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Browsing: Diary of Charles Francis Adams, Volume 1

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-02

Thursday. September 2d. VIII:15.

Arose and after breakfast as my Uncle wished to write this morning which deprives me of the power of doing so, I took my gun and ranged the woods, with but little success, as I only obtained one bird. { 309 } I found so little prospect that I did not go very far, and returned soon. The remainder of the morning I positively lazed away, doing nothing but looking over the titles of some old books in the library of Grandfather, alias that of Quincy.1 Some of them were exceedingly amusing and, as I was in a laughing mood, I attempted to turn them into ridicule with some little success, if I may judge from the way it entertained him. One book I observed with a singular publisher. It ran thus, “Printed for Thomas Cockwill at the sign of the three legs and Bible in the Poultry!” There [are] a remarkable number of old Books in this Library and many extremely rare and valuable. It is a matter of extreme regret to me that it has been so disposed of. It can not now be helped however.
In the afternoon, I wrote my Journal as usual and came within one day of making it up to it’s regular time. It has been a very great task. My days have not been as long as formerly but it is now principally because there is a deficiency of material to write about. We had rain and thunder and I do not know really what I managed to do, but I came to this determination, to take up some book to read as it was too abominable to spend valuable time with such perfect waste. I am angry and ashamed of myself for my course this last three months but I can hardly perceive how I could have done differently. My time was so taken up by my military service and by my Journal that I could have no time to do any thing else. Indeed when I have finished this book, I shall lay down to myself another system which I expect will be a little more advantageous.2 Experience is the best teacher and, as I find my time too much called upon by this, I shall endeavour as far as is in my power to save it. In this last year it will be of peculiar importance to study and attend to the parts of instruction which are laid down in the College course. They are some of them of exceeding importance to me. In the Evening, I did not sit with my grandfather as George read to him. I wrote to Tudor3 and had the usual talk after supper. XI.
1. To promote education in Quincy, JA not merely gave the town some land (see entry for 22 May, and note, above) but, in 1822, the approximately 3,000 volumes in his personal library. They were to “be deposited in an apartment of the building to be hereafter erected for a Greek and Latin School or Academy,” for the establishment of which part of the income from the lands was to be devoted (Deeds and Other Documents Relating to the Several Pieces of Land, and the Library Presented to the Town of Quincy, by President Adams, Together with a Catalogue of the Books, Cambridge, 1823, p. 12 and passim). As CFA opined, the books were ill-adapted to JA’s benevolent purpose; although an Adams Academy was founded after the Civil War and survived into the early years of this century, the books suffered loss and deterioration through years of neglect, and were in 1893 transferred to the Boston Public Library, where they remain as a special collection in the care of the Rare Book Department. See Cata• { 310 } logue of the John Adams Library in the Public Library of the City of Boston, Boston, 1917.
2. For the plan of CFA’s next extant diary (D/CFA/5), see entry for 26 Nov. 1826, below. The continuation of his present “book” (D/CFA/4) beyond 31 Oct. 1824 has been lost, and only an “Index” of some portions remains to be printed, beginning at 1 Nov., below. See the description of CFA’s MS diaries in the Introduction.
3. Letter missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-03

Friday. September 3d. VIII.

Arose just in time to get into the stage for Boston. I had expected to have gone in a different way but I could not. We got to Boston and as I passed a circulating Library, I went in and got the second volume of Percy Mallory which I commenced reading as soon as I got to my brother’s room. I was rather impolite to him as I did not notice him in his own room. I staid here until twelve o’clock when I went to Cambridge in the Stage. Arrived, I immediately went to my room where they were making arrangements of some sort or other which very much disordered it. I merely staid long enough to obtain the things for which I came and then went to the Hotel where I took dinner, rather a meagre one considering that I had no breakfast but I managed to make it passable and returned to town. I continued Percy Mallory and finished it in the course of the afternoon. I cannot say that I think it well written or well managed, but I think it is extremely interesting. The plot is one of the most intricate, I ever saw, as it runs upon the exchange of three or four children and the consequent confusion. He tries at times to make too much of his scenes and lengthens them out beyond the possibility of endurance. His conversation is frequently flat, as he introduces much in his dialogue which may be very common in conversation but if it is, very certainly it will not bear repeating. It closes well as could be wished and I will not quarrel with the author although I am inclined to believe there is not much probability in the story. He insists that the most improbable part of it is true, in which case, I must be satisfied.
We returned to Quincy in the stage and arrived there safe. The family went this Evening to Mrs. Beale’s to a select party. As I have no taste for things of this sort, I did not attend, but staid at home and spent the Evening with Grandfather. He was in good spirits and talked with more life than usual. He made a Greek quotation which shows his memory not to be impaired. In fact with him, mind is the only thing which is not touched, but the senses by which that mind is conveyed all fail him. The party came home early and we had supper as usual, when we commenced the same course of conversation and did not finish till it was time to recollect retirement. XI:15.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-04

Saturday. September 4th. IX.

Arose and after breakfast, as it rained very violently, I kept myself in the house this morning, following my usual occupation of writing up my Journal which had got one day behind hand by my unavoidable absence of yesterday. My father has not made his appearance yet although he has been expected every day, and I begin to be in doubt whether he will come at all. I employed part of the morning in reading the Commencement of Junius’s letters, a book I have never read much to my shame. I commence it now because this struck me in some conversation which I had with George last night. We happened to be comparing the different styles of Johnson, Burke and Junius and I could speak only very superficially of the two latter. The fact is that I intended to delay reading it until I purchased a copy when I would read it with my own comments at Cambridge where I have accommodations for study which cannot be obtained here.1 At Quincy, I find much for study, much for reflection, much for ambition. Many men have been surprised that in a distinguished family much of the same spirit and feeling is transmitted from father to son, but nothing appears to me more natural. Every thing conduces to it, the conversation perpetually going on, the views laid open before one, the love of distinction which is so easily caught, every thing indeed which we can possibly imagine in the atmosphere, unite in forming it.
The rain stopped and I was obliged to recollect that I was engaged to dine at Mr. Quincy’s today so I went in, dressed myself and set off on my expedition, with George. We arrived there soon and I was ushered into the parlour. We found assembled, all the family, Mr. Ticknor our Professor and his wife, Mr. Samuel Eliot,2 Mr. de Wallenstein, the Russian secretary of Legation at Washington,3 Mr. Sparks of Baltimore4 and William Otis5 came in soon after. After some conversation on indifferent subjects we went into dinner. I happened to sit next to Miss Susan Quincy on one side and my eternal brother on the other. Chance always puts us together most improperly. The lady has always treated me with amazing “hauteur,” more it appeared to me, to play upon my former timidity than from any other reason. This in old time was much and has made me feel bitterly, a great instance of unpardonable weakness, but now, I have sufficient confidence to brave her distance without feeling it. I made it a point, as I was thus situated, to be particularly polite to her at the table, although God knows with how much ill will, and insincerity, for I should have been happy could I civilly have cut her, as we say at College. Pride, I am inclined to think, is the sense of my temper and { 312 } I am not disposed to suppress it. I hate the purse proud ostentation of the city of Boston. It is not the pride I like, it is not mine. That man is to me properly proud, who is sufficiently conscious of his own value to keep him clear from the common herd about. Not piquing himself upon his wealth but on his education, his acquirements, without being to appearance conscious that he is superior to his inferiors, or at least just enough so to keep his station. A really noble man will not wish to show off before others any thing like superiority. I am an aristocrat but not one of Boston. I wish to be as far as I can, the man I describe. I fail very much, I am conscious, but the wish will bear me up and will suppress my knowledge of the weakness of my will.
The dinner was an extremely pleasant one, Mr. Quincy did put off his airs and, although Mrs. Quincy and Susan did not, they could not stiffen the scene, and there was a great deal of mirth and wit in the scene. It is now five years I think since I have been in this house or certainly but once since, and the girls whom I used to see have become women. Of all of them Margaret is the only beautiful one and she has not yet been spoiled by the chill of Boston society though this season will do it. Sophia is the pleasantest. Abby is not here now, when I saw her last I was much pleased with her.6 I had some conversation with Edmund who is quite a sensible fellow but he has a little too much of the student for a man of my cast. We arose from table, went to see the gentleman’s library and then returned. A short interval succeed[ed] before taking our leave in which I conversed with Miss Sophia and then we went. Miss Storer7 was there whom I formerly knew, but so long since that really I did not dare claim the acquaintance. We returned home and found a Mr. and Mrs. Swett8 with others here. I was struck with the contrast in this sort of society and the one I had left but said nothing. After supper, conversation as usual. X:30.
1. CFA did subsequently buy a copy of The Letters of Junius, 3 vols., London, 1812; it is in the Stone Library, along with two other editions of the work.
2. George Ticknor (1791–1871), the first Smith professor of French and Spanish languages and literature at Harvard, and his wife, the former Anna Eliot, daughter of the wealthy merchant and Harvard benefactor, Samuel Eliot (DAB). For Ticknor’s pioneering role in bringing an educational renascence to Harvard, see Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 225–226, 232–233.
3. Julius de Wallenstein (Mass. Register, 1825, p. 228).
4. Jared Sparks, who had just resigned his ministry in Baltimore to become editor of the North American Review (DAB).
5. William Foster Otis, Harvard 1821, son of Harrison Gray Otis (Crawford, Mass. Families, 2:245–247, 249).
6. The four daughters of Mayor Josiah Quincy here mentioned were Eliza Susan, Margaret Morton, Maria Sophia, and Abigail Phillips Quincy. See Adams Genealogy.
{ 313 }
7. Presumably Mary Storer, the daughter of Charles Storer (1761–1829), who had been JA’s private secretary and a member of the Adams household sometime between 1781 and 1785 in Europe. The Storers were related to the Adamses; see Adams Genealogy.
8. Presumably Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Swett, of 12 Hancock Street; he graduated from Harvard in 1800 (Boston Directory, 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-05

Sunday. September 5th. IX.

Arose rather late this morning and therefore could do but little before it was time to attend Meeting. I went and heard Mr. Whitney deliver a Sermon on some subject or other, which I did not attend to. He is an exceeding feeble Sermonizer. I had occasion to be somewhat displeased with a new regulation they have which is to stand up while the singing is going on. This over, I returned home and continued writing my Journal which I continued also in the afternoon and finally succeeded in bringing it up to it’s precise and exact time. It has been something of a labour but it has exhibited my perseverance and I am satisfied. I employed myself the remainder of the day, in reading over the second volume of Percy Mallory, as I had done it very hurriedly before. Part of it requires attention, particularly the trial which consists in the cross examination of an ignorant witness. I read it over with more care and was much pleased with many observations which the author makes in course, as some of them are very striking. He talks as if he was in high life. Who it is, I have forgotten although I have been told.
In the Evening, much company in the house which I did not go in and see. My feelings are singular in this respect. I do not like to see the visitors we have here half the time and can scarcely give my reasons except that I do not feel confident when I see them; there is something so ineffably coarse about one part of the receiving family that I cannot see her move or speak without feeling degraded. It is this which makes me avoid company in which she is, as I do burn with shame when I see her vulgar, dashing manners. This is the truth and nothing but the truth. I am perfectly convinced with the author of Percy Mallory, that unequal marriages are unfortunate things. I spent half an hour upstairs, Mr. Quincy and Josiah there. As John Taylor of Caroline is dead Grandfather had that famous letter of his read to him which is really an honour to him and a great tribute and a deserved one to Grandfather.1 They went away and then we went in to Supper. George and I had some classical conversation and then retired but we were long awake and conversed very particularly concerning Mary. I think myself that it is a disadvantageous match, and { 314 } therefore if it could possibly be stopped, would be desirable. Although I went to bed at eleven it was after one before I slept.
1. JA and John Taylor of Caroline (1753–1824), the brilliant theorist of the Virginia agrarians, disagreed sharply over the principles and the policies of the American government; in fact, Taylor’s An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States (1814) was undertaken in order to refute JA’s A Defence of the Constitutions of the United States of America. Nevertheless the two men remained personal friends, and on 8 April 1824, in his final illness, Taylor wrote JA a farewell letter, praising the President as “a patriot, who I believe has served his country faithfully, and done what man can do, to please his God” (Adams Papers; printed in JA, Works, 10:411–412). See Henry H. Simms, Life of John Taylor, Richmond, 1932, p. 208–209.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-06

Monday. September. 6th. X.

Arose quite late this morning owing to a restless and disturbed night, and after a short breakfast I went into the Office and commenced writing my Journal. I read a little while this Morning and was much amused in doing so, in a book called New Canaan or a description of New England by Thomas Morton1 a man whose memory is well known in our family because he was the first inhabitant of the estate at Mount Wollaston. It is a singular book, but displays much learning and satirical wit and feelings which may have become part of the soil, at least they agree much with mine. Some time or other, I will study the book with all others upon American affairs. I had almost completed my Journal for the day when news was brought to me that my father had arrived, a long expected event had at last happened. I flew in and going in to one room found not my father but a person as dear and less expected, my mother. I then found him. I was exceedingly happy at finding them. She looks quite well, a little pale but otherwise much better than she was last winter. He looks well but very yellow or brown. My Grandfather appeared to be pleased at seeing them although I never saw him more deaf or weak in his voice in my life. He was generally strong though.
After dinner was over, I had considerable private conversation with my mother and had a great deal of the mystery elucidated which I have formerly mentioned. I received a history of the transactions at Washington and became very fully confirmed in my opinion as to our family concerns. George, who had gone into town in the Morning, came out with them. He is in a sort of tantrum of some sort, I do not know what. George knows nothing of the character of my father. He does not appreciate it and can not look upon him with any thing but fear. This is the true fault of his character, he is always afraid of men { 315 } of a certain decided cast of character, he cannot associate their images with pleasure, he has an indescribable and involuntary awe of them. This is the case with my Father, Johnson Hellen and John whom he never can act frankly to. This is the great, predominating fault in his disposition and I am almost afraid to trust the real truth to this paper, which however is only meant to meet my own eye. It is a painful thing to dip too closely into the foibles of one’s friends.
But of one thing I am satisfied, that Mary has been behaving unworthily to George and consequently that if he marries her, he connects himself with a woman who has no personal affection for him and there is the stumbling block. My Mother is half inclined to the Marriage and half opposed, my Father is tacitly opposed. I have done my duty, I have stated my opinion and I am now prepared to have nothing more to do with the matter. I am sorry for John who, I understand, is the victim of her arts, partially, as it is a conflict in his high feelings of honour which should have been spared him. But I am confident absence will cure him at almost any time. She gave me an amusing account of Johnson Hellen’s engagement2 and unfortunate state of his affairs. He puffed and stormed like a wild colt. The affairs of lovers when represented to third persons are ridiculous indeed. She also gave a very affecting account of the state of Mrs. Keating, so very lately Miss Hopkinson. A very fine woman who met in the first half year of her marriage a very uncommon provision, the death of her husband.3
After a very long “tete a tete” we joined the family and spent the rest of the afternoon talking with them. My Mother is the same woman she always was, as pleasing, and as lively. My father is, as usual, unpenetrating. He is the only man, I ever saw, whose feelings I could not penetrate almost always, but I can study his countenance for ever and very seldom can find any sure guide by which to move. This is exactly the manner which I wish to obtain, for were I confident of my features, I should soon be able to throw my expression into it, and in that way manage much better than I could otherwise. He makes enemies by perpetually wearing the Iron mask.
Tea over I sat part of the time downstairs and then with my Grandfather who is more overcome with a sense of his bodily infirmities now than I ever saw him before. He is a surprising man. We conversed there until nine o’clock when we came down to supper. Mr. De Grand, my father’s unfailing attendant, was here this Evening and as usual very privately closeted with him. We came to Supper and he, soon after it, went off. I spent a half hour in my mother’s room previous to her going to bed and then another with George downstairs after which we { 316 } retired and I having decided that it was useless to talk so much, made a successful effort to sleep. XI.
1. JQA’s copy of Thomas Morton, New English Canaan, Amsterdam, 1637, is in the Boston Athenaeum (Catalogue of JQA’s Books). In 1883 CFA2 brought out a scholarly edition of this celebrated work for the Prince Society.
2. The name of Johnson Hellen’s fiancée is unknown. He did not marry until 1829. See entry for 25 April 1829, below.
3. Mrs. Elizabeth Keating, of Philadelphia, a daughter of Judge Joseph Hopkinson (LCA to GWA, 10 Oct. 1824, Adams Papers; JQA, Diary, 1 Aug. 1829).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-07

Tuesday. September 7th. IX:20.

Arose very late again today and found all the family at their occupations and even my mother up. My father looked blue. I went up and sat an hour with my mother and then went into the Office, wrote my Journal, and wrote one page of a letter to John. I have had four pages quietly with me for two or three weeks and have come to the determination for this time to give him a packet. There is much on which I wish to write to him, much of importance, and I shall merely in a few more words urge the importance of an answer, an explicit answer to my questions.1 I was employed in this way all the morning. My father and mother, after having been detained for a considerable time by company, went to Boston. George had gone in the morning. I, after dinner, was compelled to read to my Grandfather, Mr. Everett’s Oration at the anniversary of the Φ B K society.2 I was not much entertained by the first part, but the ten last pages contain the life of eloquence. It is a good work as it is calculated to give a spirit to the country which it ought to have, and will have sooner or later, and it is calculated to revive feelings which can too easily become dormant. The exertion was very considerable to read it to my Grandfather. I was on the whole, however repaid for the trouble.
I then spent the rest of the afternoon reading a novel which my mother obtained somewhere on the road; it is called “the inheritance.”3 I read with such rapidity that I finished the first and commenced the second in the course of the afternoon and evening. It is somewhat interesting. I shall speak more particularly of it when I have got through. The volumes are exceeding large, and I will not deny but at times they are a little heavy though the “tout ensemble” has much sprightliness. It rained all the afternoon and evening and I scarcely expected the family would return. They arrived however at a little after nine o’clock and we took supper together. My Uncle had been gone all day on business or amusement and returned very so-so. We { 317 } managed to spend the Evening very agreably or at least moderately so. After, some conversation with George and my Father on the dinner at Mr. Blake’s4 at which he had been present today. We were not up late tonight and, what was more refreshing, George and I had but very little to say to each other upon going to bed so that I enjoyed a full night’s rest. XI.
1. All missing.
2. See entry for 26 Aug., above.
3. Susan Edmonstone Ferrier, The Inheritance, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1824.
4. Presumably the Adams family friend, George Blake, Harvard 1789, who was United States district attorney for Massachusetts (Force, National Calendar, 1824, p. 200).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-08

Wednesday. September 8th. IX.

Arose and breakfasted, the day bleak and rainy. I consequently remained at home throughout. I spent the morning in reading the novel of the Inheritance and finished it, having been pretty assiduous, since my commencement. It is an amusing book, abounding in light touches of nature but too prosing. Much of the dialogue might be condensed without trouble and less of Miss Waddel, Miss Larkinses and Miss Pratt would be agreable. The close also is too abrupt. We are not made to partake enough of Gertrude’s feelings, and poor Lyndsay appears to be rather rewarded as a faithful servant than an affectionate lover. She is the most natural character for a woman in the book and has but little to recommend her in the mean time. The fact is, women as they are, are generally commonplace. Virtue is not a subject to write novels with, as it must be confessed, virtuous women are insipid and vicious ones disgusting. The style of fashion which surrounds her reminds me of the only fashionable woman I know, which is my mother. The most pleasing woman without hesitation, I will say it, that in this country I have ever met with. Could I meet with such a woman in future life, I think I might be tempted to depart from my rule of life. It appears to me I see others so foolish in their choice, it would be better for me to leave a choice in the hands of my parents, who would judge better for me than I could. I have been exceedingly addicted to castle building of late, the worst thing that can possibly befal a young man. Much company here this morning to see my father, in spite of all the rain.
In the afternoon, I wrote my Journal and the rest of the time was spent in the delightful company of my mother. She is not well today, but as lively as possible. My Grandfather uncommonly strong. I also finished my letter to John,1 making about six pages in all and I hope he will be satisfied. If he reads it all, I shall think him more patient { 318 } than I now believe him to be. We were all engaged to go to Mrs. Quincy’s this Evening but the rain was so exceedingly heavy that we all determined not to go. Monsieur Degrand came out in the middle and had as usual a talk with my Father. I spent the Evening upstairs with my Grandfather and my Mother, as usual, and had a pleasant time. I am sometimes in a very cheerful state when I hear the Storm, particularly when I have a pleasant family circle, but although this is just passable, I was satisfied and retired early. X:20.
1. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-09

Thursday September 9th. VIII:35.

Arose and breakfasted, the day fair but exceedingly cold. I was shivering the greater part of the day. I spent the morning, with my mother, in light conversation. I then went and wrote my Journal. My Uncle and George went into town in the morning and my father and mother at noon, so that I was again left at home alone. I did not employ myself very usefully as I was merely engaged in reading the newspapers and studying the Presidential election. I have been habituating my mind to floating visions of comfort and grandeur. This I regret most exceedingly, but who can govern the wayward turns of the mind. I am so much more attached to the climate and manners of the South, that I have a wish to stay there which can only be gratified by his continuation in office. I will be patient and see the result. I am not very sanguine in the belief of his success. He has so much malignant opposition, so much party spirit arrayed against him that it appears to me almost impossible that he should succeed. His friends also are not as adroit as those of the other candidates.
After reading a number of newspapers, I was reading Mr. Noah’s pamphlet1 when I was suddenly interrupted by Mrs. Winthrop2 and others who came in, to look at the portraits of my Grandfather and my father.3 She is one of the Boston great ladies.
In the afternoon I spent my time principally in reading Junius. I went through the first controversy with Sir William Draper.4 As a writer, he had extraordinary power. His words are all so aptly placed and conveyed such an amazing force, his power of distinguishing the points of attack and his force in pressing conclusions drawn from his opponent’s grounds are models for controversial argument. It is my purpose this next year to pay particular attention to style. I have generally written more by the impulse of the moment and without revising any part, but as I have now by this Journal, obtained one habit, that of writing without difficulty upon almost any subject, I shall try { 319 } the hardest part of my task, that of cutting out what I have written. In this country, to a political man, a powerful controversial style is worth it’s weight in gold and to any other sort of man.
After tea as Mrs. Quincy had [resumed?] her invitation for tonight, I went with the two girls. We met a few of the Quincy magnates and spent the Evening in the usual way at Quincy. It was not an unpleasant Evening on the whole. I talked much with Miss Sophia. Miss Meg looked shy. We came off the last, walk’d, returning, took Supper and retired. XI:30.
1. Mordecai Manuel Noah (1785–1851), editor of the National Advocate, the organ of Tammany Hall in New York City (DAB). The pamphlet was probably the Report of a Trial of an Action on the Case, Brought by Sylvanus Miller, Esq., Late Surrogate of the City and County of New-York, against Mordecai M. Noah, Esq., Editor of the National Advocate, for an Alleged Libel, N.Y., 1823.
2. Mrs. Thomas Lindall Winthrop (1769–1825), the former Elizabeth Bowdoin Temple. Both the Winthrops came from distinguished families, and one of their children was Robert Charles Winthrop. See Crawford, Mass. Families, 1:62–63.
3. Presumably one of the paintings was Gilbert Stuart’s portrait of JA, finished at this time (see entry for 22 Sept., below) and now owned by Mr. Charles Francis Adams of Dover, Mass. The portrait of JQA may have been one of several painted during the last few years.
4. Sir William Draper (1721–1787), who defended the Marquis of Granby against Junius in 1769 (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-10

Friday. September 10th. IX.

Arose and after breakfasting, I read the paper and wrote my Journal, matters of not very great consequence at present. I spent the greater part of the day in the company of my mother, it is so exceedingly attractive that perhaps my duty gives way to it. As my duty at present however is not of any very exceeding importance, my mind is at ease. I have lately come to one determination, after thinking a good deal upon the subject, and that is, if any reasonable subject is given out, to write for the Bowdoin prize even if I should not send it up, and this I make my record.1 All the reading part of the day, I spent in going attentively over Junius as a first perusal. The more I read, the more I admire the style and the more I become impressed with a feeling of the necessity of a forcible one. I will do nothing else while I remain in College but pay attention to it, practically, as well as theoretically and I think a year is but small allowance. I shall be obliged to exercise myself considerably in writing of different sorts and, as there are so many opportunities for writing, I think I shall devote my time most usefully and most economically. I wish I had the power of Junius although it is rather a dangerous one to one’s self. He irritated his enemies to madness almost.
{ 320 }
I had much conversation with my mother about their plans which appear to be, simply, to come and reside here and live in simple, unoffending style. I shall trouble my head no more about it. As George had given me a little piece of business to transact, I took advantage of the return of the carriage from taking my father to General Sumner’s.2 I did not collect the note as the person was gone. I returned cursing the trouble. My mother went to town this Evening to remain until tomorrow. I this Evening studied a large part of the drill of the Light Infantry for the campaign next term. The [next?] part of the evening in conversing with Mrs. Clark on indifferent subjects, principally on some observations of Mrs. TBA’s. I then went down stairs and talked with Uncle some time on the state of my father’s landed property, a subject on which he is ever doleful. My Father having directed me to sit up for him expressly, I was obliged to remain up and amused myself with reading Junius. He arrived at last, which dismissed me. XII.
1. The subjects for the annual Bowdoin prize dissertation competition were: (1) the importance of the study of the learned languages as a branch of education; (2) the antiquity, extent, cultivation, and present state of China. First prize was a gold medal and forty dollars; two second prizes consisted of twenty dollars worth of books. There is no record among CFA’s papers that he entered the contest. Only two prizes are recorded in the Faculty Records, and they went to Edward B. Emerson and Jason Whitman, a junior.
2. William H. Sumner, of Boston, a brigadier general in the Massachusetts militia and a principal developer of East Boston (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 106).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-11

Saturday. September 11th. IX.

Arose a little earlier than I had myself expected considering that I had been up until so late last night. I immediately sat down and wrote my Journal for the morning’s business. My mother was not here this morning, so that I employed my time more than usual. My father went to Boston again today which will be the usual course while he is here. His friends being continually desirous to entertain him and do him honour. In this state of things also, they wish to be particularly marked in their way of treating him. I amused myself all the morning in reading Junius. It is astonishing to think of the power which this author obtained in England by his manner. No man but was afraid of him excepting perhaps Mr. Horne1 and he was afraid of nobody. Sir William Draper was to be pitied as in any other contest he might have come out with some credit but he came across the path of an enormously cruel as well as a powerful man and was treated accordingly. One thing, I am struck with in the remarks of the Commentator, that he is rather servile to the governing power and speaks of { 321 } Junius, the Earl of Chatham and all the other great men of the nation not as Patriots but merely as men swayed by the interest of the moment. Indeed English liberty is but a shadow when it’s greatest supporters are merely venal timeservers. What Junius was, though a matter of great speculation, will probably never be disclosed. He must have been a great man.
Immediately after dinner I took a walk to Neponset and spent the rest of the afternoon in playing, so long an absence has had a little effect upon my play which I did not get over for more than half an hour. I played however with my usual success and gratification. It is unquestionably a most interesting game. I remained until it was so dark, I could not see a ball and then returned home where I did not arrive until eight o’clock. I then read two letters of Junius, particularly the famous one for which the publisher was prosecuted.2 My father and mother did not return home until ten o’clock when we sat down to supper and except a very little time spent in conversation with George, who came out with them, we went directly to bed. XI:15.
1. John Horne Tooke (1736–1812).
2. George Woodfall (1767–1844), publisher of the Public Advertiser, was prosecuted for printing Junius’ letter No. XXXV, dated 19 December 1769, entitled “Junius’s Address to the King.” The printer obtained the celebrated verdict that he was guilty of printing and publishing only, won a new trial, and was freed. (Junius, ed. John Wade, London, 1881, 1:255–256; DNB.)

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-12

Sunday. September 12th. IX:30.

It was so late this morning before I arose that I found it impossible to do any thing before the time to attend Meeting. I went this morning in my mother’s carriage. We had a gentleman from Canton, a Mr. Huntoun1 or some such name as our Minister. I seldom attend to a Sermon but his was so simple yet so sensible that I could not help being pleased with it. Many of his observations though not new were correct and so exactly falling in with my sentiments that really I was pleased. He spoke much of hypocritical piety, and I have had so much of it in one instance in our family that he could hardly have used words which would have been too severe for me. He is much more sensible than the men, we are in the habit of hearing or, at least if not more sensible, he is more interesting. Which with me amounts to the same thing.
I returned home and spent the rest of the morning in the company of my mother. She was as pleasant as usual, describing the different great characters of this country, who are given very satirically indeed, { 322 } even the adherents of my father, she does not spare. At Washington, it is a little different. Singular, I have often thought that our sentiments concerning individuals should change so much as they take different attitudes in the Presidential question. Unwilling as I am to confess it, I must own a power which in spite of my candour governs me. But I shall not feel that as soon as this is over. I shall then have my own enemies in the world to undertake.
In the afternoon, I did not attend Meeting, but wrote my Journal this afternoon and a long letter to John.2 He complains very much of being melancholy as he is alone so that I in compassion address him oftener than I otherwise should. I cannot be said to possess much material but with the little I had I filled three pages and sent them off. I then read a few pages of Junius which filled up the afternoon. Mr. De Grand was here today again and Mr. Webster3 also paid a visit. In the Evening there was a great deal of company here, some people from curiosity to see the President, others as visitors to my father, Mrs. Quincy, Mrs. Greenleaf, Mr. Miller &c. After they were gone, we descended to supper where we sat until it became quite late. Mr. De Grand never takes leave until the last moment. XI.
1. Benjamin Huntoon, Congregational minister in Canton (D/CFA/1; Mass. Register, 1824, p. 90).
2. Missing.
3. Daniel Webster (JQA, Diary, 12 Sept. 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-13

Monday. September 13th. VIII.

Arose earlier than usual this morning being roused by a call from my Uncle to go shooting with him. My father and George went this morning to Boston to go on a sailing expedition in the harbour. I liked it so little last year that I declined going. I was prepared in about an hour and we set off taking the direction of the estate at Mount Wollaston. Not a solitary bird was to be found there and we went further, indeed to the extremity of the land and in this way, I traversed much more of the land in that quarter than I had ever seen before. We found no sport but I saw the place. It is a very pretty situation but one which requires immense sums of money to be spent upon it before it can become any thing like a delightful residence. Much has been expended upon it already but I cannot say that I think it has been done most judiciously or to the most advantage. My father has some plan in view concerning it I suppose; if President he will probably make it his summer residence immediately, if not he will wait until the state of his finances will authorize the expenditure.
{ 323 }
We returned some time before dinner rather dispirited by our ill success as we did not find any thing to exert our skill upon. I spent my time before dinner as usual with my mother and afterwards I also spent much time there. She went to Mrs. Websters1 in which time I wrote my Journal which was all the directly useful which I did to day. The afternoon was very close and sultry and from some unknown cause I became headachish and nervous. Being in conversation with my Grandfather and Mother, I was compelled to repeat so often as he is now troubled with deafness in addition to the rest, that I became ill humoured and I doubt not was exceeding bad company. After tea, I was in company with my Grandfather for the Evening. He is a much less agreable companion than he was a year ago, his own conversation not being so amusing. He thinks less strongly, not because he can not, but I incline to think because he is unwilling to make the exertion. We then went to Supper where we sat until ten o’clock. Soon after which finding myself inclined to be sleepy, I retired to bed. My father did not return here tonight. X:25.
1. Mrs. Daniel Webster, the former Grace Fletcher (DAB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-14

Tuesday. September 14th. IX.

Arose and after breakfasting, took the opportunity to write my Journal, before setting off for Cambridge. I had intended to have gone in order to assist my mother in her plan for tomorrow, but this was changed and I merely went as my father and mother, going to Mr. Everett’s to dine, gave me the opportunity. Cambridge looks extremely desolate and I had the displeasure when I got to my room to find that they were painting it and had deranged every part of my furniture so that it was clear there was no sitting at home to day. We did not arrive until three o’clock and I had to content myself with a meagre sort of a dinner at the hotel of a half a chicken and a beefsteak. These I soon dispatched, and then went and spent half an hour at the Bookstore. I found my accounts in better state than I had expected. I had much conversation with Brown1 on the subject of books. He is a shrewd young man and will get along exceedingly well in the world. He has made me expend a very large sum of money in books, taking advantage of my youth and inexperience. I have however managed to collect a library which is extremely useful to me.
I became extremely tired of remaining here however and determined to go and see if Brenan was at home. I found him in his new room in Holworthy and sat with him an hour. We conversed principally upon the affairs of next year, how now we should be freed from things we { 324 } | view dislike so much. Mathematics would close and I should be forever freed from them. This is a most delightful thought. The idea also of being released from three recitations a day and morning exercises on Saturday is also extremely pleasant.2 He talked much of his future course and he appears as ambitious as any of us. I remained with him until his tea time when I returned to my room and sat there a little while, the carriage came at last and we went to Mr. Everett’s to take up my father and mother, I was obliged to wait here some time, in which I tried to amuse myself as well as I could with the conversation of the different coachmen, before the door. They talked very wisely. At last we started and got to Quincy at nine o’clock. I was exceedingly fatigued so that after going through the mere form of supper, I retired.
1. James Brown (1800–1855), employed since 1818 by William Hilliard, the Cambridge bookseller, was later the founder and co-partner of the Boston publishing firm Little, Brown & Company (DAB).
2. Seniors continued to read Stewart’s Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind and Paley’s Moral Philosophy and, contrary to CFA’s expectations, to study analytic geometry and topography. They also studied chemistry and political economy, and they read the Federalist and Butler’s Analogy. Declamations, forensics, and themes were required the first two terms.
The senior table of private exercises included:
Morning, Monday—Friday   Mathematics and Chemistry   1st term and half 2nd term.  
  Moral and Political Philosophy   half 2nd term and 3rd term.  
Forenoon, Monday—Wednesday   Astronomy   1st term.  
Monday and Wednesday   Theology   2nd term to April.  
Thursday   Forensics or Themes   1st and 2nd terms.  
Afternoon, Monday—Thursday   Moral and Political Philosophy   1st term.  
  Intellectual Philosophy   2nd term to April.  

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-15

Wednesday. September 15th. IX.

Arose, day extremely warm, indeed the three last have been as hot as any part of the summer. We feel it the more too, as it so immediately follows extremely cold weather for the season. I did nothing this morning from languor and as my mother was going to Boston, I determined to take advantage of the conveyance to go as far as Neponset. I played billiards here for a great while but with less relish than usual. My feelings within these two days past have become extremely irritable and my nerves very weak. I do not know how it arose, but I { 325 } spoke snappishly to the family and was surly. It is exceedingly unpleasant to be conscious that you are disagreable and not be able to avoid it. Suffice it to say that I became tired of billiards much sooner than I have any other day since I have been here.
I therefore directed my course home at a little after three having lost my dinner. The walk was exceedingly hot, the sun being in his power yet. I met my father and uncle going to the Governor’s1 to dine, my father appeared to be surprised. I found a surprising difference in myself today and other days, I was weak and very much fatigued at what usually is nothing at all. Indeed I was obliged to rest once and lie down before I got home. Having arrived I found myself in no condition to do any thing so I neglected the writing of my Journal today. My head throbbed painfully and my nerves were in such a state that my arms and feet shook when taken from their support. Indeed I have seldom felt more uncomfortably. I tried to take a little quiet but the children put my rest to flight once or twice, and excited my nerves as much as ever. I did manage however in the course of the Evening to become more composed, although I had to act with some feverish symptoms. Indeed I became somewhat alarmed being afraid I should have an attack similar to the one two years ago.
I sat with my Grandfather all the Evening. He asked me some questions concerning the match between George and Mary, he hardly seems satisfied with it, as I believe he had fixed his heart on a connexion with the Quincys. A thing which would receive more opposition on our part. My mother did not return until near nine and the rest of the family dropped in at intervals. I retired soon, took warm water for my feet and tried to sleep but I could not succeed. IX.
1. William Eustis.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-16

Thursday. September 16th. VII.

Arose feeling quite unwell as I had no rest whatever during the night, and I found myself in a fair way to obtain the dysentery. I therefore took some medicine and determined to remain in the house all day. In the morning I reviewed the twenty five first pages of Paley’s Moral Philosophy, which we studied during the last term. I can merely at the present moment look over it to refresh my memory, at some time in future I shall look over it critically and make my own comments upon it in writing. I then went and wrote my Journal for the day before yesterday which I had not written on account of my indisposition. I could hardly do it today for I was in considerable pain { 326 } all the morning. The heat of the weather which continued had made me extremely languid, and was not favourable to my health. After dinner, which to me was a mere form, I laid down in the hall and slept for three hours which refreshed me considerably. I then went and made my Journal as usual.
My father and mother went to Boston to dine with Mr. Winthrop, one of the Boston great men. They are perpetually engaged in Boston, so that though nominally a visit to my Grandfather, it is rather an engagement in Boston all the time. I did nothing else of importance today, after tea I went to sit with my Grandfather but found Mr. Beale and Mr. Marston in company. I could not help thinking how extremely flat, the life of the former gentleman would be to me and still I doubt not but he is much—much happier than it will ever be my fate to be. I have no doubt but the most contemptible plodder is the happiest man, speaking generally, but for my own part I had rather be what I am. Mr. Marston as prosy as usual. I then went down stairs and spent a little while in the parlour with Elizabeth, the rest of the ladies having gone out to the worthy Mr. Apthorps.1 They soon after arrived as did my father and mother, but there was no supper table set tonight. I wished to have some conversation with my mother but I felt so sick and out of spirits that I could not. Indeed I have seldom spent a more disagreable day. My sickness being of such nature as to pain me, weaken me, and reduce my spirits all at the same time. I retired early. X:10.
1. Possibly George H. Apthorp, of Quincy, whose surname suggests that he was a member of the wealthy Boston merchant family (Pattee, Old Braintree and Quincy, p. 238).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-17

Friday September 17th. VIII.

Arose though not feeling much better in health. What could have brought on my sickness, I am sure I cannot possibly tell, but I am sure it is a pretty heavy one. I reviewed twenty five pages of Paley, this morning, in the course of which much struck me as noticeable which I did not see before. I then went upstairs and sat with my mother and talked with her some time. I also took another dose of medicine. I read a little more of Junius but not much as reading affects me somewhat in my present state of weakness. My eyes also have suffered today. My father and mother went to town as usual or at least a little this side of town to General Dearborn’s.1 I had directions from my father to copy two ancient wills so that besides writing my Journal, I was employed all the afternoon at one of them. It was that of Captain { 327 } Myles Standish, a famous military character among the first settlers of the country. It was not the most entertaining work I ever saw, or did. I only finished his before tea time.
After tea I again was very sick with pain in my bowels and felt most extremely unhappy and low spirited. This is no home for me. All the family are no friends of mine and I am reduced to a feeling of desolation when my father and mother are gone. I have never seen a family in my life in which there was so little feeling for each other as this in which I live. Compared to our own immediate one it seems exceedingly strange to me, but perhaps we may be blest. I am always inclined to become melancholy when not employed and then take dark views of human nature. Indeed my spirits for a long time have not been so depressed as they were this Evening. My patience was worn out and I really felt a wretchedness of the heart. I am a peculiar, a singular being, and under a cold exterior feel intensely, at times almost beyond endurance. I thought of death tonight as not an intolerable evil and rather to be desired than otherwise. I considered I never had moralized on it in my Journal, I thought of Young, and wondered why he should take so much pains to prove a simple proposition. How foolish, how vain all this, I ought to say how criminal. My mother this Evening gave me some laudanum which I had great aversion to taking and which finally I swallowed merely in filial obedience. Nothing else would have induced me at this time. X:10.
1. Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn (1783–1851), brigadier general of militia, lawyer, writer, and collector of the Port of Boston (DAB); he lived in Roxbury (JQA, Diary, under this date).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-18

Saturday. September 18th. VIII.

Arose considerably better than I was before and with spirits considerably revived. I first reviewed some portion of Paley and then went upstairs to see my mother. The weather had changed and had become exceedingly cold. This is the curse of this climate, that there are so many rapid and entire changes. They solely can make a person sick. I then went to the Office, wrote my Journal and amused myself the rest of the morning copying Governor Bradford’s will for my father. An ancient manuscript about as amusing as that of Captain Standish. I have not much relish at this age for antiquities of this sort, I suppose it will come upon me in time however. I just finished it in time for dinner. My father and mother were gone to Boston in the morning to stay all day as usual. My uncle gone to town and I was quite alone in the house. Mr. Marston dined here as usual. I regretted exceedingly { 328 } that I could not enjoy an enormously fine salt fish dinner to day, I did not feel my health sufficiently established to venture upon vegetables.
In the afternoon I spent some time looking over more tracts and documents of my Uncle’s and then sat down to write a letter to John.1 I got through the first page and part of the second when I happened to stumble upon politics and say something which was not altogether consistent with prudential maxims. I on the whole determined to scratch it out and this created such an ugly place that I left the paper to another time. I then went into the house and amused myself with Junius which I read again with avidity. The commentaries are generally correct but sometimes have a little too much partiality for the crown side of a case. I was much interested by a biographical sketch of Charles Fox and could not help thinking that there were many points of similarity between him and the present Henry Clay. The same powers and the same vices. I continued reading this author until I was called in to keep company with Grandfather who was alone. I sat with him reading scraps from newspapers &c. until his time of going to rest. My father and mother returned at this time with George. I had some political conversation with the two latter in which it was intimated that the horizon was darkening. I afterwards had conversation with George upon many subjects, but none of any interest which I have not often mentioned. XI.
1. This letter was never sent; see entry for 20 Sept., below.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-19

Sunday. September 19th. VII:45.

Up early this morning and for once breakfasted with the family. The weather misty, rainy and exceeding disagreable. I did not attend Meeting all day but spent the morning with great idleness talking in a cold chilly room with my Mother and George, talking about Father’s plans for the future, which—at least one of them—was undergoing the [ . . . ] of her criticism and ridicule. I was perfectly agreed with her and on the whole was much amused. We afterwards fell into an argument occasioned by some of his boastful speeches concerning the superiority of this part of the country, in which I took up the other side of the question, and we digressed from this into an argument as to the puritan settlement, in which he as usual talked extravagantly and I did not deliver my true sentiments because I wished to put a stop to his rant, I call it nothing else. He has this intolerable habit of speaking in superlatives which always provokes me and there are times when I cannot but come out sharply and he does not proceed.
{ 329 }
In the afternoon we entered into conversation again and talked of much which I did not dare to put into my Journal at present. It was upon old times, and was merely an explanation of much which would excite the blood of a Pagan. I am sorry but I cannot agree in some points with the opinions of the family. There is much unaccounted for in the history of my earliest years not affecting me but my mother. George and I had a little warm talk here. I then sat down and read the second Part of Irving’s Tales of a Traveller. I must confess I do not think so well of this as I did of the first. It has but little to recollect with pleasure. Every thing in it is commonplace and an attempt to make something out of common nature without colouring highly which in my opinion is impossible. Indeed I think Mr. Irving must change his manner or he will lose his reputation.
Mr. Degrand and Mr. Sprague were here this evening and spent the Evening here. They are both political men, the latter in the legislature of the State, and Editor of a Newspaper in Salem.1 He is rather a pleasant man and he conversed upon the subject which is most his own, politics, and as he appeared to have pretty correct views of things, he was not tedious although Mr. Degrand compelled him to remain to his usual hour. I then talked a little with Uncle and George soon after which I retired. XI:30.
1. Joseph E. Sprague, with whom JQA had “a long conversation ... on the subject of the Vice-Presidency” (JQA, Diary, under this date).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-20

Monday. September 20th. VIII:55.

Arose and after breakfast reviewed a part of Paley as usual. It was a part which is the driest and least interesting of all we have studied. After this was over I went up to see my mother. She was exceedingly unwell today and I was really terribly apprehensive for her. She appeared so dreadfully affected by chills. I finished Junius in her room and on the whole conclude that I have never seen a more powerful display of eloquence in any work which I have ever seen. So much force of the language, such a happy distinction in terms and such a peculiar application of ideas, if I might so express it, as I never saw before. I wish to see one or two of Johnson’s Pamphlets and shall then compare them. Thus my time went and writing up one day of my Journal which I unaccountably neglected heretofore.
I then dined and in the afternoon continued my duty to my Journal after which I wrote to John.1 I concluded not to send my former letter as at this time almost every thing is dangerous and as I have understood that it has been the practice at least at one office to read all { 330 } letters. This Country though the purest under the Sun is going to ruin. I am in perfect despair for republics and can only abuse human nature. I am growing more and more attached to the idea of private life and can only lament the necessity of the name of which I am so proud. My letter to John was very melancholy as indeed I felt so, for my Mother’s sickness has made me thoroughly unhappy. I never felt more like cursing the world and all that is in it. I was inclined to repine bitterly. I went in and found my Mother in extreme pain, and did not dare leave her for a moment lest she should faint away. It was as bitter a time to my feelings as I ever had in my life. The house was lonely, every body out in the Evening at a party, and my Mother usually attended with so much care was now without a person almost to assist her. I felt her state. I remained with her all the Evening until she retired when I went to my Grandfather’s and sat with him. No conversation, for I was in no humour to keep one up, he retired. Soon after the family came in, My Uncle a little elevated. I sat talking with him and George much longer than I wished but his perpetual conversation delayed me. XI:5.
1. Letter missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-21

Tuesday. September 21st. IX.

Arose and was greeted in the first place by a letter from John.1 It was a long one but not very satisfactory. On the subject on which I had particularly written he is silent or, rather, evades it by complaining of my handwriting which he seems to have been able to read in every place except in that one. I am sorry for the result as I understand precisely how to take this way of his. I shall therefore close the subject. After breakfast I read my usual quantity of Paley which closes what we studied during the last term.
I then went to my Mother’s room and found her much better. She was preparing to go to town and to go through much labour in the day. She has invited Miss Elizabeth to go to Washington this Winter. After she had gone I went and wrote my Journal, in the middle of it I was surprised by a visit from my classmate, Charles Foster. He had brought a Miss Garland here to see Abby. He is an exceeding good natured, pleasant sort of a young man, although not one of my intimates. I like his manners which are very unassuming but he has too little energy or character of any kind to please me. He dined and spent part of the afternoon here and I was quite rejoiced to have such a windfall for company. She is an exceeding forward, pert young miss who has an idea that every body admires her. She might do as a little { 331 } “piquante sauce” for a half an hour’s amusement but I should enter a vehement protest against her manners. They went away at four and I spent the rest of the afternoon reading more of the famous Essays called the Crisis written by Thomas Paine2 which are said to have had such powerful effect in the time of our revolution. They are an imitation of Junius in coarser style and although evidently well adapted to excite a people are not to be recommended for imitation. I was struck at his frequent calls upon God, that God whom he afterwards forsook.
After tea I went in and sat with my Grandfather. I was not in a talking mood and he is so but seldom now so that I spent, I might almost say, two silent hours. Suffice it, they hung like lead upon me. I afterwards had some conversation with my Uncle about the election and then retired. George disturbed me unexpectedly late in the night. X.
1. Missing.
2. Thomas Paine, The Crisis, originally published in thirteen numbers, some separately and some in newspapers, 1776–1780, and afterwards issued collectively.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-22

Wednesday. September 22d. VII:30.

Arose and after breakfast read twenty five pages farther in Paley as a sort of preparative to the commencing lessons next term. I then went upstairs and continued reading the Numbers of the Crises but I do not find them interesting. Mr. Stuart the painter came out here this morning for a final sitting for my Grandfather. I saw the portrait which is a remarkably fine one.1 Stuart is a singular man, a wag, but rather a disgusting object than otherwise. He is said to be habitually intemperate and his appearance confirms it. My mother returned this morning from Dr. Eustis’s where she had been all night exceedingly ill and went to bed immediately with a high fever. I know not how it was but I have seldom felt a more deep and bitter feeling of melancholy than I did today.
After dinner I sat in the Office and mused. Deeply dejected I can’t tell on what account. My mother’s sickness was the principal cause of the effect on my spirits, and my loneliness and the unsettled state of the Presidential election which so bewilders my future views. I think I could be content at the result were it either way but this doubt is torturing. I am anxiously wishing to get back to Cambridge because there I am more removed from the contagion of politics and have much of other and truly much more interesting business to me personally. I mourn when I am at Cambridge but I think there are few places { 332 } where I could be happier. It is employment which is my great delight and the contrast between this place and that is striking.
After writing my Journal I went to my Mother’s room: the rest of the afternoon was spent there. She appeared to be exceedingly unwell, with much fever and complaining of pain in her head. I could do nothing but try and amuse her and divert her attention from her pain but it is more pain to me to see her. I tried my best however and she talked with a little life though not in her common style. I spent the Evening here also doing my best to amuse her. I left her hoping Heaven would restore her for her Journey. I spent a dull half hour with my Grandfather and then came down stairs where I had another dull half hour with my Uncle. This is the [worst?] of all, he has taken a fit and the house now seems scarcely the residence of a family but of many cold hearted individuals. I could not bear his nonsense tonight so retired. IX:20.
1. See entry for 9 Sept., and note, above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-23

Thursday. September 23d. IX.

Arose and after breakfast read over twenty five pages more of Paley which finishes all that I can do farther this vacation. I have read about four of the lessons which we shall have in the Commencement of the term. I then went to see my Mother on whose account I have been exceedingly anxious and dejected. I found her very much better but exceedingly weak and her head still affected. She commenced today the great business of packing up to return. I performed it principally for her as I was desirous to save her the trouble and that she should avoid any unnecessary exertion. I was in her room the greater part of the day that she should not have an opportunity of thinking of her sickness and of becoming dull. I only took about half an hour in the afternoon when she was lieing down to write my Journal. I was extremely lowspirited even today although one great cause was taken off, but another was put on for the state of my Uncle at dinner today disgusted me exceedingly and I was anxious to get away to avoid a seige which I dreaded. My mother did not go down. I spent the whole day in this way not doing any thing of importance but paying my duty to my Mother to whom I have become far more attached than ever. Although I am obliged to differ from her in opinion sometimes, and am forced to make a harsh judgment upon some of her actions or wishes, still there is something inexpressibly delightful in her manners and her affections are most powerful. The ways of kindness are not { 333 } known to many who by no means want the will and I have this exemplified very strongly in the family.
I sat with my Grandfather about an hour in the Evening and he appeared to be in better spirits than usual. My father and George arrived from Salem much earlier than I had expected and had a long tale to tell of their adventures for they appear to have been moving ever since they left here. The former appears to be in very good spirits, and talked more than usual. I had an argument with George which was tolerably warm. I am convinced it is impossible to live with him and like his temper. I sat up with George a little while downstairs before retiring. XII.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-24

Friday. September 24th. VIII:40.

Arose and after breakfast commenced my preparations for departure. This house is today to lose many of it’s late inmates, some perhaps never to return to it. I did not feel extremely grieved at going as it is not a place of happiness for me. I am too much attached to my own little personal comforts to be perfectly content where I cannot enjoy them all. I had a little and very little conversation with my Father on the subject of my debts and future situation but I obtained my request and am in future to act somewhat more like an independent man. I am to have no further connection with my Uncle but I am to receive monthly payments from George at the rate of fifty dollars a month. After this very satisfactory communication and a leave taking of my Grandfather, who seemed to be in low spirits enough, I departed with George in a chaise and took the direction to Boston through Cambridge at which last named place, I stopped to enter my name and prepare my room for my reception tomorrow. I then went to town and arrived at Mr. Cruft’s at the precise time that my Father and Mother had got there from Quincy. I dined here with her and the family. I like Mr. Cruft although he has very little of the courtier in his manners. When you know him however to be so entirely sincere, it makes up very considerably.
In the afternoon I did two or three little services for my mother and rode out with her but spent most of my time in her company. Mrs. Pickman was here this Evening, the sister of his wife.1 She is a good sort of a woman without much beauty or much any thing to recommend her that I know of. Mr. Cruft did not come in until pretty late, but the Evenings grow quite long. Soon after tea my Father and George arrived from Mr. John Welles’s2 where they had dined. Mr. { 334 } Pickman came in and then the whole of Fosters who came in and sat until it was time for me to go. I took my leave and walked with George to his room stopping to inform Elizabeth when she should be ready tomorrow and bid her Goodbye. I had some conversation with George on “secrets worth knowing”3 and then went to sleep. X:30.
1. Mrs. Benjamin Pickman Jr. (1794–1863), the former Hannah Smith, daughter of AA’s cousin William Smith (1755–1816) and sister of Mrs. Edward Cruft. See Adams Genealogy.
2. A Boston merchant, banker, insurance company executive, and city councilman (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 172, 180, 188).
3. An English comedy, by Thomas Morton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-25

Saturday. September 25th. VI:15.

Arose and dressed myself quickly in order to get to Mr. Cruft’s in time to see my father and mother again before they went. We got there soon and breakfasted with them. The stage arrived earlier than was expected but we delayed them. Our leave was taken at last and I felt inclined to be sorry for a few moments and but a few. I think I am much happier when they are not here as they come now, for I am so anxious on account of my mother’s health and every thing is [so] out of order and regularity that I have but little comfort. This is the last time however that such a visit will be made. I received a letter from John1 at Mr. Cruft’s which confirmed me in my opinion on a certain subject, if I was in any degree doubtful before. After they had fairly started, I went to my brother’s room where I spent the morning, reading and talking with him. While here, I ran through a small publication lately made, called the Manuscript of Knickerbocker Jr., a close imitation of Irving and a total failure. I was very much disgusted. I arranged my accounts, received some money and talked politics with George until the Cambridge Stage came, and called me to the old town of towns which I return to with pleasure increased by the idea that I am on the last heat of the race.
I was employed part of the afternoon in again arranging my books which the late painting has very much disordered and then wrote my Journal which had fallen back two days as I had no opportunity of writing it yesterday. Sheafe arrived yesterday, Otis and Richardson were here early in the afternoon so that the whole future Lyceum had got here in excellent Season. It looks and feels small as we have been accustomed to think of six inmates to it. They came down and sat with me sometime except Sheafe, who had gone to town, and we talked on old matters. Moreover we all appeared exceedingly glad to get back again which is a sure sign that College is not such an unpleasant place { 335 } as it might be. I was at Otis’s part of the Evening and writing up my Journal in my own, making up my Index,2 taking up my Bible and finally reading Pope’s first Moral Essay on the characters of men, in this way resuming all my old associations and retiring content. XI.
1. Missing.
2. For a description of CFA’s “Index diary” (our D/CFA/1), see Introduction.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-26

Sunday. September 26th. VII:30.

Missed Prayers this Morning commencing the year in no better way than formerly. I met at breakfast with all the remaining members of our assembly. Chapman, Dwight and Cunningham all very well. After breakfast, I returned to my room and went through my business very fast indeed. I brought up my Index entirely which had been neglected much longer than I had any idea of. I also wrote my Journal previous to attending Chapel in the morning and hearing the President deliver a Sermon on the death of Mrs. Farrar, the wife of the Professor who died this vacation. I was looking nearly all the time at the Freshman Class which appeared to be exceedingly small. It does not fill the seats at all and is said to be the smallest class for at least ten years, which is something of a shock to the College government. They have not expected such a blow so soon.1
In the afternoon I went to Otis’s room and spent part of the day there, over a comfortable glass of wine. I employed myself also part of the day in writing a long letter to John2 in pretty severe terms, answering the two which I received last week from him. I am not inclined to indulge in sarcasm but I thought I was obliged to after such a singular evasion on his part of what certainly it was fair to ask. If he retorts snappishly, which is very probable, I shall say nothing more. I again attended Chapel and heard a Sermon from Dr. Ware most of which I attended to. It was an address to College and more particularly to the Freshman Class. It was sensible and affecting, much in it which made me think, Experience is a singular teacher and at Cambridge comes too late. The Freshmen all look like children and make me think of a parcel of babies still in leading strings. There is not a manly looking animal among them.
After tea I paid a visit to Fay and to Dwight, took a short walk, read Pope’s Second Epistle on the Characters of Women and a Tract of Dr. Johnson’s called the False Alarm—written to prevent the effects of the representations of Junius respecting the Middlesex Election. I did not think it very powerful. I spent an hour at Otis’s in company { 336 } with Rundlet and Fay, and closed the Evening by reading a number of the striking maxims of Rochefoucault.3 X.
1. For the size of the freshman class, see entry for 27 Aug., and note, above. The marked drop in enrollment was indeed a blow, for Harvard had just lost its annual state subsidy of $10,000, appropriated since 1814, and the legislature, influenced by a campaign among orthodox Calvinists against Harvard’s theological liberalism, had voted to charter Amherst College. See Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 218–220.
2. Missing.
3. A copy of François de la Rochefoucauld’s Maximes et réflexions morales, Amsterdam, 1780, is in the Stone Library. A Paris edition, published in 1777, bearing JA’s autograph, is among the President’s books in the Boston Public Library (Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 140).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-27

Monday. September 27th. VI:10.

Missed Prayers this Morning although awake before the bell rung. I was in time however for recitation but did not attend it with much advantage to myself as upon being called upon, I was obliged to declare myself not prepared. After recitation I stated the reason to Mr. Hayward but he laid open no way of avoiding the difficulty. After breakfast we attended a Lecture from Mr. Everett at the Philosophical room which is no place however, fit for such purpose. His course today was short, merely laying out his ground and stating the kinds which he should divide it in; his manner is good for Lecture as it is simple, easy and clear. He has a singular way of dwelling upon an adjective even when connected with a substantive which should receive the accent. It was his course he said to give an account of Grecian literature. He then made some observations upon it’s originality and antiquity, the first composition was earlier than that of the Oriental tribes and, if we except a portion of the Hebrew writings, theirs were the first literary efforts. It is on this account that we are indebted to them. It is for the influence which these attempts exerted upon future periods that we look up to them. In this Lecture, he intended only to explain the general nature of his topics and his future course. He would first treat of the origin of the language, although he should not take much notice of the argument concerning the Phoenicians, as it is certain enough whatever they may have contributed to the Greek language, none of their own productions, if they ever had any, have ever been received by us. He should first notice the legislators, such as were only known in fable and mythology. This he called the Anti Homeric age.
Then he should treat of Homer and of Hesiod. He should then treat of the Lyric writers such as Alcaeus, Sappho and others which he should call the Classic Age. The succeeding time was remarkable for the commencement of prose writing with the invention of paper re• { 337 } ceived from Egypt, which was so remarkably late as only the seventh century before the Christian era. He said his course as far as here would [be] in regular chronological order but in future this mode would be too arbitrary and only create confusion concerning the different sorts of authors. He should treat of Pindar alone as he is the sole author in his species of writing. He should then go on to speak of the dramatists, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. It was remarkable that these lived so nearly in the same age as they are found to have when we reflect that Aeschylus was engaged in the famous battle of Salamis, Sophocles was chosen leader of the band or chorus to celebrate the victory and Euripides was born on the very day.
He should then treat of the historians, the most remarkable of whom were Herodotus, Thucydides and Xenophon. Also he should notice Ctesias and Heraclides Ponticus who are not known to us as only small fragments of their works are preserved. Next came the philosophy which he should treat of entire, down to the destruction of Greece. Then the Orators and then some miscellaneous notices which could not well be classed under any of these heads. Next he should describe the Alexandrian age from the establishment of Christianity to the downfall of Greece the most learned if not the most illustrious age of Greece. Lastly came the ecclesiastical age in which the propagation of letters in the west of Europe took place, with some observations upon the formation of the language of Modern Greece. A subject not exactly connected with his but which might be advantageous. This is his plan.
He closed the lecture with some sort of an address to us. He said that we must be aware that we had come to a time of life when our minds either had or shortly would take a graver cast, that we were to acquire a habit of forcing attention, the only way by which our future studies could be advanced. We were not to make amusement our principal object and we must be conscious, we could hardly receive much here. We were progressing into a time of life when we should become fully sensible of the worth of literary acquirements as we had less opportunity from attention to our various professions of increasing them. He therefore recommended to us to pursue while the time was given us those branches which would be of so much advantage and solace in future life. This was a short lecture so that I know not what I shall make of long ones. After we had come out of this I returned to my room, wrote my Journal and read Pope’s Third Essay on the use of Riches. These do not strike me so much as they did in first going over. I also continued reading Rochefoucault.
At eleven o’clock, I went in with the class to Mr. Farrar for a lesson { 338 } in Astronomy which is our morning study for this term. He laid his plan before us which was that we should read over this work of Ferguson’s on Astronomy,1 which is our Text book, and he should ask questions upon it which he should illustrate as well as he could from the instruments in his possession and by familiar conversation. This man is the only one who understands the method of instruction. After a few observations upon the value of Astronomy as a Science, he dismissed us. I spent the rest of the morning in attempting to select a speech for declamation and at length fixed upon that one of Henry’s, which is so often spoken.
After dinner was over, I went to the library to obtain a book for our next Forensic which takes place unexpectedly on Thursday. I did not succeed however. I then employed myself the rest of the afternoon in studying a lesson in Paley which was a remarkably hard one. It was on Simony. I shall be compelled to change my plan of study this term as we have the afternoon without division so that I shall be compelled to study two hours every day upon the same lesson which will make it somewhat fatiguing.2 After recitation was over, I went to Brenan’s room and spent the remaining few minutes before Prayers. It is a singular sort of a change, moving into Holworthy. But every anticipation is so pleasant that we are considerably borne up even under a hard load of studies.
After tea, I settled myself down comfortably in my room for the evening. I employed myself in reading Rochefoucault’s maxims which I do not find, generally speaking, so extremely striking, but I am willing to attribute this to the extension of the truth of them which now makes them appear Commonplace. I also thought upon my Forensic but could not come to a great deal of matter in point. I managed to write a number of hints tonight upon the subject which however cost me the Evening. I again attempted my Mathematics and failed again. I found I could do nothing, so coolly turned back to see what I could do on the subject at it’s commencement, and found myself in a similar predicament, so I went to bed in despair. X:30.
1. JQA’s copy of James Ferguson, Astronomy Explained upon Sir Isaac Newton’s Principles, London, 1785, is in the Stone Library.
2. See entry for 14 Sept., and note, above, for CFA’s academic schedule.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-28

Tuesday. September 28th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning, was not called upon, fortunately, or it would have been the worse for me. I must despair of again making a good recitation in this branch of study.1 After it was { 339 } over, I returned home, read my usual Chapters in the Bible and dressed myself. I know not what is the reason but I do not desire a happier life as to personal comforts than I lead now. My room is my pleasure and I feel exceeding little inclined to pursue the dissipated course of last year. My friends will not allow it indeed, hereafter, but I do not know that I shall not be weak enough to pursue a similar if not a worse course than before. I am the creature of inclination by far more than I wish to think myself.
At study bell, we attended Mr. Everetts Second Lecture. The period anterior to the oldest writings is one which from the nature of the case could hardly give us much light as to it’s history. We can very fairly conclude that nothing but theory could be brought forward concerning it. We could collect only a little from the books of the Hebrew which were in a later time written in that language. Excepting an explanation of the settlement of the aborigines in America, the Bible affords us as good a history of the first formation and extension of Man as could be found and appears perfectly probable, and the remarkable similarity which exists in the language and worship of the people of the East and West would authorize the supposition that they had been derived from a common stock and after separation had changed and differed in the course of time. But2 the history of the principal tribes of the earliest times appears to have a veil drawn over it which it is impossible to take away. Inquiry is vain. As the time in which events take place is near to us, we see the first causes of things and are able to trace events of importance even to the minutest incidents. Time destroys these recollections and particulars are dropped for want of notice in records. As we recede from a hundred to a thousand years we are satisfied if we can mention entire dynasties and merely give a character to an age. We are surprised when we consider how little we know of the history of Carthage, once the rival of Rome, and how doubtful we are of the derivation of the twelve tables which fixed the greatness of the last City.
The early history of Greece has become extremely involved in fable and the identity of men can with great justice be questioned. The accounts of centaurs and other beings who partook of the nature of deities is so mixed in with the early traditions that it is impossible to know what to extract in order to reduce the account to probability. Indeed it is hardly desirable to know any further, as we may with ground suppose that the early compositions have been dropped only because they were worthless; a language and it’s history is only remarkable so far as it exerts an influence upon the character of the { 340 } literature of the nation and for this period only is it worth knowing. The true place for commencing antiquarian researches is where we become supplied with authentic tradition and this is only at a comparatively recent period. It is a remarkable thing in instituting a comparative view of the two great ancient nations that one is indebted to the other for all it’s literature as nothing in the Latin language can strictly be called original if we except the letters of Cicero. It is also remarkable that we are indebted to Rome almost exclusively for our law as Greece had but little knowledge in that science. To Greece we owe our finest models in the drama, in poetry, history and all the organization of modern letters. Greece also transmitted it to us through the fugitives of Constantinople when we were in the lowest state of ignorance. It is also remarkable that their decisions in taste are not controverted to this day, our ways of writing being similar, the peculiarities which critics call romantic belonging rather to the philosophical than to the literary character of modern works. As an instance of this force of antiquity, he mentioned the drama which may divide a play into four or six acts with as much propriety, but no instance of one in either of these divisions ever has or probably ever will succeed. While we derive from these countries the two great branches of literature and law it is somewhat remarkable and unaccountable that we derive our religion from a separate disconnected nation and that, too, the most inconsiderable in ancient times. The study of letters in the Greek language has indeed an intrinsic value and while there is sympathy between mind and mind, the catalogue of distinguished men must excite the admiration and respect of every age.
He then came to notice a controversy which arose concerning the relative value of the ancients and moderns. A great many men had advocated the superiority of the former and forgot to pursue the principle that merit and not age was to be praised. Instead of adhering to their superiority, we ought to be glad when we discover that we really improve upon the ancients. Indeed it would be singular if, according to the natural course of things, having the assistance of these as models and so much experience and wider fields of knowledge, we did not at least equal, probably surpass them. He then illustrated by mentioning a master and his scholars. It would be unreasonable to suppose that a scholar was doomed to remain at the same point exactly where his instructor left him, that he never was to exceed him in any thing. Were this the case the world would ever be at a stand. Indeed only Narrow minded men start with the assertion that this inquiry alone is worth prosecuting. A real scholar will ever disdain these little literary fac• { 341 } tions. He then gave a brief view of the controversy. It was not a new one as Horace, Cicero and Quinctilian.3 The first took the Greeks as his model, admired them and followed them but he did not approve of calling every thing good only because it was old. Cicero supported the dignity of the ancients. Quinctilian, in comparing the rival merits of Cicero and Demosthenes, declares finally in favour of the former but at the same time declares that he shall be much attacked on this account. The revival of letters in Europe was the era of pedantic and unmeasured admiration of the older writers. And any thing was admired which came from the hands of Aristotle and Homer.4 The first formal controversy on the subject was started by Alexander Tassone, preceding this, Annibal Carlo had published a work at Modena called “Various reflections” in which he attacks these two venerated authors. It is a book of much ingenuity and independance but not much learning or taste.
The question was again revived at the close of the seventeenth century by Perrault5 but in this controversy all those who were most able in themselves to be arguments to defend the moderns were on the other side of the question. It originated in a Poem of this man’s which was read at the Academy in which he depreciated the ancient authors and set them below a large list of names among whom but three have come down with distinction. The rest have sunk in oblivion or under ridicule. Fontenelle6 can be ranked on his side of the question and could hardly be called unably defended by a man of his talents and character. Boileau, Fenelon and Racine, three bright examples in favour of their argument, came out against them. It was remarkable that Perrault did not endeavour to reconcile the first of them by placing him on his list instead of irritating him as he did. In England the controversy was agitated about the year 1690 by Sir William Temple who, for a man of his usual sense, appears exceedingly prejudiced on this subject. He argued that there was no merit to be brought forward in modern times and, singular to observe, did not recollect the names of Shakespeare and Milton, of Locke and Newton and Boyle. He was answered very fully and triumphantly by a man named Wotton.7 He closed his lecture by an anecdote illustrating the fanaticism of men and attachment to old prejudices, that upon the discovery of the circulation of the blood, Dr. Harvey when first disclosing it states that he lost all his practice and none could make a Physician over forty years old believe it. After it was fully allowed, a reaction took place and men said it had always been known and even wrote books to prove that Solomon was acquainted with the fact. I have been very diffuse in this { 342 } lecture but I do not know how to condense it. I shall in future attempt to discover a plan. Much, I have left out even now.
After lecture, I went home and read over Ferguson upon the first part of the Solar system, but when taken up, I knew nothing about the distances. In the afternoon I wrote my Journal, studied my Paley, attended recitation and Prayers, returned home and spent the Evening well in writing my Journal, reading an Essay of Pope’s, and making an attempt to acquire a little of a review in Topography but did not succeed as usual. X.
1. Mathematics.
2. CFA carelessly wrote “in” (editorially deleted) as the second word of this sentence.
3. Thus in MS.
4. CFA originally wrote “Plato,” and then overwrote “Homer.”
5. The French poet, Charles Perrault (1628–1703).
6. The French author, Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657–1757).
7. Henry Wotton (1568–1639), English poet and diplomat.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-29

Wednesday. September 29th. VI.

Attended Prayers this morning although tardy, and recitation afterwards in which I escaped by not being taken up. Returned home, dressed for the day and after breakfast attended Mr. Everetts third Lecture. The etymology of language and their origin have ever been a study among men. Considering the changes natural by transmission, it is remarkable that the radical forms are still the same. It is therefore not at all singular that men should attempt to obtain history in this way. Inquiries have given the origin of the Greek to the Hebrew, to the Celtic, the Flemish, the German. A writer of the present day is still more extravagant than Father Hardouin1 which was that German was the court language of Rome. Father Hardouin professed to believe that the Classics were all fabrications by monks in the dark ages. Others have derived the language from the Jews, the Phoenicians, the Goths and Finns. Some have supposed it the original language, Von der Hardt has supported this last opinion. He maintains the opinion that the Gothic is the parent of Latin and Greek with some appearance of probability. Previous to the arrival of the Phoenicians, the Pelasgi existed and it is supposed by some that the Poems of Homer were originally written in this language and afterwards written in the Greek. Marsham2 maintained that the Egyptian was the original language and so did Lord Monboddo,3 and many other opinions.
Two considerations account for so many theories. One, that as so little real authority remains, there is full play for the imagination as the period we are speaking of is carried back to at least 2000 years { 343 } B.C. We are authorized in saying that there are no remains of the language which was original and therefore there is no ground on which to argue. We have witnessed the changes of language in a time so much shorter that we can easily see the uncertainty of any conclusion with respect to the Gothic claim. The Greek is a derived language as indeed is every language of which we have now any idea, or knowledge. A few words generally find their way into every language from another which do not however justify any claim to forming them. We have an example of the possibility of influence in the case of the Island of Malta which the Saracens possessed for a long time in the middle ages. On this account there are a great many remains in the Arabic language, many therefore have to trace these to Carthage and Phoenicia for its origin.4 It is a fallacy however, he thinks, to call languages derivative. Those which produced a national literature should be considered original, and critics should call them so. Etymologists might call them otherwise. Different dialects of Dutch, Flemish, high German, low German, Swedish, Danish &c. are of the Northern stock. Italian, French and Spanish are all from the Latin, yet the members of one nation cannot understand the conversation or language of another. Whatever has been added or changed to the original, which was the same to all, must be original.
There are also the four different dialects of Greece which require more study to understand, the dialect of Homer also which is peculiar to him. But it is not for the grammar of a language that it is worth noticing it, [it] is for the character of the literature of the nation to which it belongs. Originality belongs to this as much as it does to the language itself. Italy wants drama, France wants history and other nations are also deficient in some particular branch which constitutes the peculiarity in their language. Though the Athenians affected to be indigenous, Greece was generally settled by the Pelasgi, barbarians of whom it is a question whether they were aborigines like our own or derived their origin from the East. It is sufficiently certain that there were emigrations from Egypt and Phoenicia about sixteen centuries before the birth of Christ. Four of them are mentioned in history, that of Cecrops in 1556, of Danaus 1485, Cadmus 1493 and Pelops 1350. As these dated [i.e. dates?] are not by any means certain, we may call it generally in the sixteenth century previous to the Christian era. There is certainly a great similarity between the Greek and Oriental languages. There has been of late years a doubt of the identity of such a person as Cadmus or of his ever having existed. It has been generally supposed correct because Cadmus, or [Redden?] as it is in the Oriental { 344 } language, signifies the East so that merely the use of the word has made us suppose it a proper name, but he did not incline to see any reason for this and supposes we might be led into a mistake by our over vigilance and then cited an example exceedingly apt to the purpose. If our history should by some calamity or accident be entirely destroyed and a mere tradition exist as to the history of Columbus, future critics might with the same ground suppose him to be a fabulous character as his name which is Colon in Spanish signifies a (first) settler, and consequently men might say that he was only the first settler and called so by way of distinction. Also of Cabot whose name cabbotir in Italian and French means to explore.
He considers the Greek language as a compound language but it appeared to him, he said, that the Pelasgii far outweighed the oriental. From political and moral causes, he should argue this as it is most probable that men will always take the common terms in use among the larger part and use them as their own. Indeed we are the only example in which the language of emigrants did not vary by that of the nations and this was only because ours was more of a case of extermination and we kept ourselves a single separate body by which it was impossible for our language to be corrupted. He then urged us to recollect and keep in mind these facts, as the Oriental emigrations were the first starting point of the history of the literature of Greece. It is rather remarkable that no native stock has ever grown to the highest excellence and [he] closed his lecture by showing in this case a similarity between the animal and vegetable world in which many trees will remain barren until engrafted with another stock when they will produce luxuriantly.
After Lecture, I returned home and read over my Astronomy, attended recitation where Mr. Farrar explained to us [with] much sense more of the Solar system. I wish and intend to state also his remarks, as he is as much of a lecturer as any other almost. He explained to day the distances of the planets and corrected any erroneous impressions we might have from seeing his orreries.
In the afternoon I wrote my Journal and got a lesson in Paley, and the Evening I employed in finishing a long day’s Journal and in reading Pope’s fifth and last Essay, with the Messiah which, to my shame, I have not noticed before as remarkable. I thus spent the whole Evening in reading and writing for a few moments at Mathematics after which I retired. X:25.
1. Father Jean Hardouin (1646–1729).
2. John Marsham.
3. James Burnett, Lord Monboddo { 345 } (1714–1799), Scottish judge and philosopher.
4. Everett’s second point, as CFA confusedly noted, was that some words are “common to many languages in consequence of the original community of stock” (Everett, Synopsis, p. 2; see entry for 1 Oct., below, for an explanation of this source).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0010-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-09-30

Thursday. September 30th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation, and was again reprieved for a time. I now think that every escape is something. After breakfast, I attended Lecture as usual. He today discussed the origin and progress of alphabetical writing, an inquiry into which, he said, had a material effect upon the question of the authenticity of the oldest writings. There were three distinct processes to be gone through, the one which invents the signs of objects and adapts oral sounds to them, the other which notes them down and a third which would be to associate the other two, and make them represent each other. The first process is the most wonderful of all. The imitative faculty is most powerfully implanted in us and we soon learn to make figures upon paper resembling certain objects and then use them as the signs of these objects afterwards. Previous to this, all communication must have been oral and the history of a tribe could only be transmitted by heads of families and priests, the one who would notice what happened within their own circle and the other the religion and rites of the people. We have reason to suppose that pictures were the commencement of Hieroglyphical writing. Mexicans carried this sort of communication to very great perfection, probably as great as possible, but from it’s nature this sort of language must have been very obscure, and from this cause probably arose alphabetical writing.
This change must have taken place from the perfection of [a] third process which, as he stated before, was the association of the oral and graphic signs. Hieroglyphical writing was unavoidably obscure, as it confounded frequently the signs with the emblems which represented the ideas. Eichhorn1 has made an ingenious conjecture concerning the story of Herodotus, concerning the army of an Oriental prince or, as we may suppose, of Sennachieb [Sennacherib]. This historian says that while in Egypt he understood that this army had been destroyed by mice, who coming to the tents ate off the strings of their bows and the straps of their shields, by which they were made defenceless and perished by the attacks of their enemies. Now in Egypt the mouse is the symbol of destruction and there was a statue of a king there holding a mouse in his hand, alias destruction, but some person, it is supposed, knowing Herodotus to be a stranger, passed off this trick upon { 346 } him, and he wrote this among other[s] as doubtful stories in his history. Hieroglyphics have come down to us as remaining from many monuments. Those on the [monuments?] are the most frequent and on the sarcophagi, both inside and out, also upon some obelisks. The Rosetta stone, as it is called, has an inscription in hieroglyphics, in Coptic, and in Greek. Ammianus Marcellinus has preserved the Greek interpretation of these on one of the Roman obelisks which he showed to us as well as an engraving of the obelisk itself. No successful attempts have ever been made however to decipher them. But one man has ever succeeded in the least and he has merely with reason argued that these figures which are surrounded by parallellogramic line, or rather curve, are proper names, so that we are authorized in making our first assertion, as this has given us no clue, and we may rather believe that there is no interpretation to be obtained for them as they express no language. This species of writing was more used in Egypt than elsewhere but it is supposed that they had an alphabetical character also.
The progress and utility of alphabetical writing was of course affected by want of materials to write on. The earliest in use for this purpose were stone, metals, wood, bark of trees, skins and linen. Bricks or tiles were used at Babylon, hard wood was also in use which was covered with a thin coat of wax and was written upon with a thing called a stylus made of steel and coming to a point; the other end was flattened and served to efface what had already been written if correction was wanted. The laws of the twelve tables and the public acts at Rome were written on bronze plates and laid up in the aerarium,2 copies of which were distributed among the provinces. At the time of the burning of Rome under Vitellius, three thousand of these were destroyed. There is a large brazen plate at Lyons taken from the bed of the Rhine which contains an harangue of the Emperor Claudius. The original law for the ejection of the Bacchanals mentioned in Livy as a Senatus consultum was dug up in Calabria in 1640. He showed us a copy of it. Preparations of linen were also made which were covered with wax. It is probable that the books of Moses were written so and the books of Homer, if written at all, were probably in this way also. Skins of animals were prepared with wax boiled with the lees of olives. Mr. Gifford, the famous editor of the Quarterly Review,3 was so poor, it is said, that he used to write his poems on smooth pieces of leather at the intervals of his work in a saddler’s shop. Cleanthes, it appears, wrote down his master’s lectures upon muscle shells and the shoulder blades of oxen. The seventh century before Christ under Psammetichus, inner bark of trees was peeled off with a needle, dried { 347 } in the sun and polished when it was written upon with a reed, having the appearance of paint. But this preparation, as given in books, does not correspond with the examples which we have which look like a coarse cloth. This was probably used by the poets Alcaeus and Sappho.
The introduction of paper was subsequent to the age of Homer. It had an effect on letters in Greece similar to that of the invention of printing on literature in modern times. The Herculanian rolls are the oldest specimens we have of the papyrus and they have been so decomposed by heat that we cannot judge of them. The use of it continued until the eleventh century A.C. Parchment was perfected by Eumenes, king of Pergamus, as being rival kings in their desire to obtain libraries, Ptolemy had forbid the exportation of Paper which however was thus without avail. It was used generally in Europe in the seventh Century, Cotton paper in the eleventh and linen in the fourteenth.
Lecture being over I went to Lothrops and learnt my directions for the Commencement of the military campaign, then returned to my room and wrote my Forensic on the subject “whether Moral Obligation implies a future state of rewards and punishments.” I was on the affirmative. After dinner I went and gave my company a drill in the rifle exercise, then attended Forensics. They were pretty good, generally speaking, and Mr. Hedge very simply stated the case and decided in favour of our side of the question. I returned and wrote my Journal. In the Evening I visited Brenan, queried the Freshmen a little and then returned, sat in my room some time and then dispersed for a half an hour in which time I finished my duties and then went to Sheafe’s where we met again with the addition of Rundlet and Fay (by we I mean the Lyceum). After they had gone we went into Otis’s and drank Porter and conversed making it quite late before we retired. XII:15.
1. Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (1752–1827), Orientalist and biblical scholar at Göttingen.
2. The state treasury of Rome, which was kept in the basement of the Temple of Saturn (Harper’s Dict. of Classical Lit.).
3. William Gifford (1756–1826), the first editor of the Quarterly Review (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-01

Friday. October 1st.

Attended Prayers this morning and recitation in Topography. I was called upon today and acquitted myself with mediocrity. Making one week over, out of eight which we have before us. I returned home, dressed myself and after breakfast attended Lecture. It was today the history of the Anti Homeric literature, the subjects of which are those { 348 } which we have still remaining of the works of that time, those of which we have authentic accounts, the works themselves being lost and lastly the authors of these works. Three periods may be assumed in the early history of Greek works and although we rank Homer our first author, he does not come until the close of the third period. A peculiar character is to be ascribed to that age when man was just emerging from the barbarous into the heroic state which itself was semibarbarous. The first period above mentioned consequently comprises the age of the earliest lawgivers, founders of tribes, priests, inventors of arts, founders of cities and reformers, whose communication with their fellow men was in an unusual strain, but who can by no means be considered poets in the sense in which we use the term. Of this number were Orpheus, Linus, Amphion and Musaeus, if we ascribe to them any actual existence. They were not poets but only higher wise men, but as the changes between the ages was great as the progress of civilization, it is probable they had nothing to leave worthy of notice.
The second period was that of the sacred songs of the temples, of triumphal hymns in the families of the heroes and the songs of the bards like those in more modern times. Here was more probably the rise of Poetry as an art. It is highly probable that many of these came down to a much later age although they have become unknown in any time which we have records of. The songs in the temples came down and were preserved long after they had become unintelligible. Homer mentions the song of the Salii which was sung but of which nobody knew the meaning. Something similar may be found in our version of the Bible in which there are some words which have lost their meaning but which are preserved because it is not thought worthwhile to affect the associations which are natural to the mind and which would weaken our respect for the sacred scriptures, were we at liberty to expunge at pleasure. This species of writing would however sink naturally also, by the transition into a more polished age.
The third period is that in which poetry was made a single branch of application and was gradually brought to the perfection which we behold in the books of Homer. No one will suppose that a book like the Iliad or Odyssey of Homer could be the first composition in any language. It is so artificially formed that with all the allowance in the world for the native power of creative genius, and all deductions for the work of subsequent critics, there is an art to be seen and traced which could not have proceeded but from a long series of efforts. They may since have been adapted to each other and more highly polished { 349 } and suited to an after age, but nevertheless they are still very much too great for a first exertion.
We are thus prepared to analyze a few of the accounts which we have received of the early authors and which has been perfected for us by the patience of criticism. Fabricius has given us seventy names. We will therefore attempt a few. He previously however noticed a list of names in the synopsis Article 6. of authors of works of reference, for the history of Greek Literature.1 The first class comprise the names of the primitive heroes, Prometheus, Hercules &c. The first was considered as the great leader of the arts and age in this early stage. Chiron, a native of Thessaly, which country appears to have been the cradle of the arts in this country, a curious circumstance when we find it had relapsed into proverbial ignorance and barbarism in the flourishing times of Athens. It has been usual with theologians to attempt to identify every name in ancient history with some one or other of the names in the old testament, thinking in that to make a regular historical account of all ages to agree from different authorities, but it only rendered the Christian account suspect, he thought. Hermes was according to the ancient accounts the author of alphabetical writing, of Geometry, of medicine, of the lyre of seven strings and many other arts, from which it would appear that he was a tolerably versatile genius. He has many works charged to him but they are all fabrications of different periods, two or three of them Arabian, and others in the middle ages or earlier, their names are in the synopsis. He was supposed to have been the [ . . . ] who pursued alchemy as a study; it did not arise until the third century after Christ. He was also called Theuth [Thoth] in Egyptian and Teut in German. Horus and Zoroaster were the last. Of this last he spoke largely, or rather of his supposed work, the Zendavesta [Zend-Avesta] which was said to have been discovered and translated in the eighteenth century by du Perron, a Frenchman.2 Sir William Jones however did not allow its authenticity but argues it as merely tradition which has come down in the East from a much later period. He however thinks that there are two Chapters which appear to be somewhat authentic, even if this is the case the work is extremely valuable. Eichhorn has also added another passage to the number. He is supposed to have existed in Persia in the seventh Century before Christ. From lecture I went home and wrote my Journal which occupied me very nearly all the morning.
I spent half an hour at the reading room and after dinner went to declamation. It was my turn, but I did not [word or words omitted] and my excuse was not accepted. I offered the speech of Patrick Henry { 350 } on the Virginia resolutions and it was accepted. I could find no other. I spent the afternoon committing a piece of poetry, a little song of Waller’s3 to a rose, according to an intention of mine to commit to Memory a certain portion of Poetry in a certain time in order to improve my memory. I also read Thomson’s Autumn, not having had an opportunity to read it at the appointed time. I nevertheless took the commencement of this month instead, to which the poem as strictly applies. I was more pleased than ever with it, the appeal to Industry delighted me very much. Thinking of that song of Wallers, I was struck with the similarity of one of the ideas with one of Grey’s [Gray’s] which has been much admired. “Full many a flower” &c. My afternoon was in this way very agreably taken up.
After Prayers, we drilled in the Corps, which as usual put me into a terribly irritated state, I believe much more pain has issued from serving in my capacity than pleasure. After drill, I was a little while at Otis’s and the rest of the time in my room. We this evening enjoyed the first privileges of the Senior Year by having no lesson on Saturdays. I wrote a large part of my theme and mused away some time.4 XI.
1. The “synopsis” to which CFA alludes is Edward Everett’s own Synopsis of a Course of Lectures on the History of Greek Literature. This octavo pamphlet (extant incomplete copies contain 108 pages) is without author’s name, place, or date of publication, but presumably was printed at or about the time Everett began lecturing at Harvard in 1819. From entries below it is clear that CFA usually carried his copy of the Synopsis to class with him and used it to verify names, dates, titles, and the like in Everett’s learned discourses. CFA’s copy has not been found, but a copy in the Massachusetts Historical Society has proved useful to the present editors for the same purpose and especially in making sense of the diarist’s badly punctuated and sometimes garbled sentences. For an excellent account of Everett’s classical and philological training in Europe and the impact of his lectures at Harvard, see Orie W. Long, Literary Pioneers: Early American Explorers of European Culture, Cambridge, 1935, p. 63–76.
2. Anquetil du Perron (Everett, Synopsis, p. 7).
3. Edmund Waller (1606–1687).
4. CFA also took a walk (D/CFA/1).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-02

Saturday October 2d. VII:30.

Missed Prayers this morning and did not arise until breakfast time. The class as usual were alarmed by an ambiguous expression of Mr. Hayward’s and only had their fears quieted when they found that he had only resorted to one of his usual tricks. At study bell we attended a lecture of Mr. Everett’s. He commenced with an account of the names included in his second period in which he includes the authors of the sacred songs of the temples, heroic hymns and songs of the bards. Of these there are two names, Phemius and Demodocus, rendered remarkable by being mentioned by Homer and the Sibylline { 351 } | view Oracles. The history of these he said would take far more space than he could possibly allow to the subject, he should not therefore go into [it] but refer us to an essay upon the subject in Mitford’s Greece which he said was worth reading. Origin of them probably was in the superior wisdom and sanctity of individuals who foreseeing events with more clearness took upon themselves the power of inspiration. They afterwards fell into the hands of the priesthood by the natural course of events. Learning being exclusively theirs. These oracles did not confine themselves by any means to Greece. They existed and had influence in Asia Minor, in the Islands and in Syria. The ancient authors mention many but those of the Sibyl were the most famous. The etymology of the name is doubtful, some derive it from Διος βουλη1 which it was supposed to express. There are at least twenty different derivations of the word, some say more. Ten sibyls were named by Varro, whose names are inserted in the synopsis Article 8.3. The first was supposed to be the daughter of Tiresias, the second existed previous to the Trojan war and foretold it, the third was consulted by Aeneas, the fourth belonged to the islands and flourished about the 10th Olympiad, the seventh is mentioned by Euripides, the eighth by Justin Martyr who says there were twenty four books of her sayings in the 120th Olympiad. All these were in circulation at Rome except the Cuman [Cumaean] which the Senate suppressed as it was the most holy; they only consulted it upon solemn and important occasions and acted by it’s decisions.
History of the Sibylline Oracles at Rome is singular. The story of their being offered to Tarquin the proud is well known, in nine books and an exorbitant price demanded, which offer being refused, she burnt three and offered the remaining six which being again refused, she burnt three more and demanded the same price for the remainder. This time she was successful and obtained her price. These books were preserved in the Capitol in the temple of Juno under the care of the duumviri appointed for that purpose, the number was afterwards increased to ten and then to fifteen. One author says that in a later age the number was seventy, which proves the office to have been held in great estimation. There is an abbreviation for their title which I do not recollect but the explanation is duumviri sacris faciendis. He said while on this subject, it was worthwhile to mention two or three of these, which we should often meet with in Latin History. The master of the mint for instance had his duty thus written—A.A.A.F.F.P. auro, argento, aere, flando, feriundo propositius. So also a common inscription upon the old Roman tombs, C.S.H.S.T.T.L. communi sumptu haere• { 352 } | view dum sit tibi terra levis. H.D.V. caro datu vivit. The oracles were destroyed at the burning of the Capitol under Sylla. They were replaced from all parts of the world as works were collected from all parts of the world, examined and some of them selected, and placed in gilded cases in the temple of Apollo from which they were saved at it’s conflagration. It was the part of ecclesiastical discernment to see the use such things might be put to, they have frequently in them the sign of a fish and this is also seen on the tombs of the early Christians. The origin of it is this, the initial letters of the words they used, in the Greek language formed the word Ιχθνς or Ιησου Χριστου Θεου υιος σταυρος.2 This proves the works fabricated which are called the sibylline Oracles.
A work now extant under the name is of this sort, it was written by the christians who were aware they would obtain much influence if the predictions of the Pagans were according to their wishes. He then entered into a short analysis of this work. The first book is a close imitation of the creation according to the book of Genesis and a prediction of our Saviour which proves his work to have been written since the Christian era. The second was a mere general prophecy of future events. The third was concerning Antichrist, but it has always been a matter of question among men to decide whether by this personage Nero was meant or Martin Luther. She also declares herself to be the daughter of Noah. The fourth treats of the destruction of kingdoms and the last Judgment. In the fifth, she calls herself the sister of Noah and gives a list of the Roman Emperors by their initial letters. In the sixth she gives the account of the baptism of our Saviour, the seventh gives an account of the happy state of the righteous and the eighth foretells the judgment of nations. Most of this was fabricated in the early part of the Christian history with some scraps collected of the old Sybilline books and woven into the work. There have been a large number of fabrications of a similar sort.
After Lecture, I returned home and wrote my Journal for the day before, which employed me all the remainder of the morning. In the afternoon, I wrote a letter to Tudor3 concerning his affairs here, in which I stated to him very simply the whole of the affair. I think it singular that he left town without paying a private debt to me, but such are young men. I dislike human nature more every day and am more disgusted with the young men than ever. I then committed a piece of poetry according to custom which passed off the afternoon with a visit at Morse’s to [buy] some furniture.
In the Evening, Fisher paid me a visit, the first for some time. { 353 } After he left, I corrected my theme and then went up to Otis’s where I found Fisher. I had intended to stay only ten minutes and stayed a very long while for, happening to fall into quite interesting conversation, and being over a very good fire, we sat and sat until the clock warned Fisher to go home and me to come down to my room, in which I had no inclination to sit with no fire, and at such an hour, so that after reading my Bible I retired at the hour of XII:10.
1. The will of God.
2. That is (transliterating the Greek), the word Ichthus or Icthys (fish) could be formed by using the initial letters of the expression Iesous CHristos THeou HYios Stauros (Jesus Christ, Son of God, the Cross). But either Everett or CFA mangled the expression in question, for the last word should not be Stauros but Soter (Saviour).
3. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-03

Sunday. October 3d. VIII.

Missed Prayers this morning and arose late to breakfast, after which I sat down and wrote my Journal, which, with some time taken up at Otis’s room, passed off very nearly all the morning. I attended Chapel and heard the President, and only heard him, for I sunk into my usual apathy and was conscious of nothing passing before me. This is the most singular state in the world, and I believe if I am ever entirely devoid of thought, it is then. My mind appears to be in a state of inattention, and although sometimes it wanders off to distant scenes, it is more than half the time in a state of sleepiness which is vacancy. I think the greatest metaphysical truth that I have seen is that when the mind does not think, it goes to sleep.
Returning, I wrote more of my Journal but I spent the whole of the afternoon in Richardson’s room conversing with him upon political subjects. What was the inducement I cannot tell but it prevailed. I talked about the political struggle which is now so soon to come on and stated my opinion prudently and at the same time decidedly. I am afraid, I shall have a pretty hard course of conduct to pursue here among the students at the time of the heat. It is a terrible situation. A man’s father to be thus buffeted and exposed to all the falsehoods, misrepresentations and slanders which scoundrels please to make. I am sick of political life but I see no other course to take, to be a private man would injure me as something is expected and to be any thing except a lawyer or a political man is not my turn of mind.
In the afternoon Dr. Ware talked to us of Moses, not much to my edification. Why do I hate that man? In the Evening, I first took a walk, returned home, wrote my Journal to the end, then went to { 354 } Richardson’s where I found Rundlet, Fay, and Brenan came in soon after.1 The second is now in fear of a dismission and appears much troubled.2 I heard some news today that we were going to have Mr. Ticknor’s lectures in future, in the evening, added to all our other duties.3 If true, half the benefit which I expected to derive from my last year here will be lost, and upon this idea, I retired with melancholy reflections. XI.
1. Thus punctuated in MS.
2. Richard Sullivan Fay’s fears were unfounded; he graduated with his class in 1825.
3. George Ticknor’s lectures on French literature, which CFA summarizes in the following pages, were an outgrowth of his studies abroad. With Edward Everett he attended the University of Göttingen in 1815–1817, and he later studied also in France, Spain, and Italy. For an account of Ticknor as student and as teacher, see Long, Literary Pioneers: Early American Explorers of European Culture.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-04

Monday. October 4th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography this morning as usual. After breakfast also, I attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture. He commenced today with the third class of those who preceded Homer and under whom Poetry was formed into an entirely distinct art. We have among these Olen, Thamyris and Tiresias. The [first] of these was a Lycian by birth and a quotation is mentioned from Callimachus in which he is mentioned. It is given in the synopsis. His origin agrees also with what we know already of ancient Lycia, and it’s early refinement; Pausanias makes him a Hyperborean. In the early times, when men had but indistinct notions of Geography, they supposed the earth flat and that beyond the Northern regions was situated the residence of perfect happiness. On this account they were called Hyperborean. The second, Thamyris, is mentioned by Homer for his contest with the Muses and is called a Thracian by him, which country seems to have the priority in advancement. Thamyris was reported to be blind. It is rather a singular thing that in ancient times almost every man who was distinguished for talent was said to be blind. If we can consider it worth our inquiring, we should ascribe it to the known superiority of the blind in memory. He then went on to consider two prose writers who are said to be authors of the present age of which we speak and of whom we have fragments. The first is Sanconiathon. He is called a native of Berytus by some, others suppose him a Tyrian. He wrote, it is said, in the language of Carthage or the Punic. According to Eusebius, the writings of this author were translated into Greek and he has preserved fragments of it. Authors { 355 } have supposed that this Philo Biblius, who was the translator, compiled these fragments from ancient genuine manuscripts and added interpolations of his own, which is probably the correct opinion. They contain a version of the Jewish system of the formation of the world and the Platonist doctrines of the middle ages, and he made a quotation to illustrate with. These fragments were translated by Bishop Cumberland and notes were added and a commentary who [which?] attempted to prove that these fragments contained in themselves a series of profane history for three thousand years from the creation. His object, it was said, was to prevent the growth of popery. The work is never read now and it is only to be regretted that he, being so learned a man, should have so mispent his time. (Poor man, he was only doing what a thousand men are doing every day. Who shall decide what is [a] wise pursuit or what is not? “Vanity of vanities all is vanity.”)
The next work is evidently one of a later age but the extravagance of ancient authors compells us to put it before the Trojan War. This work is the Periplus or navigation of Hanno, a Carthaginian Prince who made a voyage of discovery beyond the columns of Hercules. He wrote down what happened and this is the result. It is supposed that he introduced many of the fables which were ever after told in Greece and elsewhere. Some have said that he had written a full account of which the work in two folio pages is an abstract, this latter is all we have. Fabricius however has supposed that this is all the work and with reason. He is said to have gone with 60 sail and thirty thousand men which in the commencement renders his account exceedingly improbable, but when we recollect how extremely liable ancient manuscripts are to be incorrect in numbers, we are prepared to make large allowances for them, and as there is only a small mark as a distinction between three thousand and thirty thousand, it is very probable the latter was placed there instead of the former which is about the correct number. There is some of the marvellous in the account but not more than we are prepared to find in any work of travellers who are liable to be incorrectly impressed. When going along the coast of Africa, he says he saw some blazing mountains. Now although we have no instance of mountains of that sort in our day yet we have blazing mountains nearer home which ancients would not believe. And they may have ceased burning as the volcanic matter became exhausted. Travellers he will1 had made the Patagonians at different times twelve, nine and seven feet and a half when it is not probable that in fact they are much larger than Indians generally. It is impos• { 356 } sible that the theory of Vossius2 as to his being of the Ante Homeric age. It is improbable as no works have been written at that early period in prose. This itself is a convincing argument so far, but the antiquity of the ancient researches in navigation are proved from the knowledge that the Carthaginians sailed round the strait of the Mediterranean. They knew a course also by which they sailed in the Boristhenes, thence by a short land carriage, they got to the Vistula and so they went round through the straits. In these times the doctrine was that the earth was surrounded by the sea but this they imagined to mean a river only, conveying a very different meaning from ours to us. There is a passage in Tacitus in which he mentions that Ambre was obtained in abundance among the Germans with whom it was most common and who called it Glasium from whence evidently the derivation of glass.
There is also a question as to the next person, Orpheus, who has some works ascribed to him as an Ante Homeric author, whether he was really a man, but this was fully answered in a former lecture. A quotation of Aristotle’s opinion in Cicero was considered as favouring the assertion that he was not. It has since however been considered as meaning that the works under his name are not really his and not that he did not live. Neither Homer nor Hesiod have mentioned him which is accounted for because he formed the mysteries for which he is distinguished which were not organized until after them.
Returning home I read Astronomy, attended recitation, and heard some remarks from Mr. Farrar upon the four new Planets and Herschel.3 A little I might wish to have noted but I have not the time. He merely stated the way they were named, first called by the Patrons of the different discoveries, afterwards after they themselves,4 and finally they obtained the regular names of the ancient mythology. After dinner, I read Paley but did not get my lesson well although I attempted a great deal. In the Evening, I gave a drill to my company after which I did not attend Mr. Ticknor’s lecture tonight but sat down at Otis’s and the Lyceum played a game of whist after which I had some conversation with Otis and then retired. XI.
1. Thus in MS, for “said”?
2. Sentence scrambled in MS.
3. Sir William Herschel (1738–1822), the English astronomer who discovered Uranus.
4. Thus in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-05

Tuesday. October 5th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation and was very unexpectedly called upon by Mr. Hayward. I however managed pretty well—these recita• { 357 } tions are rather farcical excepting with a few. After breakfast, I went to Lecture but forgot to carry with me my Synopsis which will perhaps affect the regularity of my notes. He continued today his account of Orpheus where actual evidence is granted by all ancient authors. He was a native of Thrace, the land first cultivated in Greece. His geographical situation was exceedingly well adapted to have made the country a literary one, no region indeed could have been more happily calculated to have been the cradle of Greece. The names and worship of the muses, and all the religious mysteries commenced in Thrace. Pieria, Rhodope, Haemus and Strymon are all classical names and all Thracian and were the first adopted in literature and poetry. It was the highway from Asia to Europe and consequently improved the earliest. It was also open on three sides to the sea and received all the new acquirements both of Asia and Europe. Thus it was three or four centuries preceding the time of Solon and Lycurgus.
We do not however understand the causes why Thrace declined while the other parts of Greece were developing themselves. There are now extant four works which are asserted to be his, the names of which are given. The learned have differed very much as to these works, [which] some authors have supposed very ancient, others very modern. Gessner1 published an edition of these works with a commentary and two dissertations upon ancient navigation. Here he attempts to prove it to have had it’s origin really in Orpheus’ time and his argument was a pretty good one. Schneider, Tyrrwhi[tt] and Hermann2 considered them as of the second or third century of the christian era. The latter has written a work on the peculiar character of the genius which distinguished him in which he examines critically the progressive modification of Hexameter verse, showing the gradual changes which it underwent from the time of Homer until the age in which the sort of verse was remodelled by Nonnus.3 He examines the Trochaic caesura in the fourth foot, the lengthening of doubtful vowels, the hiatus and several other signs by which he proves that the poem could not have been composed in an early age when these refinements were not introduced.
The oldest period which the poem which principally engrosses notice, the Argonautica, is assigned to is the time of the Persian invasion of Greece. They are generally attributed to Onomacritus an Athenian priest who being detected in interpolating the oracles of Musaeus was expelled from Athens by Hipparchus and took refuge in the court of the Persian king whither he carried his oracles, and he incited Xerxes to the undertaking an invasion of Greece by suppressing { 358 } the unfavourable responses. It has been translated but this account is all suspicious.
The Lithica, or the next work given to him, is asserted by Tyrwhitt to belong to the age of Constantius when the first edict against magic was issued. This book, as from it’s name may be collected, treats of the magical properties of stones, twenty two species of which it examines. Ruhnkinius4 thinks the style too good for that age and refers it to the time of Domitian under whom philosophers were subjected to banishment and all sorts of punishment. This man was an extraordinary scholar, his life was written by Wittenbach and is well worth reading as a specimen of the best Latinity in modern times. These decrees against magic were to give us a clue to the date of this work and consequently it is referred with reason to these two times.
The hymns are supposed to be older than either of the two before-mentioned. They are analyzed by Tiedemann, and although some small fragments are inserted in the whole, it is in it’s present state, a fabrication of the era when christianity and Platonism were so singularly mingled. The same may be said of the fragments, but they contain some valuable remains mixed in. He mentioned a song and the sixth which [is] a splendid ascription to Jupiter. These fragments, we must recollect, are obtained from the quotations which Greek writers have made in their own works; thus these were obtained from Eusebius, Clemens Alexandrinus and others of the middle centuries. He then noticed the editions of the author, for the first time he has done it to any, he distinguished the Princeps and the Optima, the former being the first and the latter the best. One published at Florence in 1500 is the first, Gessner’s in 1764 was considered the best until that of Hermann came out which has scarce a superior in the whole field of philological discussion.
I returned home immediately and employed myself this morning in reading my Astronomy, to recite which I attended as usual. Mr. Farrar has a singular way of questioning us, as he does not confine himself at all in his questions to what he has given us as a lesson. He lectures in the mean time, at least familiarly instructs us. We today learned of him all the new discoveries in Mercury and Venus and [he] explained to us the principles by which we obtained a knowledge of the different situations of planets at different times with respect to the earth. He went on so fast here however that I found it impossible to follow him, and my ideas are not clear upon the subject. After Lecture or recitation, he showed us an orrery on a large scale and the motion of the bodies exhibited. It is a very ingenius work indeed, { 359 } made by a Mr. Pope of Boston, bought by the Legislature and presented to the College. It exhibits the motion and situation of the Sun, Mercury, Venus, the Earth and its moon, Jupiter and four Moons, Saturn and four, which was all the Solar system at that time known. These severally turn on their own axis and crossed the Sun in proportional time. Thus the mechanism is exceedingly complicated, it is not very valuable now however as much has been since found incorrect which was believed at that time.
After dinner I spent an hour and more making a bargain for some candles which I incline to prefer to lamps. They are rather more expense but I think them so much pleasanter to sit with that I shall be willing to pay the difference. At any rate I can go back again to the others if I do not like these. Having returned home I was in no mood to study so that it was late before I had got fixed and still later before I could bend my mind down to my lesson. I think I was less prepared today than at any time since I have been in Paley. I was not called upon however and only blamed myself for not having kept my resolution of knowing the thing for the thing itself. Morals are a study which like all other studies is dry in parts but ought not the less to be learnt. After Prayers and tea, I gave my company a drill in the Rifle exercise until seven o’clock, it being a beautiful moonlight night. They progressed and improved rapidly.
I detained them until the bell rung for Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture when I dismissed them and immediately hurried in to hear him. He had already commenced and the room was so full it was not possible to obtain a good seat to take notes. I tried however. He has cut short his course very much and to my great regret had noticed Sully and Montagne last Evening. He commenced tonight an account of Corneille. Pierre Corneille was born in Normandy, the country which nourished the literature of France, he was educated by the Jesuits and bred to the law. He did not pursue his profession with much pleasure, although he applied for and obtained a low place under the government, which he might even have continued to fill without distinction had it not been for an accident which gave his genius it’s direction. When going once to visit a lady with a friend, they each agreed to pay their court to her and he succeeded but in [incurring?] her regard. He then wrote the Comedy of Melite in consequence. This being more successfull than he had any reason to hope he wrote five more Comedies in succession. He had not however yet found his place. In 1635 he wrote Medea and in the year following, the Cid. From this time until 1642 he wrote only two Comedies which added nothing to his reputa• { 360 } tion, and the total failure of the last warned him, as he said, to quit the Stage. He therefore retired, and as he had many religious fears that what he wrote were only so many splendid sins, the natural affect of his education, he spent six years of his life in seclusion making a version of Thomas a Kempis. He came forward again however in 1659 and gave a number of new plays, thus he continued until 1672 not materially increasing his reputation, when he retired altogether and spent the rest of his life in the manner directed by his early bent. He died in 1681, not rich but very well rewarded for the exertion he had made.
As to himself, all we know of him is that he was simple in his manners, rather negligent in his appearance and too independent of the Court to promote his own advancement. But it is in the history of his genius that we are most interested, as being the cause of the reformation which took place in French literature between about 1630 and 1650. It is he who unites the classical days of France with those which immediately precede him. We think of him too much with later men and we should always rather consider those who were before him than those after. We bring too much into our own times, the more we examine him, the more we shall find that he belonged to each age in part. His spirit gave the impulse to the literature of the age of Louis 14th. while he himself was not quite clear of all the faults of his predecessors. He knew nothing of the three unities5 as these had not at that time acquired such a commanding influence as they have since possessed. He had but one of these, that of time. The plot of Melite is clumsy and the fifth act is entirely useless, but he gave the strain in a more native and simple expression, and his wit was by far better than any which had yet been seen on the French stage. This play was at first but little understood as the people had not yet become alive to quiet and sprightly wit. Afterwards it filled the house. Comedy had not hitherto been so well known in France. Next came Clitandre, which may with truth be called a successfully bad comedy. In 1634 La Veuve came out, the story of which is well [ . . . ],6 the characters are well supported, the style is pleasant and many very comic situations. It had a long success.
Next came la Galerie du Palais and next the suivante, 1635. It was at this time that the unities were formed by Chapelin.7 This is the first part of Corneille’s history in which he wrote many good things but nothing extremely remarkable; he was controlled by the opinion of his time. In 1635 Medea made it’s appearance, formed from the ancients in a regular and more elevated style. In 1636 The { 361 } Cid appeared, a piece which excited a greater interest than any since the time of the Greeks. It was drawn from the Spanish of de Castro. Cardinal Richelieu became offended with him and he influenced the Academy considerably in their decisions. In 1639 Les Horace appeared, which was condemned by the Academy but supported by the people. In 1639 Cinna, which was most important in it’s effects as it fixed the victory of Richelieu and his unities, being written in that style. As to the unities, he mentioned that Aristotle never thought of introducing such unities as all he says is merely to procure that of action. He then entered into a discussion upon the ancient Theatre with which he closed and I closed the Evening with my Journal. XI.
1. Johann Matthias Gesner (1691–1761), librarian and classical scholar at Göttingen (Harper’s Dict. of Classical Lit.).
2. Presumably Professor Johann Gottlob Schneider (1750–1822), of Breslau; Thomas Tyrwhitt (1730–1786), of Oxford; and Professor Johann Gottfried Jacob Hermann (1772–1848), of Leipsic (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 3:11, 2:419).
3. An Egyptian poet of the 4th century after Christ; see Everett’s Synopsis, p. 14.
4. Professor David Ruhnken (or Ruhkenius) (1723–1798), of Leyden (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:456–460).
5. The so-called Aristotelian unities of time, place, and action, which under the influence of the French Academy, founded by Richelieu, became rigid requirements in French drama.
6. Illegible; possibly “managed.”
7. Jean Chapelain (1595–1674), a dominant figure in the French Academy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-06

Wednesday. October 6th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. After breakfast, I went as usual to lecture. He commenced today the account of Musaeus. He was the scholar and imitator of Orpheus and Linus. He was by some called the founder of the mysteries, his name has led to the supposition that he was not actually a man, but this, as he had already mentioned, was no way of judging. Almost all ancient and many modern names having meanings of some sort attached to them. He is supposed to have been an Athenian and to have lived 1253 before Christ. Many works were ascribed to him under a variety of names, mentioned in the pamphlet.1 He was highly respected, as may be proved by the decision mentioned yesterday concerning Onomacritus. Orpheus is made in the present hymns to ascribe his first to him and Virgil makes him first of the Elysian bards. He is supposed to have been the son of Eumolpus, itself a name signifying a good singer, who led a Thracian emigration into Greece, two or three generations before Theseus. It is very probable that he flourished at Athens as this city had already begun to flourish. It was the only place for a long time which had received a fixed permanent population by it’s navigation. { 362 } It’s being surrounded by mountains in the north and the isthmus in the south, it was comparatively safe from the incursions of enemies.
But notwithstanding the credibility of traditions concerning him, his works are lost. Plato, Aristotle and Pausanias have preserved Fragments but it is impossible to believe their authenticity. There is one work with his name but writers with only one exception ascribe it to the age before Nonnus, as the work of an Alexandrian Grammarian of the eighth century. The names are given in the pamphlet. It is the story of Hero and Leander, so well known it does not require mentioning. Father Hardouin argues that as a medal existed representing a man swimming across the Hellespont, that by it was meant a great exertion of strength such as man ought to make, and that the motto meant the strength of a man instead of Hero and Leander. This is a fine specimen of Father Hardouin’s general force in criticism and in plausibility, he mentioned the other day. The work though much valued at the revival of letters is now very little read. The princeps edition is one of the Aldine press.
Suidas speaks of an author older than Homer by the name of Palaephatus. There were four of the name, one of whom wrote a work which is partly extant now. We read part of it in the Graeca Minora. They were concerning the fabulous parts of mythology, giving explanations to all the accounts which are related. These explanations are all made by the Alexandrian Grammarians as it is very certain no ideas of the sort ever existed in writing concerning the sacred parts of their religion. The style is so mixed moreover that it is very possible that much in it is of very high antiquity with large interpolations. There are two more Greek authors of the Anti Homeric age, of whom only Latin versions are supposed to exist. One wrote, Isidore says, of the wars of the Greeks and Trojans, his name was Dares and he was a Phrygian. AElian says, his Iliad was extant in his time. The Latin work now extant treats of the fall of Troy. It is supposed to be a translation made by Nepos and sent to Sallust with a letter which is inserted in the pamphlet.2 This is not known to be the version of the Greek work noticed by AElian. Fabricius supposes that AElian referred to a prose work and consequently to one of later date, but he thought from the context which he quoted that there was no ground for such an hypothesis. The work extant would of course not be a translation of it. The work extant is a prose summary of a Latin Poem written in the dark centuries.
The second pretended Anti Homeric author is Dictys of Crete. He is not spoken of by any ancient author whatever. John of Antioch first { 363 } mentions his book on the Trojan War in six parts. He is said to have been a native of Greece and wrote a journal of the Trojan war on the bark of the linden tree which was buried in Crete. At the earthquake in the time of Nero, this chest of tin which contained the book was thrown up, found and sent to Rome where it was translated by Septimius, according to the account given in his own preface to the history which is also inserted in the pamphlet.3 This work is by some supposed to be a fabrication of the age of Diocletian, though not written as Perizonius intimates with any intention of opposing Christianity. Some people have supposed it original in Latin but the more probable account is that it was translated by Septimius. [Laccaus?] asserted that no Greek text of it is extant but Leo Allatius states that there is, although he mentions no particulars.
After Lecture, I went home and read my Astronomy over. I do not think the work a good one for instruction. It has nothing clear and distinct in it, one has to refer from one part of the book to another and then back again, receive impressions entirely incorrect in the mean time, which you have only to get off your mind again. I have gathered but little even from his lectures. He today explained the motions of the satellites of Jupiter, and calculations made on them. He also explained the theory of gravitation round their primary, as it appeared to be a law among all that we know, to present the same side always. This is not the case with respect to the primaries revolving round the Sun as they are at a distance too great from the Sun to feel it’s effects so powerfully. He explained the reasons why we saw the shadow of the satellites of Jupiter upon that body, when they were passing before the Sun and on the whole was unusually amusing today.
After recitation and dinner, I sat down and got my lesson in Paley. We are now upon a part of his work which I can see but little objection to but which I feel to be a system of morals adapted rather to make me a villain by seeing how easily the barriers may be broken than by really making me conscious of principles, bind me to a regular course of action.
The afternoon over with Prayers, I spent an hour writing my Journal and then attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. In 1642 [1643] Corneille presented the Menteur, a comedy which made an example upon the French stage which awakened Moliere. In 1646 he came out with Rodogune a play which he himself preferred above all others but the four first acts are entirely sacrificed to form the tremendous power of the fifth. Next came Don Sancho of Arragon, a piece drawn from { 364 } the Spanish of Lope de Vega—it is full of wild and romantic incident but it fell at last—it failed upon representation. This reminded him it was time to leave the stage, as has been previously mentioned, and he did not come again upon it until 1659 when he wrote Andromeda and Psyche and for the thirteen years following he wrote twelve pieces, none however so good as his former attempts. Hitherto he had enjoyed the field undisputed, without a rival, but now he was about to find an obstacle in a man who was to be a rival and in time to become his superior upon the French stage, in 1664.
Racine at this time produced his Andromaque in 1667. Henrietta, the princess who was at this time residing here, determined that these two great writers should take the same subject and she managed it so that they knew nothing of what each other were doing. Thus they produced at about the same time the tragedy of Berenice. She had formerly been in love with the king, but as policy required a separation, she had given way. This sacrifice to principle is so similar to what she had read in the story of Berenice in Tacitus that she requested a play to be made of it. That of Racine’s was represented a week before Corneille’s and was completely successful, while the other as totally failed. He afterwards produced Surena but he felt that it was time for him to retire. He had written much lately but there was no probability he would ever equal what had gone before. Racine had now come out with Iphigenia and was evidently fast eclipsing him, he therefore employed himself in writing afterwards books of a religious nature such as the version of Thomas a Kempis which are of little or no value. He was the author of thirty four dramas and by it was the founder of French tragedy and comedy. A revolutionary movement had commenced in the preceding age and he was under its influence. The power of the nobles even had been crushed by Louis the 11th and liberty was gone. This was what galled Corneille and many passages of the Horatii breathe principles which evidently show a violent contest in his mind between his natural feelings and his desire to please the reigning power.
He then summed up in more space than I can give the character of the man which he said we liked when we discovered what was really his own. Racine was born in 1639, at five years of age he became an orphan, he was educated at Port Royal and would never have been distinguished had it not been for a chance ode to Cardinal Mazarin which attracted notice and was followed up by another to the Queen. They neither have much merit but they got him a pension. In 1664 he produced les Freres Ennemis, a regular play but not at all predic• { 365 } tive of his future merit as a writer. He said more which I shall insert in my tomorrow’s account as I have filled enough today. I returned home, wrote my Journal, spent half an hour with Otis and retired.
1. See Everett’s Synopsis, p. 17.
2. Same, p. 20–21.
3. Same, p. 21–22.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-07

Thursday October 7th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation, was called upon and acquitted myself as well as usual. After breakfast attended Lecture which consisted of observations upon the Anti homeric writers as he had given them. These works he said had been [ . . . ] upon for the sake of making a regular series until the time of Homer but true authenticity begins with him. The causes of the greatness of the Greeks is a question often discussed. We do not treat of the respective merits of nations standing on the same point of refinement but we inquire into the first efforts of humanity which will of necessity happen in some age or other. On this account, before the Homeric age, local causes had little influence in directing light to particular parts of Greece. No division of tribes had been made nor was there any distinction of country made. Indeed as to the reasons for different sorts of improvement in different situations, we can make out but few after assigning some gross, geographical causes. The inference which was drawn by Rousseau, although it has obtained much notice, is not correct, that a man when in a savage state must be in a state of nature. A man is truly in a state of nature when all his faculties, mental and bodily, are developed to the greatest perfection and not as in a savage state when he knows but half himself.
But the first fact we have in Grecian history is that improvement was capricious, and the second, that where once commenced, it all tended to that part of Greece which afterwards became the metropolis of refinement. There was no political distribution so late as the Trojan war and but one tribe, the Achaeans, had a name. Before that, exploits and expeditions were conducted by families and merely concerned them, there was no great national spirit, though it was evidently increasing. Of this sort of expedition are the three cases mentioned in the pamphlet, the Seven against Thebes, which has since been the subject of a beautiful play by Aeschylus, The Cretan under Theseus and the Argonautic, as piracy at that time was not considered blameable. These deeds had their effect by introducing much refinement { 366 } into the country and prepared them for the Trojan war which was the first thing which brought them all together, and by it’s length formed a union, as they soon discovered that without it they never could hope to succeed in the object of their contest.
Modern criticism has doubted the whole history of Troy, but those who doubt it ought to bring as probable an account of the rise of the Greek character. There is a great similarity between this history and that of the Crusades which first gave a character to the different nations of Europe. But he assumed for a moment the Trojan war as actually having happened, and observed that the consequences of it did not answer the first promise, as for sometime the nations were engaged in civil broils and local contests which checked the progress of civilizations. Four tribes were formed however which may be reduced to two, the Ionic and the Doric which last was not settled until the return of the Heracleids [Heraclidae] after the Trojan war. These internal troubles however had one good effect, by settling Asia Minor with Ionians who founded many extremely flourishing states. It has been urged by English writers with respect to this country that no colony could ever equal it’s parent but here we have in the very first example in history a contradiction of the assertion. For while improvement was arrested in the elder country Man’s genius had reached it’s achme in it’s first flight and the books of Homer were produced. We are in possession of poems which after all deductions, were substantially composed in Ionia, and which have never since been equalled. They had a great effect upon the literature of the country although not so much as could have been expected had it not been for the troubled state of the times. The heroic age passed away and with it went all attempt at equal excellence. The Cyclic poets succeeded, of whom he will speak hereafter. The most glorious effect of Homer’s poems was that it gave such an impulse upon the national spirit that Lycurgus, who in his institutions was opposed to the admission of literature and who being a Dorian was bound to oppose an Ionian poet, nevertheless had them collected and brought to Sparta to animate his country men with a national spirit. Solon did the same at a later period.
After Lecture, I returned home, copied my Theme and carried it to Mr. Channing. He informed me that he never read my themes, indeed he treats me in a way so singular that I do not know what to make of it, and only hope to have some future opportunity of repaying him. I spent the rest of the morning in writing my Notes out which is a most interminable labour. In the Afternoon, I found that if on Saturday morning we had obtained one gratification, we had lost another in { 367 } having an exercise now, but I found we are rather on the winning side as we gain every Saturday and we lose only every other Thursday. I paid considerable attention to my lesson but he went upon the other side. This is an excellent way Mr. Hedge has of confining himself to the one or other half of the class and in this way putting a part, at least, out of all anxiety.
After Prayers the whole battalion drilled for the Rifle Exercise and most heartily disgusted me with the Company. I feel mortified at the way I had been treated and grieved for the conduct of men or rather boys tonight, I made a formal complaint against Brigham and am determined never to have him in my company again, this I also stated, and that I should resign rather than see him there. My feelings had been irritated to an uncommon degree, and I had tried what consisted with my duty to myself, this having failed, the same principle actuates me to my decision. Our drill having been so long, I had no opportunity to go home and obtain my note book so that I could take no notes this Evening and shall have to depend on my memory and an illegible manuscript of Sheafe’s. Human nature is a singular contradiction. I did the very thing at Mr. Ticknor’s lecture, to tease him, which had been done by others to me. To be sure, I did not disgrace myself, but was merely foolish and have since been ashamed.
Alexandre may also be called not much of a tragedy. In 1667 however he1 produced Andromaque, being 27 years old. In this he evidently manifested that he had caught the spirit of the Ancients. Love is the plot of this play, a passion on which almost all later pieces have turned. In 1668 he produced the “Plaideurs,” a Comedy which he imitated from Aristophanes. This is divided into three acts and although not a perfect Comedy is a most exquisite Farce. He hit off with true Attic wit the wretched manner of delivering judgment in law and may be called an admirable model. This play did not succeed first, but when represented at Versailles before the King, he, though a grave man, was continually laughing during the whole piece. It became of course a favourite at the court and has continued ever since to be represented with applause upon the French stage. In 1669 Brittanicus came out, a play which had cost him much labour, indeed more than any of his others, but which at its first representation scarcely passed without condemnation. The subject is drawn from Tacitus and is one capable of high finish. The play has since risen to it’s proper place and is now very popular. In 1670 Berenice appeared, the success of which has been already mentioned. In 1672 Bajazet appeared and Mithridate in the year following. Voltaire, who has a right to judge upon such an occa• { 368 } sion, pronounces Iphigenie, his next play which came out in the succeeding year, to be the best piece on the French stage. The characters are marked and prominent, his diction is exquisite and his manner is elegantly fluent. The second quality he probably possessed in greater perfection than any other French author. In 1677 Phedre was represented. This was his final piece and it was not destined to pass through without undergoing the severe criticism of a party who were jealous of his success and could not forgive him for surpassing Corneille. They consequently excited so much opposition to him that it affected him very much, he felt offended at the attacks of his rivals and was deeply wounded at the reception of this last of his productions.
He determined to leave the Stage and at the age of 38 he took farewell of the stage. At first he thought of entering a monastic order but at last he determined to retire and devote himself to educating his children. His character instantly changed with his course of life and he became insensible to the favour of the court and to the fame of his works. He was appointed in conjunction with Boileau, an intimate friend of his, historiographer to the king, a place to which he was by no means suited. Religion which had so early taken hold in his mind again took possession of him and he became melancholy. At this time Madame Maintenon had become the wife of Louis the 14th and she had formed a College for young females at St. Cyr. These used to [ . . . ]2 parts of plays and found it difficult to select those which should be entirely proper to represent them. She therefore applied to Racine to write one according to her conception which should be perfectly fitted for such a purpose. I must restrict myself so I shall write a continuation when I have leisure. After returning home, I spent the rest of my time in writing my Journal. X:30.
1. Racine.
2. Overwritten and illegible; the sentence as a whole is somewhat garbled, but its general meaning is clear.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-08

Friday. October 8th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning as usual. The room was rather empty this morning but I was not called upon. After breakfast, attended Lecture as usual. He gave us today an account of the controversy relative to the authenticity of Homer. In ancient times, he said the opinion entertained of Homer was unanimous, he was regarded as the first both in age and merit. Some quotations to prove this are made in the Synopsis. Zoilus and his followers attacked { 369 } him, but it was not at all as not being an author, but merely making small objections at the probability of events, and other trifling matters. He suffered dearly for his temerity, for he was stoned to death. The only questions which were discussed in antiquity any way similar are whether the whole of the Odyssey was authentic, some believing that it really ended with the 296th line of the twenty fifth book. Others doubted whether the Iliad and the Odyssey were composed by the same author. The first doubts of a higher nature arose in the age of Louis the 14th and were started by the before mentioned Perrault, who in a quotation made in the pamphlet expresses the opinion that these books were composed by divers authors at different [word omitted] and were the best that could be collected out of a great many which were composed and sung all over Greece. An opinion a little similar was expressed by Dr. Bentley in England.1 Perrault argued that it was evident there were many authors concerned in this production as the native city of Homer never could be determined. Seven cities laid equal claims to the honor of his birth and it is very probable they each had equal reason. Bentley differed from this part of his opinion. He was a man whose erudition and penetration was only equal to his want of judgment and his want of taste. This was proved by his notes to an edition of Horace, but as they were in Latin, Scholars only perceived it, and he would have saved his character had he not undertaken an edition of Milton which made the thing evident to every body. He ascribes them in his opinion (which is also quoted in the pamphlet) exclusively to one individual and states that “he wrote the Ilias for the men and the Odyssius for the other sex.” This doctrine it will be perceived is essentially different from that of Perrault although it has been thought much to resemble it.
These opinions do not appear to have been much noticed in England or on the continent so that one author on the subject asserts that no one ever had doubted their authenticity, he probably never having heard of it. And so far from affecting his reputation, it rather increased the examination of the poems. “An inquiry into the life and writings of Homer” by Blackwall2 but published anonymously gave an impulse to the study in England which was much increased by Robert Wood’s3 Essay on the original genius of Homer. The former is an ingenious but superficial work, the latter is one of great value and influence. It was reviewed and much praised by Heyne.4 He was also the author of travels, he went to the plain of Troy and examined it for the direct purpose of comparing it. What we call the plain of Troy is thirty miles inland which does not agree at all with Homer’s account. Wood { 370 } supposes an earthquake to have taken place but he announces it gratuitously. An opinion however which in his work he happened to express, that these poems could not have been committed to writing, became the strong hold of the future doubts. Wolf,5 next only to Heyne in Germany, immediately prepared and brought forward an edition of Homer in which he was much assisted by the appearance of Villoison’s6 edition with the scholia. And in five years he produced his edition with a preface in which he states his theory which is that these poems were composed at different times by different persons and afterwards collected and wrought up into their present form. The time was a good one for his purpose, but still the public were doubtful, and he himself in his statement is timid in announcing it.
Heyne reviewed the work and intimated in it that Wolf, who had been his scholar, had received the first suggestion from himself. This offended the latter personage and he answered with virulence. The contest between Wolf and Heyne therefore was not as to the authenticity of the works of Homer, as it has been generally supposed, but merely as to the priority in starting a theory. It is unfortunate that Wolf’s Latinity is extremely obscure, and even after numerous perusals no one is sure that he has seized the correct meaning of the author. This turn however in the controversy affected scholars powerfully and little doubt remained as to the correctness of the theory.
Lecture over, after toiling over my Journal a considerable time, I determined to free myself for the rest of the morning and therefore sat down and read an Article in the North American Review upon Italian Poetry.7 It is only to be felt by a person who has been going through as much laborious drudgery as I have, when he gets a moment to sit down and read an entertaining book. I enjoyed myself more in running over the delightful account of Italian Poetry than I could have done any coarse pleasure. There is something so voluptuous, so sweet, so melodious in my associations connected with it that I read with delight, and this was really a well written Essay. It was quite a good account of it’s course.
After dinner I was again employed upon my Journal and making a list of books in every branch of literature such as would entitle a man to be called a man of reading. This is a delightful amusement as it flatters literary ambition so intensely. I attended Declamation in my turn and declaimed, it being my last appearance but one, I hope upon this Stage. I delivered part of Patrick Henry’s speech and in what I believe to be it’s proper spirit. I have spoken it often, having studied it with very considerable attention. Chapman and Cunning• { 371 } ham declaimed, and in my opinion failed altogether, but I will not pretend to say that my standard of speaking is a correct one. Few young men know what declamation is and they rave and rant, have no idea of what the speaker intended and then call their exertions good. After this, I spent the afternoon comfortably at my room writing my Journal. The Medical Faculty met but as I have taken somewhat of a disgust to all College affairs, I would not attend and from subsequent accounts I have reason to be joyful.
I will here continue my notes to Mr. Ticknor’s last Lecture. I had mentioned that Racine had left the Stage in consequence of the opposition excited against the fine plays of Iphigenie and Phedre but I did not say that this opposition was excited by Rochefoucauld, de Nevers, the Duchess de Bouillon. These last had attempted to obtain the failure of these plays, by making Pradon, an insignificant author, to write on the same subject, obtained their representation the same night, filled the house for Pradon and kept out the people for Racine and thus succeeded. This affair cost the nation 28000 francs. I have mentioned the other particulars of his life until the time when Madame Maintenon asked him to write a play on some sacred subject. He being much troubled by this application, applied to his friend Boileau for advice, who at this time was considered an Oracle. Strange to say he was advised not to attempt anything for he would assuredly fail. Racine could not refuse the solicitations of the queen and therefore resolved to write. He selected for his subject Esther which was more dramatic than tragical and more lyrical than dramatic. It was represented in 1689 with the most splendid success. Madame de Sevigne who had been a bitter enemy was converted by it. In 1691 Athalie appeared, the subject of which is also drawn from scripture. This play again excited the enmity and malignity of his opponents and they determined he should not succeed. They managed so well as to put it down entirely so that no one even took the pains to read it. At this he felt entirely discouraged and gave up writing. Nor did he live to see his play take the place which it afterwards did in literature. Being overpowered with the conviction that he had entirely failed, he wrote but one play for the next and last eight years of his life. This was not published. He died in 1699, aged 60 years, his faculties not in the least impaired, he may rather have been called in the flower of his strength.
I did not attend Lecture or drill this Evening as I went into Boston with a party of young men to see Mrs. Duff8 in the part of Hermione in the Distrest Mother.9 In making up my judgment, I must confess, { 372 } I think she failed, she does not understand her part, she appeared to me to attempt to express what she was not able to, and to be conscious that she was trying to be a first rate actress. She ranted, she expressed her changes too quickly and exhibited no nice gradations of feeling between them, and I concluded in short that I had never seen her in so inferior a performance. The afterpiece was Paul and Virginia10 and was wretched. Two European dancers exhibited and quite shocked the modesty of our New England manners. Mrs. Henry as interesting and as voluptuous as usual. We supped at the Marlborough and returned early. XI.
1. Richard Bentley (1662–1742), the Cambridge scholar (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:401–405).
2. Thomas Blackwell (1701–1757) (same, 3:61, note, and 491).
3. Robert Wood (c. 1717–1771), whose Essay appeared in 1769 (same, 2:432).
4. Christian Gottlob Heyne (1729–1812), professor at Göttingen (same, 3:36–40).
5. Friedrich August Wolf (1759–1824), professor at Halle (same, 3:51 ff.).
6. Jean Baptiste Gaspard d’Ansse de Villoison (1753–1805), professor at the Collège de France (same, 2:397–398).
7. North American Review, 45:337–389 (Oct. 1824).
8. Mary Ann Duff, one of the great actresses of the generation (Odell, Annals N.Y. Stage, 3:209).
9. A translation by Ambrose Philips of Racine’s Andromaque.
10. A dramatic version of Paul et Virginie, by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-09

Saturday. October 9th. VII:45.

Missed Prayers and arose in time for breakfast and attendance upon Mr. Everett’s Lecture. He continued his former subject today by repeating the last parts of yesterday’s Lecture and noticing the assent of scholars to this new theory. The only attempt of importance to controvert his doctrine is made by Hug of whom he will say more presently.1 In 1802 the long expected edition of Homer by Heyne made it’s appearance simultaneously at London and Leipzig. It was furnished with notes and excursuses at the end of each volume and in the last he deliberately advances the opinion that these works were composed in the manner mentioned by Wolf. This edition was very severely criticized in the literary Journal at Jena during the whole season in which it appeared. Wolf was supposed to have been concerned in it’s composition and it had considerable effect in embittering Heyne’s old age. The theory was attacked in France by Mr. St. Croix2 but with not much effect. Wolf’s work was noticed in England by the Critical and Monthly reviews very favourably, though the authors of the notices did not appear conscious that he had proposed any new theory, probably not seeing through the difficult Latin in which he has enveloped it.
{ 373 }
This is the history of this controversy, he now commenced an analysis of it. Some people might ask the reason why the authenticity of Homer should be doubted any more than that of Virgil and other authors of high antiquity. It is this, that we have a series of authors since the latter who date in regular order down from him and who make mention of him. A want of this testimony would immediately be decisive in a case like that of Virgil’s, while it does not affect that of Homer, as he is removed 800 years from the commencement of the series. Besides it is well known that in the most ancient times men made no mention of such things as is proved in the case of Thucidides who in all his work makes no mention of Herodotus. This want of testimony does not therefore amount to proof but requires rigid examination. Wolf therefore arranged his argument in a way to meet such questions. It may be found in a quotation in the 21st Article of the pamphlet.3 He denies that the introduction of the art of writing could have taken place before the Olympic era although he does not deny that they might have been known by some.
His arguments to support this are that no book of any sort is mentioned by any one in any age as having existed in the age of Lycurgus and that succeeding. The subsequent introduction of paper must have been the time at which the use of writing became familiar, and that the use of prose begun in the 6th Century B.C. was almost synonimous with the use of writing. There are but two passages in Homer which bear the slightest appearance of an acquaintance with writing. They are referred to and the latter is quoted in the pamphlet but they prove that marks only were made at that time which were only known to the person making them and rather prove that writing was not in general use. Wolf is certainly right here. He then goes on in his argument and calls in question all the oldest literary inscriptions. He rejects those mentioned by Herodotus and with reason. Others also which admit of more question, such as those brought to France by the Abbé Fourmont.4 No travellers however have ever found any inscriptions like those since and the Abbe says he caused them to be destroyed which is very doubtful on account of the Turks and the improbability that he would not bring forward for the confirmation of other travellers what would otherwise be so suspicious. Travellers since have all denied the existence of such inscriptions. Mr. Knight5 has proved they were fake by a singular mistake made. The Abbe instead of using the common word for Lacedemonians, introduced one and quoted Hesichaeus [Hesychius] as authority. This word has since been found in Hesichaeus to be two, the word and its meaning, joined together by mistake { 374 } of the copyist, and the Spartans quoted as authority for its use in that way.
I spent the morning writing my Journal, after dinner went to town in the Stage and went directly to my brother’s. I found him there and we had some conversation on indifferent topics. He then went away after settling further affairs with me and giving me some money. I remained and read the third Part of the Tales of a Traveller which is rather better than the second but still much ado about nothing. I returned to Cambridge again, finished my Journal, made a call at Brenan’s, was not admitted and spent a pleasant and comfortable evening at home. I read some more of Rochefoucauld’s maxims and indulged in the luxury of leisure. XI.
1. For J. Leonhard Hug’s work, see Everett, Synopsis, p. 31.
2. Guillaume Emmanuel Joseph, Baron de Sainte-Croix (1746–1806) (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:397).
4. Abbé Michel Fourmont (1690–1745) (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:390).
5. Richard Payne Knight (1750–1824), whose collection of ancient bronzes and coins is in the British Museum (same, 2:434–435).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-10

Sunday. October 10th. VII:30.

Missed Prayers and arose just in time for my breakfast. I am now always the last in these days at the morning meals, as our acquaintance are extremely regular. I for my part feel more isolated here than usual, I find but a very few who can be even acquaintances and I find none who can be friends. While Chapman is good natured, he is a superficial observer. Dwight is a very warm hearted man but he knows very little of the more delicate emotions and he plays with them too roughly while Cunningham is taken up entirely with his own person, “egoiste” to an unpleasant degree. Otis is from some reason or other no fit companion for me, he is a cold blooded toad and withal the pink and essence of politeness and Sheafe, although a pleasant fellow, is not of my temperament. As to Richardson, he is too disgusting a trifler to name. Now I am alone and disgusted at heart as I sometimes am, I generally preserve the same tone towards them. I employed my Morning in reading the North American Review which is not of much importance. I also made a sort of overlooking of old papers and burnt many useless ones. This, from their perpetual accumulation, is a regular business with me two or three times a year. I then went to Chapel and heard Dr. Ware discuss the life of Moses with unwearied assidity [assiduity?]. He has been upon this subject for a long time.
In the afternoon, I employed my time principally in writing my { 375 } Journal, which has been about half my duty this term. I am determined as an example of perseverance to carry through this work but I am pretty well resolved never to commence another in the same style. It is making a labour of what should only be an amusement. And although I have but little doubt that it has been a very considerable improvement, I wonder why I am ambitious to improve, for what can there be in future life for me to look to with an expectation of being happy? And although there is much for which I am about to exert myself, I am sure that it will all be for the empty world, which has been so frequently in my thoughts of late. The influence of the election upon the passions of men has been the principal cause of my thoughts on this subject.
Indeed I have been of late days in exceeding low spirits and cannot ascertain the cause. I have been in the habit of attributing it always to Ennui, but now I am fully and more than fully employed and still this hangs over me. It renders life hardly worth possessing. I went to Chapel this afternoon and enjoyed a very comfortable nap during the service. The President doled out his usual quantum and we came home. In the evening, I sat down and determined to write to my brother John1 and pour forth my sorrows to him as being a natural friend of mine. I had no hope of saying any thing when I first sat down but I went through my usual dose in a very short time. Indeed I think my power of scribbling has very manifestly increased since I commenced this book, my next labour will be to prune, a task which I intended to have undertaken during the present term but which I have been compelled to postpone, by the announcement of so many lectures and studies of different kinds. I ran up and spent half an hour in Otis’s room just to pass away the time and talk with him as I felt too low to read. I was somewhat better when I returned.
I missed a lecture on Friday to Mr. Ticknor which has been matter of much regret to me. He treated of Moliere in it and is said to have delivered a handsome lecture. The style of Everett is remarkably simple and dry and is a mere close narration of facts at present, while that of Ticknor is extremely ornamented, elaborate and polished. His sentences move too much on axles, they are mechanical almost in their construction. I can not help laughing sometimes at his metaphors which are at times extremely Commonplace. He indulges also in favourite phrases and is so invariable in the time of his periods that it is quite fatiguing to follow him. Indeed the Lectures are a pleasant sort of instruction but how hard are man’s internal dispositions to idleness, that even this must be an exertion. I wish I could think better of human { 376 } nature and human resolution. But to judge from myself, and I am not very weak compared with my neighbours, I cannot but think resolution is a shadow. I read a little and then retired to bed. XI.
1. Letter missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-11

Monday. October 11th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this Morning as usual. After breakfast attended Lecture. Mr. Everett continued to day the analysis of the controversy concerning Homer. Mr. Raoul Rochette,1 a learned Frenchman answered those objections made by those travellers in a very strenuous argument, but many of the leading charges are not noticed, and particularly the one mentioned concerning Hesichaeus. And it may be fairly concluded that they are substantial. The principal ground on which the inscriptions are supported as genuine was that the Abbe was entirely ignorant of the Greek language. This however must be overstated as the Academy would not have recommended nor the king sent an ignorant man upon such an expedition. And afterwards he was employed in arranging what he had found, for a length of time sufficient to have gained a knowledge of the language from it’s foundation.
The most suspicious circumstances against him are these, 1st the highly finished form in which the inscriptions exist, which makes it evident that they could not have been made on the spot, and no traces have ever been discovered of these monuments and he has never referred to or spoken of any drawings made at the time he saw them. 2dly. that he himself has made mention of only three in his memoir upon the subject whereas his collection contains nine. We see no reason why he should not have mentioned them all at once, if he had not been preparing them and was only hindered by his death from producing them. These are reasons of Mr. Everett’s, which occurred to him when he saw them. He took the trouble to copy them when at Paris but his labour was lost with the package in coming over here. In consequence of these reasons, he agrees with Wolf in rejecting them as monuments of the 8th century before Christ. Mr. Buh believed that they were made a century after Christ. Dr. [Corrar?] who is now at Paris believes that they were imposed upon Fourmonts credulity.
Mr. Hug’s work is the only considerable one in opposition to the opinion of Wolf. He argues that writing was known much earlier than Wolf’s theory assumes. In the age of Solon laws were hung on wooden axes and Hipparchus had moral sentences engraved upon statues on the road side. These facts do not indicate want of writing among the { 377 } higher class and rather exhibit an incitement to improvement in the lower. The late introduction of prose also does not prove by any means that all writing was as late. If the science of writing was known at all, there is no reason to suppose it would not record longer or smaller poems. The Greeks themselves speak of writing as of very great antiquity. Aeschylus, who in all accounts of ancient manners is the best authority, speaks of the inscriptions upon the shields of the seven against Thebes, and refers the invention of writing to Prometheus. Had the use of writing been introduced only a century and a half before him he would not have dared to have asserted the thing so.
Mr. Hug then examines the inscriptions already mentioned. He supposes them to have been really copied, from inscriptions, a part of which were very ancient but more had been added and corrected in later times. He dates their appearance in their present form in the sixth century. But Mr. Hug’s principal point, and one which proved would settle the question, is that Lycurgus obtained a copy from Ionia, of the poems of Homer. Four authorities are quoted for this assertion. These are mentioned in the synopsis.2 They are not of a perfectly convincing nature. Mr. Hug’s third period is that of Homer himself. The anecdote of Bellerophon which has been before alluded to, proves at least the use of signs. The nature of the poem also, he argues, necessarily requires the use of writing. He consequently analyses the Poem and endeavours to prove that the Iliad must have been written on one plan, and that the separate parts, as they were mentioned in Aelian with various names adopted according to the variations in the story, were all made aptly to each other. They all had a relation to each other in the commencement. And from these considerations he argues that these are the works of Homer. Here he makes two remarks confirming this conclusion, that the period of Wolf, elapsing between the introduction and use of writing is altogether contrary to analogy, and that too much stress has been laid upon the want of poets intervening. Many authors and works are mentioned although the latter have not come down to us. Mr. Everett supposes some political course must have assisted in their suppression. Some of their works did last for a time and there must have been a secret motive for their destruction.
After Lecture, I heard a report that the class had permission to leave Mathematics for any other study, and accordingly made my arrangements for the change. I intended to have studied Euripides, and in this way to have some benefit from the disposal of my time, but upon application I found that this permission was only extended to the lowest scholars in the class and I was very politely informed that { 378 } I was not among them, which I always believed before. I requested Mr. Hayward however to mention my statement to the Government. I attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation and after dinner studied Paley and attended Mr. Hedge but was not taken up, a singular thing. The Company had a drill at noon and it was attended by the higher Officers; we were excused.
In the Evening, I sat with Otis a little while and afterwards attended Mr. Ticknor, having obtained a seat very much more to my liking. I regret somewhat that I was compelled to miss the other night but the hour is such that I shall pay very little attention to punctuality or regularity, as I have no idea of becoming a perfect galley slave. It is a hard thing here that they load us with recitations which we do not like and punish us if we do not pursue them, in addition to Lectures which we are willing enough to attend and take advantage of, if they are at reasonable season. He had got to the Femmes Savantes, Moliere’s last work; tonight commenced with this. It was written the year before his death as an attack upon Madame Dacier and others who had attacked his Amphitryon. In it the Abbé Cottin3 was particularly marked and indeed almost every character had some person in view. Although with but little foundation he has made an admirable comedy of it. His plays are all according to the strict rules. It may be asked how he could write with so much ease in a way which so much shackled Moliere4 and to this it may be said, that the difference is owing to the difference between Tragedy and Comedy. It creates many fears to the powers of genius in the former, whilst it is probably of some advantage to the latter, as being able to suppress extravagance. Moliere had in the course of his life possessed all the advantages for the observation of character and had improved them. He had been in almost every grade in society and had taken off the comic situations of all. Indeed his works may be truly called a gallery of pictures all drawn from the life. Moliere had also studied books but his originality cannot well be questioned. He owed but little to others whilst his successors owe almost all to him and it was Racine’s opinion that he was the greatest genius of the age of Louis 14th.
He then commenced with Boileau. Nicholas Boileau was born in 1636 and died in 1711. He was thirteen years younger than Moliere and three years older than Racine although he was the survivor of both. He was educated to the law but gave it up in disgust and studied theology until he obtained a place in the Sorbonne with 800 francs a year. His early character by no means foretold satire and a story was related of the father who predicted of his [words omitted] then the very { 379 } reverse of what they turned out to be in life. He gave up his place however in the Sorbonne and in 1677 was made in conjunction with Racine historiographer to the king. After Racine’s death however in 1699, he never went to court being offended, it is said, by some impertinent speech of the king which hurt his feelings. Indeed he possessed excellent feelings and was steady in his friendship to Racine and Moliere. His general character as a man was good and he died respected and esteemed at the age of seventy five.
The time in which he lived was favourable to the particular course he took and he accordingly succeeded without obstacle. In 1666 when he was 30 years of age, he wrote seven satires, or at least he published what were written some time before. They have much art, elegance and colouring but little of natural unborrowed strength; they showed too much he had been pursuing the classics. He was also affected much by the writers of his day. He afterwards added five more. The 10th is a close imitation of Juvenal and the last is admitted to be a failure. There is much knowledge of human nature in them and of the principles of versification. The ninth is the best of them. They are not however his best productions. In his Epistles, twelve of which he published at various times between 1669 and 1695, he is more powerful. There is much richness of thought in them. He tried some smaller works and songs which he failed in, in his prose he is pure but without variety. The Lectern appeared between 1672[1674]–83, a mock heroic well written but too long. Two last cantos fail. There is in it however much grace, correctness and elegance. His last work was his Art of Poetry—and he who understands it all, knows all requisite to form the taste and model the Genius of a Poet. There is nothing in it however which proves him a skilful writer as he is almost always in a negative sort of instruction.5 This work was extremely circulated and has placed him at the head of the government of style.
Lecture over I returned to my room after a short visit to Dwight and wrote my Journal. XI.
1. Désiré Raoul Rochette (1783–1854), the archeologist.
3. Molière satirized the Abbé C. Cotin (1604–1682), a poet, preacher, and member of the Académie Française, in the character Trissotin (originally Tricotin) in Les Femmes Savantes (Anatole Loquin, Molière, Paris, 1898, 1:495).
4. Thus in MS. Probably CFA meant to write “Corneille.”
5. Sentence and sense garbled.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-12

Tuesday. October 12th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation as usual in Topography. Part of the { 380 } class have seceded so that the room is not very full. The next point of investigation is according to the words of Wolf, the character of the rhapsodists, thus began Mr. Everett this morning. He mentions what he supposes three errors in the common opinion concerning their profession. The first is the confounding those of the early ages with the worthless persons who arose under the same name subsequently and who are mentioned with contempt by Plato and Xenophon. The supposing from a mistaken derivation of the name, that it was their profession to compile worthless centos,1 as they were afterwards called, from the productions of Homer. That these were confined to this poet alone. Wolf on the contrary supposes that they were dignified and authorized agents for transmitting the works of all distinguished Poets of the time. That being poets themselves, they varied according to the occasion, the structure of these poems, from which origin proceeded the various readings which we have of the author. It is necessary therefore to suppose a sort of composition corresponding to this way of publication. And if there was no other way of producing a poem, but by teaching it to the rhapsodists, one like this of 15000 lines could not have been conceived. And supposing Homer to have been a man of the greatest genius that man ever has or ever will see, it is impossible that even then he could have done this. But it is to be observed that this reasoning takes want of writing for granted. We have no historical ground for supposing that the rhapsodists were of the character stated, and we diminish their importance precisely as we increase our supposition of the knowledge of writing at that time. Homer makes no mention of such persons but speaks on the contrary of the bard as a separate and distinct profession. The French in fact have treated of Homer too familiarly doubtless, but the Germans have gone very much too far in the opposite extreme and have exaggerated the difficulty of producing poetry without writing. We have instances even now of improvisatori who have cultivated this power to great extent, one particular instance he mentioned which has been in many of the late newspapers, of a man in Paris who has delivered a whole tragedy in five Acts without more than a few minutes preparation, a fact of which there can be no doubt.
The third point of Wolf is the internal structure of the Poem. This is an analysis of the whole poem too long to state in a lecture, the general sum of which is that The Odyssey is allowed to have unity but the Iliad is not—still he argues that either might have been the work of a succession of rhapsodists. Mr. Hug in his analysis argues and infers the reverse. Wolf has had many followers, in this inquiry, the reasons of some of whom are in the 38th Article of the pamphlet.
{ 381 }
The last point in Wolf’s argument is the external historical testimony beginning at the earliest period. We have already considered the introduction of these books into Greece by Lycurgus. The next in the order of time is concerning the labours of Solon and the Pisistratidae for the restoration of them. Diogenes Laertius quotes from Diuchidas an account that Solon first caused the rhapsodists to sing these poems. A Greek expression follows which explains the manner and is variously translated, but the critics think in its proper connexion and place. Similar efforts for the restoration and preservation of Homer are ascribed by the grammarians to Pisistratus. A fabulous account is given by Diomedes which has since been copied by many. It states that Pisistratus, wishing to collect these verses which in his time were repeated in detached portions by the people, sent heralds over the country, proclaiming that every one who knew any of these verses should upon repeating them to him receive a certain sum of money for every verse, that in this way a large number were collected and every man was paid even when he brought verses which had been repeated before. This mass was referred to seventy grammarians, each to produce an arrangement of them; when they reported, that of Aristarchus was preferred. This is an anachronism however as Aristarchus did not live until long after. It is an absurd fable but is nevertheless adopted by Barthélemy in his Preface to Anacharsis. Cicero has attributed the arrangement of the books to Pisistratus, others to Hipparchus. Wolf with this argues that these attempts were not confined to any time, but that they were made at different periods and to a greater or less degree by various persons who might possess portions of the materials, an idea confirmed in the Scholia by the frequent mention of the arrangers as peculiar officers.
After Lecture, I returned to my room and spent the morning writing my notes. I did not read over all of Ferguson this morning as I was peculiarly employed. I attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation. He lectured in his way today upon the spots on the sun. I shall not give any account of them in this book as I have already more to do than I can well make way with. I shall therefore take the whole course in regular order from a copy which is already in the possession of some of my classmates. In the afternoon I attended recitation in Paley as usual and in the Evening, we had a common drill. The privates performed well and revived my liking to the company, which I must confess had very nearly become extinct.
After drill, I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. He went on tonight with La Fontaine. He was born in Normandy in 1621, where his father was supervisor of woods and waters. He studied Latin at Rheims and entered a religious house which he soon left however as not con• { 382 } sistent with his spirit. No symptoms of talent made their appearance in him until the age of 22. This was excited much as Corregio’s was, on seeing a painting of Raphael’s, for he having heard an ode of Malherbe’s, fancied he could also write and therefore became a poet. His character was always remarkable for a childlike simplicity. He was married by a family arrangement and was not happy until he left his wife. Some say that in Belphégor he characterized her. The Duchess de Bouillon, she who had so conspired against Racine, had sense and taste enough to discover him. He always lived with all the carelessness of his character, he was almost adopted by Madame Sabliere with whom he lived during twenty years, and was so domestic and simple an animal that she said once upon being asked who was in the house, that nobody was there except her cat, her parrot and La Fontaine. When she died, he would have been left again upon the world had he not been supported by the Duke of Burgundy and then again adopted by Madame Herval [d’Hervart], in 1694.
He did not value his own talents sufficiently, not that he was not conscious he possessed some, but from his simplicity he did not give them their due weight. He failed in his love elegies and his religious poetry, his pieces also for the Theatre all failed although there is much humour in one of them. We have his letters, his epistles in verse, ballads and the tale of Psyche, a beautiful romance drawn from the story recorded in Apuleius. But in his Tales and Fables we find him shining forth in the natural power of his character. This sort of writing indeed was peculiarly well adapted to it’s display. His fables are in twelve books, the first of which did not produce much effect. Madame de Sevigne, who is a good chronicle[r], says that they were good but some part was tiresome, the feeling soon changed however and they were pronounced delightful. In his tales he shows his talent still more by the variety and originality of his ideas but it is unfortunate that they are indecent and thus their whole effect is ruined.
Next came Pascal who was born in Auvergne in 1623. He was instructed by his father first in the languages and then in mathematics. I shall pass over the early symptoms of his genius as too numerous to mention, suffice it that he made a Geometry for himself. At 16 he wrote a treatise on Conic sections, at 19 he made a machine and at 23 he wrote a treatise on the subject of the vacuum. His physical strength could not endure it, he became fanatical and distempered in mind, he was austere in his life beyond endurance. He wore hair cloth for a shirt and a girdle of wire with points. His famous letters were written however after his derangement. These letters called Lettres Provinciales2 had a tremendous effect, were condemned by parliament and stopped by the Pope. They exhibit however every kind of eloquence. He did not finish them as he stopped in obedience to the Pope’s orders.
After Lecture I returned home and wrote my notes for last nights lecture, read Burke’s observations upon Taste3 and then retired for the night. XI.
1. A composition formed by joining scraps from other authors.
2. Les provinciales, ou les lettres écrites par Louis de Montalte à un provincial de ses amis, published in 1656.
3. JQA’s set of The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, 8 vols., London, 1792–1827, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-13

Wednesday. October 13th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning, without any thing uncommon happening. After breakfast, I attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture as usual. He closed the controversy with some remarks on the last points of it. The traditions concerning Solon at that age certainly favour Wolf’s hypothesis. They are not however directly inconsistent with the common opinion concerning the unity and authenticity of Homer. It is not at all surprising that Homer should have come down in detached portions when we consider the want of materials for the preservation of works and the practice of recitation easily accounts for the scattered state of the poems. Subsequent authors moreover, when Libraries were made for the express purpose of preserving entire books, have come down to us in a similar way. The different parts of the Testament even were collected at different places.
Another strong argument against Wolf’s theory is that no such thing has been mentioned by any ancient author whatsoever. Had it been a fact that these poems were formed by many, it would have been { 384 } recollected for many ages and certainly a sufficient number of years does not exist between Solon and the last of these poetical composers to admit of a total oblivion or account for the want of any tradition of such compilation. We must observe also that this is a question not of the fabrication of the poems at a later date, as is the case with Ossian, but merely of the writing of the poems of which an author would have been proud to declare himself the composer. Perrault, to be sure, regards the contest of the seven cities as some argument, but this is merely an inference, and it is evident that no single, abstract conception of the unity of Homer could have been formed, had many authors been known to exist and had the poems been gradually perfected according to the present argument. Finally it is worthy of remark that Wolf and his followers are not at all confident in their own assertions. These, if brought to a strict test, amount to no more than that the present form of the Iliad and Odyssey, the division into books, the insertion of some of the episodes with scattered passages and many single lines, are to be ascribed to the rhapsodists and grammarians. That they were in a simple and shorter form and that there is no absolute historical certainty about the person of Homer.
Men when in contest are very apt to go further than they intend and in this something may have escaped from some of the advocates of the theory which the [other] party do not allow. Indeed by a quotation from Wolf’s own preface in the synopsis,1 we can see that his statements go no farther. Such are the merits of the most important question in Greek literature. Those who incline to support Wolf in his theory have a great argument and much plausibility on their side. The popular doctrine rests on the consent of ages. His [Everett’s] qualified statement of the theory is one which he thinks will unite most probabilities, as by it we can believe in one sublime poet for the author, whilst we do not contradict the known laws of human and intellectual progress.
He then went on to the life of Homer and mentioned the accounts of him which have been written. One [is] ascribed to Herodotus; ancient authors mention his having written such a life but this is not probably it. It is quoted by no ancient author. There is a life of Homer ascribed to Plutarch which is quoted by Aulus Gellius. The work does not however correspond with these citations. One author has supposed Dionysius [of] Halicarnassus to be the author. There are three short lives in Greek prefixed to a work of Allatius de Patria Homeri of which two are anonymous. The first is by Proclus. But the most convenient works on his life are those of Madame Dacier and Pope prefixed to { 385 } their translations of the poems and that of Blackwall. We can only make inferences and deductions from the entire want of certain knowledge, and his omitting to mention himself in his poems, a custom which prevailed among the ancients but the reverse of which now obtains. We suppose him a native of Ionia from his geography and his hymn to Apollo which however is not correct ground. As to the time, a variety of opinion has been held. He has been placed between the sixth and tenth centuries before the Christian era. His description is minute of the siege of Troy but he says he was not near the time. Some have placed him before the return of the Heracleids (Mitford and Haller) but the Ionians did not emigrate until two generations after that.2 He has been fixed with most probability 900 years before Christ, 130 after the return of the Heracleids and 270 after the Trojan war. Herodotus agrees with this by placing him four hundred years before himself.
Lecture over, I returned home and sat myself down according to my usual way to write out my Lectures. I did not read over the Astronomy so that I did not know any thing about the recitation. It was upon the Moon today. After recitation I returned home and employed myself in a similar way. The afternoon was taken up in studying the lesson in Paley as I was confident that I should be called upon which was the case.
After Prayers we had a good Rifle drill and then attended a Lecture of Mr. Ticknors. I took very full notes of a very beautiful lecture but I shall be compelled to condense them very much. Pascal, he said, had given the direction and tone to French eloquence and had shown what it was capable of in the pulpit. Bossuet arose and carried it to it’s height. He was born in Burgundy in 1627, his education was private. He retired to Metz, was made a canon and there studied the councils, the scriptures and the fathers to prepare for those attacks upon the reformers which he commenced in 1655. The reputation which he thus acquired soon called him to Paris and in his sermons he so pleased the two Queens of England and of France that in 1661 he was called to the court, before which he delivered discourses that year and the lent of the year following. In 1669 he was made a Bishop and still remained about the Court. The next year he was appointed preceptor to the Dauphin and laid out a plan for his education in which all the learned men were to contribute. It was for him that he wrote an abridgment of history, an account of the reign of Louis 14th and a system of religious classics. It was for him also that he wrote the excellent Essay on universal history. In 1681 he was promoted to the { 386 } more valuable bishopric of Meaux. The elector of Hanover had proposed a meeting between him and a protestant which was agreed to but it had the same result with all affairs of this sort, no success. He then attacked the sect of the Quietists of whom more will be said hereafter; he was always ambitious, great and successful. He enjoyed the office of counsellor to the king which he held until his death which happened in 1704, he being 77 years old. He wrote above 100 works which fill twenty quarto volumes. Many of these are in Latin and a larger part controversial. He was a Doctor at 25 and dedicated a thesis to the Condé by which he gained his favour. We find [him] at the hotel de Rambouillet in Paris leading the wits of the day. He did not come forward in his strength however until he was forty three years old when he immediately became the head of the clergy, which he kept until he was 73. Though for the last ten years of his life he did nothing half equalling his old effort, he made important additions to his universal history. His works were almost all written to increase his power and do not for the most part come within our jurisdiction.
His Doctrine he published in 1671 as an answer to the Protestants and it may be considered the best answer which has ever been given to the reformation. The argument is logical, acute, the proportion in style is elegant and it’s compactness is perfection to it. Bonaparte, if such an authority is to be quoted on such a subject, said that but for this treatise he should have been a Protestant. His Discours sur l’histoire universel was published in 1681. It is more of a discourse indeed than an item of events, but in his sermons we find most splendid specimens of French eloquence, although not the first in the language. He here yielded the palm to Bourdaloue3 and with more effect as it was done with grace. His funeral orations however were the very greatest things which were ever delivered. He then analysed the species of writing and went on with considerable eloquence to speak of the contrast between the men and the [ . . . ] he has given. It is a duty but little proper to a Christian minister. This was certainly a beautiful specimen. He was undoubtedly the father of the Gallican church whose rights he ably defended. He was inferior to but few of his rivals; indeed Bourdaloue excelled him as they lived in the habit of writing touching Sermons.4 Not that Bossuet might not have succeeded, but that he would not. Of his great rival Bourdaloue whom Mr. Ticknor also mentioned, I cannot say any thing today but shall continue writing notes out whenever I have the leisure.
After Lecture, Chapman and one or two more of us went to Mr. Willard’s and spent a considerable quantity of time. I staid quite pleasantly and talked with him; afterwards, returned home and wrote { 387 } out my notes, a long labour when I felt very much more like sleeping. I am anxious for the time to come when I finish a drudgery of slaves.
2. CFA wrote: “. . . but the Ionians did not emigrate until after that two generations.”
3. Louis Bourdaloue (1632–1704).
4. Thus apparently in MS, but the sense is obscure and some of the words in this sentence are less than perfectly legible.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-14

Thursday. October 14th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography as usual. After breakfast went to Mr. Everett’s. He was treating today of the works of Homer. The first mentioned is a work in 305 [294] hexameter verses called Batrachomyomachia or the battle of the frogs, of which he gave an analysis. It is mentioned as his work in the Life ascribed to Herodotus. Plutarch and Henry Stephens [Stephen] ascribe it to Pigres who lived at the time of the Persian invasion. Modern critics are divided in opinion with respect to this poem, but sundry internal marks prove that this is not the work of Homer. The irony, the jests upon the Gods, the use of writing tablets and the trumpet, and a variety of circumstances go to prove that it was written in later times. These are all put down in the pamphlet.1 The poem has often been imitated, one of the most important is the Galeomyomachia [Galeomachia], a dramatic piece in Iambics written by Prodromus, a native Greek, in the 12th century.
There are many others besides. There is a translation of the battle of the frogs which is a very good specimen of modern Greek. It was first published by Crusius and is written in political verses. This is a sort of verse which was of very ancient use and has since come into fashion with a popular author who has employed [it]. It consists of seven trochaic feet and was supposed to be called political from the adaptation to poems on civil occasions. But they have been called so in distinction to ancient verses as the word can be made to mean modern. They are to be found in the ancient version of Virgil of Ogilvie [Ogilby] a specimen of which he gave us. They must be read by quantity and not by accent as is done by the modern Greeks. They are found in the ancient comedy. There are many hymns attributed to him which are popularly believed his, but there have not been wanting persons who refused to believe that any of his works have remained except the Iliad and Odyssey. The hymns of Homer are now generally ascribed to the Homerides, men who followed him and who by their imitation of him obtained that name. An analysis of them will show { 388 } that they are neither the production of one age nor of one author. He accordingly entered into an analysis of the different hymns to Apollo Mercury, Venus and Ceres. It would take by far more time and space than is necessary to give it at length, particularly when it is contained in the pamphlet to which I have already often alluded.
The fragments of Homer consist of sixteen epigrams and some quotations from ancient poems ascribed to Homer such as the Margites, Cypria, the lesser Iliad, all which however amount only to seventy lines and are consequently very insignificant. He then concluded with mentioning a few authors who might be valuable to consult upon the subject.
After Lecture as we had nothing more to do for the rest of the day, I determined to go to Boston, and accordingly rode in with Chapman. We went round to Roxbury and I met with an accident in driving. I pique myself a little on driving and wish to improve so that I was sorry for the accident. It was very trifling but nevertheless I thought it ought not to have happened. Arrived, I went immediately to my brother’s room where I did not find him, and as I supposed he had gone for the morning, I went upon the common to see the review. Met Lothrop and Pratt and Stackpole there with whom I had some conversation. Returning to George’s room, I found he had been and gone, for he went off to Quincy with Mrs. Bailey2 so that I should not see him until night. I remained and dined with the family at Dr. Welsh’s, after which I went to see Mrs. De Wint3 who was at Col. Pickman’s.4 She has just come on and looks quite well I think. It is sometime since I have seen her, but it is of not much importance how long, for it is mere formal civility between relations. The Colonel was quite polite, he has rather a pretty house than otherwise. At least it looks comfortable; he is unfortunate in his marriage however as I suppose he wishes descendants.
I remained here a little while only and then went to see the review of the remaining regiments. I wished to see them go through the drill for Light Infantry but they did very little of it. I then tried to find Chapman to tell him that I should not go out to Cambridge tonight as I thought it was too much to come in again to find George, the expense attending such another visit being considerable. I spent the rest of the afternoon in his room reading Madame de la Roche Jaqueline’s account of the War of La Vendée.5 It is an interesting and a curious history as it gives an account of a state of society, which if to be relied on as true, must have been extremely pleasant, and certainly for this part of France, the revolution could not have been a desirable or even an equally pleasant situation.
{ 389 }
I accomplished a good deal while here but as I thought that I did not go away from Cambridge to read, I might as well after tea attend the play. George came in and after our meal drove me down to the theatre. The play tonight was Tom and Jerry, a farce which has had a most amazing run, and I have always been surprised at not having seen it before. It has had success merely from it’s being a slightly exaggerated specimen of dissipated life. The events follow each other so rapidly and there is so much show and glitter that it seizes with the common people. The scenes in low life also come nearer to the ideas of the generality of the world than the stiff laboured forms of tragedy or the light wit of polished comedy. I think however that it holds out evil in most attractive colours as it shows a parcel of dashing young blades running their course of dissipation and ruining themselves, or at least doing their best for it, but being saved only by a turn in the plot, which will scarcely fall to the chance of any unlucky wight6 who might feel emulous of their great deeds. I was highly diverted however and heard it through with pleasure. The afterpiece was called the “falls of Clyde”7 and was one of the sentimental cast, of which I am not extremely fond. Mrs. Henry looked as beautiful as ever. I met then my classmates Cunningham and Fay, the first time I ever met either of them here. I retired very well satisfied as Mr. Finn8 was again upon the boards; he is undoubtedly the best actor here.
I returned to my brother’s. I know not how it is but I like him very much less than I used to. He has got into the world and is thinking upon entirely different concerns, his tastes are entirely different, and we have but few common topics of conversation. John is and always has been more to my taste, and although I suppose time will make changes in him also, yet they are not of such a nature. His temper hitherto has suited me better. I sat up with George sometime talking upon different subjects and without much interest. My day’s excursion had been very considerable, and I felt fatigued and on some accounts low spirited. These I shall mention tomorrow. It is a singular thing that I of all persons, who dislike most troubles and embarassments of a certain kind, should always be so unfortunate as to fall into them. George was not amusing so that I was sleepy soon and retired. XI:30.
1. Everett, Synopsis, p. 48–49.
2. Mrs. Jeremiah Bailey, of Wiscasset, the former Charlotte Welsh, daughter of Dr. Thomas Welsh. See Adams Genealogy.
3. Mrs. John Peter de Windt (1795–1852), the former Caroline Amelia Smith, a niece of JQA. See Adams Genealogy.
4. Benjamin T. Pickman, a Boston merchant (JQA, Memoirs, 9:163).
5. Mémoires de Madame la Marquise de Larochejacquelein, Paris, 1815.
6. A human being, man or woman (often implying contempt or commiseration) (OED).
7. An English melodrama by George Soane.
{ 390 }
8. Henry James Finn (1785–1840), an English actor, who later managed the Federal Street theater in Boston (Hornblow, Theater, 1:292–293).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-15

Friday. October 15th. VII:20.

Arose and dressed myself, my brother according to his usual custom having arisen much earlier—his custom of late I mean. I breakfasted and during the morning read much farther in the Memoirs I took up yesterday but I did not have time to finish them. I applied for my money to George, according to arrangement, but I found the bank rather deficient, a curse which I have so often felt and which I had congratulated myself was not to happen again. This was the occasion of the trouble yesterday. I received a sufficient sum however to clear me at Cambridge for the next three months as to debts although I shall be compelled to resort to the old mode of getting myself along. I then took a walk about town and at twelve went to Cambridge in the Stage. I dined in a hurry and at one went out to practice the rifle exercise which we performed quite well today. I then went to Declamation which was not remarkable today and employed the rest of my afternoon in writing my Journal which by my one day’s absence had fallen behind hand. It is now a much more serious matter than ever to miss a day although it has always been sufficiently difficult to make it up. I was constant to it all the afternoon.
In the Evening after Prayers we had a regular drill and were more of soldiers than ever. Indeed we were much delighted with the conduct of the company tonight and felt exactly as we wished to with respect to the men under our command.
After drill although somewhat fatigued at this double exercise, I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. I shall however fill up what I left [out] in the last lecture which I attended. Bourdaloue the unattained model of the pulpit eloquence of France was born in 1632 and educated a Jesuit. That body always knew how to cultivate the talent which would most promote them, so that they soon called him to Paris which happened in 1669, and in 1671 at the age of 38 he had no rival, which continued until his death in 1704. He was during this time the most popular and successful preacher in France. His works are in 16 volumes octavo, all sermons. There is in them greater conciseness, greater persuasion and more sincerity than in those of Bossuet. His logic is compact and his strength irresistible. He is perhaps less touching than Massillon1 but it is natural that force of character should spring up before tenderness and the assertion has been justified by the experience of all ages. Without great exertions he has equalled Bossuet and checked [him].
{ 391 }
Fenelon might have been his rival had he not been above ambition. This man from his genius, his labours and talents was entitled to be called the champion of the Church, but he had not the desire. He was born in the South West of France in 1651 and educated at home, from whence he was sent to College where he was distinguished. Indeed at 15 he preached. At one time he determined to be a missionary and move to the settlements in Canada but his family diverted him from it. At 24 he conceived the project of a mission to Greece and wrote a letter to that effect which fully discloses his enthusiasm. At 27 he was made superior of the new Catholics [ . . . ] he governed with success for 10 years. He was then sent on a mission to Poictou to quell an insurrection of the Protestants. He only agreed with the king that force should not be used and he was successful. The deep feeling in that part of France which showed itself in the revolution may fairly therefore be attributed to him. In 1689 he was made preceptor to the Duke of Burgundy. But he had been successful too long, intrigue arose and oppressed him. He was too powerful for the favourites of the court although he never used his strength, and they made a handle of his intimacy with Madame Guyon2 who was at the head of the quietists in France. In 1695 however he was made Archbishop of Cambray which placed him at the height of power. Bossuet attacked him and influenced the king who caused the Pope to condemn Fenelon’s answer and finally he was exiled to his Archbishopric. His Telemaque completed the King’s anger and he caused the man’s name to be erased from the list of his household. Fenelon endured it all with most perfect patience; he retired to Cambray where he remained for the rest of his life. He obeyed with most perfect submission the orders of the Pope and read from his own pulpit the condemnation of his book. This is the “Maximes des Saints.”
I have got thus far and have only finished the preceding lecture so that I shall only be able to give that today, reserving the remainder for tomorrow and Sunday, in which days I have no observations to make in addition. I wrote until I was half asleep, after I returned, when I thought it best at once to retire. XI.
1. Jean Baptiste Massillon (1663–1742), bishop of Clermont.
2. Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte-Guyon (1648–1717).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-16

Saturday. October 16th. VIII.

Missed Prayers this morning without my intending it in the least. After breakfast attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture. I regret that I was absent yesterday morning as I had wished to keep the course of all { 392 } his, although many of them and that one of yesterday in particular, are not of a particularly interesting nature. He went over all the scholiasts of Homer today—the most considerable are Didymus a grammarian of the Age of Cicero who is supposed the author of all the smaller scholia in the Oxford editions of the work. Some however of these mention authors who existed later than the age of this Didymus of whom we speak. The commentary of Eustathius is much more distinguished; he was a native of Constantinople and educated there in the twelfth century. A catalogue has been made of 45 pages of authors whom he had read and quoted but his erudition has been exaggerated. He read no ancient author of any note who is now lost. Owing to the scarcity of books in the middle ages, it was the habit to comprehend as much as possible in a single volume and hence the most famous codices of Homer include the scholia in the way of marginal notes. But there appears to have been no original criticism from the time of Porphyry to Eustathius, as all these scholia except the Venetian appear to have descended from a common stock. These Venetian are the most famous, they are valuable for their appeals to old authors, to old political manuscripts and to ancient scholiasts not known to us. The origin of it is not known. This was the work which gave the impulse to the study of Homer at it’s publication by Villoison. The Göttingen Journal has given an analysis of all the scholiasts we now have. These are held in too great veneration at the present day and indifferent books have obtained under the name of scholia much respect.
Translations of the poems of Homer have been made in almost every language, many and the most important are mentioned at full length in the synopsis. The origin of the prose Latin translation attending most of the copies of Homer is not distinctly known but it has been supposed to have been generally made by Schrevelius.1 The best translations into English are those of Pope and Cowper. Cesarotti’s, in the Italian, who has very much changed the poem. He has omitted the repetitions, shortened the prolix speeches of Nestor and cut off the episodes, he has even altered the name of the poem. The German by Voss2 is an imitation of the ancient hexameter. He then went over a list of the principal copies of Homer, and as it was very little more than a mere enumeration of the copies which are put down in the synopsis, I scarcely think it worthwhile to repeat it. He only stated that Heyne’s copy was indispensable to a student of Homer. He made rather a sarcastic observation when speaking of Clarke’s3 edition. He observed that we probably were personally acquainted with it. { 393 } It has a Latin version which has probably been consulted by every man in the class. He has thus finished with Homer. I am surprised that he confines himself so much to dry detail as I think from the very nature of the subject he should attempt to give ornament, and particularly where it could be given to so much advantage. He has all the display of his learning but he must be confessed to partake of the German character he mentioned.
After lecture I went to read the newspapers, found nothing but a nomination of Professor Everett to Congress and a letter of his which appears to me to be as great a curiosity as I have ever seen.4 The election is at a dead stand, I think as every body seems to believe, exertions are useless, it will go to the House without any doubt in my opinion. I received this morning a delightful letter from John,5 long enough to make up for the deficiency. He writes much more agreably than usual, as he has less levity and seriousness, although it does not amount to morality of the rigid sort or to sentiment. He mentions every thing that is passing, and what is very pleasant, my mother’s safe arrival at Washington after very considerable fatigue. This raised my spirits which once inclined to be quite low and I felt well all day. I was employed a larger part of the time in writing off my Journal and the rest in company with Richardson.
I will now take Mr. Ticknor’s last night lecture. He passed through the remainder of Fenelon and Crebillon6 last night and commenced tonight the series of French Comedy since Moliere. Comedy he says dates from the time of Corneille’s Lyar7 1643. Moliere came on soon after and brought it to perfection for a long series of years. The comic writers were mere imitators of Moliere without any originality or pretence to new qualities, with the exception of a little lively sprightliness. The first man who can be said to have differed materially was John Francis Regnard8 who was born in 1656 and received a good education. Travelling and gaming appear to have been the great objects of his life. In the course of his various voyages, he once met with a misfortune. He was taken by Pirates and carried to Algiers where he was sold for a slave. Being an epicure however he was soon promoted to the place of his master’s cook. From here he was carried to Constantinople where he came very near losing his life for an affair in the haram of his master. He got his liberty in time however and returning wrote a romance called the Provinciales [La Provençale]. In 1681 he again left Paris on an expedition to Lapland, and after going farther than any countrymen had before gone, he left a boasting latin inscription upon the rock. He wrote eight pieces { 394 } for the Italian and a number for the French and died in 1710 in a singular way, recorded in his life prefixed to his works. Eight comedies are entirely his own, others he wrote with [other?] men. Le Joueur appeared in 1696 and is his best effort; it is drawn from the best rule, personal experience. He then analysed the plot. Le Distrait, and les Menechmes appeared; these were neither of them very remarkable but the Legataire Universel appeared last in 1705. The whole plot turns on the fourth act; the abstract of it gives us little of peculiar talent but there is a gay spirit, a liveliness and ease of tone which equals or even surpasses Moliere. These are his distinguishing characteristics. He is the only considerable variety from the school of Moliere for one century.
The next change introduced was that of the “Comedie Larmoyante,” or as it should be interpreted, the whining Comedy. This was made by Monsieur de la Chaussé.9 He was born in 1692 but did not write until he was forty one. He was the author of “la fausse antipathie” and the “Prejuge’s a la mode,” the first a poor play, the second not much. The “Gouvernante” appeared in 1747. This is called his best play. It is a sort of dramatic romance and nothing more, an extreme. He died in 1754, 62 years old. Denys Diderot who carried this to its extreme, was the son of a cutler, he is more famous for other works than for his plays. He is the author of the Pere de Famille and Fils naturel, sentimental to excess, consequently improbable, but perfect in what they set out to be. This closes Comedy, none of importance after this and no tragedy excepting Voltaire. This is the order of the light drama school of Moliere, Regnard and Comedie Larmoyante.
I wrote to John10 this Evening, and spent some time sociably with Sheafe and Richardson in the latter’s room. We also took supper at Willard’s. XII.
1. Kornelis Schrevel Schrevelius (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:492).
2. Johann Heinrich Voss (1751–1826), professor at Heidelberg (same, 3:61–63).
3. Dr. Samuel Clarke (1675–1729), of Cambridge University (same, 2:413, 3:13).
4. Dissatisfied with the regular congressional nomination in the Middlesex district, a group of JQA’s supporters met in Lexington on October 14 and, influenced partly by the fame of Everett’s recent Phi Beta Kappa address and partly by his well known friendship for the Adams family, nominated the Harvard professor. In accepting, Everett said he personally favored JQA for the Presidency but expressed the hope that his congressional contest would not turn upon the presidential question. See Frothingham, Everett, p. 87. How little Everett’s wishes were to be respected is indicated by the ease with which CFA jumped in the very next sentence to the presidential race.
5. Missing.
6. Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon (1674–1762).
{ 395 }
7. The Liar or Le Menteur.
8. Jean François Regnard (1655–1709).
9. Pierre Claude Nivelle de la Chaussée.
10. Letter missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-17

Sunday. October 17th. VIII.

Missed Prayers, and as I did not feel exceedingly well, I thought it would be some relief to me to remain at home all day. I would not attend Chapel. I was very lazy part of the day, writing my Journal and closing a letter to John. I think one of the greatest signs of my improvement the past year is my facility of writing. I formerly thought a letter could hardly be three pages long without requiring an exertion but now I can scarcely compress what I have to say in four. I have no time to devote at present to correction and am afraid to read over what I write so that my letters depart with all their faults and imperfections upon them. I wasted the afternoon, for finding my letters growing so upon me, and not considering them of much value at least any early ones, I determined upon reading over my old files from my young friends five or six years since and casting them into the flames. They called up many recollections and I felt as if I was parting with my oldest and most sincere friends. I could scarcely think of any thing but the repeated assurances of affection which came from Dawes; they appeared so natural. I am marking out for myself a course in which I lose all the friendship which so pleases and enlivens life. It is the most heartless thing in the world. My nature too is social to an extreme and it is doing strong violence to it. Ambition, pride and all my other feelings contribute however to excite me.
I was all the afternoon working thus and in the evening after a visit to Sheafe, I sat down and read Burke’s inquiry into the origin of the sublime and beautiful. It is strictly philosophical light reading. I cannot help being amused with it so much that I read it superficially. Some observations I am not entirely inclined to agree to, such as that smoothness is an essential to beauty. Smooth things are beautiful but some rough things are so also. I progressed very rapidly in it and had more of an evening’s reading than at any time since the commencement of the term. I finished the night with reading Dyer’s Grongar Hill again which I find to be a prettier thing than at first I supposed it. I also read the First book of Beattie’s Minstrel, as sweet a thing as I wish to see. There does not appear to be much plan in the poem as it was left, but the melody of the verses is remarkable and the sentiments are some of them very much in consonance with my own. I then retired. XI:30.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-18

Monday. October 18th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning to Mr. Hayward with usual success. After breakfast attended a lecture from Professor Everett. He began this morning with Hesiod and his lecture was of a sort rather more amusing. The works which remain to us under the name of Hesiod have not received the notice which they merit and which they held in antiquity. Velleius Paterculus in a passage quoted in the pamphlet gives him high praise,1 which Wolf in modern times has repeated. The same question with that concerning Homer may be agitated here, and is only less interesting, as the shortness of the poems is an answer to many arguments which apply to Homer and makes it less worthwhile to contest. Much doubt has existed as to the real time of Hesiod; he has been placed before, contemporary with and after Homer. An argument is drawn from some lines of his concerning the rising of Arcturus which it was supposed might be calculated so as to fix his time. This was attempted by Longomontanus, Kepler, Riccioli and Sir Isaac Newton. The first made the calculation and supposed, to make up for a difficulty as he brought this much earlier, that Hesiod did not speak of it as it was in his own day but 270 years previous. Sir Isaac Newton came to a very different result. On the whole nothing can be made of it. The reasons why are to be found at length in the pamphlet.2 But little is known of his life and that is collected from his own works. He mentions a poetical contest at the funeral of Amphidamas, king of Euboea in which he obtained a prize. From this, arose the fabulous story of his victory over Homer. Origin of this may be traced in some grammarian who supposed that as Hesiod lived at the time of Homer, this last must have been his rival, and that at the contest the decision was made unjustly in favour of the former. The accounts of the death of Hesiod are equally fabulous.
Hesiod is to be considered as the head of an ancient Boeotian school of Poetry in the same way that Homer is head of the Ionic. There appears to have been a remarkable contrast between the early and late character of this part of Greece. Hesiod and Pindar are not by any means men by whom we are to judge that a country is stupid. The fact is that the proverbial character of stupidity did not attach itself to the inhabitants of Boeotia until after the time of the Persian invasion and it was probably in consequence of their conduct in it that they received the epithets which have ever since stuck to them.
The works of Hesiod have a twofold character; they are partly didactic and partly mythological and epic. This may probably arise { 397 } | view from his poems being compilations or from his versatility. His works and days is very unequal in beauty, it has some fine passages and is remarkable for having relics of a mythology still more ancient and more romantic to use the modern word than the one usually known to us. His next poem is the Theogony. It is of an entirely different character from the Works and days. It treats of the creation of the world. It is valuable as a treatise displaying the old opinions but it gives no mythology. It is probable that these works were formed into their present state in the age of Pisistratus by the Διασκευασται3 whose business I have before related. This is most likely the case with all the present works of this bard. Some passages in this last work are fine.
After Lecture, I returned home and was quietly sitting at my Journal when I was surprised by a visit from a new classmate of mine, Mr. Prescott.4 I used to know him pretty well in my dissipated days, but I had left off his acquaintance and was not inclined to renew it upon visiting terms. He indeed did not intend a visit to me as he mistook my room for Otis’s. His character for years has been very bad, he has indulged in all the wildest excesses and has hardly given it up now. He and Hunt and Loundes make a set of curiosities. His visit was pretty long and he was guarded in his conversation, which however is moderately agreable. I went to recitation in Astronomy as usual.
In the afternoon, owing to a large dinner, I could not study at all and went to recitation quite unprepared. Mr. Hedge came upon our side, surprised us and called upon me, but fortunately it was in the review so that I managed to pass off. We drilled as usual and did very well after which I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. He went over many of the inferior branches of French poetry. Two more important forms of the French drama appeared—the serious opera first introduced by Corneille in 1650 which is an exotic from Italy where the love of music had prevailed over the drama. It is a sort which does not succeed much in France. The French opera is proverbial for it’s magnificence and it’s wretched singing—the comic opera has been more successful. This also arose in 1650. No considerable author can be mentioned however who has not succeeded better in the other branches of literature. In Lyrical Poetry there has been but little success. The French seem to have failed in this branch almost entirely. There is but one exception. There is very little of the lyrical character in Malherbe, more of it in the choruses to Athalie and Esther, the place perhaps where we should not wish to find it.
The only instance where we find regular lyrical poetry is in J. B. Rousseau5 who was born in 1669. His father was a shoemaker but { 398 } gave him a good education. He published a book at 20 and was so entirely given up to his literary pursuits that he refused a place of very considerable profit from the government because he thought it would interrupt them. A satirical piece of poetry appeared of little merit which he was charged with and, in consequence of which, a prosecution was entered against him which was decided unfavourably in 1712. He was exiled but received very friendly treatment wherever he went. He became melancholy however, refused all compromise in a noble answer which was given to us. As to the charge, we have not much right to doubt his innocence. He died in exile in 1741. His plays are bad, his epigrams are pretty good, his epistles are inferior to Boileau’s, but his character rests upon his lyrical works. His cantata, a new species of verse introduced by Rousseau, he does not like. The mixture of mythology in them makes them cold and stiff. The Odes are very good. The first book is a bold paraphrase of the psalms of David, the second of them is the best specimen but they are not equal to the English on the same subject. The second book consists of moral odes. There is not much poetry in it, but his character rests chiefly on the third book. These odes were mentioned and severely criticized. Mr. Ticknor evidently did not like the man’s poems.
We pass from here to fiction, and at this place Mr. Ticknor gave us a history of the rise and progress of romantic fiction. It’s common stock, the story tellers, the ballads, chivalrous romances, historical romances which are the different steps in the progress. Madame de la Fayette6 was the person in France first to touch upon the more natural feelings of the heart. She was born in 1633, lived a wit of the hotel de Rambouillet and [was] a woman of powerful influence as well as an authoress. She died in 1693 having produced many works of which Zaide [Zayde] in 1670 and the Princesse de Cleves in 1677.7 These he analysed. They are old fashioned romances.
I returned home, finished Burke’s treatise, which however I should like to read again, read the second part of Beattie’s Minstrel and spent the remainder of the Evening in Otis’s room, chatting and drinking Porter until quite late in the night. XI:35.
1. See Everett’s Synopsis, p. 62.
2. Actually, according to Professor Everett’s account in his Synopsis, p. 63-64, the age of Hesiod might be computed within 70 years because of the rising of Arcturus.
3. Literally “arrangers,” meaning revisors or editors.
4. Edward Goldsborough Prescott, of Boston (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).
5. Jean Baptiste Rousseau (1669–1741).
6. Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, Comtesse de la Fayette (1634–1692), whose novel, La Princesse de Clèves, was published in 1678.
7. Sentence defective.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-19

Tuesday. October 19th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. Our lessons are very much easier than they were a little while since. But it makes exceeding little difference to me. Mr. Everett went on with Hesiod today. The third work he said was the Shield of Hercules. This has been generally considered spurious or as a portion of some larger work of Hesiod relating to the ancient heroines of fabulous ages. This portion however is no work on the praises of heroines for it entirely refers to the armor of Hercules, excepting in the fifty six first lines which gives rise to an hypothesis first started by Heinrich1 which is very probable. It is that these lines which refer to Alcmene, the mother of Hercules, really did belong to a large work on the subject of heroines by Hesiod, and were afterwards prefixed to an account of the hero which was made by some other person, probably a Theban celebrating his divinity, as was their custom. Two scholia moreover speak of this as a fragment of this work. The catalogue of heroines. The work is simple, but still has a more artificial manner of composition than the other productions. It has supplied some imagery to Milton.
Here Mr. Everett entered into a discussion concerning genius, merely as connected with this observation, saying that Milton was not affected at all by having read so much, in his own original poems. That genius did not [ . . . ] at all in any peculiar form. Some had thought it was crushed by learning but the fact is it will rise above every situation. He then gave instances of men in every situation and with every degree of learning illustrating this position. Only about two hundred lines remain of the rest of the books ascribed to Hesiod and these are of little importance. The editions are put down. The principal scholia are those of Proclus, a few remain of Didymus, many other anonymous ones. The edition of Robinson2 contains the argument concerning the rising of Arcturus. It has been translated three times into English, once by Chapman in 16183 a faithful and vigorously executed work, and although with the quaintness of the age, it has some purity. The next is by Cook in 1728 which is a heavy performance in rhyme, that by Elton in blank verse is an exceedingly well performed work. There is a very good preliminary dissertation upon the subject of his life and works in this edition and it may be considered a specimen of excellent criticism. The names of the rest of the works ascribed to Hesiod are set down in the pamphlet. The works of Hesiod have not yet received from the learned the attention they merit and there is yet no thoroughly good edition of them. He then went on to speak of the Cyclic poets, the age they flourished in, and { 400 } the reasons why they received this name. He said nothing however in today’s lecture concerning them which was not in the synopsis and consequently it is not worth while to copy it.
I returned home and was employed all the morning writing. I attended recitation in Astronomy. Mr. Farrar detained us much longer than usual in a dissertation of some length upon Comets, their appearance, and the theories respecting their course. As I have not taken notice of his course here,4 I shall not say any thing of this except that we were rather fatigued. After dinner I attempted to study my lesson but found myself entirely unable to do so. I was so exceedingly sleepy that I was obliged to indulge and sleep away part of the afternoon. This I could do with more safety as Mr. Hedge unquestionably would not call upon me and I felt little interest in the particular subject on which the lessons this week treat. After Prayers we had an exceeding good drill although our captain now and then makes himself too great a man. Weakness is inherent in man and every step I take makes me believe it more closely. Fancy makes fools of us all and gives us all the little pleasure we have in the world, for reality would cause nothing but wretchedness.
I spent a few moments at Chapman’s and then attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. I mentioned in my last notes that he had passed over Madame La Fayette but I regret very much I was not able to write more at length. A Lady at that time did not dare to put her name to a work so that Segray’s [Segrais’] was attached to her’s, but there is no doubt that they belong to her. This anecdote is all I can add. This evening he continued his account of serious prose fiction. The next fashion, he said, were imitations of Richardson who had by this time become known. Then we may merely mention the coarse pictures of Rabelais and Scarron5 and pass on directly to Le Sage6 who was born in 1688. He took to reading Spanish and from thence his character was formed. He first was a mere imitator but his talent would not allow him to remain long in this humble sphere. He extracted the subjects of his best stories from Spain and Spanish character but the description is all his own. In 1707 he produced his Diable boiteux, here a short abstract was made of it. He in this novel, under Spanish costume, takes off many of the reigning characters of the day at Paris. The coquet is Ninon de L’enclos, Baron stands for another &c. Of his Guzman d’Alfarache which is a translation from the Spanish and the Bacheler de Salamanque, he would say but little as he wished to come directly to Gil Bias which first appeared in 1717. He then commenced a regular critique of this work. It wanted unity entirely, he said. Take the mere story: it is { 401 } an account of the adventures of a rogue who by any means which come in his way, manages to rise from the lowest to the highest order of society. Take it in this way and it would be hard to find any one who would read it. But with all the variety, the delineation of character, and the power of generalization which it possesses, it certainly lays claim to be the very first in its kind. The Spaniards have laid claim to this novel and bring forward a work which they assert to have been the original one but there is sufficient internal evidence from the characters of the men in the book and the knowledge of the country that a foreigner wrote it. There are two or three very great geographical errors. There was no successful attempt after this. Crebillon the younger tried and produced a bad imitation of Fielding.
He returned again to Eloquence, and made some remarks upon the reasons why only certain sorts of eloquence flourished in France formerly, which were sufficiently Commonplace. Suffice it that pulpit eloquence and that courtly [word omitted?] was the form in which it appeared. J. B. Massillon was born in 1663 and appeared the year that Bossuet and Bourdaloue died. He gained great reputation but was not promoted during the life of Louis 14th. He afterwards obtained the bishopric of Clermont. His sermons amount to more than a hundred and are divided into panegyrics on the saints, conferences or instructions to young clergymen and the “petit careme.”7 Two or three beautiful quotations he gave us. He has not so much power perhaps as Bossuet, nor so much cogent, philosophical eloquence as Bourdaloue but in sweetness, gracefulness, dignified excellence, he has no superior. As a suite of sermons, those of the petit careme, in number eleven, are the best he has left us. There is more art to be found in the formation of his works than had been usual, and more attention to the mechanical arrangement in order to produce effect. He died in 1742 at his see, out of debt as a clergyman should. After Lecture I returned home, read a little of Akenside which did not much please me, a chapter of Campbell’s Rhetoric8 and retired. XI:15.
1. Karl Friedrich Heinrich (1744–1838), professor at Kiel and, later, at Bonn (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 3:109).
2. Thomas Robinson, Oxford 1737 (same, 2:479).
3. Presumably George Chapman (c. 1559–1634), the English scholar (same, 2:241).
4. CFA wrote up Professor Farrar’s lectures in a separate notebook (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314).
5. Paul Scarron (1610–1660).
6. Alain-René Le Sage (1668–1747).
7. The little Lent sermon.
8. George Campbell, The Philosophy of Rhetoric, 2 vols., London, 1776.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-20

Wednesday. October 20th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning as usual. Mr. Hey• { 402 } ward being extremely complaisant, I was free with a remarkably easy passage. Mr. Everett lectured as usual. He continued his notice of the Cyclic Poets. He also discussed the origin of the term, which however is entire in the pamphlet.1 His result was that they obtained their name only from the choice of the subjects of which they treated. They are generally dull and servile poets which explains a passage quoted from Horace. They were imitators of Homer but it is extremely probable that these were the sources from which the works of Homer and Hesiod were interpolated. It is doubtful whether many of these poems survived long in Greece. The fragments were collected and made models for imitation by the Alexandrian School who then put them forth as the true original poems. Some of these still exist. One by Quintus Calaber, hereafter to be mentioned, who flourished in the sixth century and wrote a poem in imitation of the lesser Iliad of Lesches. One of Tzetzes is still inferior, a writer “who lived” says Heyne “I will not say flourished.” These ancient poems are principally interesting to us in connexion with the Aeneid of Virgil who drew many things from other sources than Homer and probably differed from him. Macrobius asserts that he borrowed from Pisander which is not true and proved so by Heyne. Two poems are the principal guides of Virgil when he departs from Homer, the Lesser Iliad of Lesches and the sack of Troy by Arctinus the Milesian. The first is ascribed to Homer himself in the life attributed to Herodotus. Lesches is however generally reputed the author. Nothing is known of him but that he was a native of Smyrna. We hear of his poem from the mention made of it by the ancient authors who have come down to us. From Aristotle, who gives its argument. It is remarkable that it has given eight subjects to the Attic stage while the greater work has given but two. We know something of it from the Iliac table, a curious relic, the object of which seemed to be a sort of synopsis for schools as it contains the subjects of the poems both of Homer and the lesser poets, roughly sketched, also the names of the authors &c. He showed us an engraving of this Iliac table, which is preserved in the capitol of Rome, after lecture was over.
The other poem is the sack of Troy by Arctinus the Milesian, which we hear of through Proclus who is [the] great authority for the other poem also. The Iliac table contains another work of this author, but not this, although it probably furnishes some materials for it. Of this class of poets Heyne makes two observations. It is to be wished that some person should make an accurate treatise upon them, should compare and collect the fragments. In this way he would do the { 403 } greatest service as he would illustrate the classics which is all the object we have in view to know them. It is also to be observed and to be regretted that the greatest sacrifices in Greek literature have been made in times when there were abundant means to preserve them.
After lecture I went to the reading room and saw nothing but electioneering manoeuvres which now fill the papers. I soon returned to my room and spent my morning writing notes. Attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation and lecture which was a continuation of his observations upon comets. In the afternoon, I was again extremely negligent in my lesson. Mr. Hedge came upon our side in the review and put me in a fright for a little while. I escaped however. We had no drill after Prayers as usual, the Juniors being in somewhat of a complaining humour and the weather being bad.
In the Evening I wrote my Journal and attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture which was quite a pleasant one to me as I was enabled to judge of the works he talked of. The next branch which he should take up he said was that of Epistolary composition. The person who most distinguished herself here was Madame de Sevigne who was born in 1626, and being an Orphan, was educated by her Uncle. In her youth she was not handsome but striking, and although receiving the usual instruction of that period, it was very deficient, and probably contributed to her success by throwing her upon her own exertions. She was married at 18, and a widow at 25, and spent the remainder of her life in attention upon her son and daughter, more particularly the latter, whom she perfectly doted upon, and whom she watched with so much attention in a sickness as to injure her own health, in consequence of which she died in 1696 being 70 years old. To prove how great her purity was, no scandal which was so common with the characters of that age, has ever attached to that name. She was neither a “prude” in early years nor a “devote” in her age. Her letters to her daughter are the only productions we have of her and are models. The loss of them would not only have made a chasm in the literature of France but in that of the world. Her grace and imagination, the confidence of her sympathy, the pictures of the society of that age render her letters brilliant, faithful and interesting. She gives an admirable view of the illustrious days of Louis 14th. There is a vivacity of manner and happiness of detail which can be found nowhere else. But her last and prevailing merit is her affection for her daughter which gives her letters the appearance of a whole—an inspiration which imparted it’s power to whatever it touched.
{ 404 }
After her there were a diversity of authors. Madame de Maintenon wrote and she is perhaps the best of the series. Correspondence degenerated a little too much into scandal, and although all the works in this way are amusing, they are merely a reflection, although a correct reflection of the manners of the court, and therefore they finally become tiresome. Among these may be counted Madame Deffand, Madame Espinasse,2 Voltaire, and many others. The next branch which he takes up is that of History which the French have never been successful in, at least in formal history; they are generally long and dull. Mezeray, Father Daneil, St. Real and Vertot3 have all written but not remarkably well. In a branch of history however, Memoirs, they have been exceedingly successful and they have written much. He mentioned Sully in his first lecture which I did not hear; he tonight treated of Cardinal de Retz. He wrote Memoirs in four volumes. Few books of a more amazing character have existed, they display at length the intrigues of the French and are most remarkable for their exhibition of personal vanity. This man was born for intrigue but his indolence deterred him from gaining any thing by it. His life is a continued example of the deepest intrigue without any result of importance. The mountain was perpetually bringing forth a mouse. His book is entertaining as a perfectly measured display of himself and his times. He here shifts away with a mere mention of the rest of this branch as a very large collection.
He next came to Rochefoucauld who was born in 1613 and whose education was neglected, which made him think probably, and the author of a book whimsical, original and false. In his Maxims he thought selfishness the only motive of action. He was a man who did not believe in the existence of virtues and with these opinions it is not surprising that he should die little regretted except by his immediate circle of friends. Of La Bruyere I shall speak tomorrow. I returned home, wrote a theme, sat a little while with Richardson and then went to bed. XI.
1. See Everett’s Synopsis, p. 72–74.
2. Marie de Vichy-Chamroud, Marquise du Deffand (1697–1780), and Julie-Jeanne-Éléanore de Lespinasse (1732–1776).
3. François Endes de Mézeray (1610–1683), Gabriel Daniel (1649–1728), César Saint-Réal (1639–1692), and René Aubert Vertot (1655–1735).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-21

Thursday. October 21st. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography this morning and after breakfast went to Lecture. He began today with a period of far greater certainty as to the persons and productions of the ancient { 405 } Greek authors. Probably arising from the introduction of writing. His lectures assume more interest also. Few remains exist of the class of lyrical poets who carried their art to such perfection and effected the change from the epic to the classical age of Greece. Archilochus is the first of those poets. He was a native of Paros and supposed to be the author of the Iambic verse. Little is known with respect to the events of his life. He speaks of himself as having thrown away his shield in battle, when he was serving the Thasians [Thracians], for which afterwards it is said he was expelled from Lacedaemon. Others say that it was for his verses which he first produced upon the violation of a treaty of marriage with Neobyle [Neobulé] by her father Lycambes. Archilochus as the fable tells, forced all the family to suicide. Horace who imitated his verses as well as his cowardice, speaks of him in allusion to this. He obtained such a reputation by these verses, that he extended his satire and did not even spare his mother. He lost all his friends in consequence and became poor. He wandered about and finally died but in what manner is uncertain, although many anecdotes are told of it. His poetry was held in high repute, many authors quoted in the pamphlet give him great praise. His name became a proverb as every thing that was severe. Annio in the middle of the 15th century forged works of Archilochus the historian which never existed.
The next poet we come to is Tyrtaeus. There is much diversity of opinion as to the time when he lived, probably about the 24th Olympiad. The principal events in his history are well known, at least as they have been handed down to us. Nothing can be certainly said as to the motive Tyrtaeus had in going to Sparta. Did we know more of the private history of the time, the reasons which influenced the [work?] in it’s singular decision, we might probably find this account perfectly agreable to natural and historical probability. It is by no means inconsistent with nature that he was at Sparta in the time of the Messenian War and that he excited the citizens powerfully by his odes. Martial music and warlike songs were of great importance in ancient times and it is the common opinion that the warlike elegies of Tyrtaeus were chanted as the songs of onset, immediately previous to joining battle. There is an interesting dissertation upon the subject in a late edition by Klotzius.1 He was said to have been the inventor of the trumpet by the use of which the Lacedemonians conquered the Messenians. The trumpet is certainly not mentioned in Homer. There are extant four of his elegies. It is singular by how small and capricious a chance the poems of many of the ancients have been continued down { 406 } to us. These have been obtained only by the fortunate circumstance of being quoted by other authors. Lycurgus preserved one in this way and Stobaeus the other three. Some small fragments also remain. The best edition has been referred to. This was a Lecture rather more entertaining than usual and he will now quickly proceed to a more fruitful subject. I shall be able to collect in this volume all that is contained in his pamphlet. His other lectures I shall be obliged to write out in another form.2 My Journal could not contain all without abridgment.
I returned home and wrote a correct copy of a Theme on the subject of the Novels of this country. It was an ample field for discussion and I only had to regret that I was so limited in time and space for I believe I could have written very well upon the subject. As it was I threw together a few ideas upon the subject and carried it up to Mr. Channing. I then had the morning before me but I received a letter from Tudor3 by the mail which made me unfit to do any thing, and strange to say, I went to the book store and reading room where I wasted the morning. I seldom go to the reading room but my want of something to do attracted me there today and I went over all the politics of the day. A tiresome affair as ever was but there is a singular sort of interest created in reading it. Not much satisfaction after it is over however. I have to accuse myself of having neglected my duty however entirely, this morning, and without excuse. As Mr. Hedge had been so cruel as to come upon our side of the class yesterday, I knew that I should be called upon, and as neither my own personal feelings nor the importance of the lesson called upon me to study it, I determined to absent myself, for the first time since the commencement of the study. I wrote my Journal, which employed me the larger part of the time until Prayers. I was however free for the Evening. All the time before Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture I employed in reading Akenside’s Pleasures of Imagination. The second part I was very much delighted with. The only fault I have to find is that he continues some periods too far. The second cannot embrace the whole.
I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture as usual, but in the mean time, I shall fill up the deficiency in last nights lecture. La Bruyere was born in 1639, and in early life patronized by Bossuet and was made reader to the Duke of Bourbon, which he continued to be all the rest of his life. He died in 1696. He translated the characters of Theophrastus and attached some of his own to them, and interspersed the whole with maxims, moral sentences and observations upon { 407 } nature. He drew from this entirely and displays close thinking. So that if this work is not the first in its kind, it is so nearly perfect, it need fear no rivalship. He thus went through all the departments of French literature and now he goes on to speak of Voltaire, who took up the whole of this Evening’s lecture. Monsieur Voltaire was born on the 20th of February 1694. He was educated by the Jesuits and in his youth changed his name, as was the custom in France. Early in life he fell into the society of profligates, who frequented the house of the famous Ninon de Lenclos, and it is here probably that he first imbibed the prejudices against religion for which he was afterwards so remarkable. He was writing his first tragedy at the age of 18 and was introduced to this society as a remarkably promising young man. Voltaire was shortly after, on the death of Louis 14th, accused of writing a satire upon him which appeared in the papers, and he was put into the Bastile where he remained thirteen months and finished a tragedy and commenced his Henriade in the mean time. At the age of 24 he offered Oedipe and continued offering new pieces for 60 years.
Being exiled from Paris, on what account we know not, but ostensibly for an unsuccessful tragedy, he travelled all over the country, went to see J. B. Rousseau with whom he quarreled, although he was in the wrong. Nothing ensued but a witty remark which has attached itself to one of Rousseau’s Odes. He then retired to England (1726) where he formed an acquaintance with Pope and read many of the standard works of English letters. He was also at work upon the Henriade. His Brutus made its appearance in 1730 when he had returned to Paris and was again exiled; in 1732 Zarie [Zaïrie] appeared. Weary, he retired to Champagne with the Marchioness de Chatelay [du Châtelet] and continued writing; Merope appeared in 1743. As he was an intimate of the king of Prussia who was now becoming powerful, he became of use to the administration who sent him to Berlin on a private mission for to negociate.4 From this time during the life of Madame de Pompadour, he enjoyed more favour from the court and in 1746 succeeded in becoming a member of the French Academy. He again retired to Champagne and again returned to Paris before 1750 when he accepted the invitation of the king of Prussia who offered him a residence and a pension. Here we commence perceiving his avaricious disposition who5 demanded 1000 francs for his own travelling expenses and as many for his niece. These latter were refused and had not his vanity induced him more powerfully, he would not have gone. He was well received and remained for { 408 } some time, but gradually differences arose and misunderstandings which were increased by Maupertuis and others about the court until he determined to depart. A ridiculous farce ensued; he was arrested at Frankfurt and sent an humble letter to the king which is his disgrace. He was released, and happening to travel through Switzerland, he became pleased with the country, and after trying many places where he was detested on account of his infamous Pucelle d’Orleans, he finally settles at Ferney, a little distance from Geneva, after about sixty years of perpetual agitation. Vanity appears to have been his ruling passion. He lived at Ferney twenty years, if he could be said to live there, when his heart, mind and thoughts were all fixed in Paris.
At last he appears at Paris in 1778 at 84 years of age and repeats a play to the Players. This exhausted him so that in his sickness a clergyman was called in and he signed a subscription of faith which he did his best to ridicule after his recovery. On the 30th of March he went in form to the Academy, who dispensing with all their rules went out to meet him. The streets were lined with spectators who cheered him as he went. He attended the Theatre where he was received with the most rapturous and continual acclamation, his [ . . . ] was [ . . . ] and the evening could hardly proceed for the shouts of the multitude. A day of uncommon glory. Soon after, in order to study twelve hours without cessation, he took large quantities of Coffee, which made him feel unwell. He, having heard laudanum was good, obtained some, which with his usual impatience, he took in large quantity and died in consequence, an example of restlessness without a parallell in history. I have got thus far only in his life.
After lecture, I felt like amusement and the Lyceum met in my room over some Whiskey punch, and I had some serious conversation with Richardson. XII:15.
1. C. A. Klozius, whose edition had appeared in 1767 (Everett, Synopsis, p. 82).
2. CFA continued to write out his summaries of Professor Everett’s lectures, but he kept them in another notebook after 3 November. See Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314.
3. Missing.
4. Thus in MS.
5. Thus in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-22

Friday. October 22d. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. After breakfast went to Mr. Everett’s Lecture which he commenced with an account of Alcman, whose name is not often repeated but who is remarkable as being almost the only poet of whom the Spartans can boast. He { 409 } was by birth a Lydian and flourished in the seventh century before Christ. He is distinguished as being a specimen of the Peloponesian Doric dialect. The fragments remaining from him are very inconsiderable, about 130 lines, no single piece containing more than four lines. He is reported to have been the inventor of amatory songs, and some say the father of lyric poetry, but this cannot be attributed to one alone. A notice of an epitaph said to be his is on the third article of the 33d page. Alcaeus is the next poet. He is supposed to have lived at the end of the seventh century before Christ, he was a native of Mytilene and an ornament of the Aeolic school of lyric poetry. He, like Horace and Archilochus, was guilty of throwing away his shield and flight in a battle with the Athenians about the plain of Troy. He is celebrated as a poet and an enemy of tyrants. He violently opposed Pittacus of Mytilene who had obtained the Government but did not succeed in overturning his power. His poems against tyranny were those for which he was most distinguished. He afterwards travelled and wrote an account of his voyages in verse. He is reputed to be the author of the verse which received his name. Very inconsiderable fragments of him remain. Some have attributed to him the song of Harmodius and Aristogeiton [Aristogiton] but we find this impossible when we recollect that he preceded the age of which he speaks, and we must infer also that this song was not the work of one hand only.
We next come to notice Sappho, of whom Addison says that she is the most beautiful of the mutilated poets of antiquity. She was a native of Mytilene and a contemporary of Alcaeus. This island has the credit of giving two admirable poets and the circumstance gives us reason to suppose the Aeolic strain to have ever been that of musical passion. Little is known of her life. The common story is that she went in pursuit of Phaon and ended her life by taking the lover’s leap. Sappho has always ranked very high as a poetess. Besides the mention in the pamphlet, she has the favourable notice of all antiquity. Aelian tells us she was characterized by Plato the wise but Bayle argues that this applies to her ode and not to her mind or moral character. Demetrius Phalereus called her divine and Strabo most inimitable. There is no proof among the ancients of her having that profligate character for which she has since been characterized. It is probable they had their origin in the license of the comic poets of later ages. The latter grammarians, the roman writers and particularly Ovid have taken their impressions from this source. Welcher,1 in a work on the subject, says that the moderns have falsified Ovid { 410 } even, and that without it he could not have said what is there. Aristotle, in a passage in which if there was any objection to be made certainly would and must have made this, charges her only with being a woman. Of her poems only two have come down but these are in proportion to their size the most famous fragments of all antiquity. Addison has devoted two pages of the Spectator to them and translations are added by Phillips [Philips]. That in the 223d he thought was very cold and paraphrastic although praised by Addison whereas the other was pretty good. Contemporary with Sappho was Erinna a native of Teos, or of Lesbos. The only considerable fragment remaining of her is an ode addressed to Fortitude. Some of the critics have thought it meant Rome as the address supposes, but there is nothing further to support the proposition. It is singular however that she is so vague, that there is nothing to make it apply without hesitation either to Fortitude or Rome.
After Lecture, I returned home and commenced writing my Journal with which I progressed quite rapidly until I was interrupted by a visit from Brenan who sat with me all the rest of the morning. He is a pleasant man and although with half distorted views of human nature, I am exceedingly inclined to believe in them. We talked much of College and of character which is generally the sum of our conversation. I am out of spirits this term, but what in God’s name is the cause, I cannot possibly tell. I think the College company has done more to it than any thing and I am sorry, very sincerely sorry, that I accepted it. I was scarce fit for the place, I have always been partially unpopular in College and I have experienced more dissatisfaction than pleasure myself. I shall be heartily glad when the end of next week comes as it will free me from a great deal of drudgery. At twelve o’clock I went down to Porter’s Hall on company business but I found the hall was shut up and no prospect of any [ . . . ] so I returned home and went to dinner.
After dinner we had a drill and a very good one; the company will be able to do exceedingly well upon Exhibition. I lost the section in which I took so much pride however and felt exceedingly indifferent about their success. We remained exercising until the bell rung for Declamation which dispersed us. We were amused by an effort from Mr. Furbish2 which was exceeding great, otherwise the affair much as usual. After declamation I came home and employed myself the rest of the afternoon very industriously in continuation of my Journal which I could not finish this morning. I managed to obtain a little while for myself, this was broken in upon however by Lothrop who { 411 } came to visit me this afternoon. The term is just commencing as to society, and excepting Prescott, these are the first visitors I have had.
After Prayers we had a regular drill, which was an exceeding good one. I could not avoid falling into a difficulty at the same moment, and one of the privates has left the company in consequence. I am an unfortunate man but decision of character carries it’s disadvantages with it. After drill I went directly to the meeting of the Knights where I did not remain long however, as I wished to attend Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture.
I shall continue from the place I left off. A criticism of the works of Voltaire. Oedipe was a bold attempt after Corneille had written upon the same subject before him, and has one great fault, the introduction of a love intrigue in the midst of such an accumulation of misery. It nevertheless was attended with astonishing success. It was represented forty five nights running. He wrote Zarie in twenty two days and it was Mr. Ticknor’s opinion that there was more tenderness in it than in any thing on the French stage. Adelaide had a strange fate. At it’s first representation it was hissed off the stage without hesitation. In 1752 it was brought up again in an altered form and met with moderate success. In 1765 however the actors determined to take it up in it’s original form and it was received with the most unbounded admiration and was represented forty times successively. It was surprising with what coolness he bore these various decisions and he wrote a letter at the time in which he expressed himself perfectly satisfied with either judgment. If it is not his best play, it is at least his most interesting one. In 1736 he produced Alzere, in some respects his best piece, more elevation and more dignity belongs to it. It is free, bold and natural but it cannot be considered any thing more than a fine poetical picture. It has not much probability and but little nature. It is not what it assumes to be, a scene in South America. Mahomet was written at the same time but withdrawn until 1756. He in this play endeavours to represent the character as detestable and his object was indirectly to attack religion in every line. Merope came out in 1743. This play is founded on maternal affection and is nearly perfect in it’s kind; it met with very great success. The surprising thing is that there is no labour apparent in all these works. Tancrede appeared in 1760. It has some weaknesses and faults. The first and third acts are particularly faulty, it afterwards rises however and becomes great. These are the best of twenty seven tragedies which he composed, the rest he did not mention. Voltaire’s intention (and he succeeded) was to give greater splendour and power to the French { 412 } stage, for it must be confessed that we sometimes become tired with the unvarying grandeur of Racine and Corneille. It is too stiff. Between 1725 and 1770 he gave ten comedies and about half a dozen operas, which failed entirely, and it is only surprising to think how a man like him could so little estimate his own powers.
The Henriade was begun at eighteen and continued during his residence at the Bastile, a surreptitious edition was published in 1723 and three years after a correct and authorized copy was printed at London. This poem claims to be an epic and is the only one on which the French ever rest a claim in that branch of poetry. It is not strictly speaking an epic, according to the ancient models we have, it is merely a narrative poem with a plan partly epic and contains many interesting narratives and agreable episodes. There is no unity however in the plot and may be considered rather a historical than an epic poem. If we can be satisfied with rich and glowing descriptions, correct delineations of character and interesting episodes, we shall here receive perfect entertainment. He finished his last Lecture here and went on tonight saying that he would willingly, if he could, avoid speaking of the infamous work called “La Pucelle d’Orleans” which he was writing between 1730–62. But it had been so well received that he was not able to pass it entirely over. It is a blasphemous ridicule upon one of the finest passages in French history and is sufficient to disgrace any man without the crime should be aggravated by being the work of a Frenchman. It has nothing known by which to recommend itself, it displays no invention and is equally an outrage upon religion and national feeling. It is equally an offense against decency and good taste for it has not even the critical merit which some equally indecent books have to recommend them. Mr. Ticknor skips over a large portion of the numerous works of Voltaire, his didactic poems are poor, his epistles are epigrammatic and lively, there is considerable variety in his narrative poems and his satire is bitter without humour.
With this notice he passes directly to history. In 1740 he published The “Essai sur les Moeurs” in four volumes. This work was intended to take a general view of the influences of character upon the different nations of the world drawn from the results in history. The faults in this book however are sufficient to condemn it. It contains an unfair and dishonorable representation of what has passed, it draws inferences and makes deductions from partial statements and is made the engine of mischief to religion and morality. It displays moreover a remarkable want of knowledge which it would have been better { 413 } for him to hide. The History of the Life of Louis the 14th is of a different character. It is an interesting and splendid account of one of the most brilliant periods in French History. It has great faults however. The subject is above his strength, he does not know how to manage a grave work like this, he makes one suppose that all that passed before this age was darkness and that every other country but that of France was in a barbarous state. Whoever does not look for much philosophy in the work, will find it interesting and amusing. The history of Louis the 15th is not equal to it. That of Charles 12th is to history what Romance is to drama, it is an interesting account of a romantic character. That of Peter of Russia is at the same time the dullest and the least correct of all his works in this style. His twenty five romances are the production of his old age, they [are] of very different lengths but all have the same end, the mocking of religion. It is disgraceful in the extreme to an old man to see him the author of works like these; in youth possibly it is pardonable. If we look over the events of his life and examine his conduct, we should conclude him to be the greatest of villains, without faith, morality or law. And the greatest of calumniators. But this is not the case. He was not the most designedly vicious man, but there is nothing like integrity in his character. He had not the least constancy of character, he was a man of whims and prejudices without a spark of principle to govern them. His life was a strange drama.
He now passed on to Jean Jacques Rousseau. He was born in 1712 and is always mentioned in such [close] connection with Voltaire, that this is the fittest place to introduce the notice of him. He was the son of a watchmaker. Before the age of fifteen he was sent as an apprentice to an attorney from whom he ran away. He was found by a Catholic and supported with the only condition of changing his faith. He was afterwards in the family of Madame de Warrens [Warens] with whom he lived for some time with much appearance of happiness. Leaving her he next went to Venice where he remained a little while and in 1750, about 30 years of age, he took the prize at Dijon on a question concerning the inequality of men. This was his first explosion. The book was not written with many sound arguments but it had a novel and prepossessing style and was much read. It was a book, new, striking and entirely false. It was here that he first displayed that enthusiastic love of nature and hatred of art for which he was ever after so distinguished. In 1752 he wrote a comedy and an opera with not much credit. In 1758 he wrote letters on a Theatre by which he fell into a quarrel with d’Alembert and Voltaire { 414 } which was the cause of much irritation to him. In 1760 the Nouvelle Heloise appeared, a work in a style altogether new and extremely attractive, received and much read, the more because it was thought that he was drawing his descriptions entirely from himself. They considered it as the product of the action of the mind upon itself. In short, men thought they were reading his history. In 1762 The “Contrat Social” came out and gained him much celebrity. It is a work brought out by the state of political parties at the time, and if fitted for any state, will apply only to a small republic. In it the people are to have the power of expressing their voices directly and the executive power is to be the mere passive instrument of executing their will. But it is better at once to consider it as a treatise not practicable, but the work of a simple man consulting only his natural feelings. It’s effect was only to unsettle the old opinions of those who trusted it without fixing any definite ideas in their places. It was one of the causes of the French revolution, born after it was prohibited, and here commence the troubles of which he complained so bitterly ever after.
He soon after published Emile which was the boldest attack upon the existing institutions which had been made and this was followed by a Letter from the Mountains in consequence of which his house was mobbed and in 1765 he was obliged to fly for his life. He at this time formed an acquaintance with David Hume who invited him to England, as the Government would not suffer him to remain in Paris, as he was at that time exposing himself to them in the dress of an Armenian. He accordingly went over to England with Mr. Hume with whom he quarrelled soon after, and as he found that he did not attract the attention he wished, although he had been well received, and that melancholy as he was, there were many others so in this country, he returned again to France in 1767, and spent the time in the succeeding year in making a Dictionary of Music and studying Botany. He marries a woman with whom he had long been living and at this time was regular in frequenting a famous Coffee House in the Palais Royal. Crowds of people were in the habit of collecting here to see Jean Jacques as he was familiarly called without knowing why. This however displeased the government and he was obliged to retire into the country near Ermenonville in 1778 and here spent the remainder of his life embittered by his own suspicions and still more by the infidelity of his wife. It is fairly to be concluded from the circumstances of his death, that he poisoned himself. This happened on the 2d of July 1778.
As to the character of his principal works, The Nouvelle Heloise { 415 } is no delineation of real life. It is improbable in the plan, and of bad tendency; there is a colouring charm over the guilt of Julie which is perfectly seductive. We must think of this work in connection with the views it speaks of, and it is only in the spots he describes that we can take the full delight of his magnificent description. Emile is a treatise on Education and is also entirely impossible. A man is to be a savage in the midst of society, and without religion in the midst of Churches. While we read we are confident that we are treading on hollow ground. From the views of his character which we have hitherto had, we might be led to believe that were reading3 of an anchorite and a philosopher and this would have been the impression had not his Confessions appeared after his death in which he displays himself entirely and without disguise. Works by other hands have also appeared by which we have a thorough insight into his character and find [it] selfish, jealous and irritable, suspicious of his friends and thoroughly sensual. Nobody could remain attached to him for he would reject them all. On a review of his works we should pronounce them as most powerful, most false and most interesting.
After Lecture, I again went to the meeting of the Knights and we began to consider what should be done for the Society. Two or three of the members appeared very considerably frightened and were inclined to leave the club if we persisted in having our former meetings. We passed a vote to that effect for the present, the laws are lost and consequently, I told the society that it was entirely out of the question for me to proceed without some farther authority. The same committee was accordingly appointed to form a new body of laws. Nothing more was done of any importance, the meeting was a dull one as many of our class were out of spirits and more of the inferior classes. One man, McLean, was proposed but rejected. I thought it was no time to admit members now when the club was in such a state. I had a dislike to the man’s manners and I disliked Shaler,4 the man who proposed him. This was the reason for my vote although I was not the only one who put in a black ball. After this was done, we adjourned “sine die.” I then walked over to Brenan’s room, and falling into conversation, sat with him rather longer than I had intended. He has singularly perverted his good feelings and will in time become a confirmed cynic and unpleasant fellow. He is a good friend of mine as much as any man is. I went from his room to Dwight’s where I spent considerably over an hour in conversation with them. They are neither of them in good spirits this term or at { 416 } least I never before liked them so little. It is my disgust I believe. If they were not so often here, I think I should like them better. It is not well for men who wish to be friends to see too much of each other, and as Chapman and Dwight both are not men possessed of that delicacy and tact which indeed is in the possession of but few men, I could wish not to be so exceedingly intimate. As a visitor at their room however, I can make out very well relying principally upon my conversational powers. I have no doubt however that I bored them to use the familiar term at College. I ascribe my melancholy feelings principally to this source. My social feelings are blasted in the very season when I have the time and inclination to indulge them. My College life is my time of freedom and I wish to seize the time for my future course will possibly be melancholy enough. I did not arrive at home until late and immediately retired. XI:40.
1. Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker (1784–1868), professor, successively, at Giessen, Göttingen, and Bonn (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 3:216).
2. James Furbish, a senior from Wells, Maine (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).
3. Thus in MS, but the sentence is garbled; some words have been scored out, and probably others have been omitted. A possible reconstruction is: “we are reading the works of an anchorite,” &c.
4. Nathaniel Burger Shaler, a sophomore from Lancaster, Mass. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-23

Saturday. October 23d. VIII.

Missed Prayers again this morning. After Breakfast attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture. He began this morning with Solon—whose name constitutes an era in the literary as well as in the civil history of Greece. In his own country he was for a great length of time looked up to with esteem and affection, for his disinterestedness in refusing the sovereignty when it was in his power. His fame as a statesman has excelled that as a poet although it is only in this latter capacity that we consider him here. Solon flourished in the beginning of the sixth century. A short account is given of him in the synopsis which it will not be worthwhile to extract. At this period, when man was just rising from a barbarous state, the division into different nations took place, and although the word philosophy was not known yet, men were employed in forming laws and different systems of government. Those who excelled were called wise men as may be proved in the history of the famous seven wise men of Greece. They were all rulers or counsellors. The first incident in Solon’s life was one which obtained great popularity. A law had made it death to any individual to advise a war against Salamis in consequence of their numerous losses in former wars. He however, feigning himself mad, { 417 } rushed into the market and advised the measure. The war was undertaken and the result was successful. He afterwards travelled and upon his return he found Pisistratus endeavouring to overturn his government. He remonstrated but without effect. He may be considered however as having been some check for he retained the essential parts of Solon’s laws and resorted to his counsel. Solon had learned early a tradition concerning the Atlantic Islands and devoted his old age to the composition of a poem on that subject. Plato began a dialogue on the same subject, but both works were left incomplete. This last work embraced such a variety of incidents as no fiction ever contained before. This subject is interesting to us, as it is the only ground which we have for a supposition that the ancients had any knowledge of our country. Solon’s passion for learning remained to the last. It is pleasant to see him in his old age resigning all the vices of the world and devoting himself entirely to literary pursuits. It is probable that he lived to the age of eighty at Athens and died in tranquility. Mimnermus was contemporary with Solon: a native of Colophon in Ionia. There is exceedingly little to be said upon him more than is contained in the account of him on the ninety first and second pages of the pamphlet. Anacharsis was a contemporary of Solon and native of Scythia, he travelled into Greece and became intimate with Solon. He is occasionally numbered among the wise men. He is said to have invented many mechanical instruments but it is probable that he only introduced the use of them among his countrymen. They, being jealous of him it is said, destroyed him. He is said to have written works but none of them remain. Nine epistles are extant attributed to him but there is no proof of their authenticity. He has been brought more into notice since the publication of the Younger Anacharsis’ adventures by Barthelemy. This is a fictitious character, made the base of a sort of plot. It contains much careful and interesting information. The part of it which was intended to enliven the work is very burdensome and insipid to the scholar, and the plan is faulty as he could only relate the history of events down to the time of his characters and he can give no account of what has happened since. The Athenian Letters, a work published in England, written by Sir Philip York, is much it’s superior in interest and vivacity though less valuable as a work of learning on Greece.1
After Lecture I went to the reading room where I found nothing but politics and made a resolution not to read another paper there until the election is over. On my return home I was delighted with the receipt of two letters from home, one from my Mother and the { 418 } other from John.2 The former writes in moderately good spirits, and speaks with much heartfelt feeling upon the subject of the approaching contest. There is a sublime religious tone in part of her letter which has affected me much. John is lively and more affectionate than usual, he speaks much from the heart and as I wish him to. On the whole, I was relieved much from my dull feelings during the day. I occupied myself upon my Journal and read the remaining book of Akenside’s pleasures of the Imagination which contains more poetry I think than either of the others. In the Evening I wrote an answer to John3 and reviewed my day as well spent. I then went with Richardson and Sheafe to Mr. Willard’s to take some supper. We made out to satisfy ourselves upon some small chickens and some porter. I miscalculated the time by two hours and therefore we sat here until late. I was obliged to go to Richardson’s room as my fire was gone and I remained here for a little while in conversation with him. I then came down and retired immediately. XII:30.
1. The work alluded to is Athenian Letters; or, the Epistolary Correspondence of an Agent of the King of Persia, Residing at Athens during the Peloponnesian War, first printed for private circulation, 4 vols., London, 1741, but afterwards published in numerous editions and translations. The work was actually the product of a number of hands, Sir Philip Yorke (1720–1790), afterwards 2d Earl of Hardwick, and his brother Charles being simply the most prominent contributors. See DNB under Sir Philip Yorke.
2. The letter from JA2 is missing.
3. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-24

Sunday. October 24th. VIII.

Missed Prayers as usual and went to breakfast after having enjoyed a delightful night’s rest. I employed my morning in reading Don Juan, a copy of which entire, I bought yesterday. It is a work which contains an amazing deal of poetry and still it is vicious in the extreme. I cannot help admiring some of its magnificent descriptions although I should be condemned by the moral world. I attended Chapel and heard Mr. Walker1 preach a short sermon. I was pleased on many accounts. In the first place he was a little variety to our monotonous course, in the second place he was short and lastly he was pretty good. His text was, “Where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.” It must have been striking or I should not have recollected it. He abounds in corresponding sentences and striking remarks. He first spoke of what liberty was; he said it could not exist without restriction. He then argued that restriction was not inconsistent with liberty and then applied his ground to the text arguing that when we had become accustomed to the restrictions of religion, we were then free. An argument which was easy to answer. At least I thought so. In the { 419 } afternoon I was employed all the time in writing my Journal. I finished the longest Lecture I have yet taken off and was rejoiced. I attended Chapel again in the afternoon and was as usual very much edified by a Sermon from the good old President Kirkland. He is an intolerable bore.
In the Evening I wrote a letter to my mother2 and my low spirits returned again. I cannot tell what it is which weighs me down so completely. I have not felt such desolation for a long, long time. I will trust in God for he is my only support. The rest is but weakness. I relieved myself however very considerably by writing in this way, as she certainly has a right to know all my feelings. She however is so tender and fragile herself that I feel almost as if I was obliged to support her instead of her relieving me. After this was over, I went to Richardson where I conversed with him for the remainder of the Evening. I have to convict myself of drinking so unphilosophical a liquor as Gin to night, but so it was, I took quite a large dose. We conversed for some time upon different subjects, few of any purpose, but there is something pleasant in him, which makes me feel agreably, particularly in my want of society. Retired early. XI.
1. Presumably James Walker, a Congregational minister in Charlestown, Mass. (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 85).
2. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-25

Monday. October 25th.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning as usual. After breakfast we went to Lecture. Mr. Everett commenced with Aesop, who existed in the age of Solon, by some made a native of Phrygia, by others of Thrace. He was sold as a slave first at Athens and then at Samos. Having been liberated, he went travelling through Greece and Asia Minor and met Solon at the court of Croesus. Plutarch has preserved an account of their conversation with the king in which he makes Aesop a courtier and Solon a stern reprover. We should hardly suppose this when we consider the lives of the two. The one, a slave, would be supposed to possess that roughness of character when free which is attributed to Solon, and this latter would be from his education in courts, a man at least of courtesy. It is remarkable however that the fables which remain to us under his name, but the authenticity of which we doubted, have a morality entirely worldly. They recommend prudence and are most remarkable for their primitive simplicity and application to the various situations of life. Being sent to Delphi (the correct [ . . . ]1) by Croesus, he fell into a contro• { 420 } versy with the citizens who killed him. Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, wrote a life of him and compiled the fables. The account he gives is highly absurd. Bentley has exposed him and he gave us a specimen of his style. Many however have been misled, particularly as to the deformity of Aesop which is by no means probable. I have very little to say in addition to the account given in the Pamphlet of the origin of our fables under that name. He follows the text strictly in parts and I heard but little to divert in the intervals. He praised a dissertation on the subject by Tyrwhit and that was all.
After Lecture I returned home and wrote my Journal which employed me until Mr. Farrar’s recitation. He translated Voltaire’s story of Micromégas almost literally and this was all today’s lecture. He gave us no lesson and forgot to look over his list. After dinner we had a drill, thank Heaven, the last for this year. I am doomed to fall into difficulties, it appears to me. The Freshmen were engaged at football and amused themselves with the boyish trick of teazing the company with it. Some of them selected me out as a butt and one of them sent it. I should have knocked him down forthwith, had he not made an apology and determined it should not happen again. The next time the ball came in my way, I pricked it with my sword. This was an exceedingly trifling affair but it affected me very much and I could not get my lesson this afternoon, my feelings were so disconcerted. I determined, as the destruction of the ball might be thought malice, to leave money with the agent’s freshman to pay for a new one without mentioning myself. I was not called upon today fortunately, and after recitation, I did the thing. I employed my Evening waiting until the time for Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture which I attended.
It was long and full in it’s account of Madame de Stael, as no accounts could otherwise be easily obtained of her. This lady was born in Paris in 1766. She was fortunate in the opportunities which she had of early developing her natural talents, and she was educated for the direct purpose of being a literary woman. At the age of eleven she composed some verses during the illness of her mother and the next year she composed some little (comedies)2 one of which, Sophie, was represented at Coppet, with very considerable effect. At twenty one her mind had arrived at it’s full power, and she wrote a play on the subject of Lady Jane Gray at Paris. Her mind however soon took another direction owing to the state the country was then in. In 1781 [1786] she married the Swedish Ambassador, Baron de Stael Holstein. She followed her father Mr. Necker in his exile and { 421 } in his recall the next year (1788). At this time, Madame de Staël was a considerable personage, as she was placed in the midst of every thing that was brilliant in France. In 1789 she published her letters upon Rousseau, whom she thought had not attracted the attention he merited. There is in it much warm and passionate eloquence and it displays some power of intuition. It was a book which excited no small degree of astonishment and admiration, and now although we can not always agree with her in opinions, we will surely give her our tribute of admiration. It certainly was a very extraordinary book. She was soon to be involved in scenes however which were to produce other thoughts and she attended him again upon his second exile after which she returned and was all powerful from the 23d of July 1789 to the 4th of September of the next year when her father finally gave way. She was deeply concerned in the intrigues of the court even at this time, and was present at many of the violent political scenes of that day which, exciting her interest, gave her mind that political turn, by which she was ever after distinguished and involved. In these scenes she became intimate with Talleyrand, Sieyes and other leaders of the first epoch of the revolution. In 1792 she escaped from Paris, and in the next year she wrote a sort of address to the People upon the trial of the Queen. She seems here so moved with the situation of the Queen that she burst out in an appeal to the public, which contains remarkable eloquence. There is great pathetic vehemence throughout and she tries every thing to save the stain upon her country’s honour. During the reign of terror, as it is called, which existed until the death of Robespierre, she lived in England, actually poor, who at one time had been the greatest heiress in France. She lived pretty comfortably however at Richmond, retired from society and in company with the Count de Narbonne and Talleyrand, both distinguished characters in the revolution. In this company, she says, she spent a pleasant life, and that the play of talent was greater here than at any other residence she ever was at. She became tired however and went back to Paris in 1795 although the country was in a state of anarchy. Here she conducted herself with so little prudence in the expression of her opinions as to fall under the notice of many of the leading men and she was even reported to the convention as a dangerous character. Notwithstanding all this, she wrote an essay on the state of things which was quite bold. But from this scene she was called to Coppet on account of the illness of her mother which ended in her death. Here while with her father she composed the Essai sur I’influence des Passions. This work was to have been in two parts. The one on individual happiness, the other upon { 422 } that of nations, but she never went beyond the first part, which was published in 1796. It is on the whole an unfortunate attempt, the subject was beyond her power, nor was it fit for her peculiar talents. She was fond of abstractions and was apt to fall into metaphysical subtleties which she could not easily manage. This makes parts of the work confused and unsatisfactory, and with many beauties which may be allowed, it is obscure, incoherent and extravagant.
It was not therefore until 1800 that her claim to the first rank among literary writers was decided, when she published a work on literature, which settled her pretensions. It is a bold and powerful review of the relations of society to litterature and the reverse. She however here advances the famous doctrine of perfectibility, and unconsciously gives unfair representations of the state of litterature in all ages, in order to support her own views of the subject. In order to support her argument which has the experience of all ages in fact against her, she undervalues the state of the Greeks and Romans, and on the other hand she lays more stress than they are worth upon the works of the middle ages. Thus she makes a regular gradation of improvement from the earliest times, a thing entirely contradicted by the experience of past ages and by theory. She has also recorded a prophecy which with the present view of Europe can only be read with a smile. With these objections we must allow, it is one of the French books in which the []3 of criticism is not contained. It is a work still unrivalled in France although Sismondi has since written on the same subject. It contains much eloquence, boldness and comprehensive wisdom. And the whole notwithstanding its defects [and] errors of reasoning has a redeeming spirit of the genius of philosophy. It is one of the most interesting and instructive works in the French language.
She returned again to Paris in 1799 when Buonaparte had become head of the republic. She immediately became an object of suspicion which she made no effort to destroy, her saloon became the head quarters of all opposition to the reigning power which irritated the Consul to such a degree that in 1803 she was exiled from Paris. Delphine however was published in 1802. It is a story with the same immoral tendency with the Nouvelle Heloise, it’s prototype, but it does not equal it. It is too long, the story ends with the fourth volume and still it is dragged out into two more. In 1803 she went into Germany but was suddenly called back to Coppet just to arrive at the death of Mr. Necker, a father much beloved. Here she remained in deep grief and her employment was an examination of her father’s papers which ended in the publication of some of them, in 1804. The next year she { 423 } goes to Italy with Sismondi and spends more than a year crossing and recrossing the country. Corinne was the result of her thoughts which appeared in 1807. The idea is eminently happy. He then dashed off into a flamingly sentimental abstract of it which I did not choose to take off as I propose soon to read the work.
After Lecture, I went with Sheafe and we took an Oyster Supper after which we went to Chapman’s room, and having paid him a short visit, I returned home and spent the rest of the Evening reading Don Juan. XI.
1. Possibly “word,” but overwritten and not clear.
2. Thus in MS, as if the diarist questioned the term.
3. Blank in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-26

Tuesday. October 26th. VI:15.

Missed Prayers but attended recitation this morning, the day looking rather threatening for an intended Parade. I felt in very low spirits, why I have not yet found out, but I could feel no pleasure during the day. I employed my morning in reading and writing exactly as if nothing whatever was going to happen. We of course had no morning lecture and I was well employed. There is a vacant sort of restless feeling on days of such excitement as holidays which troubles me exceedingly, and which I am always anxious to keep down. It is a vacant sort of feeling when you cannot read and you take a very indifferent sort of pleasure in what is passing around. I managed however to control this until Exhibition commenced, when I went in and heard Allen’s part which was a great jumble of nonsense put into the shape of a dashing Conference. Bartlett was quite good and almost made me suspect he had obtained assistance.1 I was surprised at one thing today, as soon as I got upstairs, at observing so many Porcellian Medals, or rather as I afterwards found most of them only ribbands, which were worn by men not members of the Club. I have not mentioned the dissensions since my election and refusal, but it appears that a Southerner, Cabaniss,2 being exasperated with the treatment he had received in not being elected, has joined the Northern party, and incited them to do this thing in order to suppress the club. The party being no party at all in this class, at least there being no aristocratic Northern party, immediately adopted the hint, as these men who had the most claims had also been disappointed in their elections. I consequently think that the [ . . . ] itself has been the result of the most contemptible feelings and also that the men themselves have shown how utterly unworthy they were of belonging to an honourable club { 424 } and how just the decision of the society in their case. I was very angry, I must confess. It was so excessively contemptible that I was sorry the northern party had the disgrace of adding this to many other rather unhandsome actions. The actual true state of the case is that the Northern party in that class is composed of a set of blackguards, if I may use so harsh a term. The few respectable individuals among them are mere boys led about by any person who has force or energy enough to guide any body. Cabaniss is a full grown man and ought to be the more ashamed.
I heard very few of the remaining parts. Hedge’s3 poem was very good. He displayed much taste and some talent. His disposition of his subject was very good and his management of the parts was correct. He may make quite a good poet although I cannot think that he is a man of Genius. I heard part of Chapman’s Oration and my mind was made up. In the first place, I thought his character was stamped upon his subject, “The future prospects of our youth.” He was pretty perhaps but not great. He aspired to a description of what he had most thought of. In the next place, he was entirely wanting in power of writing. The work was insipid, not argumentative enough to be strong, and not figurative enough to be brilliant. This applies only to what I have heard of it for I went out fatigued, as it was about half through. What I did hear was enough to confirm my judgment, and it appears to have been the judgment generally. Mr. Everett or some one since at Mr. Hedge’s said it was pretty for so young a man, which is to me “damning with faint praise.” I had made up my opinion of it previously however. It rained during the latter part of Exhibition, but as it ceased after dinner, The Harvard Washington Corps paraded although in low spirits on account of the weather. We went to Professor Hedge’s according to invitation. We met there very nearly all the young ladies in town whom I met for the first time. Not many of these were engaging enough to take the trouble to be amusing to, and I felt too much strained by my dress to wish to exert myself so that I only was introduced to Miss Hedge and a Miss Pierce of Brooklyne with one or two others. We had a very pleasant afternoon considering every thing, and the entertainment was generous and handsome. We remained here until some time after five o’clock whilst it was raining. As soon as it had ceased again we went off and soon dismissed.
I then went home and took some tea after which I determined upon visiting all my class who gave entertainment this evening. I first went to Winthrop’s, a man I have never been introduced to, but whose civilities or at least those of his family, I wished to notice, as somehow { 425 } or other I heard a complaint of my having been considerably impolite in refusing invitations which I never heard of. We were received with much coldness, and soon escaped from his company to Bartletts, from whence to Chapman’s, where I had a warm argument with him on the Porcellian affair, after which went home. X.
1. Phineas Allen, George Bartlett, and George Edward Winthrop participated in a conference on “the influence of merit, confidence, and intrigue on a man’s advancement in life.” See Records of the College Faculty, 10:77, Harvard Archives.
2. James B. Cabaniss, a junior from Madison County, Alabama (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).
3. Frederic Henry Hedge, son of Professor Levi Hedge, was a senior. Later he became professor of ecclesiastical history (1857–1876) and of German (1872–1881) at Harvard (DAB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-27

Wednesday. October 27th. IX.

Missed Prayers and recitation this morning, being too fatigued to rise early. I was accordingly not up until quite late. After breakfast however I attended Lecture as usual. He treated to day of Phalaris. The age of Phalaris is fixed at different times by different authors. He was a native of Astypalaea, a city of Crete or of one of the Sporades. He was driven from here for designs upon the Government and went to Agrigentum. Here he was more successful, for managing to form a party among the artificers at the head of whom he had been placed to direct the public works, he seized the Government. His severities have rendered his name a proverb for severity. The most common incident is that of the brazen bull which an artist brought to him according to some, as an exquisite specimen for torture; according to others he caused it to be made. At any rate, he tried it first upon the artist. The accounts of this affair vary considerably, but we can not conclude very favourably as his character was certainly not remarkable for humanity. He sent this brazen bull to Apollo afterwards. He extended his government and patronized letters, in his reign of 28 years according to some, eighteen, to others. He perished at last in an insurrection of the citizens; it is impossible to say how deservedly. One hundred and forty-eight letters are ascribed to him. Their merit is as much questioned as their authenticity. Ancient authors are by no means distinguished for the striking display and contrast of character in this book, which has been praised but which at the same time is an argument against their authenticity. The authenticity of these letters has been the subject of a celebrated controversy in England. It is put down in the synopsis as much at length as Mr. Everett delivered. Indeed I have nothing more to put down concerning this discussion. It has been settled pretty { 426 } decidedly in favour of Dr. Bentley. I have made a mistake in placing this Lecture under this day as it ought to give way to the conclusion of Aesop. I have been absent from town, and in making up the days shall be compelled to fill up tomorrow with today’s lecture. After Lecture I returned home and was obliged to amuse myself in writing all the morning. I then attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation and was called upon. I did not acquit myself very remarkably well but that is frequently the case.
After this was over, I returned home and the rest of the day was employed in a variety of ways. I studied my lesson in Paley this afternoon with much attention and was taken up. I did very well. After Prayers, as I understood, Miss Kelly,1 a new actress had arrived and that the School for Scandal was to be the play, I went to Boston with a party of Students composed principally of our society. I had a difficulty concerning my ticket as I was turned out of my regular box and was obliged to take a distant one. On the whole however I incline to think it improved my enjoyment as I understand there was a great deal of prompting—the play is a new one on these boards and the parts must therefore have been committed lately. The play is such an admirable play that almost any acting will carry it through and this was by no means bad. Miss Kelly took the part of Lady Teazle and performed pretty well, not that I do not think she could have thrown a little more variety in her manner, but she had some knowledge of style, her appearance is rather commanding for a woman of fashion and she has some dignity. Mr. Finn was excellent as Sir Charles Surface. He has made himself a very good comic actor and has been sufficiently wise to drop tragedy almost entirely so that now he is quite an attraction for the Boston stage. Mr. Kilner2 also was very exceedingly good this Evening, he mouthed less and repeated less than usual. But Mr. Clarke3 except in one scene, made wretched work of poor Crabtree; he mistook the part altogether. On the whole however, although the scandalous circle was very much below mediocrity, I was extremely gratified with the play and have scarcely ever been to the Theatre when I received more pleasure. The afterpiece was the Romp.4 Mrs. Henry played the part of Priscilla Tomboy and any thing is good coming from so beautiful a woman. I can hesitate but little in giving her the decided palm over every other woman I have ever seen. As something quite uncommon, Richardson was of our party tonight. We supped at the Marlborough where I heard an amusing conversation concerning politics, at present raging. We then returned home and Chapman and Richardson spent a little while at my room before we retired. XII.
{ 427 }
1. Lydia Kelly, the English actress, was “a reigning sensation of the American stage” (Odell, Annals N.Y. Stage, 3:138).
2. Thomas Kilner, generally considered an “admirable actor” (same, 3:120).
3. John H. Clarke, who played secondary roles (same, 3:53).
4. A musical entertainment in two acts, altered from Love in the City, by Isaac Bickerstaffe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-28

Thursday. October 28th. VI:45.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography, after which I attended Lecture but did not hear the one which I shall note down as that is inserted in my yesterdays journal. From the materials mentioned in the pages of the synopsis concerning Aesop, Maximus Planudes, in the middle of the fourteenth century, collected and compiled the modern fables which go under the name of Aesop. He appears to have been something of a scholar and probably inserted some things entirely his own. The fables were published first in Latin. The editions are mentioned. The third is derived from manuscripts of the Palatine library. He gave us a short account of this library, which in 1623 belonged to the university of Heidelburg; in the 30 years war in Germany it was sent to Rome and made part of the Vatican. It thus gained it’s name as it was sent by the Elector Palatine. When Bonaparte obtained possession of Rome, he sent this to Paris, but upon the restoration [ . . . ] was sent to reclaim them. The university however from whom they were first seized was [ . . . ] in it’s attempts and partly succeeded. They obtained the German manuscripts in compromise. These fables were translated into Latin by Phaedrus. Their authenticity has also been doubted but generally allowed at the present day. It met with the fate of the Greek, was barbarously rendered into prose by Romulus, an author in the 12th century. This Latin version was the first printed. There are two works of Eastern origin so similar in plan to Aesop that a connexion has been supposed. One by Pilpay or Bidpay. There is no ground however for supposing any connexion with the family of Aesop. The other is the work of Locman, but the fables are much too similar not to be derived from each other. At the end of two thousand years, if we judge by analogy from other cases, these could be a corresponding variation, were they not taken from each other. It is on the whole probable that they are a recent Arabic translation of Aesop. This branch has been popular and classical in all modern languages—La Fontaine has written in French without much originality but much sprightliness, L’estrange1 also wrote in the latter part of the seventeenth century, there is more originality in Gay,2 than in any other. Lessing and Gellert3 have both tried this species of poetry in the German language.
{ 428 }
After Lecture I returned home and attempted to write my forensic for this afternoon but I said nearly all that occurred to me in a very few moments. I employed myself the remainder of the morning reading and writing and doing nothing. Indeed I must confess I wasted much time, but whenever I sit down to write a forensic or theme in this way, it invariably causes much loss of time. In the afternoon I was much hurried for time, the subject was “whether the public had any right to inventions” and I was upon the negative. This was so wretched a side to argue upon that I was entirely at fault and my forensic was poor enough. After it was over I spent an hour with Bartlett and Otis and took some Porter with them. Tilden and Sullivan,4 two young men from Boston came in; they are bloods of the first order and sufficiently disgusting. I once thought it would be supreme happiness to be such a man, but I have luckily passed through the furnace unhurt and am now only disgusted at such specimens of thoughtlessness. I am no enemy to personal enjoyment but I oppose rioting or excessive waste of body, mind and wealth.
After Prayers as I could find nobody to accompany me, I went to Boston alone in a chaise, and went to the Theatre. We had tonight Shakespeare’s “Much ado about nothing,” Miss Kelly took the part of Beatrice and Finn of Benedick. They were carried on with much vigour and sprightliness. She played the first Act with so little variation from last Evening’s that I became rather fatigued but she afterwards improved very much and did exceedingly well in the last Act. Finn was quite good but none of the Actors came up to my expectations in the Play and Kilner especially murdered poor old Dogberry, while Brown5 did the same with his companion Verges so that this part of the play, although one of it’s most amusing, was entirely ruined to us. The afterpiece was the opera of Rosina6 in which Miss Kelly sang in that part. Her voice is a very powerful one but there is no sweetness in it, and although she does exceedingly well for pieces in which execution is necessary, there is no expression or tenderness in her singing. Every song was repeated however by the desire of the audience loudly expressed. She looks well in lady characters but as a cottage girl she is very masculine and bold. I returned to Cambridge with my wheel in bad order as I thought. XI:30.
1. Roger L’Estrange (1616–1704).
2. John Gay (1685–1732), the English playwright and poet.
3. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729–1781), and Christian Fürchtegott Gellert (1715–1769).
4. Young Sullivan was possibly one of George Sullivan’s two sons (JQA, Diary, 29 May 1824).
5. Frederick Brown (Odell, Annals N.Y. Stage, 3:153).
6. A comic opera by Frances (Moore) Brooke.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-29

Friday. October 29th. VI:30.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. I went down today to see what had been the matter with my Chaise and found that I had brought from Boston an entirely different one and one of very little value. As this matter promised to be of exceeding importance if not soon rectified, I was obliged to send to Boston on purpose for it, which I did, dispatching Cunningham in the old Chaise. I spent the morning as usual reading and writing, although a considerable part of it was wasted in my Expedition to different rooms on this business.
I attended Lecture as usual. Of the three or four succeeding Poets, Stesichorus, Susarion, Ibycus and Theognis, Mr. Everett had nothing to say besides what was put down in the synopsis. The latter indeed a little. He composed poems out of which his maxims are supposed to have been selected. He has one maxim which has been frequently repeated since and is now attributed to a hundred different authors. It has even extended to rude nations, some of whom to exemplify it, weep at the birth of a child and rejoice at it’s death, a universal sentiment which can be charged to no particular age. These maxims are useful as giving historical Light as to the history of the course of Moral Sentiment. Of Phocylides he had nothing more to say. Anacreon, according to the common accounts, was born at Teos in Ionia and fled an attack of the Persians at which time he went to Abdera in Thrace, he went to the court of Polycrates of Samos where he was very well received. Here he remained until he was sent for by Hipparchus, and at his death, returned to Abdera where he died. Many fables concerning his death were invented by the grammarians which are not entitled to any credit. Sixty four odes now extant are attributed to him; the authenticity of them is doubted however, on the grounds stated in the pamphlet. Words and many significations of words however are used which have obtained in a later age. Only some of them have merit. The first edition was by Henry Stephanus in 1554 and contained fifty five odes; afterwards, the others were added. That of the Abbé de la Trappe1 was published in 1639. I have no more to say as far as the synopsis goes. De Pauw2 published an edition in 1732 in which he argues against the authenticity of these odes. This called out an angry reply from d’Orville3—a French writer.
The third edition of Fischer4 is the best. These are the chief editions except Brunck’s.5 Two editions have been printed at Rome which may be called splendid specimens of execution. One called the Bodoni edition, the other published by Spalleti.6 The former is very { 430 } beautiful being printed in Capital letters throughout, it’s critical value is not great however. Moore7 has translated these odes in a manner certainly equal if not superior to the text, an uncommon merit. He does not appear to have been a very thorough scholar in Greek although well versed in the language. He does not follow him in regularity but excels in sweetness.
It is possible that the character of Anacreon has been injured by later writers in a way similar to that of Sappho already related. He is described as highly sensual and his odes breathe that spirit but the odes may have been since made to fit the character drawn at the same time. Thus closed the lecture, the synopsis and my notes of the course in this book. I shall not desist from taking them but I am happy to congratulate myself upon my perseverance which I must confess has once or twice been upon the point of sinking. I have now the pleasure of praising myself deservedly and of knowing that I have not employed my time unprofitably. I have already given an account of my mornings occupation. I today commenced the Rambler8 with a determination to read four Numbers every day. I attended Declamation this afternoon, and heard much very wretched speaking. I had intended to write my Journal this afternoon, but when I came to look for my synopsis in which I take my notes, I found it was left this morning at Dwight[’s]. So I looked over “much ado about nothing” and finished Don Juan. The latter Cantos fall off exceedingly but the third, fourth and fifth are beautiful.
In the Evening, I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. I regret somewhat that I was obliged to miss a part of his course, particularly his two last, but I could not undertake to bind myself to that hour. He continued tonight what he had to say of Chateaubriand. His literary character, he said, was confined to a period of ten years in which he wrote five works. Atala, which was the first, is a beautiful little thing, but by it he may be charged with insincerity as he was at the time he wrote it an unbeliever in the Christian faith. And if this piece has any value at all, it is [because?] it has for its basis what Chateaubriand at the time did not feel. The story is eminently happy, the development is fortunate and with some extravagance it possesses great force and boldness. Religious feeling is however the great excellence of Atala and it may truly be called a sweet little French work. It is not original but it is no slavish imitation and this is truly no detraction from it’s merit. Some years afterward he became a Christian and composed the Genie du Christianisme. He first intended to print this work in England and it was partly finished when on account of { 431 } his extreme distrust he destroyed the impression. Soon after on his return to France, he again printed an edition and again suppressed it. It finally appeared however in France in 1812 [1802]. It certainly contains in it whatever is necessary to ornament, illustrate and beautify the Romish Church. The first book of this work is not very interesting, the second and third contain an exposition of the effect of religion upon literature and are the most pleasing, the fourth is on external worship. Four of the subjects are thoroughly examined, he scarcely knew many of the poets, certainly he did not comprehend them, such as Dante or Ossian. He is mistaken in his account of the monastic orders but notwithstanding all this, there is great eloquence in many parts and the work is to be placed among the most important in French literature.
He next undertook to write a book on the Martyrs in the middle ages, for Christianity. He accordingly determined to visit the scenes of their sufferings and for that end he went to Greece, Asia Minor and other countries around. He spent here almost two years and the result of this expedition was the “Itineraire” which came out in 1811, a work in which every thing we know of Greece is represented in a new medium. “Les Martyrs” his other work which appeared some time before, is a work with a marked character. It gives the account of the lives of two Christians and their death. The most striking fault is that it is neither poetry nor prose. It is written on a system and principaly treating of saints and demagogues. The misfortune of it is that it is encumbered with history, which ever must fail as it is impossible to succeed in writing where we wish at the same time to stick to facts and indulge in the extravagance of romance. The characters are however finely drawn. The principal merit of the work consists in its fine descriptions of natural scenery in which he is peculiarly happy. This work is not destined to final success. It does not command the distinction it aspires to, and may be considered a failure, notwithstanding the fine delineation of character and beauty of detail, although it combines much originality of talent with force of personal character, and with all this no little extravagance. He has since left off writing and it is still doubtful whether he will obtain high standing with posterity. He will not probably come again before the public, as he says that if his works are to be remembered, he has already written enough, if not, he has written too much. Mr. Ticknor gave some of the class a pretty severe reproof this evening as they were in whispering conversation with each other. I was glad of it, for in my opinion, the persons deserved it. I believe I did it formerly and I { 432 } deserved it. Young men have but one great fault and that is thoughtlessness. They have no definite principles of honour and consequently hurry themselves into an unhandsome action without reflecting in the least what they are about and without even knowing what they do.
I returned home and employed the rest of the Evening in a variety of ways. I have had little or no regular plan in reading since I have been so tied down by Lectures and this Journal, but I shall soon be released from this and then I shall take up another plan. It is fortunate that I have been able to bring in Mr. Ticknor’s course as far as I heard them into this book as in this way they will not be divided. I have just closed with Mr. Everett as his pamphlet gives out which has been a great relief to me, as I shall be hereafter very incorrect in names. As to the merits of these two courses, the first is very good as we receive it. He has gone I think a little into the other extreme, from being too large, he has become too small in his course, but the latter is rather the best recommendation. The latter would perhaps be also a little improved by being cut down, as hitherto we have had little more than dry details and ancient learning but nothing to interest or to amuse. I passed my Evening entirely at home and retired at my common hour. XI.
1. Abbé Armand de Rancé, of La Trappe priory (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:297).
2. Jan Cornells de Pauw, a Utrecht scholar (same, 2:454).
3. Jacques Philippe d’Orville (1696–1751), professor at Amsterdam (same).
4. Johann Friedrich Fischer (1726–1799), headmaster at Leipsic (same, 3:14).
5. Richard Francois Philippe Brunck (1729–1803), a classical scholar of Strassburg (same, 2:395).
6. Joseph Spaletti, secretary of the Vatican Library (same, 3:64, 518).
7. Thomas Moore (Harper’s Dict. of Classical Lit., p. 76).
8. A periodical issued by Samuel Johnson, in 208 numbers, from 1749 to 1752 (Oxford Companion to English Lit.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-30

Saturday. October 30th. VIII.

Missed Prayers this Morning and scarcely arose in time to pursue the plan I had proposed. I was just in time however, for having been to the President and obtained leave of absence for one night, I took the opportunity of the Stage to Boston. It is the birth day of my Grandfather and he is eighty nine. I consequently determined, if possible, to dine with him on this day. It was out of my power however, for arrived in town, I applied at the Office of the Plymouth Stage and found thirty passengers had obtained seats before me. I consequently despaired and determined to wait with my brother until the time for the Quincy Stage. Having nothing else to do, I took up the papers which are stuffed full of electioneering articles of the { 433 } grossest sort. This is not at all inconsistent with my resolution as I said expressly that I would go no more to the reading room as I misspent much time and only diverted my thoughts to channels very improper. If my father is destined to be President of the United States, I may be glad, but no feelings of mine can alter the result. As I was about to be devoured by Ennui however, I took up the Papers and read them. A late Meeting in Boston has settled the course of the Federalists in this State and there is no doubt about the result here.1 The Crawford papers are making a most tremendous disturbance at present and charge my father with the most extravagant and atrocious crimes. I should be much inclined to prosecute them. When the licence of the press is carried so far as it has been in the present instance, it appears to me highly proper to use some means to prevent it. This however would be called stopping the liberty of the press, and the Lord knows what consequences might ensue. I therefore must bear patiently the most tremendous abuse and know that the poor miserable people who exert their free will are deluded by the noise. My Grandfather lost his second election by means of these calumnies and my father will probably lose the election by the people if he does not that of the House.2
George was at Mr. Cook’s Office3 and I sat talking with him for a very considerable time. He appears to be in pretty moderately good spirits although he does not seem to believe that this election will turn out favourably. He is singular in his feelings as he is ever affected by the breath of the moment. I dined with him at Dr. Welsh’s who it appears has very considerably interested himself in these affairs and who seems very confident of success. He is a singular man but appears well meaning and is certainly honest. I lived in his family two years and although my life was none of the happiest, I always liked him much better than any of the rest of the family. After dinner I went upstairs and amused myself in talking again with George. The Quincy Stage soon came however and we started off for the old town of our ancestors. We arrived uncommonly late and found a room full of company. It appeared that my Grandfather had given quite a dinner—Mr. Marston, George Whitney and others. We found Mrs. Quincy, Susan, Margaret and Josiah, Mr. and Mrs. Greenleaf and one son William.4 After my circuitous address, if I may so call it, I took a chair next to Josiah Quincy and we talked about College matters, and other things quite pleasantly for a little while. He is a lively, good sort of man with abilities sufficient to get along well in the world. I talked much of the Porcellian affair and of the Medical { 434 } Faculty. I also had a little conversation with George Whitney who was full of his usual inevitable complaisance. Mrs. Quincy, very matronly this Evening, and the young ladies I did not approach, an unfortunate barrier has obtained between Miss Margaret and myself, why in heaven’s name I cannot conceive. They all went soon however and we were left with the family which is still larger than usual as Mrs. De Wint has not yet returned. Miss Harriet Welsh is also here as a sort of friend and comforter. They are useful as indefatigable readers and the latter indulging much in “my lady Tongue.” I never could like Mrs. De Wint; she has a good deal of vanity, I think, and much self possession. I do not like her manner of dress. I believe this destroys the charms for if I consider I cannot for the soul of me find any more reasonable objection. She aspires to be a lady of dignity in her manners, and her dress so ill becomes it that I am altogether dissatisfied by the “Je ne scais quoi.” Uncle Thomas very well and very lively, Mrs. A. as usual, the same with the rest, my Grandfather looks better than he did a month ago. He went to bed soon and we could find no more amusing or interesting subject for conversation than the Presidential Election which still rang in our ears. This is the cradle of Politics. XI.
1. Massachusetts Federalists opposed to JQA’s presidential candidacy could not agree upon an opponent. Some supported an unpledged list of Federalist electors; others backed a mixed, but also unpledged slate. Adams electors ran as Republicans. See Shaw Livermore, The Twilight of Federalism, Princeton, 1962, p. 168.
2. CFA like many others expected the presidential election to be thrown into the House of Representatives, as with four candidates it seemed unlikely any one of them could muster a majority in the Electoral College.
3. Presumably the law office of Josiah P. Cook, 14 Old State House (Boston Directory, 1825).
4. John Greenleaf (1763–1848), his wife, the former Lucy Cranch (1767–1846), and their son, William Cranch Greenleaf (1801–1868). See Adams Genealogy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-31

Sunday. October 31st. IX.

Arose and sat myself down to spend the day comfortably at home. I had the good fortune to discover yesterday that Mr. Flagg, a well known resident graduate at our good University of Cambridge.1 I therefore immediately made up my mind. It is rather a poor view of life, if we look at the number who have and others who are now toiling through an education at Cambridge, labouring like moles without talent enough to carry them to any distinction, and devoured after remaining here the better part of their lives, consuming their lives in study or in sleep, to obtain at best a miserable parish with perhaps one hundred and fifty dollars a year. Many such exist here { 435 } and many such are toiling through College at the present day to obtain this enviable situation. They are all for the most part able bodied and might have profited society in active labours where mind was not so much in question. I amused myself reading over a variety of numbers of the Adventurer and the Guardian.2 These books were intended to assist the morals of the age and to correct folly and vice. But in my opinion their tendency is bad, at least in some particulars. A large number turn on the seduction and ruin of young women. I think there is much danger in the description and in their effect upon the imagination. I think that it is exposing to young men a view of the weakness of the female sex such as few of them come to the knowledge of until long after they are young. And as to the ill consequences threatened, one misfortune attends them, they are not invariable, hope is left, and hope is the most deceptive phantom in the human heart. [Here follow in the MS more than four lines very heavily inked out, presumably by the diarist.] The fact is, consequences occur very seldom in comparison with the commission of the deed, and it does appear to me according to our existing laws of society that this commission is no crime. I believe God intended the union of the sexes as soon as they became of age to know the passion, our society forbids it until we can support the consequences. This may be singular doctrine and I may hereafter find it false, but I do now firmly believe. I think the present institutions of society are detestable for a young man, but I must confess I see no way of altering them for the better. I think them a perversion of the natural order of things but I cannot discover what the natural order is.
In the afternoon I went and slept for a considerable time. I spent part of the Evening with my Grandfather and heard him for once tell me of some of his cares. My Uncle and Aunt have so little prospect before them after his death, he spoke feelingly, the children also, if he could have done anything for them but it was entirely impossible.3 I tried to console him as much as possible but I think the thing preys upon his mind very much. He is a remarkable man, he has done much for that family, but I am afraid all the assistance he can give will avail little. He has improved this farm very much and I think I can discover a general plan upon which he has gone of late years to assist that family. I am sorry for them and wish a part well. I got into conversation again downstairs upon the Presidential election and other matters with Miss Harriet which did not break up until my Uncle entered and we had varied our topics so much as to fall upon him so that we could say no more. I afterwards had some political { 436 } conversation with him and some on the Medical Faculty with George by which I made him laugh very much. I was surprised tonight to hear my Grandfather speak so severely of Mrs. Clarke. He spoke of her levity in a tone which might even chill her; she certainly is an amazingly unthinking, inconsistent woman. Religious with asperity, virtuous with repulsion and smooth with insincerity. She is a match for Mrs. Adams and had that poor man, her husband, lived, would have made a vixen of a wife. He did not get out of the honey moon however and as it is, poor dear Mr. Clarke and her delightful husband are good terms for her to indulge in. She can love no one hereafter and it is a good way to prove she has loved somebody once. I went to bed pretty early although my afternoon’s nap took away part of my rest. XI.
1. CFA’s sentence is incomplete; doubtless his discovery was that John Flagg, graduate resident in the theological school (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824), was going to preach in Quincy.
2. The Adventurer, 2 vols., London, 1753–1754, by J. Hawkesworth, Samuel Johnson, and others. JQA’s set of The Guardian, 2 vols., London, 1745, is in the Stone Library.
3. Punctuated thus in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-01

November. 1824. Monday. 1. VIII:30.1

Quincy, arise, breakfast, reading all day, general election for President, my Grandfather, success in this town,2 my Uncle.
1. With the preceding entry D/CFA/4 ends. Entries are resumed here from CFA’s “Index” or epitomized diary (D/CFA/1), his full-length journal for this period being lost. See note on entry for 2 Sept., above, and the description of his MS diaries in the Introduction.
2. The citizens of Quincy voted unanimously for JQA (Bemis, JQA, 2:47).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-02

2. VIII.

Arise, go to Boston. Stage. My Uncle, Mr. Cook’s Office. George, business, return to Cambridge. Stage. Athenaeum, at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-03

3. VIII.

Arise, continue my name out, employed all day making up my Diary. Evening supper at Willard’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-04

4. VIII.

Name still out, continue upon my Diary. Lecture from Mr. Everett,1 evening spent at home. Entered my name.
1. In his next ten lectures (all recorded by CFA in his Lecture Notebook between { 437 } 3 and 14 November, see Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314) Professor Everett discussed the great Greek dramatists, satirists, and historians.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-05

5. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation in Topography. Mr. Everett’s Lecture. Declamation, evening, intention to visit the Theatre, rain detains me. Party at Sheafe’s to Whist and an Oyster Supper.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-06

6. VIII.

Missed Prayers, remain at Cambridge all day, employed in reading and writing my Diary. Mr. Everett’s Lecture as usual.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-07

7. VIII.

Missed Prayers, attended Chapel, President Kirkland, Mr. Pierpont,1 finish my large Diary and commence upon my notes.2
1. John Pierpont, Congregational minister of the Hollis Street Church, Boston (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 83).
2. CFA’s lecture notes, which he now wrote up in a separate book. See entry for 21 Oct., and note, above. His “large Diary” was presumably D/CFA/4; see note on entry for 1 Nov., above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-08

8. VIII:15.

Missed Prayers and recitation in Topography. Mr. Everett’s Lecture, Mr. Farrar’s and his recitation. Paley, evening attend the Theatre, Carriage, Miss Kelly, She stoops to conquer.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-09

9. VIII:45.

Prayers, recitation, Topography, review, Mr. Everett, Mr. Farrar, miss in Paley, evening, notes of Mr. Farrar’s lectures.1
1. See entry for 19 Oct., and note, above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-10

10. VI:45.

Prayers, recitation, Topography, Mr. Everett, Mr. Farrar, Paley. Evening, reading Corinne1 and supper at Willard’s.
1. By Mme. de Stael. See entry for 25 Oct., above. CFA’s set of her Oeuvres completes, 17 vols. in 9, Paris, 1820–1821, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-11

11. VIII:30

Missed Prayers and recitation in Topography, writing notes and reading Corinne, no exercises for my division, evening, attend the Theatre with Chapman, Mr. Cooper, The Honey-Moon.1
1. The English actor, Thomas Abthorpe Cooper (1776–1849), was appearing in John Tobin’s play.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-12

12. VIII:20.

Missed Prayers and the last lesson in Topography and Mathematics, Mr. Everett, writing notes, Declamation, evening, K.S.T.1 meeting, laws. Oyster supper, Sheafe’s until late, Lothrop.
1. Knights of the Square Table.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-13

13. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, Mr. Everett closed his course for the season, at Cambridge all day, election, in very low spirits, letters from home received and answered.1
1. CFA’s letters are missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-14

14. VIII.

Missed Prayers, excused from Chapel, reading Corinne and writing notes to Mr. Everett’s lectures.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-15

15. VII:50.

Missed Prayers, lesson set in Gorham,1 Mr. Farrar and Paley both attended, evening, very industrious, did not retire until late.
1. John Gorham, The Elements of Chemical Science, 2 vols., Boston, 1819.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-16

16. VI:30.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Paley, Moral Philosophy, evening, Supper at Richardson’s, Lothrop.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-17

17. VI:45.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Paley, evening, walk, visit to Rundlet, Conversation about Sheafe, Otis’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-18

18. VI:45.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry. A Theme, day wasted, visits to Bartlett and Chapman, evening, supper at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-19

19. VI:30.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Declamation, high spirits. Ride with Otis, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, Brighton, return, to Boston with Sheafe, Theatre, Macbeth.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-20

20. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, at home all day, reflection, happy feelings, evening very quiet.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-21

21. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, President Kirkland, Dr. Ware, evening, quiet at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-22

22. VII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Say’s Political Economy,1 first lesson, evening at home.
1. JQA’s copy of Jean Baptiste Say, A Treatise on Political Economy, Boston, 1824, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-23

23. VII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Say, evening at Otis’s. Conversation with him until late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-24

24. VII.

Missed Prayers and recitation, unwell and excused from exercises all day, occupied at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-25

25. VIII.

Omitted all the exercises today, wrote a Forensic, day much wasted, mind unsettled.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-26

26. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and other Exercises, ride with Otis, Billiards at the Franklin Hotel, return, evening Oyster Supper, Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-27

27. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, morning quiet at home, visit from Howard, afternoon, Champagne and Whist at Richardson’s, evening, Supper at my room, Lyceum, Howard, Lothrop, Rundlet.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-28

28. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Kirkland, Dr. Ware, evening visit from Howard, Supper at Willard’s Tavern, tough chickens, very agreeable, Otis, puns.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-29

29. VII.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Say, evening, small party at Richardson’s, very pleasant.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-30

30. VIII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry. Stage to Boston, Dr. Welsh’s, George, dine with him. Stage to Quincy, my Grandfather, family.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-01

December. 1824. Wednesday. 1. X.

Quincy. Medicine, arise, at home all day. Electoral Colleges vote,1 much conversation with my Grandfather and George.
1. The electoral college awarded Jackson 99 votes, JQA 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37. JQA won all of New England, the great majority of New York votes, and a few scattered tallies. Since no candidate won a majority of the electoral votes, the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. See Bemis, JQA, 2:30.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-02

2. IX.

Arise, Thanksgiving day, attend Meeting, Mr. Whitney, moderate sermon, return, dinner as usual on this day.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-03

3. IX.

Arise, weather stormy, remain at home all day, reading the Athenaeum,1 rather dull, conversation with the family and George.
1. The Athenaeum; or Spirit of the English Magazines, a periodical published at Boston from 1817 to 1832.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-04

4. IX.

Arise, weather continues bad, still at home, idling time, Edwards’ West Indies,1 Abby, Susan and rest of the family.
1. JQA’s copy of Bryan Edwards, The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies, 2 vols., London, 1794, is in the Stone Library. Another copy, bearing JA’s signature is among the President’s books in the Boston Public Library. See Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 82.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-05

5. IX.

Arise, cold weather, not at Church all day., beyond my time of absence, evening, family, talk.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-06

6. VII:30.

Arise, Stage to Boston, dine at Dr. Welsh’s, Worsley, conversation with George. Stage to Cambridge, acquaintances.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-07

7. VII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, Paley, evening, ride to town with Lothrop, pleasure party, cold but beautiful evening, return very late, Lothrop remained.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-08

8. VII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, miss in Say, ride with Rundlet, Savin Hill, billiards, Boston, Oyster Supper, return to Cambridge, evening, Sheafe’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-09

9. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and recitation in Chemistry, carry up a Theme, Say, evening writing letters, Lothrop and the Lyceum.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-10

10. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Declamation, writing, evening, Supper at Richardson’s, he twenty one, not agreeable, up until very late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-11

11. IX.

Missed Prayers, nostalgia, morning at home, Boston with Rundlet, George, conversation, Dr. Welsh’s, return, disagreable weather, evening, a Supper.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-12

12. IX.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, President Kirkland, stupid, afternoon at Richardson’s, Howard, evening at home, Rambler.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-13

13. VII:30.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, Say, evening, part at home, and the rest at Richardson’s, supper.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-14

14. VII:35.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, Say, evening, { 442 } a small Supper at Sheafe’s, parting, Ducks and Champagne, Lyceum and Lothrop.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-15

15. VII:30.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, Say, evening, Howard, to Boston, a Ramble, Women, a queer affair, escape, return very late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-16

16. VII:30.1

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Dr. Kirkland, leave of absence, ride to Boston, George, with him to Roxbury, dine at Mr. Boylston’s,2 agreeable time, thence to Quincy.
1. CFA added “Cambridge,” in pencil, in the margin of the MS beside this entry.
2. Ward Nicholas Boylston (1747–1828), a kinsman and close friend of JQA’s. See Adams Genealogy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-17

17. IX.

Quincy, my Grandfather, Conversation, politics, return to Cambridge, pack, again to Boston, Dr. Welsh’s, Miss Hinkley, George, remain with him.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-18

18. VII:30.

Leave Boston, Stage to Providence, Easterly Storm, arrive at Horton’s, remain for the night, Mr. D’Wolf.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-19

19. VI.

Leave Providence, Steam boat, College acquaintances, Fisher, Miller, Bonaparte, Elwyn,1 Marshall, Heavy sea. Stop at Newport, very dull.
1. Charles Henry Langdon-Elwyn, a junior from Boston (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-20

20. VII.

Steam boat, leave Newport, Willing,1 attempts at occupation, going slowly, off New London.
1. CFA’s classmate, Charles Willing, of Philadelphia (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-21

21. VI:[50?].

Steam boat, Hell gate, strong current, reach New York, cross to the Steamboat for New Brunswick, Companions, Stage to Trenton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-22

22. VI.

Leave Trenton, Steamboat to Philadelphia, thence to New Castle, Marshall, conversation with him, Stage to Frenchtown, Mr. A. Townsend,1 Steamboat to Baltimore.
1. Presumably Alexander Townsend, Harvard 1802, a Boston lawyer who corresponded with JQA (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 40).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-23

23. 1:30.

Arrive at Baltimore, wait for Stage, to Washington. Singular companions, arrive at home, family, dinner party, Conversation with John.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-24

24. IX.

Morning at home, visits to Mrs. Frye, Mr. T. B. Johnson’s,1 Thomas J. Hellen, return, evening at home, family.
1. Thomas Baker Johnson (1778?–1843), LCA’s brother, who had been postmaster at New Orleans but had apparently resigned in the summer of 1824 (LCA to GWA, 22 July 1824, Adams Papers). See Adams Genealogy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-25

25. IX:10.1

Morning at home, Christmas day, family dinner at Mr. Frye’s, evening, Chess, my mother’s ill health.
1. CFA added “Washington,” in pencil, in the margin of the MS beside this entry.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-26

26. IX:15.

Morning at home, Church, Capitol, Mt. Vernon, visits, Miss Selden, Miss Cott[r]ingers, John, evening, Conversation with him.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-27

27. IX:20.

Morning at home, billiards with John, evening, ball at Mrs. Brown’s, dull, and no acquaintance.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-28

28. IX.

Morning at home, walk, visits, principal people, Johnson Hellen, evening, Miss Pleasonton,1 Miss Peter, party at home.
1. Matilda Pleasanton, the daughter of Stephen Pleasanton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-29

29. IX:5.

Morning out to walk, purchases, Thomas J. Hellen, evening, Theatre, Damon and Pythias, Mr. Pelby,1 full house, Oyster Supper.
1. William Pelby was starring in John Banim’s tragedy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-30

30. IX:20.

Morning at home, billiards with John, dinner party, Governor Findlay,1 amusement, evening, ball at the Marine Barracks, dull.
1. William Findlay (1768–1846), formerly governor of Pennsylvania, represented that state in Congress from 1821 to 1827 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-31

31. IX.

Ride with John, to Alexandria and Mount Vernon, Washington’s tomb, fine day, early return, evening, Cards.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-01

January. 1825. Saturday. 1. IX.

Morning stormy, as usual, went to the President’s, ladies, cold treatment, saw nobody, dinner here of the family. Madame very unwell, dinner to Lafayette.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-02

2. IX.

Morning at the Capitol, Mr. Lynde,1 heard the last part of his Sermon, return, conversation at home and usual lounge.
1. Presumably Rev. Samuel Lynd, of Bordentown, N.J., the son-in-law of Rev. William Staughton (Columbian Centinel, 27 Aug. 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-03

3. VIII:50.

Morning at home, short time at Billiards before dinner, evening unwell, headache, to bed early, family at my Uncle Johnson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-04

4. VIII:40.

Morning walk to the Capitol, House of Representatives, Johnson, dull, library of Congress, Mr. Bailey,1 evening, backgammon with Johnson.
1. John Bailey (1786–1835), Representative from Massachusetts from 1824 to 1831 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-05

5. IX.

Morning at home, conversation, politics, lounge, Madame better, evening, family circle, Whist party.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-06

6. IX:20.

Morning as usual, lounge, evening, large dinner party, very dull, { 445 } Mr. Rives,1 thence to a party, Mrs. T. Munroe’s, quite pleasant, return early, Miss Selden.
1. William Cabell Rives (1792–1868), the Virginia statesman who served in the House of Representatives from 1823 to 1829 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-07

7. IX:30.

Morning as usual, Madame improving in health, lounge, evening at home, backgammon with Madame.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-08

8. IX.

Morning at home, write a letter to George,1 Johnson off to Rockville, evening, ball, anniversary of New Orleans, given to General Jackson, Mrs. Brown’s, crowded and dull.
1. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-09

9. IX.

Not at Church. Morning at home, walk to Georgetown, Thomas, evening visitors, Mr. and Mrs. Everett and General Wingate.1
1. Presumably Joseph F. Wingate (b. 1786), who had served as collector of customs at Bath, Maine, from 1820 to 1824 and was later (1827–1831) Representative from that state (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-10

10. IX.

Morning at home, lounge, nothing interesting, evening, Mrs. Richard Smith’s,1 few acquaintances, dull at first, Miss Pleasonton, conversation, finally agreable.
1. The wife of the cashier of the Washington branch of the Bank of the United States (JQA, Diary, 10 Jan. 1825, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 51).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-11

11. IX:30.

Morning at home, report of failure, Ladd, loss to my father,1 evening party at home, very agreable.
1. George Johnson, one of LCA’s cousins, had endorsed the notes of one Ladd, of Alexandria, to the sum of $7,000. Since Johnson was the manager of the Columbian Mills, which JQA owned, the bank tried to hold CFA’s father responsible for the debt. See Bemis, JQA, 2:197–199; JQA, Diary, 13 Jan. 1825, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 51.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-12

12. IX.

Thomas Hellen off,1 at home all day, reading, evening family to Drawing room, did not go.
1. Thomas Hellen was returning to Exeter Academy (JQA, Diary, 12 Jan. 1825, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 51).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-13

13. IX:40.

Morning at home, lounge and ride to Georgetown, loss true, return, large dinner party, Mr. Sloane,1 tooth ache.
1. John Sloane (1779–1856), an Ohio Representative from 1819 to 1829 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-14

14. IX.

Morning at home, state of the family, Madame, evening, all at home and backgammon with her.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-15

15. IX:25.

Morning at home as usual, lounge, time wasted, evening, Theatre, Mrs. Barnes,1 School for Scandal.
1. The English actress, Mrs. John Barnes, formerly Mary Greenhill, who had made her American debut in 1815 (Joseph N. Ireland, Records of the New York Stage, from 1750 to 1860, N.Y., 1867, 1:314–315).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-16

16. IX.

Morning at home, idle, afternoon at Church, Mr. Baker, singular prayer, home, dinner, Mr. Taylor and Mr. Tracy,1 pleasant conversation, politics.
1. Albert Haller Tracy (1793–1859), a Representative from New York (Biog. Dir. Cong.)

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-17

17. IX:10.

Morning at home. Noon, House of Representatives, Mr. Clay, Internal Improvement, evening, Theatre, Sweethearts and Wives,1 Mr[s]. Barnes, pretty woman.
1. A comedy by James Kenney.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-18

18. IX:50.

Morning at home, idle, short walk, letter to George,1 Mary sick, evening, family to Mr. Frye’s.
1. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-19

19. IX.

Morning at home, visits with the ladies, Mrs. Jackson, dinner at Baron Tuyll’s,1 splendour, evening, Conversation with John.
1. Baron Tuyll van Serooskerken, the Russian minister (Bemis, JQA, 2:94).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-20

20. VIII:45.

Morning at home, Geography, idle, walk, dinner party at home, General McArthur, Ohio and Kentucky.1
1. Duncan McArthur (1772–1839) advocated a caucus of his fellow Congressmen from Ohio, to be followed by a public statement of their position on the disputed presidential election (JQA, Diary, 20 Jan. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-21

21. IX.

Morning at home, conversation, political prospects brighter, evening, small party, Mrs. Johnson’s,1 dance on the Carpet, Mr. Lewis of Louisiana,2 Electoral votes.
1. Mrs. Josiah Stoddard Johnston, formerly Eliza Sibley, the wife of the Senator from Louisiana (DAB).
2. Presumably Joshua Lewis, formerly a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives, who was appointed a judge of Orleans Territory in 1806 (Clay, Papers, 2:691).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-22

22. VIII:40.

Morning at home, weather cold, walk, dinner at Mr. T. B. Johnson’s, family, evening, Cards, return, conversation with John.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-23

23. IX.

Snow. At home all day. Newspapers, death of George Bartlett, evening, company at home, Mr. and Mrs. Cook of Illinois, Mr. Tracy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-24

24. IX:10.

Weather fair. Morning walk, very idle, evening, family to Mrs. Dickens’,1 myself to Circus, Tom Thumb, Stevens the Dwarf.2
1. The wife of Asbury Dickins, of North Carolina, who was a clerk in the Treasury Department (Force, National Calendar, 1824, p. 64).
2. “Major” Joseph M. Stevens, a dwarf thirty-seven inches tall, played the title role in Kane O’Hara’s burletta, Tom Thumb (Odell, Annals N.Y. Stage, 3:142, 166).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-25

25. VIII:30.

Morning at home, nothing to do, political conversation, evening party at home, Miss Selden.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-26

26. VIII:40.

At home all day, politics of the day, pervading interest, decline the Drawing room,1 conversation with John.
1. Because of CFA’s refusal, JQA attended the President’s drawing room alone; it was “not much crowded” (JQA, Diary, 26 Jan. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-27

27. IX.

Morning at home, walk, visit my Uncle Johnson, John, return, dinner party at home, Mr. Bell of N. Hampshire,1 rules of proceeding, evening at home.
1. Samuel Bell (1770–1850), New Hampshire Senator from 1823 to 1835 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-28

28. IX:40.

Morning at home, walk, Capitol, evening, family to Morris’,1 myself at home, visit from Mr. Ironside, politics.
1. Captain Charles Morris, of Connecticut, one of the Board of Commissioners for the Navy (Force, National Calendar, 1824, p. 136).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-29

29. IX.

Morning at home, incessant political discussions, Mr. Clay, Mr. Kremer,1 evening, Theatre, Mr. Keene, Devil’s Bridge, Count Belino.2
1. Anticipating that JQA if elected President would appoint Henry Clay his Secretary of State, Jackson’s managers had already begun to whisper of “corruption and bargain.” They prompted George Kremer (1775–1854), a simple-minded Representative from Pennsylvania, to publish the accusation in a communication to the Columbian Observer of Philadelphia, and other newspapers quickly picked it up. See Bemis, JQA, 2:57; Biog. Dir. Cong.
2. Arthur Keene, the Irish singer, played the role of Count Belino in The Devil’s Bridge, an opera written by Charles Edward Horn and John Braham and revised by Henry Rowley Bishop (Ireland, Records of the N.Y. Stage, 1:335; Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Eric Blom, 5th ed., London, 1954, 1:723).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-30

30. VIII:50.

Morning, walk, Capitol, too late for Church, Painting of Washington, at home, small dinner party, Mr. Webster, Mr. Cook and others.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-31

31. IX.

Morning at home, political excitement, Mr. Clay,1 evening, Theatre, the Gamester, Cooper, Mrs. Barnes,2 full house, rival candidates.
1. Clay on 31 Jan. 1825 issued “A Card,” denying Kremer’s accusation of a corrupt bargain and denouncing its author as “a base and infamous calumniator.” A copy of this document, in Clay’s own handwriting, is in the Adams Papers. A threatened duel was avoided because Kremer showed no inclination to fight, and Clay considered his opponent “too simple-minded and eccentric to summon to the field of personal honor” (Bemis, JQA, 2:57).
2. Mrs. Barnes and Cooper were appearing in Edward Moore’s tragedy, The Gamester (The Oxford Companion to the Theatre, ed. Phyllis Hartnoll, London, 1951).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-01

February. 1825. Tuesday. 1. IX:30.

Morning at home as usual, walk, evening, Theatre, The poor Soldier,1 Mr. Keene. Tom Thumb, Major Stevens, singular dwarf.
1. A musical farce by John O’Keefe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-02

2. IX.

Morning as usual, reading the Albigenses1 and Miss Foote’s trial, English papers, singular state of morals,2 evening an Oyster supper at home.
1. Charles Robert Maturin, The Albigenses: A Romance, 4 vols., London, 1824.
2. The actress Maria Foote (1797?–1867) sued Joseph (“Pea Green”) Haynes for breach of promise and received an award of £3,000 (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-03

3. IX:15.

Morning at home, state of political excitement, walk, motives, home, large dinner, Dr. Watkins and General McCoy,1 evening at home.
1. Presumably William McCoy (d. 1864), a Virginia Representative from 1811 to 1833 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-04

4. IX.

Morning at home, George arrived today, walk as usual, conversation, evening, Theatre, School for Scandal, Lady Teasle, Mrs. Barnes, visit and observations, John.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-05

5. IX:20.

Morning at home, political world in hot water, afternoon, usual lounge, eve. remain at home, conversation with George, state of his feelings.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-06

6. IX.

Morning at the Capitol, Mr. Post,1 extremely crowded and dull. Johnson came from Rockville, walk and conversation with him, evening, Tracy, conversation, Elizabeth.
1. A Presbyterian minister who served as chaplain of the House of Representatives (JQA, Memoirs, 7:182).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-07

7. IX.

Morning as usual, politics, Mr. Clay and Mr. Kremer, conversation, { 450 } Johnson, evening, Theatre, Damon and Pythias, Mr. Cooper, very crowded, Catherine and Petruchio.1
1. The stage copy of The Taming of the Shrew, which was made from Shakespeare’s play by David Garrick.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-08

8. IX.

Morning as usual, reading Waverley, and talking politics, my father, evening, party at home, large, opposition people, large number, party in high spirits.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-09

9. VIII:30.

Morning at home, snow. Election of President,1 at half past three my father elected, cured of head ache, congratulations, evening, Circus, Tom and Jerry, serenade.
1. JQA was elected President by the House of Representatives, each state voting as a unit. The six New England states, New York, Missouri, Ohio, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, and Illinois comprised his slim majority of thirteen states. The defection of the last three states from Jackson to Adams made JQA the winner despite Jackson’s greater popular vote in the country and in the Electoral College. See Bemis, JQA, 2:47 and entry for 1 Dec. 1824, above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-10

10. IX.

Morning as usual, Committee of Congress, visits,1 evening, family go to the Military ball, George and I at home in conversation.
1. At noon a committee of the House of Representatives, consisting of Daniel Webster, Joseph Vance of Ohio, and William Segar Archer of Virginia, called on JQA to announce that he had been elected President (JQA, Diary, 10 Feb. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-11

11. IX:20.

Morning at home, bad weather, visits, reading Hodgson’s letters,1 evening Theatre, Mr. Keene’s benefit, Love in a village, Don Juan,2 disgusting scene.
1. A copy of Adam Hodgson’s Letters from North America, Written during a Tour of the United States and Canada, 2 vols., London, 1824, is in the Stone Library.
2. Isaac Bickerstaffe’s comic opera, Love in a Village, and the “grand pantomimical ballad,” Don Juan, by Carlos Antonio Delpini and Walley Chamberlain Oulton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-12

12. IX.

Morning spent at home, want of conversation and excitement since election, evening spent at home with the family.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-13

13. VIII:50.

Morning at Church, Mr. Little’s1 with Johnson, dinner party, { 451 } family, Mr. Owen2 and Crowninshields, evening company, Mrs. Cutts3 and others.
1. Robert Little, minister of the Unitarian church in Washington (JQA, Memoirs, 7:324).
2. Robert Owen (1771–1858), the British social reformer who had made his cotton mills at New Lanark, Scotland, a model community, had come to America to found the New Harmony colony in Indiana (DNB).
3. Presumably Mrs. Richard Cutts, wife of the assistant comptroller of the Treasurer, 1817–1829, and an intimate friend of LCA (Bemis, JQA, 2:537).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-14

14. IX.

Morning at home, low spirits, lounge, Johnson off, evening at home, family to wedding visit, General Brown’s, Mrs. Kirby.1
1. Major Edmund Kirby had recently married Eliza A. Brown, daughter of General Jacob Brown (Columbian Centinel, 23 Feb. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-15

15. IX.

Weather unpleasant, severe cold, at home all day, dinner party, Genl. La Fayette, Messrs. Stanley, Wortley and Dennison, members of Parliament,1 retire early.
1. The English visitors were Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, later 14th Earl of Derby (1799–1869), John Stuart-Wortley, 2d Baron Wharncliffe (1801–1855), and John Evelyn Denison, later 1st Viscount Ossington (1800–1873) (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-16

16. IX:25.

Weather bad, my cold increased, at home all day, Waverley, English Newspapers, Miss Foote, family at my Uncle’s, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-17

17. IX:30.

Confined to my room all day, weather very unfavourable, low spirits, dinner party, could not go down, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-18

18. IX.

Weather very pleasant, much better, walk with my brothers, Mr. and Mrs. Smith and Mr. T. B. Johnson to dine, conversation, “society.”

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-19

19. IX:30.

My cold much worse, at home all day, dull and low spirits, evening, family to Aunt Frye’s, myself to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-20

20. IX.

Weather very bad, remain in my room, Influenza, dull, dinner party at home, could not go down, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-21

21. VIII:45.

At home all day, on the recovery, cloudy weather, evening, last regular party, very agreeable.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-22

22. VIII:30.

Weather raw and disagreeable. Walk to the Capitol, evening, Anniversary Ball, Washington’s birth day, family went, myself at home, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-23

23. IX.

Health much improved. Walk to the Capitol, Domestic Manufactures,1 return, evening, Whist at home, George, Mary.
1. One Snowden was showing an exhibition of manufactures at the Capitol (JQA, Diary, 22 Feb. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-24

24. VIII:40.

Morning, walk to the Capitol, Exhibition of Manufactures, Cloths, return, dinner party, Mr. Baylies.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-25

25. IX.

Morning, walk to the Capitol, Exhibition closes, bad weather, evening, Theatre, with John, Bride of Abydos,1 dull, Oyster Supper.
1. A romantic drama by William Dimond.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-26

26. IX:25.

Morning at home, foggy weather, cold increased, family troubles, George, his affairs and feelings.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-27

27. IX.

Still annoyed by my cold, horrible weather, Johnson Hellen, political affairs, dinner and evening party.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-28

28. VIII:40.

Morning at home, politics. Cabinet appointments, walk, evening, family to St. André’s, myself at home, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-01

March 1825. Tuesday. 1. IX:20.

Morning at home, weather fair, lounge, meet Burton, conversation, home. Dinner. Supreme Court, Mr. Bibb and Ogden. Evening, first visit to A., original sin.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-02

2. X.

Morning at home, walk to visit old College acquaintances, Burton at the house, Mrs. De Wint arrives, evening Circus with Johnson. Cataract of the Ganges,1 noise.
1. A “grand romantic drama” by William Thomas Moncrieff.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-03

3. IX.

Morning at home, lounge, a large family, Mr. Cook and Mr. Cruft dine here, evening, John out at Houston’s,1punning scene at home until very late.
1. Possibly John H. Houston, clerk in the fifth auditor’s office (Washington Directory, 1822, p. 45).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-04

4. VIII:30.

Inauguration of JQA to be President, procession, walk to the Capitol, home, receiving company, Madame unwell, expresident’s, with Burton, evening, ball.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-05

5. IX:30.

Arise fatigued, reading Don Juan, Mrs. de Wint disagreeable, walk, change in the city, evening, my uncle and aunt Smith, evening, laziness.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-06

6. IX.

Not at Church. Johnson off, Madame unwell, walk, Don Juan, my own letters, evening, conversation John and Burton, Mr. Davis &c.,1 warmth, second visit to A., child.
1. The Boston lawyer, John Brazer Davis, who was seeking a diplomatic appointment (Henry Dearborn to JQA, 24 Jan. 1825, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-07

7. IX.

Morning at home, walk with Burton, visit my aunts Frye and Smith, { 454 } return, pleasant dinner, Mr. Cruft and Sullivan, English wine, evening, Oyster supper.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-08

8. VI.

Off for Baltimore with George and Mrs. De Wint, Rossburgh, Baltimore, Steam boat to Philadelphia, Mr. Cruft, Genl. Dearborn1 &c., New Castle, ride across in the night.
1. General Henry Dearborn (1751–1829). See DAB.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-09


But little sleep, steam boat, Philadelphia, Ives, [get on?], Trenton, ride to New Brunswick, arise late, Crowninshield, conversation, remain up until late, George, beds.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-10

10. VI.

Arise, clear weather, Steam boat Thistle to New York, arrive and dress, Bunker’s,1 leave Mrs. de Wint, City Hotel, billiards with Ives, eve., Theatre, School for Reform.2
1. Charles Bunker, who had been in GWA’s junior class at Harvard (Harvard Annual Cat., 1819).
2. A comedy by Thomas Morton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-11

11. VIII:30.

Morning, lounge, to Castle Garden, Ives, character, pleasant day, afternoon, off with Mr. Cruft in Steam boat Providence for New Haven, sleep on board, rain.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-12

12. VI.

New Haven, start for Hartford, stage, fine weather and bad roads, company uninteresting, on for Boston, Mr. Cruft, supper at Vernon and travel all night.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-13


Travelling, Worcester, breakfast 1 2 o’clock, fine weather, company, dry goods merchants, observations, arrive in Boston at 9 o’clock, Mr. Cruft’s, news of part.1
1. During CFA’s absence from Cambridge, Harvard College authorities had assigned him a part in the spring exhibition, which was to be held on 26 April (GWA to LCA, 20 Mar. 1825, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-14

14. IX.

Boston, walking, business, walking, Dr. Welsh’s, conversation, dine at Mr. Cruft’s, lady and children,1 afternoon Stage to Quincy, my Grandfather and family.
1. The Crufts had, at this time or subsequently, five children; they are listed in the Elizabeth Smith Scrapbook (MHi).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-15

15. IX.

Quincy, arise, remain at home all day, Miss Thaxter, my Uncle unwell, Abby, my aunt &c., conversation, George arrived, high spirits.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-16

16. X.

Morning spent at home, performing very little, spirits extremely high, dinner agreeable, argument with George, much conversation during the day. Mary.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-17

17. VII.

Morning off to Boston and Cambridge, find all my acquaintance, spend remainder of the day in conversation with Sheafe, Richardson and Otis.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-18

18. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and recitation, lectures, Dr. Ware and Mr. Ticknor, afternoon, Declamation, ride with Otis, Savin Hill, billiards, return to tea, evening at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-19

19. VIII:30

Missed Prayers and lecture, Dr. Ware, ride to Boston with Richardson, George Briggs, conversation, dine at the Exchange, Savin Hill, return, Heinrich’s Concert, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-20

20. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, Mr. Frothingham, walk, evening, employed at home, Forensics.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-21

21. VI.

Prayers, recitations, Say, Brown,1 Lectures, Ware and Ticknor, at home all day, evening at Hammond’s,2 occupant of No. 5.
1. A copy of Thomas Brown’s Lectures on the Human Mind, 3 vols., Andover, 1822, is among JA’s books in the Boston Public Library. See Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 36.
{ 456 }
2. William Dawes Hammond, of Boston, a sophomore (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-22

22. VI:5

Missed Prayers, recitation, Say, Brown, Lectures, Ware and Ticknor, at home, evening at Richardson’s. Perkins and Lothrop.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-23

23. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Brown, Lectures, Ware and Ticknor, difficulty, Richardson and Hammond, evening, Theatre with Richardson, Tom and Jerry, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-24

24. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Theme, Lectures, Ware and Ticknor, Brown, evening, Theatre with Richardson, Widow of Cornhill, Mrs. Henry, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-25

25. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Lecture, Ware, missed Ticknor, Declamation, ride with Otis, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, accident to Chaise, repaired, eve. at Richardsons.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-26

26. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, and lecture, Ware, stormy, at home all day, afternoon, Sheafe’s, Cunningham, Chapman, a glass of Punch, evening at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-27

27. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, missed in the afternoon, unpleasant weather, evening at home, reading and writing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-28

28. VI.

Prayers, recitations, Say, missed Brown, Lectures, Ware, Ticknor, ride to Boston with Sheafe, dine at the Exchange, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, Theatre, Stranger,1 return.
1. A drama by Augustus von Kotzebue.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-29

29. VI:10.

Missed Prayers, recitations, Say, Brown, review, last lecture Ware, { 457 } Ticknor, evening, ride to Boston with Sheafe, Theatre, The Honey Moon, Mrs. Barnes.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-30

30. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation, Say, Brown review, lecture, Ticknor, evening spent at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-31

31. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lecture, Ticknor, at home rest of the day, reading Shakespear and writing, evening at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-01

April. 1825. Friday. 1. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Lecture, Ticknor, ride to Boston with Richardson, George not at home, return, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, evening, Howard, Whist, Richardson’s, Champagne.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-02

2. VIII.

Missed Prayers, ride to Neponset in a Tandem with Sheafe, Billiards, dinner and Champagne, evening, return through Quincy, spend an hour at Sheafe’s, a glass of Punch.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-03

3. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, missed in the afternoon, weather stormy, evening, a slight supper and a glass of punch at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-04

4. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Lecture, Ticknor, ride with Richardson to Savin Hill, Billiards, thence to Boston, Theatre, Isabella or the Fatal Marriage,1 Mrs. Barnes.
1. A tragedy “altered” from the work of Thomas Southern.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-05

5. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation, Lecture, Ticknor, day spent idly in Cambridge, evening drill of the H[arvard] W[ashington] Corps and a light supper at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-06

6. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, obtain leave of absence, Lecture from Bigelow,1 Stage to Boston, George, thence to Quincy, my Grandfather and family well.
1. During their final two terms at Harvard, seniors were given an opportunity to hear lectures from eminent professors in all departments of the college. For a schedule of these lectures, see Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 229.
CFA intended to write out the lectures of Dr. Jacob Bigelow (1787–1879), the Rumford professor, who was also professor of materia medica, on “the application of the Sciences to the Arts,” but he succeeded in taking notes on only the first of them. See Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314. For others of these lectures which CFA attended see entries for 11, 12, and 25 April, and 7 June, below.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-07

7. IX:30.

Fast day. Arise, go to Meeting, Mr. Brooks,1 remain at home in the afternoon composing a Conference,2 evening conversation with George and a glass of Punch.
1. Presumably Charles Brooks, the Congregational minister at Hingham (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 86).
2. See entry for 26 April, below.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-08

8. X.

Arise, extensive fire in Boston last evening,1 at home all day, reading the Liaisons Dangereuses,2 state of feeling, argument with my Uncle.
1. The fire, which started in a store on Doane Street, spread quickly and destroyed 53 buildings, causing damage estimated at half a million dollars (Columbian Centinel, 9 April 1825).
2. By Pierre Ambroise François Choderlos de Laclos, first published in Paris in 1796.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-09

9. VIII.

Arise, return to Boston, dull ride with my Aunt, George, Briggs,1 dinner with the former and a Cigar, evening Stage to Cambridge, Pratt, lovely walk, Richardson’s, a glass of Punch.
1. Cyrus Briggs, who had been in GWA’s class at Harvard.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-10

10. VIII.

Missed Prayers, remain at home all day, name still out, writing my Conference, evening, Freshpond, walk, with Richardson, supper and conversation.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-11

11. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed Ticknor and Warren,1 ride to Bos• { 459 } ton, Richardson, Franklin Hotel, billiards, dinner at the Exchange, evening, Theatre, Sweethearts and Wives.
1. John Collins Warren, Harvard 1797, M.D. (hon.) 1819, Hersey professor of anatomy and surgery from 1815 to 1847 (Harvard Quinquennial Cat.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-12

12. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed Ticknor and Webster,1 ride to Boston with Richardson, Franklin Hotel, billiards, evening, Circus, Cataract of the Ganges, Oysters, return.
1. John White Webster, Harvard 1811, M.D. 1815, at this time lecturer in chemistry, mineralogy, and geology, and subsequently Erving professor of chemistry and mineralogy at Harvard (Harvard Quinquennial Cat.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-13

13. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, and recitation, Say, and Ticknor’s Lecture, attended Bigelow and Warren, missed Webster, evening, Carriage, Theatre, The Apostate,1 Supper, Exchange, return.
1. A tragedy by Richard Lalor Shiel.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-14

14. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed Ticknor and Webster, ride with Howard, Champagne, sup at the Punch Bowl,1 unwell, to Boston, evening, a visit to S.B., state of feeling, return.
1. Presumably the Old Punch Bowl Tavern in Brookline (Shurtleff, Description of Boston, p. 424).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-15

15. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed the Lectures of the day, ride to Boston with Sheafe, conversation with George, dine at the Exchange, return, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, return, company drill, evening, meeting of the K.S.T., at home early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-16

16. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, ride to Neponset tandem with Richardson, dine there, play Billiards, Champagne, return through Quincy, early, to bed.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-17

17. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, excused from Chapel, at home all day, idle, evening with Richardson and Sheafe, Champagne Wine, late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-18

18. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Missed the Lectures, ride to Boston with Sheafe, dine Exchange Coffee House, return, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, Company drill, evening at Otis’.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-19

19. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, and recitation, Celebration at Concord,1 Richardson and I to Neponset, tandem, billiards, return through Quincy, evening, Champagne wine.
1. Edward Everett made the principal address at the ceremony commemorating the battle of Concord. See “The First Battles of the Revolutionary War,” in Everett’s Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions, 1:73–100.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-20

20. VIII:40.

Missed Prayers and recitations all day, ride to Boston, George, conversation, evening, Theatre, John Bull,1 Howard, Sheafe and Richardson, Supper at the Exchange.
1. A comedy by George Colman.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-21

21. VII:30.

Boston, ride to Brooklyn, party of four, luncheon, return, George, dine at the Exchange, evening, Circus, stupid, return to Cambridge.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-22

22. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture, Dr. Bigelow, drill, declamation, to Boston, Theatre, She stoops to Conquer, return, Richardson’s, to bed late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-23

23. VIII:40.

Missed the exercises, morning at home, horseback to Lexington, Sheafe and Richardson, fatigue, evening to Boston, return early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-24

24. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers. Chapel, Dr. Kirkland, Dr. Ware, excessive fatigue, evening at Richardson’s, punch, Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-25

25. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Lecture, Dr. Jackson,1 ride to Neponset with Sheafe, billiards, return early.
{ 461 }
1. James Jackson, Harvard 1796, M.D. 1809, Hersey professor of the theory and practice of physic from 1812 to 1836 (Harvard Quinquennial Cat.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-26

26. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Exhibition day, my part,1 George, Company parade, visit President Kirkland, Officers, Collation at Cunningham’s, retire early.
1. CFA, Nathaniel James Lord, and Allyne Otis had assigned parts in a conference on “Internal Improvements, Commerce, and Manufactures, as Objects of National Policy” (Records of the College Faculty, 10:85–86, Harvard Archives). CFA argued that “Internal improvements form the van in the march of Freedom as the ease of communication and extension of knowledge which they afford are the primary objects of destruction with despots.” See two copies of his “Internal Improvement as an Object of National Policy,” Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel Nos. 55 and 469. Benjamin Waterhouse reported that CFA “did credit to himself” (Waterhouse to JQA, 26 April 1825, Adams Papers), and Anne Royall wrote that “The modest youth was overwhelmed with applause” (Mrs. Royall to JA, 29 April 1825, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-27

27. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, and recitation, Lectures, Dr. Bigelow, Jackson and Warren, entertainment at Dwight’s, evening to Boston. Supper at the Exchange to our friends, Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-28

28. IX:30.

Missed Prayers and recitation, a Theme, Lecture, Dr. Jackson, afternoon, ride with Sheafe, Lincoln and Weston, return early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-29

29. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Dr. Bigelow’s Lecture, Jackson’s and Warren’s, evening, Sheafe and Richardson at my room. Oysters and Claret.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-30

30. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, and Lecture, ride horseback to Concord with Richardson and Sheafe. Dinner given to us by Richardson, early return, a lobster at my room.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-01

May. 1825. Sunday. 1. IX.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, President Kirkland, amusing Sermon, Dr. Ware, evening, walk and visit to Richardson.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-02

2. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, missed Jackson’s, attended Webster and Warren, low spirits, evening, visit to Otis.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-03

3. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, attended Jackson, missed Webster, Neponset with Sheafe, billiards, return, evening, a lobster at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-04

4. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Bigelow’s lecture, Everett’s1 and Warren’s, weather rainy, at home all day and evening.
1. Professor Everett resumed his lectures on Greek literature. In his Notebook (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314) CFA made on 4 May a full report of Everett’s first lecture, on Greek history and philosophy, but the subsequent lectures in the series through 11 May, on Socrates, Plato, etc., he recorded only in rough notes, which he doubtless intended later to amplify and transcribe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-05

5. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and recitation, Say, lectures, Everett and Warren, missed Webster’s, reading Shakespear and Ford,1 evening at Otis’.
1. JQA’s set of The Dramatic Works of John Ford, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1811, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-06

6. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, Bigelow, missed Everett’s, Webster’s, Warren’s, ride to Boston, dine with George, pleasant conversation, evening return, Sheafe’s, Wine.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-07

7. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, lectures, attended Bigelow, bath, dinner, horseback ride to Neponset, billiards, return, evening a lobster at Sheafe’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-08

8. IX.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, President Kirkland, Dr. Ware, evening a walk, and conversation at Otis’.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-09

9. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, Everett, Missed Warren’s and Webster’s, ride to Boston with Richardson, Franklin Hotel, billiards, dine at Exchange, eve., Circus, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-10

10. VI:15.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, Everett, missed Webster, weather bad, evening at Otis, conversation concerning Rundlet and consequent astonishment.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-11

11. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, Bigelow, Everett, afternoon, Dudleian lecture, Mr. Jenks, Errors of popery,1 evening, walk, at Richardson’s.
1. William Jenks lectured on “The Grand Apostasy & Anti-Christian Influence of Papal Rome Considered” (Harvard Archives).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-12

12. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Theme, ride horseback with Richardson, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, execrable dinner, Boston, Rouillard’s,1 compensated. Circus, remain at the Exchange.
1. Frederic Rouillard’s restaurant, on Milk Street (Boston Directory, 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-13

13. VIII:30.

Boston. Arise, breakfast, ride to Neponset, horse capricious, dine there and billiards, return to Cambridge, earnest conversation with R., evening, Porter at Sheafe’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-14

14. VIII:45

Missed Prayers, lectures, attended Bigelow, morning at home, after dinner, ride with Richardson to Newton falls, tea at his father’s, family, return early to Camb.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-15

15. IX.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, President Kirkland all day, very dull, at home, evening, Porter and Cheese at Sheafe’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-16

16. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, Lecture, Mr. Everett, ride to Boston with Sheafe, dine at Rouillard’s. Pleasant conversation with George, long ride home, evening quiet.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-17

17. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, Howard, a party to Sudbury, { 464 } ride with Richardson, dine there, rain, return, race between Otis and Howard, argument.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-18

18. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, missed Lecture, visit from George and Wheatland, ride horseback with Otis and Chapman, evening at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-19

19. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, a Forensic. Students to leave Cambridge, evening at home, Ford’s Plays.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-20

20. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, morning at my room, quiet. Stage to Boston, George’s room, Stage leaves me, remain with him, Briggs, Cheney,1 his friends.
1. John Milton Cheney, from Lincoln, who had been in GWA’s Harvard class (Harvard Annual Cat., 1820).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-21

21. VII:30.

Boston. Arise, tired with Boston, walk to Quincy, Neponset, billiards dull, arrive to dinner, family, evening quiet.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-22

22. IX:30.

Arise, at home all day, quiet, Butler’s Analogy,1 dry, evening, Mr. Degrand from Boston.
1. JQA’s two copies of Joseph Butler’s The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature, published in London in 1736 and 1791, are in the Stone Library. JA’s copy of Butler, London, 1785, 7th edition, is among his books in the Boston Public Library. See Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 40.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-23

23. VII.

Arise, quiet at home, my grandfather, my Uncle as usual, dull, reflection on comparative situation.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-24

24. VIII:50.

Arise, Morning at home, Butler’s Analogy, Liaisons Dangereuses, dangerous book, dull at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-25

25. VII:30.

Arise, leave Quincy, Stage to Boston, Election day,1 Boston Cadets, George, fatigue, conversation, walk to Cambridge, solitary at my room.
1. The General Court met on 25 May and elected Nathaniel Silsbee president of the Senate and Timothy Fuller speaker of the House. The following day they examined the votes for governor and declared Levi Lincoln elected (Columbian Centinel, 28 May 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-26

26. VIII.

Cambridge. Richardson calls for me, ride to Worcester through Newton, Needham, Natick, Framingham and Westborough, dine here, evening walk at Worcester.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-27

27. VII:30.

Leave Worcester, pass through Leicester, Charlton, dine at Stur-bridge, Holland to Stafford, wrong tavern, wretched accommodations.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-28

28. V:30.

Leave Stafford, delightful ride through Tolland to Vernon, excellent breakfast, East Hartford and Hartford, to Tudor, at his house, Wine.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-29

29. VIII.

Hartford. Tudor’s, Church, Mr. Wheaton,1 dine with Tudor, ride to Major Watson’s,2 East Windsor, Connecticut river, return, evening walk.
1. Nathaniel S. Wheaton, rector of the Episcopal church in Hartford from 1821 to 1831, and subsequently President of Trinity College (James Hammond Trumbull, The Memorial History of Hartford County, Connecticut, 1633–1884, Boston, 1886, 1:406, 437).
2. Benjamin Watson, breveted major in 1814 for gallantry in the battle of Niagara Falls (Heitman, Register U.S. Army).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-30

30. VIII.

Hartford. Leave Tudor, agreeable visit, ride up the course of the river, beautiful country, Windsor, Suffield, West Springfield to Springfield, meet Dwight, ride horseback.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-31

31. VIII.

Springfield. Armory U.S., dine with Dwight, pleasant, evening ride to Northampton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-01

June. 1825. Wednesday. 1. VIII.

Northampton. W. B. Lee, Round Hill,1 ascent of Mt. Holyoke, warm, Miss Warren, dine with Blake, Payne and others. Ives, Sturgis,2 lively and agreeable Supper.
1. The site of the experimental school conducted by George Bancroft and Joseph Green Cogswell.
2. Russell Sturgis, of Boston, a member of the Harvard class of 1823, who did not, however, receive his degree until 1845.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-02

2. VIII.

Northampton. Weather rainy, leave it and pass through Amherst to Belchertown, dine, irritable, scene with Richardson, pain in my teeth, stop at Ware, conversation.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-03

3. VII:40.

Ware Factory village, leave it, pass through Brookfield and South Brookfield to Spencer, execrable dinner, through Leicester to Worcester, pleasant day, pain in my teeth.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-04

4. VIII.

Leave Worcester, rain and uncomfortable, Westborough to Framingham, good dinner, return to Cambridge, evening, Sheafe, agreeable conversation.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-05

5. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, Mr. Gilman, return to old habits, weather cold, fires, conversation with Sheafe, about Lothrop and others, our conclusions.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-06

6. VI.

Prayers, a Miss, weather unpleasant, at home all day, Traits of Nature, Miss Burney,1 very quiet. Artillery Election.
1. Sarah H. Burney, Traits of Nature: A Novel, 5 vols., London, 1812.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-07

7. VI.

Prayers, Lectures, Dr. Webster, Judge Parker,1 to Boston with { 467 } Sheafe, dine at Rouillard’s, long ride, return, find Richardson, at his room, Potter and Conversation.
1. Isaac Parker, Harvard 1786, Royall professor of law from 1816 to 1827, and chief justice of the Supreme Judicial Court from 1814 to 1830 (DAB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-08

8. VIII.

Missed Prayers and Dr. Webster, attended Dr. Bigelow and Judge Parker, ride with Sheafe, Neponset, Billiards, my Uncle, return to Boston, Theatre, Tom and Jerry, Exchange, Supper, late return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-09

9. VIII.

Missed Prayers and Lectures, ride with Richardson, Billiards at the Franklin Hotel, Dedham, Howard and Sheafe, hot and dull, Boston, Museum,1 Exchange, Supper, late return.
1. The Boston Museum, on what was called Conduit Street, between the conduit and Roebuck Passage, for the exhibition of “curious and rare objects” (Shurtleff, Description of Boston, p. 402).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-10

10. VIII.

Missed Prayers and Lectures, attended Dr. Bigelow, afternoon ride with Richardson, long ride, Franklin Hotel, billiards, early return and quiet evening.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-11

11. VIII.

Missed Prayers, and Lecture, quiet day at home, afternoon ride with Sheafe to Woburn Pavillion, return, thunder storm, darkness and fire flies, arrive safe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-12

12. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, Dr. Kirkland, quiet at home, conversation with Richardson and Sheafe, argument, Nahant.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-13

13. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, ride with Sheafe to Nahant, Nine pins, dress for dinner, no company, Mrs. Hammond, fishing, billiards, quiet evening.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-14

14. VII.

Nahant, Fishing and Billiards, Company, Prescott, Rowe and others, disgusting, return to fishing, quiet evening, Picquet with Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-15

15. VII:15.

Nahant, Billiards, arrival of Richardson and Howard shortly after, dinner, large company, Lothrop, our feelings, Cod fishing, boat, qualmish, ride to Lynn, conversation with Richardson, evening, Supper, very jovial.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-16

16. VII.

Rain, leave Nahant, Lynn, Cambridge, thence with Sheafe to Boston, dine at the Exchange Coffee House, crowd, George, return to Cambridge.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-17

17. VI.

Prayers, no lecture, ride to Charlestown with Richardson, Bunker Hill, Mr. Webster’s address,1 crowd, to Boston, Franklin Hotel, billiards, return to Cambridge fatigued.
1. Daniel Webster made the principal address at the laying of the cornerstone of the Bunker Hill monument. It was printed as An Address Delivered at the Laying of the Corner Stone of the Bunker Hill Monument, Boston, 1825, and went through numerous editions.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-18

18. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, and Lecture, at home all day, quiet, Rothelan,1 reflection, evening at Sheafe’s, conversation.
1. John Galt, Rothelan: A Romance of the English Histories, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1824.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-19

19. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Mr. Colman, figures, evening, to Boston with Richardson, Boston Common, Supper at the Exchange and return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-20

20. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and exercises, to Boston with Sheafe, dine at the Exchange, ride to Savin Hill, Billiards, return to Boston, Theatre, Genl. La Fayette, Supper, return late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-21

21. IX.

Missed Prayers and exercises, ride with Howard, Roxbury, Strawberries, return, election of officers for Company, Corn. McLean, to Boston with Richardson, Exchange, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-22

22. VIII.

Missed Prayers and exercises, party to the Blue Hills,1 ride with Richardson, Champagne, Howard and Sheafe, return early.
1. In Milton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-23

23. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and exercises, to Boston with Richardson, dine at Rouillard’s, George, to Neponset, billiards, return to Cambridge.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-24

24. VII:30.

Missed Prayers and exercises, morning at home, afternoon Declamation, ride with Richardson to Woburn, thence to Boston, return late to Cambridge.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-25

25. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, unpleasant weather, at home all day, Juliet Grenville, Sheafe returns, quiet and reflection upon the past fortnight.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-26

26. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, Dr. Kirkland, evening, pleasant ride with Richardson, conversation, Juliet Grenville.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-27

27. VIII:20.

Missed Prayers and recitation, Lecture, Judge Parker, Law, to Boston with Richardson, George, argument. Neponset, billiards, Sheafe, strawberries, early return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-28

28. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, morning at home, sick and low spirits, private admonition for negligence, farce, at home, Conversation with Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-29

29. VII.

Missed Prayers and review, morning at home, Novels, Rhoda,1 ride with Sheafe, conversation, evening at home.
1. Anon., Rhoda: A Novel, 3 vols., London, 1816.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-30

30. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, at home all day, finish Rhoda, Otis, conversation, Sheafe and Richardson, Lyceum Club troubles.
Cite web page as: Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses, ed.C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2018.