He, like Horace and Archilochus, was guilty of throwing away his shield and flight in a battle with the Athenians about the plain of Troy. He is celebrated as a poet and an enemy of tyrants. He violently opposed Pittacus of Mytilene who had obtained the Government but did not succeed in overturning his power. His poems against tyranny were those for which he was most distinguished. He afterwards travelled and wrote an account of his voyages in verse. He is reputed to be the author of the verse which received his name. Very inconsiderable fragments of him remain. Some have attributed to him the song of Harmodius and Aristogeiton [Aristogiton] but we find this impossible when we recollect that he preceded the age of which he speaks, and we must infer also that this song was not the work of one hand only.
We next come to notice Sappho, of whom Addison says that she is the most beautiful of the mutilated poets of antiquity. She was a native of Mytilene and a contemporary of Alcaeus. This island has the credit of giving two admirable poets and the circumstance gives us reason to suppose the Aeolic strain to have ever been that of musical passion. Little is known of her life. The common story is that she went in pursuit of Phaon and ended her life by taking the lover’s leap. Sappho has always ranked very high as a poetess. Besides the mention in the pamphlet, she has the favourable notice of all antiquity. Aelian tells us she was characterized by Plato the wise but Bayle argues that this applies to her ode and not to her mind or moral character. Demetrius Phalereus called her divine and Strabo most inimitable. There is no proof among the ancients of her having that profligate character for which she has since been characterized. It is probable they had their origin in the license of the comic poets of later ages. The latter grammarians, the roman writers and particularly Ovid have taken their impressions from this source. Welcher,1 in a work on the subject, says that the moderns have falsified Ovid { 410 } even, and that without it he could not have said what is there. Aristotle, in a passage in which if there was any objection to be made certainly would and must have made this, charges her only with being a woman. Of her poems only two have come down but these are in proportion to their size the most famous fragments of all antiquity. Addison has devoted two pages of the Spectator to them and translations are added by Phillips [Philips]. That in the 223d he thought was very cold and paraphrastic although praised by Addison whereas the other was pretty good. Contemporary with Sappho was Erinna a native of Teos, or of Lesbos. The only considerable fragment remaining of her is an ode addressed to Fortitude. Some of the critics have thought it meant Rome as the address supposes, but there is nothing further to support the proposition. It is singular however that she is so vague, that there is nothing to make it apply without hesitation either to Fortitude or Rome.
After Lecture, I returned home and commenced writing my Journal with which I progressed quite rapidly until I was interrupted by a visit from Brenan who sat with me all the rest of the morning. He is a pleasant man and although with half distorted views of human nature, I am exceedingly inclined to believe in them. We talked much of College and of character which is generally the sum of our conversation. I am out of spirits this term, but what in God’s name is the cause, I cannot possibly tell. I think the College company has done more to it than any thing and I am sorry, very sincerely sorry, that I accepted it. I was scarce fit for the place, I have always been partially unpopular in College and I have experienced more dissatisfaction than pleasure myself. I shall be heartily glad when the end of next week comes as it will free me from a great deal of drudgery. At twelve o’clock I went down to Porter’s Hall on company business but I found the hall was shut up and no prospect of any [ . . . ] so I returned home and went to dinner.
After dinner we had a drill and a very good one; the company will be able to do exceedingly well upon Exhibition. I lost the section in which I took so much pride however and felt exceedingly indifferent about their success. We remained exercising until the bell rung for Declamation which dispersed us. We were amused by an effort from Mr. Furbish2 which was exceeding great, otherwise the affair much as usual. After declamation I came home and employed myself the rest of the afternoon very industriously in continuation of my Journal which I could not finish this morning. I managed to obtain a little while for myself, this was broken in upon however by Lothrop who { 411 } came to visit me this afternoon. The term is just commencing as to society, and excepting Prescott, these are the first visitors I have had.
After Prayers we had a regular drill, which was an exceeding good one. I could not avoid falling into a difficulty at the same moment, and one of the privates has left the company in consequence. I am an unfortunate man but decision of character carries it’s disadvantages with it. After drill I went directly to the meeting of the Knights where I did not remain long however, as I wished to attend Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture.
I shall continue from the place I left off. A criticism of the works of Voltaire. Oedipe was a bold attempt after Corneille had written upon the same subject before him, and has one great fault, the introduction of a love intrigue in the midst of such an accumulation of misery. It nevertheless was attended with astonishing success. It was represented forty five nights running. He wrote Zarie in twenty two days and it was Mr. Ticknor’s opinion that there was more tenderness in it than in any thing on the French stage. Adelaide had a strange fate. At it’s first representation it was hissed off the stage without hesitation. In 1752 it was brought up again in an altered form and met with moderate success. In 1765 however the actors determined to take it up in it’s original form and it was received with the most unbounded admiration and was represented forty times successively. It was surprising with what coolness he bore these various decisions and he wrote a letter at the time in which he expressed himself perfectly satisfied with either judgment. If it is not his best play, it is at least his most interesting one. In 1736 he produced Alzere, in some respects his best piece, more elevation and more dignity belongs to it. It is free, bold and natural but it cannot be considered any thing more than a fine poetical picture. It has not much probability and but little nature. It is not what it assumes to be, a scene in South America. Mahomet was written at the same time but withdrawn until 1756. He in this play endeavours to represent the character as detestable and his object was indirectly to attack religion in every line. Merope came out in 1743. This play is founded on maternal affection and is nearly perfect in it’s kind; it met with very great success. The surprising thing is that there is no labour apparent in all these works. Tancrede appeared in 1760. It has some weaknesses and faults. The first and third acts are particularly faulty, it afterwards rises however and becomes great. These are the best of twenty seven tragedies which he composed, the rest he did not mention. Voltaire’s intention (and he succeeded) was to give greater splendour and power to the French { 412 } stage, for it must be confessed that we sometimes become tired with the unvarying grandeur of Racine and Corneille. It is too stiff. Between 1725 and 1770 he gave ten comedies and about half a dozen operas, which failed entirely, and it is only surprising to think how a man like him could so little estimate his own powers.
The Henriade was begun at eighteen and continued during his residence at the Bastile, a surreptitious edition was published in 1723 and three years after a correct and authorized copy was printed at London. This poem claims to be an epic and is the only one on which the French ever rest a claim in that branch of poetry. It is not strictly speaking an epic, according to the ancient models we have, it is merely a narrative poem with a plan partly epic and contains many interesting narratives and agreable episodes. There is no unity however in the plot and may be considered rather a historical than an epic poem. If we can be satisfied with rich and glowing descriptions, correct delineations of character and interesting episodes, we shall here receive perfect entertainment. He finished his last Lecture here and went on tonight saying that he would willingly, if he could, avoid speaking of the infamous work called “La Pucelle d’Orleans” which he was writing between 1730–62. But it had been so well received that he was not able to pass it entirely over. It is a blasphemous ridicule upon one of the finest passages in French history and is sufficient to disgrace any man without the crime should be aggravated by being the work of a Frenchman. It has nothing known by which to recommend itself, it displays no invention and is equally an outrage upon religion and national feeling. It is equally an offense against decency and good taste for it has not even the critical merit which some equally indecent books have to recommend them. Mr. Ticknor skips over a large portion of the numerous works of Voltaire, his didactic poems are poor, his epistles are epigrammatic and lively, there is considerable variety in his narrative poems and his satire is bitter without humour.
With this notice he passes directly to history. In 1740 he published The “Essai sur les Moeurs” in four volumes. This work was intended to take a general view of the influences of character upon the different nations of the world drawn from the results in history. The faults in this book however are sufficient to condemn it. It contains an unfair and dishonorable representation of what has passed, it draws inferences and makes deductions from partial statements and is made the engine of mischief to religion and morality. It displays moreover a remarkable want of knowledge which it would have been better { 413 } for him to hide. The History of the Life of Louis the 14th is of a different character. It is an interesting and splendid account of one of the most brilliant periods in French History. It has great faults however. The subject is above his strength, he does not know how to manage a grave work like this, he makes one suppose that all that passed before this age was darkness and that every other country but that of France was in a barbarous state. Whoever does not look for much philosophy in the work, will find it interesting and amusing. The history of Louis the 15th is not equal to it. That of Charles 12th is to history what Romance is to drama, it is an interesting account of a romantic character. That of Peter of Russia is at the same time the dullest and the least correct of all his works in this style. His twenty five romances are the production of his old age, they [are] of very different lengths but all have the same end, the mocking of religion. It is disgraceful in the extreme to an old man to see him the author of works like these; in youth possibly it is pardonable. If we look over the events of his life and examine his conduct, we should conclude him to be the greatest of villains, without faith, morality or law. And the greatest of calumniators. But this is not the case. He was not the most designedly vicious man, but there is nothing like integrity in his character. He had not the least constancy of character, he was a man of whims and prejudices without a spark of principle to govern them. His life was a strange drama.
He now passed on to Jean Jacques Rousseau. He was born in 1712 and is always mentioned in such [close] connection with Voltaire, that this is the fittest place to introduce the notice of him. He was the son of a watchmaker. Before the age of fifteen he was sent as an apprentice to an attorney from whom he ran away. He was found by a Catholic and supported with the only condition of changing his faith. He was afterwards in the family of Madame de Warrens [Warens] with whom he lived for some time with much appearance of happiness. Leaving her he next went to Venice where he remained a little while and in 1750, about 30 years of age, he took the prize at Dijon on a question concerning the inequality of men. This was his first explosion. The book was not written with many sound arguments but it had a novel and prepossessing style and was much read. It was a book, new, striking and entirely false. It was here that he first displayed that enthusiastic love of nature and hatred of art for which he was ever after so distinguished. In 1752 he wrote a comedy and an opera with not much credit. In 1758 he wrote letters on a Theatre by which he fell into a quarrel with d’Alembert and Voltaire { 414 } which was the cause of much irritation to him. In 1760 the Nouvelle Heloise appeared, a work in a style altogether new and extremely attractive, received and much read, the more because it was thought that he was drawing his descriptions entirely from himself. They considered it as the product of the action of the mind upon itself. In short, men thought they were reading his history. In 1762 The “Contrat Social” came out and gained him much celebrity. It is a work brought out by the state of political parties at the time, and if fitted for any state, will apply only to a small republic. In it the people are to have the power of expressing their voices directly and the executive power is to be the mere passive instrument of executing their will. But it is better at once to consider it as a treatise not practicable, but the work of a simple man consulting only his natural feelings. It’s effect was only to unsettle the old opinions of those who trusted it without fixing any definite ideas in their places. It was one of the causes of the French revolution, born after it was prohibited, and here commence the troubles of which he complained so bitterly ever after.
He soon after published Emile which was the boldest attack upon the existing institutions which had been made and this was followed by a Letter from the Mountains in consequence of which his house was mobbed and in 1765 he was obliged to fly for his life. He at this time formed an acquaintance with David Hume who invited him to England, as the Government would not suffer him to remain in Paris, as he was at that time exposing himself to them in the dress of an Armenian. He accordingly went over to England with Mr. Hume with whom he quarrelled soon after, and as he found that he did not attract the attention he wished, although he had been well received, and that melancholy as he was, there were many others so in this country, he returned again to France in 1767, and spent the time in the succeeding year in making a Dictionary of Music and studying Botany. He marries a woman with whom he had long been living and at this time was regular in frequenting a famous Coffee House in the Palais Royal. Crowds of people were in the habit of collecting here to see Jean Jacques as he was familiarly called without knowing why. This however displeased the government and he was obliged to retire into the country near Ermenonville in 1778 and here spent the remainder of his life embittered by his own suspicions and still more by the infidelity of his wife. It is fairly to be concluded from the circumstances of his death, that he poisoned himself. This happened on the 2d of July 1778.
As to the character of his principal works, The Nouvelle Heloise { 415 } is no delineation of real life. It is improbable in the plan, and of bad tendency; there is a colouring charm over the guilt of Julie which is perfectly seductive. We must think of this work in connection with the views it speaks of, and it is only in the spots he describes that we can take the full delight of his magnificent description. Emile is a treatise on Education and is also entirely impossible. A man is to be a savage in the midst of society, and without religion in the midst of Churches. While we read we are confident that we are treading on hollow ground. From the views of his character which we have hitherto had, we might be led to believe that were reading3 of an anchorite and a philosopher and this would have been the impression had not his Confessions appeared after his death in which he displays himself entirely and without disguise. Works by other hands have also appeared by which we have a thorough insight into his character and find [it] selfish, jealous and irritable, suspicious of his friends and thoroughly sensual. Nobody could remain attached to him for he would reject them all. On a review of his works we should pronounce them as most powerful, most false and most interesting.
After Lecture, I again went to the meeting of the Knights and we began to consider what should be done for the Society. Two or three of the members appeared very considerably frightened and were inclined to leave the club if we persisted in having our former meetings. We passed a vote to that effect for the present, the laws are lost and consequently, I told the society that it was entirely out of the question for me to proceed without some farther authority. The same committee was accordingly appointed to form a new body of laws. Nothing more was done of any importance, the meeting was a dull one as many of our class were out of spirits and more of the inferior classes. One man, McLean, was proposed but rejected. I thought it was no time to admit members now when the club was in such a state. I had a dislike to the man’s manners and I disliked Shaler,4 the man who proposed him. This was the reason for my vote although I was not the only one who put in a black ball. After this was done, we adjourned “sine die.” I then walked over to Brenan’s room, and falling into conversation, sat with him rather longer than I had intended. He has singularly perverted his good feelings and will in time become a confirmed cynic and unpleasant fellow. He is a good friend of mine as much as any man is. I went from his room to Dwight’s where I spent considerably over an hour in conversation with them. They are neither of them in good spirits this term or at { 416 } least I never before liked them so little. It is my disgust I believe. If they were not so often here, I think I should like them better. It is not well for men who wish to be friends to see too much of each other, and as Chapman and Dwight both are not men possessed of that delicacy and tact which indeed is in the possession of but few men, I could wish not to be so exceedingly intimate. As a visitor at their room however, I can make out very well relying principally upon my conversational powers. I have no doubt however that I bored them to use the familiar term at College. I ascribe my melancholy feelings principally to this source. My social feelings are blasted in the very season when I have the time and inclination to indulge them. My College life is my time of freedom and I wish to seize the time for my future course will possibly be melancholy enough. I did not arrive at home until late and immediately retired. XI:40.
1. Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker (1784–1868), professor, successively, at Giessen, Göttingen, and Bonn (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 3:216).
2. James Furbish, a senior from Wells, Maine (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).
3. Thus in MS, but the sentence is garbled; some words have been scored out, and probably others have been omitted. A possible reconstruction is: “we are reading the works of an anchorite,” &c.
4. Nathaniel Burger Shaler, a sophomore from Lancaster, Mass. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-23

Saturday. October 23d. VIII.

Missed Prayers again this morning. After Breakfast attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture. He began this morning with Solon—whose name constitutes an era in the literary as well as in the civil history of Greece. In his own country he was for a great length of time looked up to with esteem and affection, for his disinterestedness in refusing the sovereignty when it was in his power. His fame as a statesman has excelled that as a poet although it is only in this latter capacity that we consider him here. Solon flourished in the beginning of the sixth century. A short account is given of him in the synopsis which it will not be worthwhile to extract. At this period, when man was just rising from a barbarous state, the division into different nations took place, and although the word philosophy was not known yet, men were employed in forming laws and different systems of government. Those who excelled were called wise men as may be proved in the history of the famous seven wise men of Greece. They were all rulers or counsellors. The first incident in Solon’s life was one which obtained great popularity. A law had made it death to any individual to advise a war against Salamis in consequence of their numerous losses in former wars. He however, feigning himself mad, { 417 } rushed into the market and advised the measure. The war was undertaken and the result was successful. He afterwards travelled and upon his return he found Pisistratus endeavouring to overturn his government. He remonstrated but without effect. He may be considered however as having been some check for he retained the essential parts of Solon’s laws and resorted to his counsel. Solon had learned early a tradition concerning the Atlantic Islands and devoted his old age to the composition of a poem on that subject. Plato began a dialogue on the same subject, but both works were left incomplete. This last work embraced such a variety of incidents as no fiction ever contained before. This subject is interesting to us, as it is the only ground which we have for a supposition that the ancients had any knowledge of our country. Solon’s passion for learning remained to the last. It is pleasant to see him in his old age resigning all the vices of the world and devoting himself entirely to literary pursuits. It is probable that he lived to the age of eighty at Athens and died in tranquility. Mimnermus was contemporary with Solon: a native of Colophon in Ionia. There is exceedingly little to be said upon him more than is contained in the account of him on the ninety first and second pages of the pamphlet. Anacharsis was a contemporary of Solon and native of Scythia, he travelled into Greece and became intimate with Solon. He is occasionally numbered among the wise men. He is said to have invented many mechanical instruments but it is probable that he only introduced the use of them among his countrymen. They, being jealous of him it is said, destroyed him. He is said to have written works but none of them remain. Nine epistles are extant attributed to him but there is no proof of their authenticity. He has been brought more into notice since the publication of the Younger Anacharsis’ adventures by Barthelemy. This is a fictitious character, made the base of a sort of plot. It contains much careful and interesting information. The part of it which was intended to enliven the work is very burdensome and insipid to the scholar, and the plan is faulty as he could only relate the history of events down to the time of his characters and he can give no account of what has happened since. The Athenian Letters, a work published in England, written by Sir Philip York, is much it’s superior in interest and vivacity though less valuable as a work of learning on Greece.1
After Lecture I went to the reading room where I found nothing but politics and made a resolution not to read another paper there until the election is over. On my return home I was delighted with the receipt of two letters from home, one from my Mother and the { 418 } other from John.2 The former writes in moderately good spirits, and speaks with much heartfelt feeling upon the subject of the approaching contest. There is a sublime religious tone in part of her letter which has affected me much. John is lively and more affectionate than usual, he speaks much from the heart and as I wish him to. On the whole, I was relieved much from my dull feelings during the day. I occupied myself upon my Journal and read the remaining book of Akenside’s pleasures of the Imagination which contains more poetry I think than either of the others. In the Evening I wrote an answer to John3 and reviewed my day as well spent. I then went with Richardson and Sheafe to Mr. Willard’s to take some supper. We made out to satisfy ourselves upon some small chickens and some porter. I miscalculated the time by two hours and therefore we sat here until late. I was obliged to go to Richardson’s room as my fire was gone and I remained here for a little while in conversation with him. I then came down and retired immediately. XII:30.
1. The work alluded to is Athenian Letters; or, the Epistolary Correspondence of an Agent of the King of Persia, Residing at Athens during the Peloponnesian War, first printed for private circulation, 4 vols., London, 1741, but afterwards published in numerous editions and translations. The work was actually the product of a number of hands, Sir Philip Yorke (1720–1790), afterwards 2d Earl of Hardwick, and his brother Charles being simply the most prominent contributors. See DNB under Sir Philip Yorke.
2. The letter from JA2 is missing.
3. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-24

Sunday. October 24th. VIII.

Missed Prayers as usual and went to breakfast after having enjoyed a delightful night’s rest. I employed my morning in reading Don Juan, a copy of which entire, I bought yesterday. It is a work which contains an amazing deal of poetry and still it is vicious in the extreme. I cannot help admiring some of its magnificent descriptions although I should be condemned by the moral world. I attended Chapel and heard Mr. Walker1 preach a short sermon. I was pleased on many accounts. In the first place he was a little variety to our monotonous course, in the second place he was short and lastly he was pretty good. His text was, “Where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.” It must have been striking or I should not have recollected it. He abounds in corresponding sentences and striking remarks. He first spoke of what liberty was; he said it could not exist without restriction. He then argued that restriction was not inconsistent with liberty and then applied his ground to the text arguing that when we had become accustomed to the restrictions of religion, we were then free. An argument which was easy to answer. At least I thought so. In the { 419 } afternoon I was employed all the time in writing my Journal. I finished the longest Lecture I have yet taken off and was rejoiced. I attended Chapel again in the afternoon and was as usual very much edified by a Sermon from the good old President Kirkland. He is an intolerable bore.
In the Evening I wrote a letter to my mother2 and my low spirits returned again. I cannot tell what it is which weighs me down so completely. I have not felt such desolation for a long, long time. I will trust in God for he is my only support. The rest is but weakness. I relieved myself however very considerably by writing in this way, as she certainly has a right to know all my feelings. She however is so tender and fragile herself that I feel almost as if I was obliged to support her instead of her relieving me. After this was over, I went to Richardson where I conversed with him for the remainder of the Evening. I have to convict myself of drinking so unphilosophical a liquor as Gin to night, but so it was, I took quite a large dose. We conversed for some time upon different subjects, few of any purpose, but there is something pleasant in him, which makes me feel agreably, particularly in my want of society. Retired early. XI.
1. Presumably James Walker, a Congregational minister in Charlestown, Mass. (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 85).
2. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-25

Monday. October 25th.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning as usual. After breakfast we went to Lecture. Mr. Everett commenced with Aesop, who existed in the age of Solon, by some made a native of Phrygia, by others of Thrace. He was sold as a slave first at Athens and then at Samos. Having been liberated, he went travelling through Greece and Asia Minor and met Solon at the court of Croesus. Plutarch has preserved an account of their conversation with the king in which he makes Aesop a courtier and Solon a stern reprover. We should hardly suppose this when we consider the lives of the two. The one, a slave, would be supposed to possess that roughness of character when free which is attributed to Solon, and this latter would be from his education in courts, a man at least of courtesy. It is remarkable however that the fables which remain to us under his name, but the authenticity of which we doubted, have a morality entirely worldly. They recommend prudence and are most remarkable for their primitive simplicity and application to the various situations of life. Being sent to Delphi (the correct [ . . . ]1) by Croesus, he fell into a contro• { 420 } versy with the citizens who killed him. Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, wrote a life of him and compiled the fables. The account he gives is highly absurd. Bentley has exposed him and he gave us a specimen of his style. Many however have been misled, particularly as to the deformity of Aesop which is by no means probable. I have very little to say in addition to the account given in the Pamphlet of the origin of our fables under that name. He follows the text strictly in parts and I heard but little to divert in the intervals. He praised a dissertation on the subject by Tyrwhit and that was all.
After Lecture I returned home and wrote my Journal which employed me until Mr. Farrar’s recitation. He translated Voltaire’s story of Micromégas almost literally and this was all today’s lecture. He gave us no lesson and forgot to look over his list. After dinner we had a drill, thank Heaven, the last for this year. I am doomed to fall into difficulties, it appears to me. The Freshmen were engaged at football and amused themselves with the boyish trick of teazing the company with it. Some of them selected me out as a butt and one of them sent it. I should have knocked him down forthwith, had he not made an apology and determined it should not happen again. The next time the ball came in my way, I pricked it with my sword. This was an exceedingly trifling affair but it affected me very much and I could not get my lesson this afternoon, my feelings were so disconcerted. I determined, as the destruction of the ball might be thought malice, to leave money with the agent’s freshman to pay for a new one without mentioning myself. I was not called upon today fortunately, and after recitation, I did the thing. I employed my Evening waiting until the time for Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture which I attended.
It was long and full in it’s account of Madame de Stael, as no accounts could otherwise be easily obtained of her. This lady was born in Paris in 1766. She was fortunate in the opportunities which she had of early developing her natural talents, and she was educated for the direct purpose of being a literary woman. At the age of eleven she composed some verses during the illness of her mother and the next year she composed some little (comedies)2 one of which, Sophie, was represented at Coppet, with very considerable effect. At twenty one her mind had arrived at it’s full power, and she wrote a play on the subject of Lady Jane Gray at Paris. Her mind however soon took another direction owing to the state the country was then in. In 1781 [1786] she married the Swedish Ambassador, Baron de Stael Holstein. She followed her father Mr. Necker in his exile and { 421 } in his recall the next year (1788). At this time, Madame de Staël was a considerable personage, as she was placed in the midst of every thing that was brilliant in France. In 1789 she published her letters upon Rousseau, whom she thought had not attracted the attention he merited. There is in it much warm and passionate eloquence and it displays some power of intuition. It was a book which excited no small degree of astonishment and admiration, and now although we can not always agree with her in opinions, we will surely give her our tribute of admiration. It certainly was a very extraordinary book. She was soon to be involved in scenes however which were to produce other thoughts and she attended him again upon his second exile after which she returned and was all powerful from the 23d of July 1789 to the 4th of September of the next year when her father finally gave way. She was deeply concerned in the intrigues of the court