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Browsing: Diary of Charles Francis Adams, Volume 1


Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-12

Tuesday. October 12th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation as usual in Topography. Part of the { 380 } class have seceded so that the room is not very full. The next point of investigation is according to the words of Wolf, the character of the rhapsodists, thus began Mr. Everett this morning. He mentions what he supposes three errors in the common opinion concerning their profession. The first is the confounding those of the early ages with the worthless persons who arose under the same name subsequently and who are mentioned with contempt by Plato and Xenophon. The supposing from a mistaken derivation of the name, that it was their profession to compile worthless centos,1 as they were afterwards called, from the productions of Homer. That these were confined to this poet alone. Wolf on the contrary supposes that they were dignified and authorized agents for transmitting the works of all distinguished Poets of the time. That being poets themselves, they varied according to the occasion, the structure of these poems, from which origin proceeded the various readings which we have of the author. It is necessary therefore to suppose a sort of composition corresponding to this way of publication. And if there was no other way of producing a poem, but by teaching it to the rhapsodists, one like this of 15000 lines could not have been conceived. And supposing Homer to have been a man of the greatest genius that man ever has or ever will see, it is impossible that even then he could have done this. But it is to be observed that this reasoning takes want of writing for granted. We have no historical ground for supposing that the rhapsodists were of the character stated, and we diminish their importance precisely as we increase our supposition of the knowledge of writing at that time. Homer makes no mention of such persons but speaks on the contrary of the bard as a separate and distinct profession. The French in fact have treated of Homer too familiarly doubtless, but the Germans have gone very much too far in the opposite extreme and have exaggerated the difficulty of producing poetry without writing. We have instances even now of improvisatori who have cultivated this power to great extent, one particular instance he mentioned which has been in many of the late newspapers, of a man in Paris who has delivered a whole tragedy in five Acts without more than a few minutes preparation, a fact of which there can be no doubt.
The third point of Wolf is the internal structure of the Poem. This is an analysis of the whole poem too long to state in a lecture, the general sum of which is that The Odyssey is allowed to have unity but the Iliad is not—still he argues that either might have been the work of a succession of rhapsodists. Mr. Hug in his analysis argues and infers the reverse. Wolf has had many followers, in this inquiry, the reasons of some of whom are in the 38th Article of the pamphlet.
{ 381 }
The last point in Wolf’s argument is the external historical testimony beginning at the earliest period. We have already considered the introduction of these books into Greece by Lycurgus. The next in the order of time is concerning the labours of Solon and the Pisistratidae for the restoration of them. Diogenes Laertius quotes from Diuchidas an account that Solon first caused the rhapsodists to sing these poems. A Greek expression follows which explains the manner and is variously translated, but the critics think in its proper connexion and place. Similar efforts for the restoration and preservation of Homer are ascribed by the grammarians to Pisistratus. A fabulous account is given by Diomedes which has since been copied by many. It states that Pisistratus, wishing to collect these verses which in his time were repeated in detached portions by the people, sent heralds over the country, proclaiming that every one who knew any of these verses should upon repeating them to him receive a certain sum of money for every verse, that in this way a large number were collected and every man was paid even when he brought verses which had been repeated before. This mass was referred to seventy grammarians, each to produce an arrangement of them; when they reported, that of Aristarchus was preferred. This is an anachronism however as Aristarchus did not live until long after. It is an absurd fable but is nevertheless adopted by Barthélemy in his Preface to Anacharsis. Cicero has attributed the arrangement of the books to Pisistratus, others to Hipparchus. Wolf with this argues that these attempts were not confined to any time, but that they were made at different periods and to a greater or less degree by various persons who might possess portions of the materials, an idea confirmed in the Scholia by the frequent mention of the arrangers as peculiar officers.
After Lecture, I returned to my room and spent the morning writing my notes. I did not read over all of Ferguson this morning as I was peculiarly employed. I attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation. He lectured in his way today upon the spots on the sun. I shall not give any account of them in this book as I have already more to do than I can well make way with. I shall therefore take the whole course in regular order from a copy which is already in the possession of some of my classmates. In the afternoon I attended recitation in Paley as usual and in the Evening, we had a common drill. The privates performed well and revived my liking to the company, which I must confess had very nearly become extinct.
After drill, I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. He went on tonight with La Fontaine. He was born in Normandy in 1621, where his father was supervisor of woods and waters. He studied Latin at Rheims and entered a religious house which he soon left however as not con• { 382 } sistent with his spirit. No symptoms of talent made their appearance in him until the age of 22. This was excited much as Corregio’s was, on seeing a painting of Raphael’s, for he having heard an ode of Malherbe’s, fancied he could also write and therefore became a poet. His character was always remarkable for a childlike simplicity. He was married by a family arrangement and was not happy until he left his wife. Some say that in Belphégor he characterized her. The Duchess de Bouillon, she who had so conspired against Racine, had sense and taste enough to discover him. He always lived with all the carelessness of his character, he was almost adopted by Madame Sabliere with whom he lived during twenty years, and was so domestic and simple an animal that she said once upon being asked who was in the house, that nobody was there except her cat, her parrot and La Fontaine. When she died, he would have been left again upon the world had he not been supported by the Duke of Burgundy and then again adopted by Madame Herval [d’Hervart], in 1694.
He did not value his own talents sufficiently, not that he was not conscious he possessed some, but from his simplicity he did not give them their due weight. He failed in his love elegies and his religious poetry, his pieces also for the Theatre all failed although there is much humour in one of them. We have his letters, his epistles in verse, ballads and the tale of Psyche, a beautiful romance drawn from the story recorded in Apuleius. But in his Tales and Fables we find him shining forth in the natural power of his character. This sort of writing indeed was peculiarly well adapted to it’s display. His fables are in twelve books, the first of which did not produce much effect. Madame de Sevigne, who is a good chronicle[r], says that they were good but some part was tiresome, the feeling soon changed however and they were pronounced delightful. In his tales he shows his talent still more by the variety and originality of his ideas but it is unfortunate that they are indecent and thus their whole effect is ruined.
Next came Pascal who was born in Auvergne in 1623. He was instructed by his father first in the languages and then in mathematics. I shall pass over the early symptoms of his genius as too numerous to mention, suffice it that he made a Geometry for himself. At 16 he wrote a treatise on Conic sections, at 19 he made a machine and at 23 he wrote a treatise on the subject of the vacuum. His physical strength could not endure it, he became fanatical and distempered in mind, he was austere in his life beyond endurance. He wore hair cloth for a shirt and a girdle of wire with points. His famous letters were written however after his derangement. These letters called Lettres Provinciales2 had a tremendous effect, were condemned by parliament and stopped by the Pope. They exhibit however every kind of eloquence. He did not finish them as he stopped in obedience to the Pope’s orders.
After Lecture I returned home and wrote my notes for last nights lecture, read Burke’s observations upon Taste3 and then retired for the night. XI.
1. A composition formed by joining scraps from other authors.
2. Les provinciales, ou les lettres écrites par Louis de Montalte à un provincial de ses amis, published in 1656.
3. JQA’s set of The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, 8 vols., London, 1792–1827, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-13

Wednesday. October 13th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning, without any thing uncommon happening. After breakfast, I attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture as usual. He closed the controversy with some remarks on the last points of it. The traditions concerning Solon at that age certainly favour Wolf’s hypothesis. They are not however directly inconsistent with the common opinion concerning the unity and authenticity of Homer. It is not at all surprising that Homer should have come down in detached portions when we consider the want of materials for the preservation of works and the practice of recitation easily accounts for the scattered state of the poems. Subsequent authors moreover, when Libraries were made for the express purpose of preserving entire books, have come down to us in a similar way. The different parts of the Testament even were collected at different places.
Another strong argument against Wolf’s theory is that no such thing has been mentioned by any ancient author whatsoever. Had it been a fact that these poems were formed by many, it would have been { 384 } recollected for many ages and certainly a sufficient number of years does not exist between Solon and the last of these poetical composers to admit of a total oblivion or account for the want of any tradition of such compilation. We must observe also that this is a question not of the fabrication of the poems at a later date, as is the case with Ossian, but merely of the writing of the poems of which an author would have been proud to declare himself the composer. Perrault, to be sure, regards the contest of the seven cities as some argument, but this is merely an inference, and it is evident that no single, abstract conception of the unity of Homer could have been formed, had many authors been known to exist and had the poems been gradually perfected according to the present argument. Finally it is worthy of remark that Wolf and his followers are not at all confident in their own assertions. These, if brought to a strict test, amount to no more than that the present form of the Iliad and Odyssey, the division into books, the insertion of some of the episodes with scattered passages and many single lines, are to be ascribed to the rhapsodists and grammarians. That they were in a simple and shorter form and that there is no absolute historical certainty about the person of Homer.
Men when in contest are very apt to go further than they intend and in this something may have escaped from some of the advocates of the theory which the [other] party do not allow. Indeed by a quotation from Wolf’s own preface in the synopsis,1 we can see that his statements go no farther. Such are the merits of the most important question in Greek literature. Those who incline to support Wolf in his theory have a great argument and much plausibility on their side. The popular doctrine rests on the consent of ages. His [Everett’s] qualified statement of the theory is one which he thinks will unite most probabilities, as by it we can believe in one sublime poet for the author, whilst we do not contradict the known laws of human and intellectual progress.
He then went on to the life of Homer and mentioned the accounts of him which have been written. One [is] ascribed to Herodotus; ancient authors mention his having written such a life but this is not probably it. It is quoted by no ancient author. There is a life of Homer ascribed to Plutarch which is quoted by Aulus Gellius. The work does not however correspond with these citations. One author has supposed Dionysius [of] Halicarnassus to be the author. There are three short lives in Greek prefixed to a work of Allatius de Patria Homeri of which two are anonymous. The first is by Proclus. But the most convenient works on his life are those of Madame Dacier and Pope prefixed to { 385 } their translations of the poems and that of Blackwall. We can only make inferences and deductions from the entire want of certain knowledge, and his omitting to mention himself in his poems, a custom which prevailed among the ancients but the reverse of which now obtains. We suppose him a native of Ionia from his geography and his hymn to Apollo which however is not correct ground. As to the time, a variety of opinion has been held. He has been placed between the sixth and tenth centuries before the Christian era. His description is minute of the siege of Troy but he says he was not near the time. Some have placed him before the return of the Heracleids (Mitford and Haller) but the Ionians did not emigrate until two generations after that.2 He has been fixed with most probability 900 years before Christ, 130 after the return of the Heracleids and 270 after the Trojan war. Herodotus agrees with this by placing him four hundred years before himself.
Lecture over, I returned home and sat myself down according to my usual way to write out my Lectures. I did not read over the Astronomy so that I did not know any thing about the recitation. It was upon the Moon today. After recitation I returned home and employed myself in a similar way. The afternoon was taken up in studying the lesson in Paley as I was confident that I should be called upon which was the case.
After Prayers we had a good Rifle drill and then attended a Lecture of Mr. Ticknors. I took very full notes of a very beautiful lecture but I shall be compelled to condense them very much. Pascal, he said, had given the direction and tone to French eloquence and had shown what it was capable of in the pulpit. Bossuet arose and carried it to it’s height. He was born in Burgundy in 1627, his education was private. He retired to Metz, was made a canon and there studied the councils, the scriptures and the fathers to prepare for those attacks upon the reformers which he commenced in 1655. The reputation which he thus acquired soon called him to Paris and in his sermons he so pleased the two Queens of England and of France that in 1661 he was called to the court, before which he delivered discourses that year and the lent of the year following. In 1669 he was made a Bishop and still remained about the Court. The next year he was appointed preceptor to the Dauphin and laid out a plan for his education in which all the learned men were to contribute. It was for him that he wrote an abridgment of history, an account of the reign of Louis 14th and a system of religious classics. It was for him also that he wrote the excellent Essay on universal history. In 1681 he was promoted to the { 386 } more valuable bishopric of Meaux. The elector of Hanover had proposed a meeting between him and a protestant which was agreed to but it had the same result with all affairs of this sort, no success. He then attacked the sect of the Quietists of whom more will be said hereafter; he was always ambitious, great and successful. He enjoyed the office of counsellor to the king which he held until his death which happened in 1704, he being 77 years old. He wrote above 100 works which fill twenty quarto volumes. Many of these are in Latin and a larger part controversial. He was a Doctor at 25 and dedicated a thesis to the Condé by which he gained his favour. We find [him] at the hotel de Rambouillet in Paris leading the wits of the day. He did not come forward in his strength however until he was forty three years old when he immediately became the head of the clergy, which he kept until he was 73. Though for the last ten years of his life he did nothing half equalling his old effort, he made important additions to his universal history. His works were almost all written to increase his power and do not for the most part come within our jurisdiction.
His Doctrine he published in 1671 as an answer to the Protestants and it may be considered the best answer which has ever been given to the reformation. The argument is logical, acute, the proportion in style is elegant and it’s compactness is perfection to it. Bonaparte, if such an authority is to be quoted on such a subject, said that but for this treatise he should have been a Protestant. His Discours sur l’histoire universel was published in 1681. It is more of a discourse indeed than an item of events, but in his sermons we find most splendid specimens of French eloquence, although not the first in the language. He here yielded the palm to Bourdaloue3 and with more effect as it was done with grace. His funeral orations however were the very greatest things which were ever delivered. He then analysed the species of writing and went on with considerable eloquence to speak of the contrast between the men and the [ . . . ] he has given. It is a duty but little proper to a Christian minister. This was certainly a beautiful specimen. He was undoubtedly the father of the Gallican church whose rights he ably defended. He was inferior to but few of his rivals; indeed Bourdaloue excelled him as they lived in the habit of writing touching Sermons.4 Not that Bossuet might not have succeeded, but that he would not. Of his great rival Bourdaloue whom Mr. Ticknor also mentioned, I cannot say any thing today but shall continue writing notes out whenever I have the leisure.
After Lecture, Chapman and one or two more of us went to Mr. Willard’s and spent a considerable quantity of time. I staid quite pleasantly and talked with him; afterwards, returned home and wrote { 387 } out my notes, a long labour when I felt very much more like sleeping. I am anxious for the time to come when I finish a drudgery of slaves.
XI.
2. CFA wrote: “. . . but the Ionians did not emigrate until after that two generations.”
3. Louis Bourdaloue (1632–1704).
4. Thus apparently in MS, but the sense is obscure and some of the words in this sentence are less than perfectly legible.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-14

Thursday. October 14th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography as usual. After breakfast went to Mr. Everett’s. He was treating today of the works of Homer. The first mentioned is a work in 305 [294] hexameter verses called Batrachomyomachia or the battle of the frogs, of which he gave an analysis. It is mentioned as his work in the Life ascribed to Herodotus. Plutarch and Henry Stephens [Stephen] ascribe it to Pigres who lived at the time of the Persian invasion. Modern critics are divided in opinion with respect to this poem, but sundry internal marks prove that this is not the work of Homer. The irony, the jests upon the Gods, the use of writing tablets and the trumpet, and a variety of circumstances go to prove that it was written in later times. These are all put down in the pamphlet.1 The poem has often been imitated, one of the most important is the Galeomyomachia [Galeomachia], a dramatic piece in Iambics written by Prodromus, a native Greek, in the 12th century.
There are many others besides. There is a translation of the battle of the frogs which is a very good specimen of modern Greek. It was first published by Crusius and is written in political verses. This is a sort of verse which was of very ancient use and has since come into fashion with a popular author who has employed [it]. It consists of seven trochaic feet and was supposed to be called political from the adaptation to poems on civil occasions. But they have been called so in distinction to ancient verses as the word can be made to mean modern. They are to be found in the ancient version of Virgil of Ogilvie [Ogilby] a specimen of which he gave us. They must be read by quantity and not by accent as is done by the modern Greeks. They are found in the ancient comedy. There are many hymns attributed to him which are popularly believed his, but there have not been wanting persons who refused to believe that any of his works have remained except the Iliad and Odyssey. The hymns of Homer are now generally ascribed to the Homerides, men who followed him and who by their imitation of him obtained that name. An analysis of them will show { 388 } that they are neither the production of one age nor of one author. He accordingly entered into an analysis of the different hymns to Apollo Mercury, Venus and Ceres. It would take by far more time and space than is necessary to give it at length, particularly when it is contained in the pamphlet to which I have already often alluded.
The fragments of Homer consist of sixteen epigrams and some quotations from ancient poems ascribed to Homer such as the Margites, Cypria, the lesser Iliad, all which however amount only to seventy lines and are consequently very insignificant. He then concluded with mentioning a few authors who might be valuable to consult upon the subject.
After Lecture as we had nothing more to do for the rest of the day, I determined to go to Boston, and accordingly rode in with Chapman. We went round to Roxbury and I met with an accident in driving. I pique myself a little on driving and wish to improve so that I was sorry for the accident. It was very trifling but nevertheless I thought it ought not to have happened. Arrived, I went immediately to my brother’s room where I did not find him, and as I supposed he had gone for the morning, I went upon the common to see the review. Met Lothrop and Pratt and Stackpole there with whom I had some conversation. Returning to George’s room, I found he had been and gone, for he went off to Quincy with Mrs. Bailey2 so that I should not see him until night. I remained and dined with the family at Dr. Welsh’s, after which I went to see Mrs. De Wint3 who was at Col. Pickman’s.4 She has just come on and looks quite well I think. It is sometime since I have seen her, but it is of not much importance how long, for it is mere formal civility between relations. The Colonel was quite polite, he has rather a pretty house than otherwise. At least it looks comfortable; he is unfortunate in his marriage however as I suppose he wishes descendants.
I remained here a little while only and then went to see the review of the remaining regiments. I wished to see them go through the drill for Light Infantry but they did very little of it. I then tried to find Chapman to tell him that I should not go out to Cambridge tonight as I thought it was too much to come in again to find George, the expense attending such another visit being considerable. I spent the rest of the afternoon in his room reading Madame de la Roche Jaqueline’s account of the War of La Vendée.5 It is an interesting and a curious history as it gives an account of a state of society, which if to be relied on as true, must have been extremely pleasant, and certainly for this part of France, the revolution could not have been a desirable or even an equally pleasant situation.
{ 389 }
I accomplished a good deal while here but as I thought that I did not go away from Cambridge to read, I might as well after tea attend the play. George came in and after our meal drove me down to the theatre. The play tonight was Tom and Jerry, a farce which has had a most amazing run, and I have always been surprised at not having seen it before. It has had success merely from it’s being a slightly exaggerated specimen of dissipated life. The events follow each other so rapidly and there is so much show and glitter that it seizes with the common people. The scenes in low life also come nearer to the ideas of the generality of the world than the stiff laboured forms of tragedy or the light wit of polished comedy. I think however that it holds out evil in most attractive colours as it shows a parcel of dashing young blades running their course of dissipation and ruining themselves, or at least doing their best for it, but being saved only by a turn in the plot, which will scarcely fall to the chance of any unlucky wight6 who might feel emulous of their great deeds. I was highly diverted however and heard it through with pleasure. The afterpiece was called the “falls of Clyde”7 and was one of the sentimental cast, of which I am not extremely fond. Mrs. Henry looked as beautiful as ever. I met then my classmates Cunningham and Fay, the first time I ever met either of them here. I retired very well satisfied as Mr. Finn8 was again upon the boards; he is undoubtedly the best actor here.
I returned to my brother’s. I know not how it is but I like him very much less than I used to. He has got into the world and is thinking upon entirely different concerns, his tastes are entirely different, and we have but few common topics of conversation. John is and always has been more to my taste, and although I suppose time will make changes in him also, yet they are not of such a nature. His temper hitherto has suited me better. I sat up with George sometime talking upon different subjects and without much interest. My day’s excursion had been very considerable, and I felt fatigued and on some accounts low spirited. These I shall mention tomorrow. It is a singular thing that I of all persons, who dislike most troubles and embarassments of a certain kind, should always be so unfortunate as to fall into them. George was not amusing so that I was sleepy soon and retired. XI:30.
1. Everett, Synopsis, p. 48–49.
2. Mrs. Jeremiah Bailey, of Wiscasset, the former Charlotte Welsh, daughter of Dr. Thomas Welsh. See Adams Genealogy.
3. Mrs. John Peter de Windt (1795–1852), the former Caroline Amelia Smith, a niece of JQA. See Adams Genealogy.
4. Benjamin T. Pickman, a Boston merchant (JQA, Memoirs, 9:163).
5. Mémoires de Madame la Marquise de Larochejacquelein, Paris, 1815.
6. A human being, man or woman (often implying contempt or commiseration) (OED).
7. An English melodrama by George Soane.
{ 390 }
8. Henry James Finn (1785–1840), an English actor, who later managed the Federal Street theater in Boston (Hornblow, Theater, 1:292–293).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-15

Friday. October 15th. VII:20.

Arose and dressed myself, my brother according to his usual custom having arisen much earlier—his custom of late I mean. I breakfasted and during the morning read much farther in the Memoirs I took up yesterday but I did not have time to finish them. I applied for my money to George, according to arrangement, but I found the bank rather deficient, a curse which I have so often felt and which I had congratulated myself was not to happen again. This was the occasion of the trouble yesterday. I received a sufficient sum however to clear me at Cambridge for the next three months as to debts although I shall be compelled to resort to the old mode of getting myself along. I then took a walk about town and at twelve went to Cambridge in the Stage. I dined in a hurry and at one went out to practice the rifle exercise which we performed quite well today. I then went to Declamation which was not remarkable today and employed the rest of my afternoon in writing my Journal which by my one day’s absence had fallen behind hand. It is now a much more serious matter than ever to miss a day although it has always been sufficiently difficult to make it up. I was constant to it all the afternoon.
In the Evening after Prayers we had a regular drill and were more of soldiers than ever. Indeed we were much delighted with the conduct of the company tonight and felt exactly as we wished to with respect to the men under our command.
After drill although somewhat fatigued at this double exercise, I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. I shall however fill up what I left [out] in the last lecture which I attended. Bourdaloue the unattained model of the pulpit eloquence of France was born in 1632 and educated a Jesuit. That body always knew how to cultivate the talent which would most promote them, so that they soon called him to Paris which happened in 1669, and in 1671 at the age of 38 he had no rival, which continued until his death in 1704. He was during this time the most popular and successful preacher in France. His works are in 16 volumes octavo, all sermons. There is in them greater conciseness, greater persuasion and more sincerity than in those of Bossuet. His logic is compact and his strength irresistible. He is perhaps less touching than Massillon1 but it is natural that force of character should spring up before tenderness and the assertion has been justified by the experience of all ages. Without great exertions he has equalled Bossuet and checked [him].
{ 391 }
Fenelon might have been his rival had he not been above ambition. This man from his genius, his labours and talents was entitled to be called the champion of the Church, but he had not the desire. He was born in the South West of France in 1651 and educated at home, from whence he was sent to College where he was distinguished. Indeed at 15 he preached. At one time he determined to be a missionary and move to the settlements in Canada but his family diverted him from it. At 24 he conceived the project of a mission to Greece and wrote a letter to that effect which fully discloses his enthusiasm. At 27 he was made superior of the new Catholics [ . . . ] he governed with success for 10 years. He was then sent on a mission to Poictou to quell an insurrection of the Protestants. He only agreed with the king that force should not be used and he was successful. The deep feeling in that part of France which showed itself in the revolution may fairly therefore be attributed to him. In 1689 he was made preceptor to the Duke of Burgundy. But he had been successful too long, intrigue arose and oppressed him. He was too powerful for the favourites of the court although he never used his strength, and they made a handle of his intimacy with Madame Guyon2 who was at the head of the quietists in France. In 1695 however he was made Archbishop of Cambray which placed him at the height of power. Bossuet attacked him and influenced the king who caused the Pope to condemn Fenelon’s answer and finally he was exiled to his Archbishopric. His Telemaque completed the King’s anger and he caused the man’s name to be erased from the list of his household. Fenelon endured it all with most perfect patience; he retired to Cambray where he remained for the rest of his life. He obeyed with most perfect submission the orders of the Pope and read from his own pulpit the condemnation of his book. This is the “Maximes des Saints.”
I have got thus far and have only finished the preceding lecture so that I shall only be able to give that today, reserving the remainder for tomorrow and Sunday, in which days I have no observations to make in addition. I wrote until I was half asleep, after I returned, when I thought it best at once to retire. XI.
1. Jean Baptiste Massillon (1663–1742), bishop of Clermont.
2. Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte-Guyon (1648–1717).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-16

Saturday. October 16th. VIII.

Missed Prayers this morning without my intending it in the least. After breakfast attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture. I regret that I was absent yesterday morning as I had wished to keep the course of all { 392 } his, although many of them and that one of yesterday in particular, are not of a particularly interesting nature. He went over all the scholiasts of Homer today—the most considerable are Didymus a grammarian of the Age of Cicero who is supposed the author of all the smaller scholia in the Oxford editions of the work. Some however of these mention authors who existed later than the age of this Didymus of whom we speak. The commentary of Eustathius is much more distinguished; he was a native of Constantinople and educated there in the twelfth century. A catalogue has been made of 45 pages of authors whom he had read and quoted but his erudition has been exaggerated. He read no ancient author of any note who is now lost. Owing to the scarcity of books in the middle ages, it was the habit to comprehend as much as possible in a single volume and hence the most famous codices of Homer include the scholia in the way of marginal notes. But there appears to have been no original criticism from the time of Porphyry to Eustathius, as all these scholia except the Venetian appear to have descended from a common stock. These Venetian are the most famous, they are valuable for their appeals to old authors, to old political manuscripts and to ancient scholiasts not known to us. The origin of it is not known. This was the work which gave the impulse to the study of Homer at it’s publication by Villoison. The Göttingen Journal has given an analysis of all the scholiasts we now have. These are held in too great veneration at the present day and indifferent books have obtained under the name of scholia much respect.
Translations of the poems of Homer have been made in almost every language, many and the most important are mentioned at full length in the synopsis. The origin of the prose Latin translation attending most of the copies of Homer is not distinctly known but it has been supposed to have been generally made by Schrevelius.1 The best translations into English are those of Pope and Cowper. Cesarotti’s, in the Italian, who has very much changed the poem. He has omitted the repetitions, shortened the prolix speeches of Nestor and cut off the episodes, he has even altered the name of the poem. The German by Voss2 is an imitation of the ancient hexameter. He then went over a list of the principal copies of Homer, and as it was very little more than a mere enumeration of the copies which are put down in the synopsis, I scarcely think it worthwhile to repeat it. He only stated that Heyne’s copy was indispensable to a student of Homer. He made rather a sarcastic observation when speaking of Clarke’s3 edition. He observed that we probably were personally acquainted with it. { 393 } It has a Latin version which has probably been consulted by every man in the class. He has thus finished with Homer. I am surprised that he confines himself so much to dry detail as I think from the very nature of the subject he should attempt to give ornament, and particularly where it could be given to so much advantage. He has all the display of his learning but he must be confessed to partake of the German character he mentioned.
After lecture I went to read the newspapers, found nothing but a nomination of Professor Everett to Congress and a letter of his which appears to me to be as great a curiosity as I have ever seen.4 The election is at a dead stand, I think as every body seems to believe, exertions are useless, it will go to the House without any doubt in my opinion. I received this morning a delightful letter from John,5 long enough to make up for the deficiency. He writes much more agreably than usual, as he has less levity and seriousness, although it does not amount to morality of the rigid sort or to sentiment. He mentions every thing that is passing, and what is very pleasant, my mother’s safe arrival at Washington after very considerable fatigue. This raised my spirits which once inclined to be quite low and I felt well all day. I was employed a larger part of the time in writing off my Journal and the rest in company with Richardson.
I will now take Mr. Ticknor’s last night lecture. He passed through the remainder of Fenelon and Crebillon6 last night and commenced tonight the series of French Comedy since Moliere. Comedy he says dates from the time of Corneille’s Lyar7 1643. Moliere came on soon after and brought it to perfection for a long series of years. The comic writers were mere imitators of Moliere without any originality or pretence to new qualities, with the exception of a little lively sprightliness. The first man who can be said to have differed materially was John Francis Regnard8 who was born in 1656 and received a good education. Travelling and gaming appear to have been the great objects of his life. In the course of his various voyages, he once met with a misfortune. He was taken by Pirates and carried to Algiers where he was sold for a slave. Being an epicure however he was soon promoted to the place of his master’s cook. From here he was carried to Constantinople where he came very near losing his life for an affair in the haram of his master. He got his liberty in time however and returning wrote a romance called the Provinciales [La Provençale]. In 1681 he again left Paris on an expedition to Lapland, and after going farther than any countrymen had before gone, he left a boasting latin inscription upon the rock. He wrote eight pieces { 394 } for the Italian and a number for the French and died in 1710 in a singular way, recorded in his life prefixed to his works. Eight comedies are entirely his own, others he wrote with [other?] men. Le Joueur appeared in 1696 and is his best effort; it is drawn from the best rule, personal experience. He then analysed the plot. Le Distrait, and les Menechmes appeared; these were neither of them very remarkable but the Legataire Universel appeared last in 1705. The whole plot turns on the fourth act; the abstract of it gives us little of peculiar talent but there is a gay spirit, a liveliness and ease of tone which equals or even surpasses Moliere. These are his distinguishing characteristics. He is the only considerable variety from the school of Moliere for one century.
The next change introduced was that of the “Comedie Larmoyante,” or as it should be interpreted, the whining Comedy. This was made by Monsieur de la Chaussé.9 He was born in 1692 but did not write until he was forty one. He was the author of “la fausse antipathie” and the “Prejuge’s a la mode,” the first a poor play, the second not much. The “Gouvernante” appeared in 1747. This is called his best play. It is a sort of dramatic romance and nothing more, an extreme. He died in 1754, 62 years old. Denys Diderot who carried this to its extreme, was the son of a cutler, he is more famous for other works than for his plays. He is the author of the Pere de Famille and Fils naturel, sentimental to excess, consequently improbable, but perfect in what they set out to be. This closes Comedy, none of importance after this and no tragedy excepting Voltaire. This is the order of the light drama school of Moliere, Regnard and Comedie Larmoyante.
I wrote to John10 this Evening, and spent some time sociably with Sheafe and Richardson in the latter’s room. We also took supper at Willard’s. XII.
1. Kornelis Schrevel Schrevelius (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:492).
2. Johann Heinrich Voss (1751–1826), professor at Heidelberg (same, 3:61–63).
3. Dr. Samuel Clarke (1675–1729), of Cambridge University (same, 2:413, 3:13).
4. Dissatisfied with the regular congressional nomination in the Middlesex district, a group of JQA’s supporters met in Lexington on October 14 and, influenced partly by the fame of Everett’s recent Phi Beta Kappa address and partly by his well known friendship for the Adams family, nominated the Harvard professor. In accepting, Everett said he personally favored JQA for the Presidency but expressed the hope that his congressional contest would not turn upon the presidential question. See Frothingham, Everett, p. 87. How little Everett’s wishes were to be respected is indicated by the ease with which CFA jumped in the very next sentence to the presidential race.
5. Missing.
6. Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon (1674–1762).
{ 395 }
7. The Liar or Le Menteur.
8. Jean François Regnard (1655–1709).
9. Pierre Claude Nivelle de la Chaussée.
10. Letter missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-17

Sunday. October 17th. VIII.

Missed Prayers, and as I did not feel exceedingly well, I thought it would be some relief to me to remain at home all day. I would not attend Chapel. I was very lazy part of the day, writing my Journal and closing a letter to John. I think one of the greatest signs of my improvement the past year is my facility of writing. I formerly thought a letter could hardly be three pages long without requiring an exertion but now I can scarcely compress what I have to say in four. I have no time to devote at present to correction and am afraid to read over what I write so that my letters depart with all their faults and imperfections upon them. I wasted the afternoon, for finding my letters growing so upon me, and not considering them of much value at least any early ones, I determined upon reading over my old files from my young friends five or six years since and casting them into the flames. They called up many recollections and I felt as if I was parting with my oldest and most sincere friends. I could scarcely think of any thing but the repeated assurances of affection which came from Dawes; they appeared so natural. I am marking out for myself a course in which I lose all the friendship which so pleases and enlivens life. It is the most heartless thing in the world. My nature too is social to an extreme and it is doing strong violence to it. Ambition, pride and all my other feelings contribute however to excite me.
I was all the afternoon working thus and in the evening after a visit to Sheafe, I sat down and read Burke’s inquiry into the origin of the sublime and beautiful. It is strictly philosophical light reading. I cannot help being amused with it so much that I read it superficially. Some observations I am not entirely inclined to agree to, such as that smoothness is an essential to beauty. Smooth things are beautiful but some rough things are so also. I progressed very rapidly in it and had more of an evening’s reading than at any time since the commencement of the term. I finished the night with reading Dyer’s Grongar Hill again which I find to be a prettier thing than at first I supposed it. I also read the First book of Beattie’s Minstrel, as sweet a thing as I wish to see. There does not appear to be much plan in the poem as it was left, but the melody of the verses is remarkable and the sentiments are some of them very much in consonance with my own. I then retired. XI:30.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-18

Monday. October 18th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning to Mr. Hayward with usual success. After breakfast attended a lecture from Professor Everett. He began this morning with Hesiod and his lecture was of a sort rather more amusing. The works which remain to us under the name of Hesiod have not received the notice which they merit and which they held in antiquity. Velleius Paterculus in a passage quoted in the pamphlet gives him high praise,1 which Wolf in modern times has repeated. The same question with that concerning Homer may be agitated here, and is only less interesting, as the shortness of the poems is an answer to many arguments which apply to Homer and makes it less worthwhile to contest. Much doubt has existed as to the real time of Hesiod; he has been placed before, contemporary with and after Homer. An argument is drawn from some lines of his concerning the rising of Arcturus which it was supposed might be calculated so as to fix his time. This was attempted by Longomontanus, Kepler, Riccioli and Sir Isaac Newton. The first made the calculation and supposed, to make up for a difficulty as he brought this much earlier, that Hesiod did not speak of it as it was in his own day but 270 years previous. Sir Isaac Newton came to a very different result. On the whole nothing can be made of it. The reasons why are to be found at length in the pamphlet.2 But little is known of his life and that is collected from his own works. He mentions a poetical contest at the funeral of Amphidamas, king of Euboea in which he obtained a prize. From this, arose the fabulous story of his victory over Homer. Origin of this may be traced in some grammarian who supposed that as Hesiod lived at the time of Homer, this last must have been his rival, and that at the contest the decision was made unjustly in favour of the former. The accounts of the death of Hesiod are equally fabulous.
Hesiod is to be considered as the head of an ancient Boeotian school of Poetry in the same way that Homer is head of the Ionic. There appears to have been a remarkable contrast between the early and late character of this part of Greece. Hesiod and Pindar are not by any means men by whom we are to judge that a country is stupid. The fact is that the proverbial character of stupidity did not attach itself to the inhabitants of Boeotia until after the time of the Persian invasion and it was probably in consequence of their conduct in it that they received the epithets which have ever since stuck to them.
The works of Hesiod have a twofold character; they are partly didactic and partly mythological and epic. This may probably arise { 397 } | view from his poems being compilations or from his versatility. His works and days is very unequal in beauty, it has some fine passages and is remarkable for having relics of a mythology still more ancient and more romantic to use the modern word than the one usually known to us. His next poem is the Theogony. It is of an entirely different character from the Works and days. It treats of the creation of the world. It is valuable as a treatise displaying the old opinions but it gives no mythology. It is probable that these works were formed into their present state in the age of Pisistratus by the Διασκευασται3 whose business I have before related. This is most likely the case with all the present works of this bard. Some passages in this last work are fine.
After Lecture, I returned home and was quietly sitting at my Journal when I was surprised by a visit from a new classmate of mine, Mr. Prescott.4 I used to know him pretty well in my dissipated days, but I had left off his acquaintance and was not inclined to renew it upon visiting terms. He indeed did not intend a visit to me as he mistook my room for Otis’s. His character for years has been very bad, he has indulged in all the wildest excesses and has hardly given it up now. He and Hunt and Loundes make a set of curiosities. His visit was pretty long and he was guarded in his conversation, which however is moderately agreable. I went to recitation in Astronomy as usual.
In the afternoon, owing to a large dinner, I could not study at all and went to recitation quite unprepared. Mr. Hedge came upon our side, surprised us and called upon me, but fortunately it was in the review so that I managed to pass off. We drilled as usual and did very well after which I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. He went over many of the inferior branches of French poetry. Two more important forms of the French drama appeared—the serious opera first introduced by Corneille in 1650 which is an exotic from Italy where the love of music had prevailed over the drama. It is a sort which does not succeed much in France. The French opera is proverbial for it’s magnificence and it’s wretched singing—the comic opera has been more successful. This also arose in 1650. No considerable author can be mentioned however who has not succeeded better in the other branches of literature. In Lyrical Poetry there has been but little success. The French seem to have failed in this branch almost entirely. There is but one exception. There is very little of the lyrical character in Malherbe, more of it in the choruses to Athalie and Esther, the place perhaps where we should not wish to find it.
The only instance where we find regular lyrical poetry is in J. B. Rousseau5 who was born in 1669. His father was a shoemaker but { 398 } gave him a good education. He published a book at 20 and was so entirely given up to his literary pursuits that he refused a place of very considerable profit from the government because he thought it would interrupt them. A satirical piece of poetry appeared of little merit which he was charged with and, in consequence of which, a prosecution was entered against him which was decided unfavourably in 1712. He was exiled but received very friendly treatment wherever he went. He became melancholy however, refused all compromise in a noble answer which was given to us. As to the charge, we have not much right to doubt his innocence. He died in exile in 1741. His plays are bad, his epigrams are pretty good, his epistles are inferior to Boileau’s, but his character rests upon his lyrical works. His cantata, a new species of verse introduced by Rousseau, he does not like. The mixture of mythology in them makes them cold and stiff. The Odes are very good. The first book is a bold paraphrase of the psalms of David, the second of them is the best specimen but they are not equal to the English on the same subject. The second book consists of moral odes. There is not much poetry in it, but his character rests chiefly on the third book. These odes were mentioned and severely criticized. Mr. Ticknor evidently did not like the man’s poems.
We pass from here to fiction, and at this place Mr. Ticknor gave us a history of the rise and progress of romantic fiction. It’s common stock, the story tellers, the ballads, chivalrous romances, historical romances which are the different steps in the progress. Madame de la Fayette6 was the person in France first to touch upon the more natural feelings of the heart. She was born in 1633, lived a wit of the hotel de Rambouillet and [was] a woman of powerful influence as well as an authoress. She died in 1693 having produced many works of which Zaide [Zayde] in 1670 and the Princesse de Cleves in 1677.7 These he analysed. They are old fashioned romances.
I returned home, finished Burke’s treatise, which however I should like to read again, read the second part of Beattie’s Minstrel and spent the remainder of the Evening in Otis’s room, chatting and drinking Porter until quite late in the night. XI:35.
1. See Everett’s Synopsis, p. 62.
2. Actually, according to Professor Everett’s account in his Synopsis, p. 63-64, the age of Hesiod might be computed within 70 years because of the rising of Arcturus.
3. Literally “arrangers,” meaning revisors or editors.
4. Edward Goldsborough Prescott, of Boston (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).
5. Jean Baptiste Rousseau (1669–1741).
6. Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, Comtesse de la Fayette (1634–1692), whose novel, La Princesse de Clèves, was published in 1678.
7. Sentence defective.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-19

Tuesday. October 19th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. Our lessons are very much easier than they were a little while since. But it makes exceeding little difference to me. Mr. Everett went on with Hesiod today. The third work he said was the Shield of Hercules. This has been generally considered spurious or as a portion of some larger work of Hesiod relating to the ancient heroines of fabulous ages. This portion however is no work on the praises of heroines for it entirely refers to the armor of Hercules, excepting in the fifty six first lines which gives rise to an hypothesis first started by Heinrich1 which is very probable. It is that these lines which refer to Alcmene, the mother of Hercules, really did belong to a large work on the subject of heroines by Hesiod, and were afterwards prefixed to an account of the hero which was made by some other person, probably a Theban celebrating his divinity, as was their custom. Two scholia moreover speak of this as a fragment of this work. The catalogue of heroines. The work is simple, but still has a more artificial manner of composition than the other productions. It has supplied some imagery to Milton.
Here Mr. Everett entered into a discussion concerning genius, merely as connected with this observation, saying that Milton was not affected at all by having read so much, in his own original poems. That genius did not [ . . . ] at all in any peculiar form. Some had thought it was crushed by learning but the fact is it will rise above every situation. He then gave instances of men in every situation and with every degree of learning illustrating this position. Only about two hundred lines remain of the rest of the books ascribed to Hesiod and these are of little importance. The editions are put down. The principal scholia are those of Proclus, a few remain of Didymus, many other anonymous ones. The edition of Robinson2 contains the argument concerning the rising of Arcturus. It has been translated three times into English, once by Chapman in 16183 a faithful and vigorously executed work, and although with the quaintness of the age, it has some purity. The next is by Cook in 1728 which is a heavy performance in rhyme, that by Elton in blank verse is an exceedingly well performed work. There is a very good preliminary dissertation upon the subject of his life and works in this edition and it may be considered a specimen of excellent criticism. The names of the rest of the works ascribed to Hesiod are set down in the pamphlet. The works of Hesiod have not yet received from the learned the attention they merit and there is yet no thoroughly good edition of them. He then went on to speak of the Cyclic poets, the age they flourished in, and { 400 } the reasons why they received this name. He said nothing however in today’s lecture concerning them which was not in the synopsis and consequently it is not worth while to copy it.
I returned home and was employed all the morning writing. I attended recitation in Astronomy. Mr. Farrar detained us much longer than usual in a dissertation of some length upon Comets, their appearance, and the theories respecting their course. As I have not taken notice of his course here,4 I shall not say any thing of this except that we were rather fatigued. After dinner I attempted to study my lesson but found myself entirely unable to do so. I was so exceedingly sleepy that I was obliged to indulge and sleep away part of the afternoon. This I could do with more safety as Mr. Hedge unquestionably would not call upon me and I felt little interest in the particular subject on which the lessons this week treat. After Prayers we had an exceeding good drill although our captain now and then makes himself too great a man. Weakness is inherent in man and every step I take makes me believe it more closely. Fancy makes fools of us all and gives us all the little pleasure we have in the world, for reality would cause nothing but wretchedness.
I spent a few moments at Chapman’s and then attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. I mentioned in my last notes that he had passed over Madame La Fayette but I regret very much I was not able to write more at length. A Lady at that time did not dare to put her name to a work so that Segray’s [Segrais’] was attached to her’s, but there is no doubt that they belong to her. This anecdote is all I can add. This evening he continued his account of serious prose fiction. The next fashion, he said, were imitations of Richardson who had by this time become known. Then we may merely mention the coarse pictures of Rabelais and Scarron5 and pass on directly to Le Sage6 who was born in 1688. He took to reading Spanish and from thence his character was formed. He first was a mere imitator but his talent would not allow him to remain long in this humble sphere. He extracted the subjects of his best stories from Spain and Spanish character but the description is all his own. In 1707 he produced his Diable boiteux, here a short abstract was made of it. He in this novel, under Spanish costume, takes off many of the reigning characters of the day at Paris. The coquet is Ninon de L’enclos, Baron stands for another &c. Of his Guzman d’Alfarache which is a translation from the Spanish and the Bacheler de Salamanque, he would say but little as he wished to come directly to Gil Bias which first appeared in 1717. He then commenced a regular critique of this work. It wanted unity entirely, he said. Take the mere story: it is { 401 } an account of the adventures of a rogue who by any means which come in his way, manages to rise from the lowest to the highest order of society. Take it in this way and it would be hard to find any one who would read it. But with all the variety, the delineation of character, and the power of generalization which it possesses, it certainly lays claim to be the very first in its kind. The Spaniards have laid claim to this novel and bring forward a work which they assert to have been the original one but there is sufficient internal evidence from the characters of the men in the book and the knowledge of the country that a foreigner wrote it. There are two or three very great geographical errors. There was no successful attempt after this. Crebillon the younger tried and produced a bad imitation of Fielding.
He returned again to Eloquence, and made some remarks upon the reasons why only certain sorts of eloquence flourished in France formerly, which were sufficiently Commonplace. Suffice it that pulpit eloquence and that courtly [word omitted?] was the form in which it appeared. J. B. Massillon was born in 1663 and appeared the year that Bossuet and Bourdaloue died. He gained great reputation but was not promoted during the life of Louis 14th. He afterwards obtained the bishopric of Clermont. His sermons amount to more than a hundred and are divided into panegyrics on the saints, conferences or instructions to young clergymen and the “petit careme.”7 Two or three beautiful quotations he gave us. He has not so much power perhaps as Bossuet, nor so much cogent, philosophical eloquence as Bourdaloue but in sweetness, gracefulness, dignified excellence, he has no superior. As a suite of sermons, those of the petit careme, in number eleven, are the best he has left us. There is more art to be found in the formation of his works than had been usual, and more attention to the mechanical arrangement in order to produce effect. He died in 1742 at his see, out of debt as a clergyman should. After Lecture I returned home, read a little of Akenside which did not much please me, a chapter of Campbell’s Rhetoric8 and retired. XI:15.
1. Karl Friedrich Heinrich (1744–1838), professor at Kiel and, later, at Bonn (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 3:109).
2. Thomas Robinson, Oxford 1737 (same, 2:479).
3. Presumably George Chapman (c. 1559–1634), the English scholar (same, 2:241).
4. CFA wrote up Professor Farrar’s lectures in a separate notebook (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314).
5. Paul Scarron (1610–1660).
6. Alain-René Le Sage (1668–1747).
7. The little Lent sermon.
8. George Campbell, The Philosophy of Rhetoric, 2 vols., London, 1776.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-20

Wednesday. October 20th. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning as usual. Mr. Hey• { 402 } ward being extremely complaisant, I was free with a remarkably easy passage. Mr. Everett lectured as usual. He continued his notice of the Cyclic Poets. He also discussed the origin of the term, which however is entire in the pamphlet.1 His result was that they obtained their name only from the choice of the subjects of which they treated. They are generally dull and servile poets which explains a passage quoted from Horace. They were imitators of Homer but it is extremely probable that these were the sources from which the works of Homer and Hesiod were interpolated. It is doubtful whether many of these poems survived long in Greece. The fragments were collected and made models for imitation by the Alexandrian School who then put them forth as the true original poems. Some of these still exist. One by Quintus Calaber, hereafter to be mentioned, who flourished in the sixth century and wrote a poem in imitation of the lesser Iliad of Lesches. One of Tzetzes is still inferior, a writer “who lived” says Heyne “I will not say flourished.” These ancient poems are principally interesting to us in connexion with the Aeneid of Virgil who drew many things from other sources than Homer and probably differed from him. Macrobius asserts that he borrowed from Pisander which is not true and proved so by Heyne. Two poems are the principal guides of Virgil when he departs from Homer, the Lesser Iliad of Lesches and the sack of Troy by Arctinus the Milesian. The first is ascribed to Homer himself in the life attributed to Herodotus. Lesches is however generally reputed the author. Nothing is known of him but that he was a native of Smyrna. We hear of his poem from the mention made of it by the ancient authors who have come down to us. From Aristotle, who gives its argument. It is remarkable that it has given eight subjects to the Attic stage while the greater work has given but two. We know something of it from the Iliac table, a curious relic, the object of which seemed to be a sort of synopsis for schools as it contains the subjects of the poems both of Homer and the lesser poets, roughly sketched, also the names of the authors &c. He showed us an engraving of this Iliac table, which is preserved in the capitol of Rome, after lecture was over.
The other poem is the sack of Troy by Arctinus the Milesian, which we hear of through Proclus who is [the] great authority for the other poem also. The Iliac table contains another work of this author, but not this, although it probably furnishes some materials for it. Of this class of poets Heyne makes two observations. It is to be wished that some person should make an accurate treatise upon them, should compare and collect the fragments. In this way he would do the { 403 } greatest service as he would illustrate the classics which is all the object we have in view to know them. It is also to be observed and to be regretted that the greatest sacrifices in Greek literature have been made in times when there were abundant means to preserve them.
After lecture I went to the reading room and saw nothing but electioneering manoeuvres which now fill the papers. I soon returned to my room and spent my morning writing notes. Attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation and lecture which was a continuation of his observations upon comets. In the afternoon, I was again extremely negligent in my lesson. Mr. Hedge came upon our side in the review and put me in a fright for a little while. I escaped however. We had no drill after Prayers as usual, the Juniors being in somewhat of a complaining humour and the weather being bad.
In the Evening I wrote my Journal and attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture which was quite a pleasant one to me as I was enabled to judge of the works he talked of. The next branch which he should take up he said was that of Epistolary composition. The person who most distinguished herself here was Madame de Sevigne who was born in 1626, and being an Orphan, was educated by her Uncle. In her youth she was not handsome but striking, and although receiving the usual instruction of that period, it was very deficient, and probably contributed to her success by throwing her upon her own exertions. She was married at 18, and a widow at 25, and spent the remainder of her life in attention upon her son and daughter, more particularly the latter, whom she perfectly doted upon, and whom she watched with so much attention in a sickness as to injure her own health, in consequence of which she died in 1696 being 70 years old. To prove how great her purity was, no scandal which was so common with the characters of that age, has ever attached to that name. She was neither a “prude” in early years nor a “devote” in her age. Her letters to her daughter are the only productions we have of her and are models. The loss of them would not only have made a chasm in the literature of France but in that of the world. Her grace and imagination, the confidence of her sympathy, the pictures of the society of that age render her letters brilliant, faithful and interesting. She gives an admirable view of the illustrious days of Louis 14th. There is a vivacity of manner and happiness of detail which can be found nowhere else. But her last and prevailing merit is her affection for her daughter which gives her letters the appearance of a whole—an inspiration which imparted it’s power to whatever it touched.
{ 404 }
After her there were a diversity of authors. Madame de Maintenon wrote and she is perhaps the best of the series. Correspondence degenerated a little too much into scandal, and although all the works in this way are amusing, they are merely a reflection, although a correct reflection of the manners of the court, and therefore they finally become tiresome. Among these may be counted Madame Deffand, Madame Espinasse,2 Voltaire, and many others. The next branch which he takes up is that of History which the French have never been successful in, at least in formal history; they are generally long and dull. Mezeray, Father Daneil, St. Real and Vertot3 have all written but not remarkably well. In a branch of history however, Memoirs, they have been exceedingly successful and they have written much. He mentioned Sully in his first lecture which I did not hear; he tonight treated of Cardinal de Retz. He wrote Memoirs in four volumes. Few books of a more amazing character have existed, they display at length the intrigues of the French and are most remarkable for their exhibition of personal vanity. This man was born for intrigue but his indolence deterred him from gaining any thing by it. His life is a continued example of the deepest intrigue without any result of importance. The mountain was perpetually bringing forth a mouse. His book is entertaining as a perfectly measured display of himself and his times. He here shifts away with a mere mention of the rest of this branch as a very large collection.
He next came to Rochefoucauld who was born in 1613 and whose education was neglected, which made him think probably, and the author of a book whimsical, original and false. In his Maxims he thought selfishness the only motive of action. He was a man who did not believe in the existence of virtues and with these opinions it is not surprising that he should die little regretted except by his immediate circle of friends. Of La Bruyere I shall speak tomorrow. I returned home, wrote a theme, sat a little while with Richardson and then went to bed. XI.
1. See Everett’s Synopsis, p. 72–74.
2. Marie de Vichy-Chamroud, Marquise du Deffand (1697–1780), and Julie-Jeanne-Éléanore de Lespinasse (1732–1776).
3. François Endes de Mézeray (1610–1683), Gabriel Daniel (1649–1728), César Saint-Réal (1639–1692), and René Aubert Vertot (1655–1735).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-21

Thursday. October 21st. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography this morning and after breakfast went to Lecture. He began today with a period of far greater certainty as to the persons and productions of the ancient { 405 } Greek authors. Probably arising from the introduction of writing. His lectures assume more interest also. Few remains exist of the class of lyrical poets who carried their art to such perfection and effected the change from the epic to the classical age of Greece. Archilochus is the first of those poets. He was a native of Paros and supposed to be the author of the Iambic verse. Little is known with respect to the events of his life. He speaks of himself as having thrown away his shield in battle, when he was serving the Thasians [Thracians], for which afterwards it is said he was expelled from Lacedaemon. Others say that it was for his verses which he first produced upon the violation of a treaty of marriage with Neobyle [Neobulé] by her father Lycambes. Archilochus as the fable tells, forced all the family to suicide. Horace who imitated his verses as well as his cowardice, speaks of him in allusion to this. He obtained such a reputation by these verses, that he extended his satire and did not even spare his mother. He lost all his friends in consequence and became poor. He wandered about and finally died but in what manner is uncertain, although many anecdotes are told of it. His poetry was held in high repute, many authors quoted in the pamphlet give him great praise. His name became a proverb as every thing that was severe. Annio in the middle of the 15th century forged works of Archilochus the historian which never existed.
The next poet we come to is Tyrtaeus. There is much diversity of opinion as to the time when he lived, probably about the 24th Olympiad. The principal events in his history are well known, at least as they have been handed down to us. Nothing can be certainly said as to the motive Tyrtaeus had in going to Sparta. Did we know more of the private history of the time, the reasons which influenced the [work?] in it’s singular decision, we might probably find this account perfectly agreable to natural and historical probability. It is by no means inconsistent with nature that he was at Sparta in the time of the Messenian War and that he excited the citizens powerfully by his odes. Martial music and warlike songs were of great importance in ancient times and it is the common opinion that the warlike elegies of Tyrtaeus were chanted as the songs of onset, immediately previous to joining battle. There is an interesting dissertation upon the subject in a late edition by Klotzius.1 He was said to have been the inventor of the trumpet by the use of which the Lacedemonians conquered the Messenians. The trumpet is certainly not mentioned in Homer. There are extant four of his elegies. It is singular by how small and capricious a chance the poems of many of the ancients have been continued down { 406 } to us. These have been obtained only by the fortunate circumstance of being quoted by other authors. Lycurgus preserved one in this way and Stobaeus the other three. Some small fragments also remain. The best edition has been referred to. This was a Lecture rather more entertaining than usual and he will now quickly proceed to a more fruitful subject. I shall be able to collect in this volume all that is contained in his pamphlet. His other lectures I shall be obliged to write out in another form.2 My Journal could not contain all without abridgment.
I returned home and wrote a correct copy of a Theme on the subject of the Novels of this country. It was an ample field for discussion and I only had to regret that I was so limited in time and space for I believe I could have written very well upon the subject. As it was I threw together a few ideas upon the subject and carried it up to Mr. Channing. I then had the morning before me but I received a letter from Tudor3 by the mail which made me unfit to do any thing, and strange to say, I went to the book store and reading room where I wasted the morning. I seldom go to the reading room but my want of something to do attracted me there today and I went over all the politics of the day. A tiresome affair as ever was but there is a singular sort of interest created in reading it. Not much satisfaction after it is over however. I have to accuse myself of having neglected my duty however entirely, this morning, and without excuse. As Mr. Hedge had been so cruel as to come upon our side of the class yesterday, I knew that I should be called upon, and as neither my own personal feelings nor the importance of the lesson called upon me to study it, I determined to absent myself, for the first time since the commencement of the study. I wrote my Journal, which employed me the larger part of the time until Prayers. I was however free for the Evening. All the time before Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture I employed in reading Akenside’s Pleasures of Imagination. The second part I was very much delighted with. The only fault I have to find is that he continues some periods too far. The second cannot embrace the whole.
I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture as usual, but in the mean time, I shall fill up the deficiency in last nights lecture. La Bruyere was born in 1639, and in early life patronized by Bossuet and was made reader to the Duke of Bourbon, which he continued to be all the rest of his life. He died in 1696. He translated the characters of Theophrastus and attached some of his own to them, and interspersed the whole with maxims, moral sentences and observations upon { 407 } nature. He drew from this entirely and displays close thinking. So that if this work is not the first in its kind, it is so nearly perfect, it need fear no rivalship. He thus went through all the departments of French literature and now he goes on to speak of Voltaire, who took up the whole of this Evening’s lecture. Monsieur Voltaire was born on the 20th of February 1694. He was educated by the Jesuits and in his youth changed his name, as was the custom in France. Early in life he fell into the society of profligates, who frequented the house of the famous Ninon de Lenclos, and it is here probably that he first imbibed the prejudices against religion for which he was afterwards so remarkable. He was writing his first tragedy at the age of 18 and was introduced to this society as a remarkably promising young man. Voltaire was shortly after, on the death of Louis 14th, accused of writing a satire upon him which appeared in the papers, and he was put into the Bastile where he remained thirteen months and finished a tragedy and commenced his Henriade in the mean time. At the age of 24 he offered Oedipe and continued offering new pieces for 60 years.
Being exiled from Paris, on what account we know not, but ostensibly for an unsuccessful tragedy, he travelled all over the country, went to see J. B. Rousseau with whom he quarreled, although he was in the wrong. Nothing ensued but a witty remark which has attached itself to one of Rousseau’s Odes. He then retired to England (1726) where he formed an acquaintance with Pope and read many of the standard works of English letters. He was also at work upon the Henriade. His Brutus made its appearance in 1730 when he had returned to Paris and was again exiled; in 1732 Zarie [Zaïrie] appeared. Weary, he retired to Champagne with the Marchioness de Chatelay [du Châtelet] and continued writing; Merope appeared in 1743. As he was an intimate of the king of Prussia who was now becoming powerful, he became of use to the administration who sent him to Berlin on a private mission for to negociate.4 From this time during the life of Madame de Pompadour, he enjoyed more favour from the court and in 1746 succeeded in becoming a member of the French Academy. He again retired to Champagne and again returned to Paris before 1750 when he accepted the invitation of the king of Prussia who offered him a residence and a pension. Here we commence perceiving his avaricious disposition who5 demanded 1000 francs for his own travelling expenses and as many for his niece. These latter were refused and had not his vanity induced him more powerfully, he would not have gone. He was well received and remained for { 408 } some time, but gradually differences arose and misunderstandings which were increased by Maupertuis and others about the court until he determined to depart. A ridiculous farce ensued; he was arrested at Frankfurt and sent an humble letter to the king which is his disgrace. He was released, and happening to travel through Switzerland, he became pleased with the country, and after trying many places where he was detested on account of his infamous Pucelle d’Orleans, he finally settles at Ferney, a little distance from Geneva, after about sixty years of perpetual agitation. Vanity appears to have been his ruling passion. He lived at Ferney twenty years, if he could be said to live there, when his heart, mind and thoughts were all fixed in Paris.
At last he appears at Paris in 1778 at 84 years of age and repeats a play to the Players. This exhausted him so that in his sickness a clergyman was called in and he signed a subscription of faith which he did his best to ridicule after his recovery. On the 30th of March he went in form to the Academy, who dispensing with all their rules went out to meet him. The streets were lined with spectators who cheered him as he went. He attended the Theatre where he was received with the most rapturous and continual acclamation, his [ . . . ] was [ . . . ] and the evening could hardly proceed for the shouts of the multitude. A day of uncommon glory. Soon after, in order to study twelve hours without cessation, he took large quantities of Coffee, which made him feel unwell. He, having heard laudanum was good, obtained some, which with his usual impatience, he took in large quantity and died in consequence, an example of restlessness without a parallell in history. I have got thus far only in his life.
After lecture, I felt like amusement and the Lyceum met in my room over some Whiskey punch, and I had some serious conversation with Richardson. XII:15.
1. C. A. Klozius, whose edition had appeared in 1767 (Everett, Synopsis, p. 82).
2. CFA continued to write out his summaries of Professor Everett’s lectures, but he kept them in another notebook after 3 November. See Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314.
3. Missing.
4. Thus in MS.
5. Thus in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-22

Friday. October 22d. VI.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. After breakfast went to Mr. Everett’s Lecture which he commenced with an account of Alcman, whose name is not often repeated but who is remarkable as being almost the only poet of whom the Spartans can boast. He { 409 } was by birth a Lydian and flourished in the seventh century before Christ. He is distinguished as being a specimen of the Peloponesian Doric dialect. The fragments remaining from him are very inconsiderable, about 130 lines, no single piece containing more than four lines. He is reported to have been the inventor of amatory songs, and some say the father of lyric poetry, but this cannot be attributed to one alone. A notice of an epitaph said to be his is on the third article of the 33d page. Alcaeus is the next poet. He is supposed to have lived at the end of the seventh century before Christ, he was a native of Mytilene and an ornament of the Aeolic school of lyric poetry. He, like Horace and Archilochus, was guilty of throwing away his shield and flight in a battle with the Athenians about the plain of Troy. He is celebrated as a poet and an enemy of tyrants. He violently opposed Pittacus of Mytilene who had obtained the Government but did not succeed in overturning his power. His poems against tyranny were those for which he was most distinguished. He afterwards travelled and wrote an account of his voyages in verse. He is reputed to be the author of the verse which received his name. Very inconsiderable fragments of him remain. Some have attributed to him the song of Harmodius and Aristogeiton [Aristogiton] but we find this impossible when we recollect that he preceded the age of which he speaks, and we must infer also that this song was not the work of one hand only.
We next come to notice Sappho, of whom Addison says that she is the most beautiful of the mutilated poets of antiquity. She was a native of Mytilene and a contemporary of Alcaeus. This island has the credit of giving two admirable poets and the circumstance gives us reason to suppose the Aeolic strain to have ever been that of musical passion. Little is known of her life. The common story is that she went in pursuit of Phaon and ended her life by taking the lover’s leap. Sappho has always ranked very high as a poetess. Besides the mention in the pamphlet, she has the favourable notice of all antiquity. Aelian tells us she was characterized by Plato the wise but Bayle argues that this applies to her ode and not to her mind or moral character. Demetrius Phalereus called her divine and Strabo most inimitable. There is no proof among the ancients of her having that profligate character for which she has since been characterized. It is probable they had their origin in the license of the comic poets of later ages. The latter grammarians, the roman writers and particularly Ovid have taken their impressions from this source. Welcher,1 in a work on the subject, says that the moderns have falsified Ovid { 410 } even, and that without it he could not have said what is there. Aristotle, in a passage in which if there was any objection to be made certainly would and must have made this, charges her only with being a woman. Of her poems only two have come down but these are in proportion to their size the most famous fragments of all antiquity. Addison has devoted two pages of the Spectator to them and translations are added by Phillips [Philips]. That in the 223d he thought was very cold and paraphrastic although praised by Addison whereas the other was pretty good. Contemporary with Sappho was Erinna a native of Teos, or of Lesbos. The only considerable fragment remaining of her is an ode addressed to Fortitude. Some of the critics have thought it meant Rome as the address supposes, but there is nothing further to support the proposition. It is singular however that she is so vague, that there is nothing to make it apply without hesitation either to Fortitude or Rome.
After Lecture, I returned home and commenced writing my Journal with which I progressed quite rapidly until I was interrupted by a visit from Brenan who sat with me all the rest of the morning. He is a pleasant man and although with half distorted views of human nature, I am exceedingly inclined to believe in them. We talked much of College and of character which is generally the sum of our conversation. I am out of spirits this term, but what in God’s name is the cause, I cannot possibly tell. I think the College company has done more to it than any thing and I am sorry, very sincerely sorry, that I accepted it. I was scarce fit for the place, I have always been partially unpopular in College and I have experienced more dissatisfaction than pleasure myself. I shall be heartily glad when the end of next week comes as it will free me from a great deal of drudgery. At twelve o’clock I went down to Porter’s Hall on company business but I found the hall was shut up and no prospect of any [ . . . ] so I returned home and went to dinner.
After dinner we had a drill and a very good one; the company will be able to do exceedingly well upon Exhibition. I lost the section in which I took so much pride however and felt exceedingly indifferent about their success. We remained exercising until the bell rung for Declamation which dispersed us. We were amused by an effort from Mr. Furbish2 which was exceeding great, otherwise the affair much as usual. After declamation I came home and employed myself the rest of the afternoon very industriously in continuation of my Journal which I could not finish this morning. I managed to obtain a little while for myself, this was broken in upon however by Lothrop who { 411 } came to visit me this afternoon. The term is just commencing as to society, and excepting Prescott, these are the first visitors I have had.
After Prayers we had a regular drill, which was an exceeding good one. I could not avoid falling into a difficulty at the same moment, and one of the privates has left the company in consequence. I am an unfortunate man but decision of character carries it’s disadvantages with it. After drill I went directly to the meeting of the Knights where I did not remain long however, as I wished to attend Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture.
I shall continue from the place I left off. A criticism of the works of Voltaire. Oedipe was a bold attempt after Corneille had written upon the same subject before him, and has one great fault, the introduction of a love intrigue in the midst of such an accumulation of misery. It nevertheless was attended with astonishing success. It was represented forty five nights running. He wrote Zarie in twenty two days and it was Mr. Ticknor’s opinion that there was more tenderness in it than in any thing on the French stage. Adelaide had a strange fate. At it’s first representation it was hissed off the stage without hesitation. In 1752 it was brought up again in an altered form and met with moderate success. In 1765 however the actors determined to take it up in it’s original form and it was received with the most unbounded admiration and was represented forty times successively. It was surprising with what coolness he bore these various decisions and he wrote a letter at the time in which he expressed himself perfectly satisfied with either judgment. If it is not his best play, it is at least his most interesting one. In 1736 he produced Alzere, in some respects his best piece, more elevation and more dignity belongs to it. It is free, bold and natural but it cannot be considered any thing more than a fine poetical picture. It has not much probability and but little nature. It is not what it assumes to be, a scene in South America. Mahomet was written at the same time but withdrawn until 1756. He in this play endeavours to represent the character as detestable and his object was indirectly to attack religion in every line. Merope came out in 1743. This play is founded on maternal affection and is nearly perfect in it’s kind; it met with very great success. The surprising thing is that there is no labour apparent in all these works. Tancrede appeared in 1760. It has some weaknesses and faults. The first and third acts are particularly faulty, it afterwards rises however and becomes great. These are the best of twenty seven tragedies which he composed, the rest he did not mention. Voltaire’s intention (and he succeeded) was to give greater splendour and power to the French { 412 } stage, for it must be confessed that we sometimes become tired with the unvarying grandeur of Racine and Corneille. It is too stiff. Between 1725 and 1770 he gave ten comedies and about half a dozen operas, which failed entirely, and it is only surprising to think how a man like him could so little estimate his own powers.
The Henriade was begun at eighteen and continued during his residence at the Bastile, a surreptitious edition was published in 1723 and three years after a correct and authorized copy was printed at London. This poem claims to be an epic and is the only one on which the French ever rest a claim in that branch of poetry. It is not strictly speaking an epic, according to the ancient models we have, it is merely a narrative poem with a plan partly epic and contains many interesting narratives and agreable episodes. There is no unity however in the plot and may be considered rather a historical than an epic poem. If we can be satisfied with rich and glowing descriptions, correct delineations of character and interesting episodes, we shall here receive perfect entertainment. He finished his last Lecture here and went on tonight saying that he would willingly, if he could, avoid speaking of the infamous work called “La Pucelle d’Orleans” which he was writing between 1730–62. But it had been so well received that he was not able to pass it entirely over. It is a blasphemous ridicule upon one of the finest passages in French history and is sufficient to disgrace any man without the crime should be aggravated by being the work of a Frenchman. It has nothing known by which to recommend itself, it displays no invention and is equally an outrage upon religion and national feeling. It is equally an offense against decency and good taste for it has not even the critical merit which some equally indecent books have to recommend them. Mr. Ticknor skips over a large portion of the numerous works of Voltaire, his didactic poems are poor, his epistles are epigrammatic and lively, there is considerable variety in his narrative poems and his satire is bitter without humour.
With this notice he passes directly to history. In 1740 he published The “Essai sur les Moeurs” in four volumes. This work was intended to take a general view of the influences of character upon the different nations of the world drawn from the results in history. The faults in this book however are sufficient to condemn it. It contains an unfair and dishonorable representation of what has passed, it draws inferences and makes deductions from partial statements and is made the engine of mischief to religion and morality. It displays moreover a remarkable want of knowledge which it would have been better { 413 } for him to hide. The History of the Life of Louis the 14th is of a different character. It is an interesting and splendid account of one of the most brilliant periods in French History. It has great faults however. The subject is above his strength, he does not know how to manage a grave work like this, he makes one suppose that all that passed before this age was darkness and that every other country but that of France was in a barbarous state. Whoever does not look for much philosophy in the work, will find it interesting and amusing. The history of Louis the 15th is not equal to it. That of Charles 12th is to history what Romance is to drama, it is an interesting account of a romantic character. That of Peter of Russia is at the same time the dullest and the least correct of all his works in this style. His twenty five romances are the production of his old age, they [are] of very different lengths but all have the same end, the mocking of religion. It is disgraceful in the extreme to an old man to see him the author of works like these; in youth possibly it is pardonable. If we look over the events of his life and examine his conduct, we should conclude him to be the greatest of villains, without faith, morality or law. And the greatest of calumniators. But this is not the case. He was not the most designedly vicious man, but there is nothing like integrity in his character. He had not the least constancy of character, he was a man of whims and prejudices without a spark of principle to govern them. His life was a strange drama.
He now passed on to Jean Jacques Rousseau. He was born in 1712 and is always mentioned in such [close] connection with Voltaire, that this is the fittest place to introduce the notice of him. He was the son of a watchmaker. Before the age of fifteen he was sent as an apprentice to an attorney from whom he ran away. He was found by a Catholic and supported with the only condition of changing his faith. He was afterwards in the family of Madame de Warrens [Warens] with whom he lived for some time with much appearance of happiness. Leaving her he next went to Venice where he remained a little while and in 1750, about 30 years of age, he took the prize at Dijon on a question concerning the inequality of men. This was his first explosion. The book was not written with many sound arguments but it had a novel and prepossessing style and was much read. It was a book, new, striking and entirely false. It was here that he first displayed that enthusiastic love of nature and hatred of art for which he was ever after so distinguished. In 1752 he wrote a comedy and an opera with not much credit. In 1758 he wrote letters on a Theatre by which he fell into a quarrel with d’Alembert and Voltaire { 414 } which was the cause of much irritation to him. In 1760 the Nouvelle Heloise appeared, a work in a style altogether new and extremely attractive, received and much read, the more because it was thought that he was drawing his descriptions entirely from himself. They considered it as the product of the action of the mind upon itself. In short, men thought they were reading his history. In 1762 The “Contrat Social” came out and gained him much celebrity. It is a work brought out by the state of political parties at the time, and if fitted for any state, will apply only to a small republic. In it the people are to have the power of expressing their voices directly and the executive power is to be the mere passive instrument of executing their will. But it is better at once to consider it as a treatise not practicable, but the work of a simple man consulting only his natural feelings. It’s effect was only to unsettle the old opinions of those who trusted it without fixing any definite ideas in their places. It was one of the causes of the French revolution, born after it was prohibited, and here commence the troubles of which he complained so bitterly ever after.
He soon after published Emile which was the boldest attack upon the existing institutions which had been made and this was followed by a Letter from the Mountains in consequence of which his house was mobbed and in 1765 he was obliged to fly for his life. He at this time formed an acquaintance with David Hume who invited him to England, as the Government would not suffer him to remain in Paris, as he was at that time exposing himself to them in the dress of an Armenian. He accordingly went over to England with Mr. Hume with whom he quarrelled soon after, and as he found that he did not attract the attention he wished, although he had been well received, and that melancholy as he was, there were many others so in this country, he returned again to France in 1767, and spent the time in the succeeding year in making a Dictionary of Music and studying Botany. He marries a woman with whom he had long been living and at this time was regular in frequenting a famous Coffee House in the Palais Royal. Crowds of people were in the habit of collecting here to see Jean Jacques as he was familiarly called without knowing why. This however displeased the government and he was obliged to retire into the country near Ermenonville in 1778 and here spent the remainder of his life embittered by his own suspicions and still more by the infidelity of his wife. It is fairly to be concluded from the circumstances of his death, that he poisoned himself. This happened on the 2d of July 1778.
As to the character of his principal works, The Nouvelle Heloise { 415 } is no delineation of real life. It is improbable in the plan, and of bad tendency; there is a colouring charm over the guilt of Julie which is perfectly seductive. We must think of this work in connection with the views it speaks of, and it is only in the spots he describes that we can take the full delight of his magnificent description. Emile is a treatise on Education and is also entirely impossible. A man is to be a savage in the midst of society, and without religion in the midst of Churches. While we read we are confident that we are treading on hollow ground. From the views of his character which we have hitherto had, we might be led to believe that were reading3 of an anchorite and a philosopher and this would have been the impression had not his Confessions appeared after his death in which he displays himself entirely and without disguise. Works by other hands have also appeared by which we have a thorough insight into his character and find [it] selfish, jealous and irritable, suspicious of his friends and thoroughly sensual. Nobody could remain attached to him for he would reject them all. On a review of his works we should pronounce them as most powerful, most false and most interesting.
After Lecture, I again went to the meeting of the Knights and we began to consider what should be done for the Society. Two or three of the members appeared very considerably frightened and were inclined to leave the club if we persisted in having our former meetings. We passed a vote to that effect for the present, the laws are lost and consequently, I told the society that it was entirely out of the question for me to proceed without some farther authority. The same committee was accordingly appointed to form a new body of laws. Nothing more was done of any importance, the meeting was a dull one as many of our class were out of spirits and more of the inferior classes. One man, McLean, was proposed but rejected. I thought it was no time to admit members now when the club was in such a state. I had a dislike to the man’s manners and I disliked Shaler,4 the man who proposed him. This was the reason for my vote although I was not the only one who put in a black ball. After this was done, we adjourned “sine die.” I then walked over to Brenan’s room, and falling into conversation, sat with him rather longer than I had intended. He has singularly perverted his good feelings and will in time become a confirmed cynic and unpleasant fellow. He is a good friend of mine as much as any man is. I went from his room to Dwight’s where I spent considerably over an hour in conversation with them. They are neither of them in good spirits this term or at { 416 } least I never before liked them so little. It is my disgust I believe. If they were not so often here, I think I should like them better. It is not well for men who wish to be friends to see too much of each other, and as Chapman and Dwight both are not men possessed of that delicacy and tact which indeed is in the possession of but few men, I could wish not to be so exceedingly intimate. As a visitor at their room however, I can make out very well relying principally upon my conversational powers. I have no doubt however that I bored them to use the familiar term at College. I ascribe my melancholy feelings principally to this source. My social feelings are blasted in the very season when I have the time and inclination to indulge them. My College life is my time of freedom and I wish to seize the time for my future course will possibly be melancholy enough. I did not arrive at home until late and immediately retired. XI:40.
1. Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker (1784–1868), professor, successively, at Giessen, Göttingen, and Bonn (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 3:216).
2. James Furbish, a senior from Wells, Maine (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).
3. Thus in MS, but the sentence is garbled; some words have been scored out, and probably others have been omitted. A possible reconstruction is: “we are reading the works of an anchorite,” &c.
4. Nathaniel Burger Shaler, a sophomore from Lancaster, Mass. (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-23

Saturday. October 23d. VIII.

Missed Prayers again this morning. After Breakfast attended Mr. Everett’s Lecture. He began this morning with Solon—whose name constitutes an era in the literary as well as in the civil history of Greece. In his own country he was for a great length of time looked up to with esteem and affection, for his disinterestedness in refusing the sovereignty when it was in his power. His fame as a statesman has excelled that as a poet although it is only in this latter capacity that we consider him here. Solon flourished in the beginning of the sixth century. A short account is given of him in the synopsis which it will not be worthwhile to extract. At this period, when man was just rising from a barbarous state, the division into different nations took place, and although the word philosophy was not known yet, men were employed in forming laws and different systems of government. Those who excelled were called wise men as may be proved in the history of the famous seven wise men of Greece. They were all rulers or counsellors. The first incident in Solon’s life was one which obtained great popularity. A law had made it death to any individual to advise a war against Salamis in consequence of their numerous losses in former wars. He however, feigning himself mad, { 417 } rushed into the market and advised the measure. The war was undertaken and the result was successful. He afterwards travelled and upon his return he found Pisistratus endeavouring to overturn his government. He remonstrated but without effect. He may be considered however as having been some check for he retained the essential parts of Solon’s laws and resorted to his counsel. Solon had learned early a tradition concerning the Atlantic Islands and devoted his old age to the composition of a poem on that subject. Plato began a dialogue on the same subject, but both works were left incomplete. This last work embraced such a variety of incidents as no fiction ever contained before. This subject is interesting to us, as it is the only ground which we have for a supposition that the ancients had any knowledge of our country. Solon’s passion for learning remained to the last. It is pleasant to see him in his old age resigning all the vices of the world and devoting himself entirely to literary pursuits. It is probable that he lived to the age of eighty at Athens and died in tranquility. Mimnermus was contemporary with Solon: a native of Colophon in Ionia. There is exceedingly little to be said upon him more than is contained in the account of him on the ninety first and second pages of the pamphlet. Anacharsis was a contemporary of Solon and native of Scythia, he travelled into Greece and became intimate with Solon. He is occasionally numbered among the wise men. He is said to have invented many mechanical instruments but it is probable that he only introduced the use of them among his countrymen. They, being jealous of him it is said, destroyed him. He is said to have written works but none of them remain. Nine epistles are extant attributed to him but there is no proof of their authenticity. He has been brought more into notice since the publication of the Younger Anacharsis’ adventures by Barthelemy. This is a fictitious character, made the base of a sort of plot. It contains much careful and interesting information. The part of it which was intended to enliven the work is very burdensome and insipid to the scholar, and the plan is faulty as he could only relate the history of events down to the time of his characters and he can give no account of what has happened since. The Athenian Letters, a work published in England, written by Sir Philip York, is much it’s superior in interest and vivacity though less valuable as a work of learning on Greece.1
After Lecture I went to the reading room where I found nothing but politics and made a resolution not to read another paper there until the election is over. On my return home I was delighted with the receipt of two letters from home, one from my Mother and the { 418 } other from John.2 The former writes in moderately good spirits, and speaks with much heartfelt feeling upon the subject of the approaching contest. There is a sublime religious tone in part of her letter which has affected me much. John is lively and more affectionate than usual, he speaks much from the heart and as I wish him to. On the whole, I was relieved much from my dull feelings during the day. I occupied myself upon my Journal and read the remaining book of Akenside’s pleasures of the Imagination which contains more poetry I think than either of the others. In the Evening I wrote an answer to John3 and reviewed my day as well spent. I then went with Richardson and Sheafe to Mr. Willard’s to take some supper. We made out to satisfy ourselves upon some small chickens and some porter. I miscalculated the time by two hours and therefore we sat here until late. I was obliged to go to Richardson’s room as my fire was gone and I remained here for a little while in conversation with him. I then came down and retired immediately. XII:30.
1. The work alluded to is Athenian Letters; or, the Epistolary Correspondence of an Agent of the King of Persia, Residing at Athens during the Peloponnesian War, first printed for private circulation, 4 vols., London, 1741, but afterwards published in numerous editions and translations. The work was actually the product of a number of hands, Sir Philip Yorke (1720–1790), afterwards 2d Earl of Hardwick, and his brother Charles being simply the most prominent contributors. See DNB under Sir Philip Yorke.
2. The letter from JA2 is missing.
3. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-24

Sunday. October 24th. VIII.

Missed Prayers as usual and went to breakfast after having enjoyed a delightful night’s rest. I employed my morning in reading Don Juan, a copy of which entire, I bought yesterday. It is a work which contains an amazing deal of poetry and still it is vicious in the extreme. I cannot help admiring some of its magnificent descriptions although I should be condemned by the moral world. I attended Chapel and heard Mr. Walker1 preach a short sermon. I was pleased on many accounts. In the first place he was a little variety to our monotonous course, in the second place he was short and lastly he was pretty good. His text was, “Where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.” It must have been striking or I should not have recollected it. He abounds in corresponding sentences and striking remarks. He first spoke of what liberty was; he said it could not exist without restriction. He then argued that restriction was not inconsistent with liberty and then applied his ground to the text arguing that when we had become accustomed to the restrictions of religion, we were then free. An argument which was easy to answer. At least I thought so. In the { 419 } afternoon I was employed all the time in writing my Journal. I finished the longest Lecture I have yet taken off and was rejoiced. I attended Chapel again in the afternoon and was as usual very much edified by a Sermon from the good old President Kirkland. He is an intolerable bore.
In the Evening I wrote a letter to my mother2 and my low spirits returned again. I cannot tell what it is which weighs me down so completely. I have not felt such desolation for a long, long time. I will trust in God for he is my only support. The rest is but weakness. I relieved myself however very considerably by writing in this way, as she certainly has a right to know all my feelings. She however is so tender and fragile herself that I feel almost as if I was obliged to support her instead of her relieving me. After this was over, I went to Richardson where I conversed with him for the remainder of the Evening. I have to convict myself of drinking so unphilosophical a liquor as Gin to night, but so it was, I took quite a large dose. We conversed for some time upon different subjects, few of any purpose, but there is something pleasant in him, which makes me feel agreably, particularly in my want of society. Retired early. XI.
1. Presumably James Walker, a Congregational minister in Charlestown, Mass. (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 85).
2. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-25

Monday. October 25th.

Attended Prayers and recitation this morning as usual. After breakfast we went to Lecture. Mr. Everett commenced with Aesop, who existed in the age of Solon, by some made a native of Phrygia, by others of Thrace. He was sold as a slave first at Athens and then at Samos. Having been liberated, he went travelling through Greece and Asia Minor and met Solon at the court of Croesus. Plutarch has preserved an account of their conversation with the king in which he makes Aesop a courtier and Solon a stern reprover. We should hardly suppose this when we consider the lives of the two. The one, a slave, would be supposed to possess that roughness of character when free which is attributed to Solon, and this latter would be from his education in courts, a man at least of courtesy. It is remarkable however that the fables which remain to us under his name, but the authenticity of which we doubted, have a morality entirely worldly. They recommend prudence and are most remarkable for their primitive simplicity and application to the various situations of life. Being sent to Delphi (the correct [ . . . ]1) by Croesus, he fell into a contro• { 420 } versy with the citizens who killed him. Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, wrote a life of him and compiled the fables. The account he gives is highly absurd. Bentley has exposed him and he gave us a specimen of his style. Many however have been misled, particularly as to the deformity of Aesop which is by no means probable. I have very little to say in addition to the account given in the Pamphlet of the origin of our fables under that name. He follows the text strictly in parts and I heard but little to divert in the intervals. He praised a dissertation on the subject by Tyrwhit and that was all.
After Lecture I returned home and wrote my Journal which employed me until Mr. Farrar’s recitation. He translated Voltaire’s story of Micromégas almost literally and this was all today’s lecture. He gave us no lesson and forgot to look over his list. After dinner we had a drill, thank Heaven, the last for this year. I am doomed to fall into difficulties, it appears to me. The Freshmen were engaged at football and amused themselves with the boyish trick of teazing the company with it. Some of them selected me out as a butt and one of them sent it. I should have knocked him down forthwith, had he not made an apology and determined it should not happen again. The next time the ball came in my way, I pricked it with my sword. This was an exceedingly trifling affair but it affected me very much and I could not get my lesson this afternoon, my feelings were so disconcerted. I determined, as the destruction of the ball might be thought malice, to leave money with the agent’s freshman to pay for a new one without mentioning myself. I was not called upon today fortunately, and after recitation, I did the thing. I employed my Evening waiting until the time for Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture which I attended.
It was long and full in it’s account of Madame de Stael, as no accounts could otherwise be easily obtained of her. This lady was born in Paris in 1766. She was fortunate in the opportunities which she had of early developing her natural talents, and she was educated for the direct purpose of being a literary woman. At the age of eleven she composed some verses during the illness of her mother and the next year she composed some little (comedies)2 one of which, Sophie, was represented at Coppet, with very considerable effect. At twenty one her mind had arrived at it’s full power, and she wrote a play on the subject of Lady Jane Gray at Paris. Her mind however soon took another direction owing to the state the country was then in. In 1781 [1786] she married the Swedish Ambassador, Baron de Stael Holstein. She followed her father Mr. Necker in his exile and { 421 } in his recall the next year (1788). At this time, Madame de Staël was a considerable personage, as she was placed in the midst of every thing that was brilliant in France. In 1789 she published her letters upon Rousseau, whom she thought had not attracted the attention he merited. There is in it much warm and passionate eloquence and it displays some power of intuition. It was a book which excited no small degree of astonishment and admiration, and now although we can not always agree with her in opinions, we will surely give her our tribute of admiration. It certainly was a very extraordinary book. She was soon to be involved in scenes however which were to produce other thoughts and she attended him again upon his second exile after which she returned and was all powerful from the 23d of July 1789 to the 4th of September of the next year when her father finally gave way. She was deeply concerned in the intrigues of the court even at this time, and was present at many of the violent political scenes of that day which, exciting her interest, gave her mind that political turn, by which she was ever after distinguished and involved. In these scenes she became intimate with Talleyrand, Sieyes and other leaders of the first epoch of the revolution. In 1792 she escaped from Paris, and in the next year she wrote a sort of address to the People upon the trial of the Queen. She seems here so moved with the situation of the Queen that she burst out in an appeal to the public, which contains remarkable eloquence. There is great pathetic vehemence throughout and she tries every thing to save the stain upon her country’s honour. During the reign of terror, as it is called, which existed until the death of Robespierre, she lived in England, actually poor, who at one time had been the greatest heiress in France. She lived pretty comfortably however at Richmond, retired from society and in company with the Count de Narbonne and Talleyrand, both distinguished characters in the revolution. In this company, she says, she spent a pleasant life, and that the play of talent was greater here than at any other residence she ever was at. She became tired however and went back to Paris in 1795 although the country was in a state of anarchy. Here she conducted herself with so little prudence in the expression of her opinions as to fall under the notice of many of the leading men and she was even reported to the convention as a dangerous character. Notwithstanding all this, she wrote an essay on the state of things which was quite bold. But from this scene she was called to Coppet on account of the illness of her mother which ended in her death. Here while with her father she composed the Essai sur I’influence des Passions. This work was to have been in two parts. The one on individual happiness, the other upon { 422 } that of nations, but she never went beyond the first part, which was published in 1796. It is on the whole an unfortunate attempt, the subject was beyond her power, nor was it fit for her peculiar talents. She was fond of abstractions and was apt to fall into metaphysical subtleties which she could not easily manage. This makes parts of the work confused and unsatisfactory, and with many beauties which may be allowed, it is obscure, incoherent and extravagant.
It was not therefore until 1800 that her claim to the first rank among literary writers was decided, when she published a work on literature, which settled her pretensions. It is a bold and powerful review of the relations of society to litterature and the reverse. She however here advances the famous doctrine of perfectibility, and unconsciously gives unfair representations of the state of litterature in all ages, in order to support her own views of the subject. In order to support her argument which has the experience of all ages in fact against her, she undervalues the state of the Greeks and Romans, and on the other hand she lays more stress than they are worth upon the works of the middle ages. Thus she makes a regular gradation of improvement from the earliest times, a thing entirely contradicted by the experience of past ages and by theory. She has also recorded a prophecy which with the present view of Europe can only be read with a smile. With these objections we must allow, it is one of the French books in which the []3 of criticism is not contained. It is a work still unrivalled in France although Sismondi has since written on the same subject. It contains much eloquence, boldness and comprehensive wisdom. And the whole notwithstanding its defects [and] errors of reasoning has a redeeming spirit of the genius of philosophy. It is one of the most interesting and instructive works in the French language.
She returned again to Paris in 1799 when Buonaparte had become head of the republic. She immediately became an object of suspicion which she made no effort to destroy, her saloon became the head quarters of all opposition to the reigning power which irritated the Consul to such a degree that in 1803 she was exiled from Paris. Delphine however was published in 1802. It is a story with the same immoral tendency with the Nouvelle Heloise, it’s prototype, but it does not equal it. It is too long, the story ends with the fourth volume and still it is dragged out into two more. In 1803 she went into Germany but was suddenly called back to Coppet just to arrive at the death of Mr. Necker, a father much beloved. Here she remained in deep grief and her employment was an examination of her father’s papers which ended in the publication of some of them, in 1804. The next year she { 423 } goes to Italy with Sismondi and spends more than a year crossing and recrossing the country. Corinne was the result of her thoughts which appeared in 1807. The idea is eminently happy. He then dashed off into a flamingly sentimental abstract of it which I did not choose to take off as I propose soon to read the work.
After Lecture, I went with Sheafe and we took an Oyster Supper after which we went to Chapman’s room, and having paid him a short visit, I returned home and spent the rest of the Evening reading Don Juan. XI.
1. Possibly “word,” but overwritten and not clear.
2. Thus in MS, as if the diarist questioned the term.
3. Blank in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-26

Tuesday. October 26th. VI:15.

Missed Prayers but attended recitation this morning, the day looking rather threatening for an intended Parade. I felt in very low spirits, why I have not yet found out, but I could feel no pleasure during the day. I employed my morning in reading and writing exactly as if nothing whatever was going to happen. We of course had no morning lecture and I was well employed. There is a vacant sort of restless feeling on days of such excitement as holidays which troubles me exceedingly, and which I am always anxious to keep down. It is a vacant sort of feeling when you cannot read and you take a very indifferent sort of pleasure in what is passing around. I managed however to control this until Exhibition commenced, when I went in and heard Allen’s part which was a great jumble of nonsense put into the shape of a dashing Conference. Bartlett was quite good and almost made me suspect he had obtained assistance.1 I was surprised at one thing today, as soon as I got upstairs, at observing so many Porcellian Medals, or rather as I afterwards found most of them only ribbands, which were worn by men not members of the Club. I have not mentioned the dissensions since my election and refusal, but it appears that a Southerner, Cabaniss,2 being exasperated with the treatment he had received in not being elected, has joined the Northern party, and incited them to do this thing in order to suppress the club. The party being no party at all in this class, at least there being no aristocratic Northern party, immediately adopted the hint, as these men who had the most claims had also been disappointed in their elections. I consequently think that the [ . . . ] itself has been the result of the most contemptible feelings and also that the men themselves have shown how utterly unworthy they were of belonging to an honourable club { 424 } and how just the decision of the society in their case. I was very angry, I must confess. It was so excessively contemptible that I was sorry the northern party had the disgrace of adding this to many other rather unhandsome actions. The actual true state of the case is that the Northern party in that class is composed of a set of blackguards, if I may use so harsh a term. The few respectable individuals among them are mere boys led about by any person who has force or energy enough to guide any body. Cabaniss is a full grown man and ought to be the more ashamed.
I heard very few of the remaining parts. Hedge’s3 poem was very good. He displayed much taste and some talent. His disposition of his subject was very good and his management of the parts was correct. He may make quite a good poet although I cannot think that he is a man of Genius. I heard part of Chapman’s Oration and my mind was made up. In the first place, I thought his character was stamped upon his subject, “The future prospects of our youth.” He was pretty perhaps but not great. He aspired to a description of what he had most thought of. In the next place, he was entirely wanting in power of writing. The work was insipid, not argumentative enough to be strong, and not figurative enough to be brilliant. This applies only to what I have heard of it for I went out fatigued, as it was about half through. What I did hear was enough to confirm my judgment, and it appears to have been the judgment generally. Mr. Everett or some one since at Mr. Hedge’s said it was pretty for so young a man, which is to me “damning with faint praise.” I had made up my opinion of it previously however. It rained during the latter part of Exhibition, but as it ceased after dinner, The Harvard Washington Corps paraded although in low spirits on account of the weather. We went to Professor Hedge’s according to invitation. We met there very nearly all the young ladies in town whom I met for the first time. Not many of these were engaging enough to take the trouble to be amusing to, and I felt too much strained by my dress to wish to exert myself so that I only was introduced to Miss Hedge and a Miss Pierce of Brooklyne with one or two others. We had a very pleasant afternoon considering every thing, and the entertainment was generous and handsome. We remained here until some time after five o’clock whilst it was raining. As soon as it had ceased again we went off and soon dismissed.
I then went home and took some tea after which I determined upon visiting all my class who gave entertainment this evening. I first went to Winthrop’s, a man I have never been introduced to, but whose civilities or at least those of his family, I wished to notice, as somehow { 425 } or other I heard a complaint of my having been considerably impolite in refusing invitations which I never heard of. We were received with much coldness, and soon escaped from his company to Bartletts, from whence to Chapman’s, where I had a warm argument with him on the Porcellian affair, after which went home. X.
1. Phineas Allen, George Bartlett, and George Edward Winthrop participated in a conference on “the influence of merit, confidence, and intrigue on a man’s advancement in life.” See Records of the College Faculty, 10:77, Harvard Archives.
2. James B. Cabaniss, a junior from Madison County, Alabama (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).
3. Frederic Henry Hedge, son of Professor Levi Hedge, was a senior. Later he became professor of ecclesiastical history (1857–1876) and of German (1872–1881) at Harvard (DAB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-27

Wednesday. October 27th. IX.

Missed Prayers and recitation this morning, being too fatigued to rise early. I was accordingly not up until quite late. After breakfast however I attended Lecture as usual. He treated to day of Phalaris. The age of Phalaris is fixed at different times by different authors. He was a native of Astypalaea, a city of Crete or of one of the Sporades. He was driven from here for designs upon the Government and went to Agrigentum. Here he was more successful, for managing to form a party among the artificers at the head of whom he had been placed to direct the public works, he seized the Government. His severities have rendered his name a proverb for severity. The most common incident is that of the brazen bull which an artist brought to him according to some, as an exquisite specimen for torture; according to others he caused it to be made. At any rate, he tried it first upon the artist. The accounts of this affair vary considerably, but we can not conclude very favourably as his character was certainly not remarkable for humanity. He sent this brazen bull to Apollo afterwards. He extended his government and patronized letters, in his reign of 28 years according to some, eighteen, to others. He perished at last in an insurrection of the citizens; it is impossible to say how deservedly. One hundred and forty-eight letters are ascribed to him. Their merit is as much questioned as their authenticity. Ancient authors are by no means distinguished for the striking display and contrast of character in this book, which has been praised but which at the same time is an argument against their authenticity. The authenticity of these letters has been the subject of a celebrated controversy in England. It is put down in the synopsis as much at length as Mr. Everett delivered. Indeed I have nothing more to put down concerning this discussion. It has been settled pretty { 426 } decidedly in favour of Dr. Bentley. I have made a mistake in placing this Lecture under this day as it ought to give way to the conclusion of Aesop. I have been absent from town, and in making up the days shall be compelled to fill up tomorrow with today’s lecture. After Lecture I returned home and was obliged to amuse myself in writing all the morning. I then attended Mr. Farrar’s recitation and was called upon. I did not acquit myself very remarkably well but that is frequently the case.
After this was over, I returned home and the rest of the day was employed in a variety of ways. I studied my lesson in Paley this afternoon with much attention and was taken up. I did very well. After Prayers, as I understood, Miss Kelly,1 a new actress had arrived and that the School for Scandal was to be the play, I went to Boston with a party of Students composed principally of our society. I had a difficulty concerning my ticket as I was turned out of my regular box and was obliged to take a distant one. On the whole however I incline to think it improved my enjoyment as I understand there was a great deal of prompting—the play is a new one on these boards and the parts must therefore have been committed lately. The play is such an admirable play that almost any acting will carry it through and this was by no means bad. Miss Kelly took the part of Lady Teazle and performed pretty well, not that I do not think she could have thrown a little more variety in her manner, but she had some knowledge of style, her appearance is rather commanding for a woman of fashion and she has some dignity. Mr. Finn was excellent as Sir Charles Surface. He has made himself a very good comic actor and has been sufficiently wise to drop tragedy almost entirely so that now he is quite an attraction for the Boston stage. Mr. Kilner2 also was very exceedingly good this Evening, he mouthed less and repeated less than usual. But Mr. Clarke3 except in one scene, made wretched work of poor Crabtree; he mistook the part altogether. On the whole however, although the scandalous circle was very much below mediocrity, I was extremely gratified with the play and have scarcely ever been to the Theatre when I received more pleasure. The afterpiece was the Romp.4 Mrs. Henry played the part of Priscilla Tomboy and any thing is good coming from so beautiful a woman. I can hesitate but little in giving her the decided palm over every other woman I have ever seen. As something quite uncommon, Richardson was of our party tonight. We supped at the Marlborough where I heard an amusing conversation concerning politics, at present raging. We then returned home and Chapman and Richardson spent a little while at my room before we retired. XII.
{ 427 }
1. Lydia Kelly, the English actress, was “a reigning sensation of the American stage” (Odell, Annals N.Y. Stage, 3:138).
2. Thomas Kilner, generally considered an “admirable actor” (same, 3:120).
3. John H. Clarke, who played secondary roles (same, 3:53).
4. A musical entertainment in two acts, altered from Love in the City, by Isaac Bickerstaffe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-28

Thursday. October 28th. VI:45.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography, after which I attended Lecture but did not hear the one which I shall note down as that is inserted in my yesterdays journal. From the materials mentioned in the pages of the synopsis concerning Aesop, Maximus Planudes, in the middle of the fourteenth century, collected and compiled the modern fables which go under the name of Aesop. He appears to have been something of a scholar and probably inserted some things entirely his own. The fables were published first in Latin. The editions are mentioned. The third is derived from manuscripts of the Palatine library. He gave us a short account of this library, which in 1623 belonged to the university of Heidelburg; in the 30 years war in Germany it was sent to Rome and made part of the Vatican. It thus gained it’s name as it was sent by the Elector Palatine. When Bonaparte obtained possession of Rome, he sent this to Paris, but upon the restoration [ . . . ] was sent to reclaim them. The university however from whom they were first seized was [ . . . ] in it’s attempts and partly succeeded. They obtained the German manuscripts in compromise. These fables were translated into Latin by Phaedrus. Their authenticity has also been doubted but generally allowed at the present day. It met with the fate of the Greek, was barbarously rendered into prose by Romulus, an author in the 12th century. This Latin version was the first printed. There are two works of Eastern origin so similar in plan to Aesop that a connexion has been supposed. One by Pilpay or Bidpay. There is no ground however for supposing any connexion with the family of Aesop. The other is the work of Locman, but the fables are much too similar not to be derived from each other. At the end of two thousand years, if we judge by analogy from other cases, these could be a corresponding variation, were they not taken from each other. It is on the whole probable that they are a recent Arabic translation of Aesop. This branch has been popular and classical in all modern languages—La Fontaine has written in French without much originality but much sprightliness, L’estrange1 also wrote in the latter part of the seventeenth century, there is more originality in Gay,2 than in any other. Lessing and Gellert3 have both tried this species of poetry in the German language.
{ 428 }
After Lecture I returned home and attempted to write my forensic for this afternoon but I said nearly all that occurred to me in a very few moments. I employed myself the remainder of the morning reading and writing and doing nothing. Indeed I must confess I wasted much time, but whenever I sit down to write a forensic or theme in this way, it invariably causes much loss of time. In the afternoon I was much hurried for time, the subject was “whether the public had any right to inventions” and I was upon the negative. This was so wretched a side to argue upon that I was entirely at fault and my forensic was poor enough. After it was over I spent an hour with Bartlett and Otis and took some Porter with them. Tilden and Sullivan,4 two young men from Boston came in; they are bloods of the first order and sufficiently disgusting. I once thought it would be supreme happiness to be such a man, but I have luckily passed through the furnace unhurt and am now only disgusted at such specimens of thoughtlessness. I am no enemy to personal enjoyment but I oppose rioting or excessive waste of body, mind and wealth.
After Prayers as I could find nobody to accompany me, I went to Boston alone in a chaise, and went to the Theatre. We had tonight Shakespeare’s “Much ado about nothing,” Miss Kelly took the part of Beatrice and Finn of Benedick. They were carried on with much vigour and sprightliness. She played the first Act with so little variation from last Evening’s that I became rather fatigued but she afterwards improved very much and did exceedingly well in the last Act. Finn was quite good but none of the Actors came up to my expectations in the Play and Kilner especially murdered poor old Dogberry, while Brown5 did the same with his companion Verges so that this part of the play, although one of it’s most amusing, was entirely ruined to us. The afterpiece was the opera of Rosina6 in which Miss Kelly sang in that part. Her voice is a very powerful one but there is no sweetness in it, and although she does exceedingly well for pieces in which execution is necessary, there is no expression or tenderness in her singing. Every song was repeated however by the desire of the audience loudly expressed. She looks well in lady characters but as a cottage girl she is very masculine and bold. I returned to Cambridge with my wheel in bad order as I thought. XI:30.
1. Roger L’Estrange (1616–1704).
2. John Gay (1685–1732), the English playwright and poet.
3. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729–1781), and Christian Fürchtegott Gellert (1715–1769).
4. Young Sullivan was possibly one of George Sullivan’s two sons (JQA, Diary, 29 May 1824).
5. Frederick Brown (Odell, Annals N.Y. Stage, 3:153).
6. A comic opera by Frances (Moore) Brooke.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-29

Friday. October 29th. VI:30.

Attended Prayers and recitation in Topography. I went down today to see what had been the matter with my Chaise and found that I had brought from Boston an entirely different one and one of very little value. As this matter promised to be of exceeding importance if not soon rectified, I was obliged to send to Boston on purpose for it, which I did, dispatching Cunningham in the old Chaise. I spent the morning as usual reading and writing, although a considerable part of it was wasted in my Expedition to different rooms on this business.
I attended Lecture as usual. Of the three or four succeeding Poets, Stesichorus, Susarion, Ibycus and Theognis, Mr. Everett had nothing to say besides what was put down in the synopsis. The latter indeed a little. He composed poems out of which his maxims are supposed to have been selected. He has one maxim which has been frequently repeated since and is now attributed to a hundred different authors. It has even extended to rude nations, some of whom to exemplify it, weep at the birth of a child and rejoice at it’s death, a universal sentiment which can be charged to no particular age. These maxims are useful as giving historical Light as to the history of the course of Moral Sentiment. Of Phocylides he had nothing more to say. Anacreon, according to the common accounts, was born at Teos in Ionia and fled an attack of the Persians at which time he went to Abdera in Thrace, he went to the court of Polycrates of Samos where he was very well received. Here he remained until he was sent for by Hipparchus, and at his death, returned to Abdera where he died. Many fables concerning his death were invented by the grammarians which are not entitled to any credit. Sixty four odes now extant are attributed to him; the authenticity of them is doubted however, on the grounds stated in the pamphlet. Words and many significations of words however are used which have obtained in a later age. Only some of them have merit. The first edition was by Henry Stephanus in 1554 and contained fifty five odes; afterwards, the others were added. That of the Abbé de la Trappe1 was published in 1639. I have no more to say as far as the synopsis goes. De Pauw2 published an edition in 1732 in which he argues against the authenticity of these odes. This called out an angry reply from d’Orville3—a French writer.
The third edition of Fischer4 is the best. These are the chief editions except Brunck’s.5 Two editions have been printed at Rome which may be called splendid specimens of execution. One called the Bodoni edition, the other published by Spalleti.6 The former is very { 430 } beautiful being printed in Capital letters throughout, it’s critical value is not great however. Moore7 has translated these odes in a manner certainly equal if not superior to the text, an uncommon merit. He does not appear to have been a very thorough scholar in Greek although well versed in the language. He does not follow him in regularity but excels in sweetness.
It is possible that the character of Anacreon has been injured by later writers in a way similar to that of Sappho already related. He is described as highly sensual and his odes breathe that spirit but the odes may have been since made to fit the character drawn at the same time. Thus closed the lecture, the synopsis and my notes of the course in this book. I shall not desist from taking them but I am happy to congratulate myself upon my perseverance which I must confess has once or twice been upon the point of sinking. I have now the pleasure of praising myself deservedly and of knowing that I have not employed my time unprofitably. I have already given an account of my mornings occupation. I today commenced the Rambler8 with a determination to read four Numbers every day. I attended Declamation this afternoon, and heard much very wretched speaking. I had intended to write my Journal this afternoon, but when I came to look for my synopsis in which I take my notes, I found it was left this morning at Dwight[’s]. So I looked over “much ado about nothing” and finished Don Juan. The latter Cantos fall off exceedingly but the third, fourth and fifth are beautiful.
In the Evening, I attended Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture. I regret somewhat that I was obliged to miss a part of his course, particularly his two last, but I could not undertake to bind myself to that hour. He continued tonight what he had to say of Chateaubriand. His literary character, he said, was confined to a period of ten years in which he wrote five works. Atala, which was the first, is a beautiful little thing, but by it he may be charged with insincerity as he was at the time he wrote it an unbeliever in the Christian faith. And if this piece has any value at all, it is [because?] it has for its basis what Chateaubriand at the time did not feel. The story is eminently happy, the development is fortunate and with some extravagance it possesses great force and boldness. Religious feeling is however the great excellence of Atala and it may truly be called a sweet little French work. It is not original but it is no slavish imitation and this is truly no detraction from it’s merit. Some years afterward he became a Christian and composed the Genie du Christianisme. He first intended to print this work in England and it was partly finished when on account of { 431 } his extreme distrust he destroyed the impression. Soon after on his return to France, he again printed an edition and again suppressed it. It finally appeared however in France in 1812 [1802]. It certainly contains in it whatever is necessary to ornament, illustrate and beautify the Romish Church. The first book of this work is not very interesting, the second and third contain an exposition of the effect of religion upon literature and are the most pleasing, the fourth is on external worship. Four of the subjects are thoroughly examined, he scarcely knew many of the poets, certainly he did not comprehend them, such as Dante or Ossian. He is mistaken in his account of the monastic orders but notwithstanding all this, there is great eloquence in many parts and the work is to be placed among the most important in French literature.
He next undertook to write a book on the Martyrs in the middle ages, for Christianity. He accordingly determined to visit the scenes of their sufferings and for that end he went to Greece, Asia Minor and other countries around. He spent here almost two years and the result of this expedition was the “Itineraire” which came out in 1811, a work in which every thing we know of Greece is represented in a new medium. “Les Martyrs” his other work which appeared some time before, is a work with a marked character. It gives the account of the lives of two Christians and their death. The most striking fault is that it is neither poetry nor prose. It is written on a system and principaly treating of saints and demagogues. The misfortune of it is that it is encumbered with history, which ever must fail as it is impossible to succeed in writing where we wish at the same time to stick to facts and indulge in the extravagance of romance. The characters are however finely drawn. The principal merit of the work consists in its fine descriptions of natural scenery in which he is peculiarly happy. This work is not destined to final success. It does not command the distinction it aspires to, and may be considered a failure, notwithstanding the fine delineation of character and beauty of detail, although it combines much originality of talent with force of personal character, and with all this no little extravagance. He has since left off writing and it is still doubtful whether he will obtain high standing with posterity. He will not probably come again before the public, as he says that if his works are to be remembered, he has already written enough, if not, he has written too much. Mr. Ticknor gave some of the class a pretty severe reproof this evening as they were in whispering conversation with each other. I was glad of it, for in my opinion, the persons deserved it. I believe I did it formerly and I { 432 } deserved it. Young men have but one great fault and that is thoughtlessness. They have no definite principles of honour and consequently hurry themselves into an unhandsome action without reflecting in the least what they are about and without even knowing what they do.
I returned home and employed the rest of the Evening in a variety of ways. I have had little or no regular plan in reading since I have been so tied down by Lectures and this Journal, but I shall soon be released from this and then I shall take up another plan. It is fortunate that I have been able to bring in Mr. Ticknor’s course as far as I heard them into this book as in this way they will not be divided. I have just closed with Mr. Everett as his pamphlet gives out which has been a great relief to me, as I shall be hereafter very incorrect in names. As to the merits of these two courses, the first is very good as we receive it. He has gone I think a little into the other extreme, from being too large, he has become too small in his course, but the latter is rather the best recommendation. The latter would perhaps be also a little improved by being cut down, as hitherto we have had little more than dry details and ancient learning but nothing to interest or to amuse. I passed my Evening entirely at home and retired at my common hour. XI.
1. Abbé Armand de Rancé, of La Trappe priory (Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, 2:297).
2. Jan Cornells de Pauw, a Utrecht scholar (same, 2:454).
3. Jacques Philippe d’Orville (1696–1751), professor at Amsterdam (same).
4. Johann Friedrich Fischer (1726–1799), headmaster at Leipsic (same, 3:14).
5. Richard Francois Philippe Brunck (1729–1803), a classical scholar of Strassburg (same, 2:395).
6. Joseph Spaletti, secretary of the Vatican Library (same, 3:64, 518).
7. Thomas Moore (Harper’s Dict. of Classical Lit., p. 76).
8. A periodical issued by Samuel Johnson, in 208 numbers, from 1749 to 1752 (Oxford Companion to English Lit.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-30

Saturday. October 30th. VIII.

Missed Prayers this Morning and scarcely arose in time to pursue the plan I had proposed. I was just in time however, for having been to the President and obtained leave of absence for one night, I took the opportunity of the Stage to Boston. It is the birth day of my Grandfather and he is eighty nine. I consequently determined, if possible, to dine with him on this day. It was out of my power however, for arrived in town, I applied at the Office of the Plymouth Stage and found thirty passengers had obtained seats before me. I consequently despaired and determined to wait with my brother until the time for the Quincy Stage. Having nothing else to do, I took up the papers which are stuffed full of electioneering articles of the { 433 } grossest sort. This is not at all inconsistent with my resolution as I said expressly that I would go no more to the reading room as I misspent much time and only diverted my thoughts to channels very improper. If my father is destined to be President of the United States, I may be glad, but no feelings of mine can alter the result. As I was about to be devoured by Ennui however, I took up the Papers and read them. A late Meeting in Boston has settled the course of the Federalists in this State and there is no doubt about the result here.1 The Crawford papers are making a most tremendous disturbance at present and charge my father with the most extravagant and atrocious crimes. I should be much inclined to prosecute them. When the licence of the press is carried so far as it has been in the present instance, it appears to me highly proper to use some means to prevent it. This however would be called stopping the liberty of the press, and the Lord knows what consequences might ensue. I therefore must bear patiently the most tremendous abuse and know that the poor miserable people who exert their free will are deluded by the noise. My Grandfather lost his second election by means of these calumnies and my father will probably lose the election by the people if he does not that of the House.2
George was at Mr. Cook’s Office3 and I sat talking with him for a very considerable time. He appears to be in pretty moderately good spirits although he does not seem to believe that this election will turn out favourably. He is singular in his feelings as he is ever affected by the breath of the moment. I dined with him at Dr. Welsh’s who it appears has very considerably interested himself in these affairs and who seems very confident of success. He is a singular man but appears well meaning and is certainly honest. I lived in his family two years and although my life was none of the happiest, I always liked him much better than any of the rest of the family. After dinner I went upstairs and amused myself in talking again with George. The Quincy Stage soon came however and we started off for the old town of our ancestors. We arrived uncommonly late and found a room full of company. It appeared that my Grandfather had given quite a dinner—Mr. Marston, George Whitney and others. We found Mrs. Quincy, Susan, Margaret and Josiah, Mr. and Mrs. Greenleaf and one son William.4 After my circuitous address, if I may so call it, I took a chair next to Josiah Quincy and we talked about College matters, and other things quite pleasantly for a little while. He is a lively, good sort of man with abilities sufficient to get along well in the world. I talked much of the Porcellian affair and of the Medical { 434 } Faculty. I also had a little conversation with George Whitney who was full of his usual inevitable complaisance. Mrs. Quincy, very matronly this Evening, and the young ladies I did not approach, an unfortunate barrier has obtained between Miss Margaret and myself, why in heaven’s name I cannot conceive. They all went soon however and we were left with the family which is still larger than usual as Mrs. De Wint has not yet returned. Miss Harriet Welsh is also here as a sort of friend and comforter. They are useful as indefatigable readers and the latter indulging much in “my lady Tongue.” I never could like Mrs. De Wint; she has a good deal of vanity, I think, and much self possession. I do not like her manner of dress. I believe this destroys the charms for if I consider I cannot for the soul of me find any more reasonable objection. She aspires to be a lady of dignity in her manners, and her dress so ill becomes it that I am altogether dissatisfied by the “Je ne scais quoi.” Uncle Thomas very well and very lively, Mrs. A. as usual, the same with the rest, my Grandfather looks better than he did a month ago. He went to bed soon and we could find no more amusing or interesting subject for conversation than the Presidential Election which still rang in our ears. This is the cradle of Politics. XI.
1. Massachusetts Federalists opposed to JQA’s presidential candidacy could not agree upon an opponent. Some supported an unpledged list of Federalist electors; others backed a mixed, but also unpledged slate. Adams electors ran as Republicans. See Shaw Livermore, The Twilight of Federalism, Princeton, 1962, p. 168.
2. CFA like many others expected the presidential election to be thrown into the House of Representatives, as with four candidates it seemed unlikely any one of them could muster a majority in the Electoral College.
3. Presumably the law office of Josiah P. Cook, 14 Old State House (Boston Directory, 1825).
4. John Greenleaf (1763–1848), his wife, the former Lucy Cranch (1767–1846), and their son, William Cranch Greenleaf (1801–1868). See Adams Genealogy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0011-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-10-31

Sunday. October 31st. IX.

Arose and sat myself down to spend the day comfortably at home. I had the good fortune to discover yesterday that Mr. Flagg, a well known resident graduate at our good University of Cambridge.1 I therefore immediately made up my mind. It is rather a poor view of life, if we look at the number who have and others who are now toiling through an education at Cambridge, labouring like moles without talent enough to carry them to any distinction, and devoured after remaining here the better part of their lives, consuming their lives in study or in sleep, to obtain at best a miserable parish with perhaps one hundred and fifty dollars a year. Many such exist here { 435 } and many such are toiling through College at the present day to obtain this enviable situation. They are all for the most part able bodied and might have profited society in active labours where mind was not so much in question. I amused myself reading over a variety of numbers of the Adventurer and the Guardian.2 These books were intended to assist the morals of the age and to correct folly and vice. But in my opinion their tendency is bad, at least in some particulars. A large number turn on the seduction and ruin of young women. I think there is much danger in the description and in their effect upon the imagination. I think that it is exposing to young men a view of the weakness of the female sex such as few of them come to the knowledge of until long after they are young. And as to the ill consequences threatened, one misfortune attends them, they are not invariable, hope is left, and hope is the most deceptive phantom in the human heart. [Here follow in the MS more than four lines very heavily inked out, presumably by the diarist.] The fact is, consequences occur very seldom in comparison with the commission of the deed, and it does appear to me according to our existing laws of society that this commission is no crime. I believe God intended the union of the sexes as soon as they became of age to know the passion, our society forbids it until we can support the consequences. This may be singular doctrine and I may hereafter find it false, but I do now firmly believe. I think the present institutions of society are detestable for a young man, but I must confess I see no way of altering them for the better. I think them a perversion of the natural order of things but I cannot discover what the natural order is.
In the afternoon I went and slept for a considerable time. I spent part of the Evening with my Grandfather and heard him for once tell me of some of his cares. My Uncle and Aunt have so little prospect before them after his death, he spoke feelingly, the children also, if he could have done anything for them but it was entirely impossible.3 I tried to console him as much as possible but I think the thing preys upon his mind very much. He is a remarkable man, he has done much for that family, but I am afraid all the assistance he can give will avail little. He has improved this farm very much and I think I can discover a general plan upon which he has gone of late years to assist that family. I am sorry for them and wish a part well. I got into conversation again downstairs upon the Presidential election and other matters with Miss Harriet which did not break up until my Uncle entered and we had varied our topics so much as to fall upon him so that we could say no more. I afterwards had some political { 436 } conversation with him and some on the Medical Faculty with George by which I made him laugh very much. I was surprised tonight to hear my Grandfather speak so severely of Mrs. Clarke. He spoke of her levity in a tone which might even chill her; she certainly is an amazingly unthinking, inconsistent woman. Religious with asperity, virtuous with repulsion and smooth with insincerity. She is a match for Mrs. Adams and had that poor man, her husband, lived, would have made a vixen of a wife. He did not get out of the honey moon however and as it is, poor dear Mr. Clarke and her delightful husband are good terms for her to indulge in. She can love no one hereafter and it is a good way to prove she has loved somebody once. I went to bed pretty early although my afternoon’s nap took away part of my rest. XI.
1. CFA’s sentence is incomplete; doubtless his discovery was that John Flagg, graduate resident in the theological school (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824), was going to preach in Quincy.
2. The Adventurer, 2 vols., London, 1753–1754, by J. Hawkesworth, Samuel Johnson, and others. JQA’s set of The Guardian, 2 vols., London, 1745, is in the Stone Library.
3. Punctuated thus in MS.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-01

November. 1824. Monday. 1. VIII:30.1

Quincy, arise, breakfast, reading all day, general election for President, my Grandfather, success in this town,2 my Uncle.
1. With the preceding entry D/CFA/4 ends. Entries are resumed here from CFA’s “Index” or epitomized diary (D/CFA/1), his full-length journal for this period being lost. See note on entry for 2 Sept., above, and the description of his MS diaries in the Introduction.
2. The citizens of Quincy voted unanimously for JQA (Bemis, JQA, 2:47).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-02

2. VIII.

Arise, go to Boston. Stage. My Uncle, Mr. Cook’s Office. George, business, return to Cambridge. Stage. Athenaeum, at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-03

3. VIII.

Arise, continue my name out, employed all day making up my Diary. Evening supper at Willard’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-04

4. VIII.

Name still out, continue upon my Diary. Lecture from Mr. Everett,1 evening spent at home. Entered my name.
1. In his next ten lectures (all recorded by CFA in his Lecture Notebook between { 437 } 3 and 14 November, see Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314) Professor Everett discussed the great Greek dramatists, satirists, and historians.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-05

5. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation in Topography. Mr. Everett’s Lecture. Declamation, evening, intention to visit the Theatre, rain detains me. Party at Sheafe’s to Whist and an Oyster Supper.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-06

6. VIII.

Missed Prayers, remain at Cambridge all day, employed in reading and writing my Diary. Mr. Everett’s Lecture as usual.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-07

7. VIII.

Missed Prayers, attended Chapel, President Kirkland, Mr. Pierpont,1 finish my large Diary and commence upon my notes.2
1. John Pierpont, Congregational minister of the Hollis Street Church, Boston (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 83).
2. CFA’s lecture notes, which he now wrote up in a separate book. See entry for 21 Oct., and note, above. His “large Diary” was presumably D/CFA/4; see note on entry for 1 Nov., above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-08

8. VIII:15.

Missed Prayers and recitation in Topography. Mr. Everett’s Lecture, Mr. Farrar’s and his recitation. Paley, evening attend the Theatre, Carriage, Miss Kelly, She stoops to conquer.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-09

9. VIII:45.

Prayers, recitation, Topography, review, Mr. Everett, Mr. Farrar, miss in Paley, evening, notes of Mr. Farrar’s lectures.1
1. See entry for 19 Oct., and note, above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-10

10. VI:45.

Prayers, recitation, Topography, Mr. Everett, Mr. Farrar, Paley. Evening, reading Corinne1 and supper at Willard’s.
1. By Mme. de Stael. See entry for 25 Oct., above. CFA’s set of her Oeuvres completes, 17 vols. in 9, Paris, 1820–1821, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-11

11. VIII:30

Missed Prayers and recitation in Topography, writing notes and reading Corinne, no exercises for my division, evening, attend the Theatre with Chapman, Mr. Cooper, The Honey-Moon.1
1. The English actor, Thomas Abthorpe Cooper (1776–1849), was appearing in John Tobin’s play.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-12

12. VIII:20.

Missed Prayers and the last lesson in Topography and Mathematics, Mr. Everett, writing notes, Declamation, evening, K.S.T.1 meeting, laws. Oyster supper, Sheafe’s until late, Lothrop.
1. Knights of the Square Table.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-13

13. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, Mr. Everett closed his course for the season, at Cambridge all day, election, in very low spirits, letters from home received and answered.1
1. CFA’s letters are missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-14

14. VIII.

Missed Prayers, excused from Chapel, reading Corinne and writing notes to Mr. Everett’s lectures.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-15

15. VII:50.

Missed Prayers, lesson set in Gorham,1 Mr. Farrar and Paley both attended, evening, very industrious, did not retire until late.
1. John Gorham, The Elements of Chemical Science, 2 vols., Boston, 1819.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-16

16. VI:30.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Paley, Moral Philosophy, evening, Supper at Richardson’s, Lothrop.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-17

17. VI:45.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Paley, evening, walk, visit to Rundlet, Conversation about Sheafe, Otis’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-18

18. VI:45.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry. A Theme, day wasted, visits to Bartlett and Chapman, evening, supper at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-19

19. VI:30.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Declamation, high spirits. Ride with Otis, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, Brighton, return, to Boston with Sheafe, Theatre, Macbeth.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-20

20. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, at home all day, reflection, happy feelings, evening very quiet.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-21

21. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, President Kirkland, Dr. Ware, evening, quiet at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-22

22. VII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Say’s Political Economy,1 first lesson, evening at home.
1. JQA’s copy of Jean Baptiste Say, A Treatise on Political Economy, Boston, 1824, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-23

23. VII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Say, evening at Otis’s. Conversation with him until late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-24

24. VII.

Missed Prayers and recitation, unwell and excused from exercises all day, occupied at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-25

25. VIII.

Omitted all the exercises today, wrote a Forensic, day much wasted, mind unsettled.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-26

26. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and other Exercises, ride with Otis, Billiards at the Franklin Hotel, return, evening Oyster Supper, Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-27

27. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, morning quiet at home, visit from Howard, afternoon, Champagne and Whist at Richardson’s, evening, Supper at my room, Lyceum, Howard, Lothrop, Rundlet.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-28

28. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Kirkland, Dr. Ware, evening visit from Howard, Supper at Willard’s Tavern, tough chickens, very agreeable, Otis, puns.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-29

29. VII.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Astronomy, Say, evening, small party at Richardson’s, very pleasant.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0012-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-11-30

30. VIII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry. Stage to Boston, Dr. Welsh’s, George, dine with him. Stage to Quincy, my Grandfather, family.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-01

December. 1824. Wednesday. 1. X.

Quincy. Medicine, arise, at home all day. Electoral Colleges vote,1 much conversation with my Grandfather and George.
1. The electoral college awarded Jackson 99 votes, JQA 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37. JQA won all of New England, the great majority of New York votes, and a few scattered tallies. Since no candidate won a majority of the electoral votes, the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. See Bemis, JQA, 2:30.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-02

2. IX.

Arise, Thanksgiving day, attend Meeting, Mr. Whitney, moderate sermon, return, dinner as usual on this day.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-03

3. IX.

Arise, weather stormy, remain at home all day, reading the Athenaeum,1 rather dull, conversation with the family and George.
1. The Athenaeum; or Spirit of the English Magazines, a periodical published at Boston from 1817 to 1832.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-04

4. IX.

Arise, weather continues bad, still at home, idling time, Edwards’ West Indies,1 Abby, Susan and rest of the family.
1. JQA’s copy of Bryan Edwards, The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies, 2 vols., London, 1794, is in the Stone Library. Another copy, bearing JA’s signature is among the President’s books in the Boston Public Library. See Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 82.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-05

5. IX.

Arise, cold weather, not at Church all day., beyond my time of absence, evening, family, talk.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-06

6. VII:30.

Arise, Stage to Boston, dine at Dr. Welsh’s, Worsley, conversation with George. Stage to Cambridge, acquaintances.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-07

7. VII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, Paley, evening, ride to town with Lothrop, pleasure party, cold but beautiful evening, return very late, Lothrop remained.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-08

8. VII.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, miss in Say, ride with Rundlet, Savin Hill, billiards, Boston, Oyster Supper, return to Cambridge, evening, Sheafe’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-09

9. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and recitation in Chemistry, carry up a Theme, Say, evening writing letters, Lothrop and the Lyceum.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-10

10. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Declamation, writing, evening, Supper at Richardson’s, he twenty one, not agreeable, up until very late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-11

11. IX.

Missed Prayers, nostalgia, morning at home, Boston with Rundlet, George, conversation, Dr. Welsh’s, return, disagreable weather, evening, a Supper.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-12

12. IX.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, President Kirkland, stupid, afternoon at Richardson’s, Howard, evening at home, Rambler.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-13

13. VII:30.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, Say, evening, part at home, and the rest at Richardson’s, supper.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-14

14. VII:35.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, Say, evening, { 442 } a small Supper at Sheafe’s, parting, Ducks and Champagne, Lyceum and Lothrop.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-15

15. VII:30.

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Mr. Farrar, Say, evening, Howard, to Boston, a Ramble, Women, a queer affair, escape, return very late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-16

16. VII:30.1

Prayers, recitation, Chemistry, Dr. Kirkland, leave of absence, ride to Boston, George, with him to Roxbury, dine at Mr. Boylston’s,2 agreeable time, thence to Quincy.
1. CFA added “Cambridge,” in pencil, in the margin of the MS beside this entry.
2. Ward Nicholas Boylston (1747–1828), a kinsman and close friend of JQA’s. See Adams Genealogy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-17

17. IX.

Quincy, my Grandfather, Conversation, politics, return to Cambridge, pack, again to Boston, Dr. Welsh’s, Miss Hinkley, George, remain with him.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-18

18. VII:30.

Leave Boston, Stage to Providence, Easterly Storm, arrive at Horton’s, remain for the night, Mr. D’Wolf.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-19

19. VI.

Leave Providence, Steam boat, College acquaintances, Fisher, Miller, Bonaparte, Elwyn,1 Marshall, Heavy sea. Stop at Newport, very dull.
1. Charles Henry Langdon-Elwyn, a junior from Boston (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-20

20. VII.

Steam boat, leave Newport, Willing,1 attempts at occupation, going slowly, off New London.
1. CFA’s classmate, Charles Willing, of Philadelphia (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-21

21. VI:[50?].

Steam boat, Hell gate, strong current, reach New York, cross to the Steamboat for New Brunswick, Companions, Stage to Trenton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-22

22. VI.

Leave Trenton, Steamboat to Philadelphia, thence to New Castle, Marshall, conversation with him, Stage to Frenchtown, Mr. A. Townsend,1 Steamboat to Baltimore.
1. Presumably Alexander Townsend, Harvard 1802, a Boston lawyer who corresponded with JQA (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 40).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-23

23. 1:30.

Arrive at Baltimore, wait for Stage, to Washington. Singular companions, arrive at home, family, dinner party, Conversation with John.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-24

24. IX.

Morning at home, visits to Mrs. Frye, Mr. T. B. Johnson’s,1 Thomas J. Hellen, return, evening at home, family.
1. Thomas Baker Johnson (1778?–1843), LCA’s brother, who had been postmaster at New Orleans but had apparently resigned in the summer of 1824 (LCA to GWA, 22 July 1824, Adams Papers). See Adams Genealogy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-25

25. IX:10.1

Morning at home, Christmas day, family dinner at Mr. Frye’s, evening, Chess, my mother’s ill health.
1. CFA added “Washington,” in pencil, in the margin of the MS beside this entry.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-26

26. IX:15.

Morning at home, Church, Capitol, Mt. Vernon, visits, Miss Selden, Miss Cott[r]ingers, John, evening, Conversation with him.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-27

27. IX:20.

Morning at home, billiards with John, evening, ball at Mrs. Brown’s, dull, and no acquaintance.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-28

28. IX.

Morning at home, walk, visits, principal people, Johnson Hellen, evening, Miss Pleasonton,1 Miss Peter, party at home.
1. Matilda Pleasanton, the daughter of Stephen Pleasanton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-29

29. IX:5.

Morning out to walk, purchases, Thomas J. Hellen, evening, Theatre, Damon and Pythias, Mr. Pelby,1 full house, Oyster Supper.
1. William Pelby was starring in John Banim’s tragedy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-30

30. IX:20.

Morning at home, billiards with John, dinner party, Governor Findlay,1 amusement, evening, ball at the Marine Barracks, dull.
1. William Findlay (1768–1846), formerly governor of Pennsylvania, represented that state in Congress from 1821 to 1827 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0003-0013-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1824-12-31

31. IX.

Ride with John, to Alexandria and Mount Vernon, Washington’s tomb, fine day, early return, evening, Cards.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-01

January. 1825. Saturday. 1. IX.

Morning stormy, as usual, went to the President’s, ladies, cold treatment, saw nobody, dinner here of the family. Madame very unwell, dinner to Lafayette.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-02

2. IX.

Morning at the Capitol, Mr. Lynde,1 heard the last part of his Sermon, return, conversation at home and usual lounge.
1. Presumably Rev. Samuel Lynd, of Bordentown, N.J., the son-in-law of Rev. William Staughton (Columbian Centinel, 27 Aug. 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-03

3. VIII:50.

Morning at home, short time at Billiards before dinner, evening unwell, headache, to bed early, family at my Uncle Johnson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-04

4. VIII:40.

Morning walk to the Capitol, House of Representatives, Johnson, dull, library of Congress, Mr. Bailey,1 evening, backgammon with Johnson.
1. John Bailey (1786–1835), Representative from Massachusetts from 1824 to 1831 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-05

5. IX.

Morning at home, conversation, politics, lounge, Madame better, evening, family circle, Whist party.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-06

6. IX:20.

Morning as usual, lounge, evening, large dinner party, very dull, { 445 } Mr. Rives,1 thence to a party, Mrs. T. Munroe’s, quite pleasant, return early, Miss Selden.
1. William Cabell Rives (1792–1868), the Virginia statesman who served in the House of Representatives from 1823 to 1829 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-07

7. IX:30.

Morning as usual, Madame improving in health, lounge, evening at home, backgammon with Madame.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-08

8. IX.

Morning at home, write a letter to George,1 Johnson off to Rockville, evening, ball, anniversary of New Orleans, given to General Jackson, Mrs. Brown’s, crowded and dull.
1. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-09

9. IX.

Not at Church. Morning at home, walk to Georgetown, Thomas, evening visitors, Mr. and Mrs. Everett and General Wingate.1
1. Presumably Joseph F. Wingate (b. 1786), who had served as collector of customs at Bath, Maine, from 1820 to 1824 and was later (1827–1831) Representative from that state (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-10

10. IX.

Morning at home, lounge, nothing interesting, evening, Mrs. Richard Smith’s,1 few acquaintances, dull at first, Miss Pleasonton, conversation, finally agreable.
1. The wife of the cashier of the Washington branch of the Bank of the United States (JQA, Diary, 10 Jan. 1825, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 51).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-11

11. IX:30.

Morning at home, report of failure, Ladd, loss to my father,1 evening party at home, very agreable.
1. George Johnson, one of LCA’s cousins, had endorsed the notes of one Ladd, of Alexandria, to the sum of $7,000. Since Johnson was the manager of the Columbian Mills, which JQA owned, the bank tried to hold CFA’s father responsible for the debt. See Bemis, JQA, 2:197–199; JQA, Diary, 13 Jan. 1825, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 51.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-12

12. IX.

Thomas Hellen off,1 at home all day, reading, evening family to Drawing room, did not go.
1. Thomas Hellen was returning to Exeter Academy (JQA, Diary, 12 Jan. 1825, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 51).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-13

13. IX:40.

Morning at home, lounge and ride to Georgetown, loss true, return, large dinner party, Mr. Sloane,1 tooth ache.
1. John Sloane (1779–1856), an Ohio Representative from 1819 to 1829 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-14

14. IX.

Morning at home, state of the family, Madame, evening, all at home and backgammon with her.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-15

15. IX:25.

Morning at home as usual, lounge, time wasted, evening, Theatre, Mrs. Barnes,1 School for Scandal.
1. The English actress, Mrs. John Barnes, formerly Mary Greenhill, who had made her American debut in 1815 (Joseph N. Ireland, Records of the New York Stage, from 1750 to 1860, N.Y., 1867, 1:314–315).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-16

16. IX.

Morning at home, idle, afternoon at Church, Mr. Baker, singular prayer, home, dinner, Mr. Taylor and Mr. Tracy,1 pleasant conversation, politics.
1. Albert Haller Tracy (1793–1859), a Representative from New York (Biog. Dir. Cong.)

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-17

17. IX:10.

Morning at home. Noon, House of Representatives, Mr. Clay, Internal Improvement, evening, Theatre, Sweethearts and Wives,1 Mr[s]. Barnes, pretty woman.
1. A comedy by James Kenney.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-18

18. IX:50.

Morning at home, idle, short walk, letter to George,1 Mary sick, evening, family to Mr. Frye’s.
1. Missing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-19

19. IX.

Morning at home, visits with the ladies, Mrs. Jackson, dinner at Baron Tuyll’s,1 splendour, evening, Conversation with John.
1. Baron Tuyll van Serooskerken, the Russian minister (Bemis, JQA, 2:94).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-20

20. VIII:45.

Morning at home, Geography, idle, walk, dinner party at home, General McArthur, Ohio and Kentucky.1
1. Duncan McArthur (1772–1839) advocated a caucus of his fellow Congressmen from Ohio, to be followed by a public statement of their position on the disputed presidential election (JQA, Diary, 20 Jan. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-21

21. IX.

Morning at home, conversation, political prospects brighter, evening, small party, Mrs. Johnson’s,1 dance on the Carpet, Mr. Lewis of Louisiana,2 Electoral votes.
1. Mrs. Josiah Stoddard Johnston, formerly Eliza Sibley, the wife of the Senator from Louisiana (DAB).
2. Presumably Joshua Lewis, formerly a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives, who was appointed a judge of Orleans Territory in 1806 (Clay, Papers, 2:691).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-22

22. VIII:40.

Morning at home, weather cold, walk, dinner at Mr. T. B. Johnson’s, family, evening, Cards, return, conversation with John.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-23

23. IX.

Snow. At home all day. Newspapers, death of George Bartlett, evening, company at home, Mr. and Mrs. Cook of Illinois, Mr. Tracy.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-24

24. IX:10.

Weather fair. Morning walk, very idle, evening, family to Mrs. Dickens’,1 myself to Circus, Tom Thumb, Stevens the Dwarf.2
1. The wife of Asbury Dickins, of North Carolina, who was a clerk in the Treasury Department (Force, National Calendar, 1824, p. 64).
2. “Major” Joseph M. Stevens, a dwarf thirty-seven inches tall, played the title role in Kane O’Hara’s burletta, Tom Thumb (Odell, Annals N.Y. Stage, 3:142, 166).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-25

25. VIII:30.

Morning at home, nothing to do, political conversation, evening party at home, Miss Selden.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-26

26. VIII:40.

At home all day, politics of the day, pervading interest, decline the Drawing room,1 conversation with John.
1. Because of CFA’s refusal, JQA attended the President’s drawing room alone; it was “not much crowded” (JQA, Diary, 26 Jan. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-27

27. IX.

Morning at home, walk, visit my Uncle Johnson, John, return, dinner party at home, Mr. Bell of N. Hampshire,1 rules of proceeding, evening at home.
1. Samuel Bell (1770–1850), New Hampshire Senator from 1823 to 1835 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-28

28. IX:40.

Morning at home, walk, Capitol, evening, family to Morris’,1 myself at home, visit from Mr. Ironside, politics.
1. Captain Charles Morris, of Connecticut, one of the Board of Commissioners for the Navy (Force, National Calendar, 1824, p. 136).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-29

29. IX.

Morning at home, incessant political discussions, Mr. Clay, Mr. Kremer,1 evening, Theatre, Mr. Keene, Devil’s Bridge, Count Belino.2
1. Anticipating that JQA if elected President would appoint Henry Clay his Secretary of State, Jackson’s managers had already begun to whisper of “corruption and bargain.” They prompted George Kremer (1775–1854), a simple-minded Representative from Pennsylvania, to publish the accusation in a communication to the Columbian Observer of Philadelphia, and other newspapers quickly picked it up. See Bemis, JQA, 2:57; Biog. Dir. Cong.
2. Arthur Keene, the Irish singer, played the role of Count Belino in The Devil’s Bridge, an opera written by Charles Edward Horn and John Braham and revised by Henry Rowley Bishop (Ireland, Records of the N.Y. Stage, 1:335; Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Eric Blom, 5th ed., London, 1954, 1:723).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-30

30. VIII:50.

Morning, walk, Capitol, too late for Church, Painting of Washington, at home, small dinner party, Mr. Webster, Mr. Cook and others.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0001-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-01-31

31. IX.

Morning at home, political excitement, Mr. Clay,1 evening, Theatre, the Gamester, Cooper, Mrs. Barnes,2 full house, rival candidates.
1. Clay on 31 Jan. 1825 issued “A Card,” denying Kremer’s accusation of a corrupt bargain and denouncing its author as “a base and infamous calumniator.” A copy of this document, in Clay’s own handwriting, is in the Adams Papers. A threatened duel was avoided because Kremer showed no inclination to fight, and Clay considered his opponent “too simple-minded and eccentric to summon to the field of personal honor” (Bemis, JQA, 2:57).
2. Mrs. Barnes and Cooper were appearing in Edward Moore’s tragedy, The Gamester (The Oxford Companion to the Theatre, ed. Phyllis Hartnoll, London, 1951).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-01

February. 1825. Tuesday. 1. IX:30.

Morning at home as usual, walk, evening, Theatre, The poor Soldier,1 Mr. Keene. Tom Thumb, Major Stevens, singular dwarf.
1. A musical farce by John O’Keefe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-02

2. IX.

Morning as usual, reading the Albigenses1 and Miss Foote’s trial, English papers, singular state of morals,2 evening an Oyster supper at home.
1. Charles Robert Maturin, The Albigenses: A Romance, 4 vols., London, 1824.
2. The actress Maria Foote (1797?–1867) sued Joseph (“Pea Green”) Haynes for breach of promise and received an award of £3,000 (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-03

3. IX:15.

Morning at home, state of political excitement, walk, motives, home, large dinner, Dr. Watkins and General McCoy,1 evening at home.
1. Presumably William McCoy (d. 1864), a Virginia Representative from 1811 to 1833 (Biog. Dir. Cong.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-04

4. IX.

Morning at home, George arrived today, walk as usual, conversation, evening, Theatre, School for Scandal, Lady Teasle, Mrs. Barnes, visit and observations, John.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-05

5. IX:20.

Morning at home, political world in hot water, afternoon, usual lounge, eve. remain at home, conversation with George, state of his feelings.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-06

6. IX.

Morning at the Capitol, Mr. Post,1 extremely crowded and dull. Johnson came from Rockville, walk and conversation with him, evening, Tracy, conversation, Elizabeth.
1. A Presbyterian minister who served as chaplain of the House of Representatives (JQA, Memoirs, 7:182).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-07

7. IX.

Morning as usual, politics, Mr. Clay and Mr. Kremer, conversation, { 450 } Johnson, evening, Theatre, Damon and Pythias, Mr. Cooper, very crowded, Catherine and Petruchio.1
1. The stage copy of The Taming of the Shrew, which was made from Shakespeare’s play by David Garrick.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-08

8. IX.

Morning as usual, reading Waverley, and talking politics, my father, evening, party at home, large, opposition people, large number, party in high spirits.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-09

9. VIII:30.

Morning at home, snow. Election of President,1 at half past three my father elected, cured of head ache, congratulations, evening, Circus, Tom and Jerry, serenade.
1. JQA was elected President by the House of Representatives, each state voting as a unit. The six New England states, New York, Missouri, Ohio, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, and Illinois comprised his slim majority of thirteen states. The defection of the last three states from Jackson to Adams made JQA the winner despite Jackson’s greater popular vote in the country and in the Electoral College. See Bemis, JQA, 2:47 and entry for 1 Dec. 1824, above.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-10

10. IX.

Morning as usual, Committee of Congress, visits,1 evening, family go to the Military ball, George and I at home in conversation.
1. At noon a committee of the House of Representatives, consisting of Daniel Webster, Joseph Vance of Ohio, and William Segar Archer of Virginia, called on JQA to announce that he had been elected President (JQA, Diary, 10 Feb. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-11

11. IX:20.

Morning at home, bad weather, visits, reading Hodgson’s letters,1 evening Theatre, Mr. Keene’s benefit, Love in a village, Don Juan,2 disgusting scene.
1. A copy of Adam Hodgson’s Letters from North America, Written during a Tour of the United States and Canada, 2 vols., London, 1824, is in the Stone Library.
2. Isaac Bickerstaffe’s comic opera, Love in a Village, and the “grand pantomimical ballad,” Don Juan, by Carlos Antonio Delpini and Walley Chamberlain Oulton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-12

12. IX.

Morning spent at home, want of conversation and excitement since election, evening spent at home with the family.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-13

13. VIII:50.

Morning at Church, Mr. Little’s1 with Johnson, dinner party, { 451 } family, Mr. Owen2 and Crowninshields, evening company, Mrs. Cutts3 and others.
1. Robert Little, minister of the Unitarian church in Washington (JQA, Memoirs, 7:324).
2. Robert Owen (1771–1858), the British social reformer who had made his cotton mills at New Lanark, Scotland, a model community, had come to America to found the New Harmony colony in Indiana (DNB).
3. Presumably Mrs. Richard Cutts, wife of the assistant comptroller of the Treasurer, 1817–1829, and an intimate friend of LCA (Bemis, JQA, 2:537).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-14

14. IX.

Morning at home, low spirits, lounge, Johnson off, evening at home, family to wedding visit, General Brown’s, Mrs. Kirby.1
1. Major Edmund Kirby had recently married Eliza A. Brown, daughter of General Jacob Brown (Columbian Centinel, 23 Feb. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-15

15. IX.

Weather unpleasant, severe cold, at home all day, dinner party, Genl. La Fayette, Messrs. Stanley, Wortley and Dennison, members of Parliament,1 retire early.
1. The English visitors were Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, later 14th Earl of Derby (1799–1869), John Stuart-Wortley, 2d Baron Wharncliffe (1801–1855), and John Evelyn Denison, later 1st Viscount Ossington (1800–1873) (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-16

16. IX:25.

Weather bad, my cold increased, at home all day, Waverley, English Newspapers, Miss Foote, family at my Uncle’s, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-17

17. IX:30.

Confined to my room all day, weather very unfavourable, low spirits, dinner party, could not go down, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-18

18. IX.

Weather very pleasant, much better, walk with my brothers, Mr. and Mrs. Smith and Mr. T. B. Johnson to dine, conversation, “society.”

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-19

19. IX:30.

My cold much worse, at home all day, dull and low spirits, evening, family to Aunt Frye’s, myself to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-20

20. IX.

Weather very bad, remain in my room, Influenza, dull, dinner party at home, could not go down, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-21

21. VIII:45.

At home all day, on the recovery, cloudy weather, evening, last regular party, very agreeable.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-22

22. VIII:30.

Weather raw and disagreeable. Walk to the Capitol, evening, Anniversary Ball, Washington’s birth day, family went, myself at home, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-23

23. IX.

Health much improved. Walk to the Capitol, Domestic Manufactures,1 return, evening, Whist at home, George, Mary.
1. One Snowden was showing an exhibition of manufactures at the Capitol (JQA, Diary, 22 Feb. 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-24

24. VIII:40.

Morning, walk to the Capitol, Exhibition of Manufactures, Cloths, return, dinner party, Mr. Baylies.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-25

25. IX.

Morning, walk to the Capitol, Exhibition closes, bad weather, evening, Theatre, with John, Bride of Abydos,1 dull, Oyster Supper.
1. A romantic drama by William Dimond.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-26

26. IX:25.

Morning at home, foggy weather, cold increased, family troubles, George, his affairs and feelings.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-27

27. IX.

Still annoyed by my cold, horrible weather, Johnson Hellen, political affairs, dinner and evening party.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0002-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-02-28

28. VIII:40.

Morning at home, politics. Cabinet appointments, walk, evening, family to St. André’s, myself at home, to bed early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-01

March 1825. Tuesday. 1. IX:20.

Morning at home, weather fair, lounge, meet Burton, conversation, home. Dinner. Supreme Court, Mr. Bibb and Ogden. Evening, first visit to A., original sin.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-02

2. X.

Morning at home, walk to visit old College acquaintances, Burton at the house, Mrs. De Wint arrives, evening Circus with Johnson. Cataract of the Ganges,1 noise.
1. A “grand romantic drama” by William Thomas Moncrieff.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-03

3. IX.

Morning at home, lounge, a large family, Mr. Cook and Mr. Cruft dine here, evening, John out at Houston’s,1punning scene at home until very late.
1. Possibly John H. Houston, clerk in the fifth auditor’s office (Washington Directory, 1822, p. 45).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-04

4. VIII:30.

Inauguration of JQA to be President, procession, walk to the Capitol, home, receiving company, Madame unwell, expresident’s, with Burton, evening, ball.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-05

5. IX:30.

Arise fatigued, reading Don Juan, Mrs. de Wint disagreeable, walk, change in the city, evening, my uncle and aunt Smith, evening, laziness.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-06

6. IX.

Not at Church. Johnson off, Madame unwell, walk, Don Juan, my own letters, evening, conversation John and Burton, Mr. Davis &c.,1 warmth, second visit to A., child.
1. The Boston lawyer, John Brazer Davis, who was seeking a diplomatic appointment (Henry Dearborn to JQA, 24 Jan. 1825, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-07

7. IX.

Morning at home, walk with Burton, visit my aunts Frye and Smith, { 454 } return, pleasant dinner, Mr. Cruft and Sullivan, English wine, evening, Oyster supper.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-08

8. VI.

Off for Baltimore with George and Mrs. De Wint, Rossburgh, Baltimore, Steam boat to Philadelphia, Mr. Cruft, Genl. Dearborn1 &c., New Castle, ride across in the night.
1. General Henry Dearborn (1751–1829). See DAB.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-09

9.

But little sleep, steam boat, Philadelphia, Ives, [get on?], Trenton, ride to New Brunswick, arise late, Crowninshield, conversation, remain up until late, George, beds.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-10

10. VI.

Arise, clear weather, Steam boat Thistle to New York, arrive and dress, Bunker’s,1 leave Mrs. de Wint, City Hotel, billiards with Ives, eve., Theatre, School for Reform.2
1. Charles Bunker, who had been in GWA’s junior class at Harvard (Harvard Annual Cat., 1819).
2. A comedy by Thomas Morton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-11

11. VIII:30.

Morning, lounge, to Castle Garden, Ives, character, pleasant day, afternoon, off with Mr. Cruft in Steam boat Providence for New Haven, sleep on board, rain.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-12

12. VI.

New Haven, start for Hartford, stage, fine weather and bad roads, company uninteresting, on for Boston, Mr. Cruft, supper at Vernon and travel all night.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-13

13.

Travelling, Worcester, breakfast 1 2 o’clock, fine weather, company, dry goods merchants, observations, arrive in Boston at 9 o’clock, Mr. Cruft’s, news of part.1
1. During CFA’s absence from Cambridge, Harvard College authorities had assigned him a part in the spring exhibition, which was to be held on 26 April (GWA to LCA, 20 Mar. 1825, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-14

14. IX.

Boston, walking, business, walking, Dr. Welsh’s, conversation, dine at Mr. Cruft’s, lady and children,1 afternoon Stage to Quincy, my Grandfather and family.
1. The Crufts had, at this time or subsequently, five children; they are listed in the Elizabeth Smith Scrapbook (MHi).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-15

15. IX.

Quincy, arise, remain at home all day, Miss Thaxter, my Uncle unwell, Abby, my aunt &c., conversation, George arrived, high spirits.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-16

16. X.

Morning spent at home, performing very little, spirits extremely high, dinner agreeable, argument with George, much conversation during the day. Mary.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-17

17. VII.

Morning off to Boston and Cambridge, find all my acquaintance, spend remainder of the day in conversation with Sheafe, Richardson and Otis.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-18

18. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and recitation, lectures, Dr. Ware and Mr. Ticknor, afternoon, Declamation, ride with Otis, Savin Hill, billiards, return to tea, evening at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-19

19. VIII:30

Missed Prayers and lecture, Dr. Ware, ride to Boston with Richardson, George Briggs, conversation, dine at the Exchange, Savin Hill, return, Heinrich’s Concert, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-20

20. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, Mr. Frothingham, walk, evening, employed at home, Forensics.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-21

21. VI.

Prayers, recitations, Say, Brown,1 Lectures, Ware and Ticknor, at home all day, evening at Hammond’s,2 occupant of No. 5.
1. A copy of Thomas Brown’s Lectures on the Human Mind, 3 vols., Andover, 1822, is among JA’s books in the Boston Public Library. See Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 36.
{ 456 }
2. William Dawes Hammond, of Boston, a sophomore (Harvard Annual Cat., 1824).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-22

22. VI:5

Missed Prayers, recitation, Say, Brown, Lectures, Ware and Ticknor, at home, evening at Richardson’s. Perkins and Lothrop.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-23

23. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Brown, Lectures, Ware and Ticknor, difficulty, Richardson and Hammond, evening, Theatre with Richardson, Tom and Jerry, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-24

24. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Theme, Lectures, Ware and Ticknor, Brown, evening, Theatre with Richardson, Widow of Cornhill, Mrs. Henry, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-25

25. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Lecture, Ware, missed Ticknor, Declamation, ride with Otis, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, accident to Chaise, repaired, eve. at Richardsons.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-26

26. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, and lecture, Ware, stormy, at home all day, afternoon, Sheafe’s, Cunningham, Chapman, a glass of Punch, evening at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-27

27. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, missed in the afternoon, unpleasant weather, evening at home, reading and writing.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-28

28. VI.

Prayers, recitations, Say, missed Brown, Lectures, Ware, Ticknor, ride to Boston with Sheafe, dine at the Exchange, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, Theatre, Stranger,1 return.
1. A drama by Augustus von Kotzebue.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-29

29. VI:10.

Missed Prayers, recitations, Say, Brown, review, last lecture Ware, { 457 } Ticknor, evening, ride to Boston with Sheafe, Theatre, The Honey Moon, Mrs. Barnes.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-30

30. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation, Say, Brown review, lecture, Ticknor, evening spent at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0003-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-03-31

31. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lecture, Ticknor, at home rest of the day, reading Shakespear and writing, evening at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-01

April. 1825. Friday. 1. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Lecture, Ticknor, ride to Boston with Richardson, George not at home, return, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, evening, Howard, Whist, Richardson’s, Champagne.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-02

2. VIII.

Missed Prayers, ride to Neponset in a Tandem with Sheafe, Billiards, dinner and Champagne, evening, return through Quincy, spend an hour at Sheafe’s, a glass of Punch.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-03

3. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, missed in the afternoon, weather stormy, evening, a slight supper and a glass of punch at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-04

4. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Lecture, Ticknor, ride with Richardson to Savin Hill, Billiards, thence to Boston, Theatre, Isabella or the Fatal Marriage,1 Mrs. Barnes.
1. A tragedy “altered” from the work of Thomas Southern.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-05

5. VIII.

Missed Prayers and recitation, Lecture, Ticknor, day spent idly in Cambridge, evening drill of the H[arvard] W[ashington] Corps and a light supper at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-06

6. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, obtain leave of absence, Lecture from Bigelow,1 Stage to Boston, George, thence to Quincy, my Grandfather and family well.
1. During their final two terms at Harvard, seniors were given an opportunity to hear lectures from eminent professors in all departments of the college. For a schedule of these lectures, see Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, p. 229.
CFA intended to write out the lectures of Dr. Jacob Bigelow (1787–1879), the Rumford professor, who was also professor of materia medica, on “the application of the Sciences to the Arts,” but he succeeded in taking notes on only the first of them. See Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314. For others of these lectures which CFA attended see entries for 11, 12, and 25 April, and 7 June, below.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-07

7. IX:30.

Fast day. Arise, go to Meeting, Mr. Brooks,1 remain at home in the afternoon composing a Conference,2 evening conversation with George and a glass of Punch.
1. Presumably Charles Brooks, the Congregational minister at Hingham (Mass. Register, 1824, p. 86).
2. See entry for 26 April, below.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-08

8. X.

Arise, extensive fire in Boston last evening,1 at home all day, reading the Liaisons Dangereuses,2 state of feeling, argument with my Uncle.
1. The fire, which started in a store on Doane Street, spread quickly and destroyed 53 buildings, causing damage estimated at half a million dollars (Columbian Centinel, 9 April 1825).
2. By Pierre Ambroise François Choderlos de Laclos, first published in Paris in 1796.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-09

9. VIII.

Arise, return to Boston, dull ride with my Aunt, George, Briggs,1 dinner with the former and a Cigar, evening Stage to Cambridge, Pratt, lovely walk, Richardson’s, a glass of Punch.
1. Cyrus Briggs, who had been in GWA’s class at Harvard.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-10

10. VIII.

Missed Prayers, remain at home all day, name still out, writing my Conference, evening, Freshpond, walk, with Richardson, supper and conversation.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-11

11. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed Ticknor and Warren,1 ride to Bos• { 459 } ton, Richardson, Franklin Hotel, billiards, dinner at the Exchange, evening, Theatre, Sweethearts and Wives.
1. John Collins Warren, Harvard 1797, M.D. (hon.) 1819, Hersey professor of anatomy and surgery from 1815 to 1847 (Harvard Quinquennial Cat.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-12

12. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed Ticknor and Webster,1 ride to Boston with Richardson, Franklin Hotel, billiards, evening, Circus, Cataract of the Ganges, Oysters, return.
1. John White Webster, Harvard 1811, M.D. 1815, at this time lecturer in chemistry, mineralogy, and geology, and subsequently Erving professor of chemistry and mineralogy at Harvard (Harvard Quinquennial Cat.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-13

13. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, and recitation, Say, and Ticknor’s Lecture, attended Bigelow and Warren, missed Webster, evening, Carriage, Theatre, The Apostate,1 Supper, Exchange, return.
1. A tragedy by Richard Lalor Shiel.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-14

14. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed Ticknor and Webster, ride with Howard, Champagne, sup at the Punch Bowl,1 unwell, to Boston, evening, a visit to S.B., state of feeling, return.
1. Presumably the Old Punch Bowl Tavern in Brookline (Shurtleff, Description of Boston, p. 424).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-15

15. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed the Lectures of the day, ride to Boston with Sheafe, conversation with George, dine at the Exchange, return, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, return, company drill, evening, meeting of the K.S.T., at home early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-16

16. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, ride to Neponset tandem with Richardson, dine there, play Billiards, Champagne, return through Quincy, early, to bed.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-17

17. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, excused from Chapel, at home all day, idle, evening with Richardson and Sheafe, Champagne Wine, late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-18

18. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Missed the Lectures, ride to Boston with Sheafe, dine Exchange Coffee House, return, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, Company drill, evening at Otis’.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-19

19. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, and recitation, Celebration at Concord,1 Richardson and I to Neponset, tandem, billiards, return through Quincy, evening, Champagne wine.
1. Edward Everett made the principal address at the ceremony commemorating the battle of Concord. See “The First Battles of the Revolutionary War,” in Everett’s Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions, 1:73–100.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-20

20. VIII:40.

Missed Prayers and recitations all day, ride to Boston, George, conversation, evening, Theatre, John Bull,1 Howard, Sheafe and Richardson, Supper at the Exchange.
1. A comedy by George Colman.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-21

21. VII:30.

Boston, ride to Brooklyn, party of four, luncheon, return, George, dine at the Exchange, evening, Circus, stupid, return to Cambridge.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-22

22. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, missed Mr. Ticknor’s Lecture, Dr. Bigelow, drill, declamation, to Boston, Theatre, She stoops to Conquer, return, Richardson’s, to bed late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-23

23. VIII:40.

Missed the exercises, morning at home, horseback to Lexington, Sheafe and Richardson, fatigue, evening to Boston, return early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-24

24. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers. Chapel, Dr. Kirkland, Dr. Ware, excessive fatigue, evening at Richardson’s, punch, Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-25

25. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Lecture, Dr. Jackson,1 ride to Neponset with Sheafe, billiards, return early.
{ 461 }
1. James Jackson, Harvard 1796, M.D. 1809, Hersey professor of the theory and practice of physic from 1812 to 1836 (Harvard Quinquennial Cat.).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-26

26. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Exhibition day, my part,1 George, Company parade, visit President Kirkland, Officers, Collation at Cunningham’s, retire early.
1. CFA, Nathaniel James Lord, and Allyne Otis had assigned parts in a conference on “Internal Improvements, Commerce, and Manufactures, as Objects of National Policy” (Records of the College Faculty, 10:85–86, Harvard Archives). CFA argued that “Internal improvements form the van in the march of Freedom as the ease of communication and extension of knowledge which they afford are the primary objects of destruction with despots.” See two copies of his “Internal Improvement as an Object of National Policy,” Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel Nos. 55 and 469. Benjamin Waterhouse reported that CFA “did credit to himself” (Waterhouse to JQA, 26 April 1825, Adams Papers), and Anne Royall wrote that “The modest youth was overwhelmed with applause” (Mrs. Royall to JA, 29 April 1825, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-27

27. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, and recitation, Lectures, Dr. Bigelow, Jackson and Warren, entertainment at Dwight’s, evening to Boston. Supper at the Exchange to our friends, Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-28

28. IX:30.

Missed Prayers and recitation, a Theme, Lecture, Dr. Jackson, afternoon, ride with Sheafe, Lincoln and Weston, return early.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-29

29. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Dr. Bigelow’s Lecture, Jackson’s and Warren’s, evening, Sheafe and Richardson at my room. Oysters and Claret.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0004-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-04-30

30. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, and Lecture, ride horseback to Concord with Richardson and Sheafe. Dinner given to us by Richardson, early return, a lobster at my room.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-01

May. 1825. Sunday. 1. IX.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, President Kirkland, amusing Sermon, Dr. Ware, evening, walk and visit to Richardson.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-02

2. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, missed Jackson’s, attended Webster and Warren, low spirits, evening, visit to Otis.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-03

3. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, attended Jackson, missed Webster, Neponset with Sheafe, billiards, return, evening, a lobster at Richardson’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-04

4. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Bigelow’s lecture, Everett’s1 and Warren’s, weather rainy, at home all day and evening.
1. Professor Everett resumed his lectures on Greek literature. In his Notebook (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 314) CFA made on 4 May a full report of Everett’s first lecture, on Greek history and philosophy, but the subsequent lectures in the series through 11 May, on Socrates, Plato, etc., he recorded only in rough notes, which he doubtless intended later to amplify and transcribe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-05

5. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and recitation, Say, lectures, Everett and Warren, missed Webster’s, reading Shakespear and Ford,1 evening at Otis’.
1. JQA’s set of The Dramatic Works of John Ford, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1811, is in the Stone Library.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-06

6. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, Bigelow, missed Everett’s, Webster’s, Warren’s, ride to Boston, dine with George, pleasant conversation, evening return, Sheafe’s, Wine.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-07

7. VIII:45.

Missed Prayers, lectures, attended Bigelow, bath, dinner, horseback ride to Neponset, billiards, return, evening a lobster at Sheafe’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-08

8. IX.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, President Kirkland, Dr. Ware, evening a walk, and conversation at Otis’.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-09

9. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, Everett, Missed Warren’s and Webster’s, ride to Boston with Richardson, Franklin Hotel, billiards, dine at Exchange, eve., Circus, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-10

10. VI:15.

Missed Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, Everett, missed Webster, weather bad, evening at Otis, conversation concerning Rundlet and consequent astonishment.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-11

11. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, lectures, Bigelow, Everett, afternoon, Dudleian lecture, Mr. Jenks, Errors of popery,1 evening, walk, at Richardson’s.
1. William Jenks lectured on “The Grand Apostasy & Anti-Christian Influence of Papal Rome Considered” (Harvard Archives).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-12

12. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Say, Theme, ride horseback with Richardson, Franklin Hotel, Billiards, execrable dinner, Boston, Rouillard’s,1 compensated. Circus, remain at the Exchange.
1. Frederic Rouillard’s restaurant, on Milk Street (Boston Directory, 1823).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-13

13. VIII:30.

Boston. Arise, breakfast, ride to Neponset, horse capricious, dine there and billiards, return to Cambridge, earnest conversation with R., evening, Porter at Sheafe’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-14

14. VIII:45

Missed Prayers, lectures, attended Bigelow, morning at home, after dinner, ride with Richardson to Newton falls, tea at his father’s, family, return early to Camb.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-15

15. IX.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, President Kirkland all day, very dull, at home, evening, Porter and Cheese at Sheafe’s.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-16

16. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, Lecture, Mr. Everett, ride to Boston with Sheafe, dine at Rouillard’s. Pleasant conversation with George, long ride home, evening quiet.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-17

17. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, Howard, a party to Sudbury, { 464 } ride with Richardson, dine there, rain, return, race between Otis and Howard, argument.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-18

18. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, missed Lecture, visit from George and Wheatland, ride horseback with Otis and Chapman, evening at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-19

19. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, a Forensic. Students to leave Cambridge, evening at home, Ford’s Plays.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-20

20. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, morning at my room, quiet. Stage to Boston, George’s room, Stage leaves me, remain with him, Briggs, Cheney,1 his friends.
1. John Milton Cheney, from Lincoln, who had been in GWA’s Harvard class (Harvard Annual Cat., 1820).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-21

21. VII:30.

Boston. Arise, tired with Boston, walk to Quincy, Neponset, billiards dull, arrive to dinner, family, evening quiet.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-22

22. IX:30.

Arise, at home all day, quiet, Butler’s Analogy,1 dry, evening, Mr. Degrand from Boston.
1. JQA’s two copies of Joseph Butler’s The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature, published in London in 1736 and 1791, are in the Stone Library. JA’s copy of Butler, London, 1785, 7th edition, is among his books in the Boston Public Library. See Catalogue of JA’s Library, p. 40.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-23

23. VII.

Arise, quiet at home, my grandfather, my Uncle as usual, dull, reflection on comparative situation.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-24

24. VIII:50.

Arise, Morning at home, Butler’s Analogy, Liaisons Dangereuses, dangerous book, dull at home.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-25

25. VII:30.

Arise, leave Quincy, Stage to Boston, Election day,1 Boston Cadets, George, fatigue, conversation, walk to Cambridge, solitary at my room.
1. The General Court met on 25 May and elected Nathaniel Silsbee president of the Senate and Timothy Fuller speaker of the House. The following day they examined the votes for governor and declared Levi Lincoln elected (Columbian Centinel, 28 May 1825).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-26

26. VIII.

Cambridge. Richardson calls for me, ride to Worcester through Newton, Needham, Natick, Framingham and Westborough, dine here, evening walk at Worcester.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-27

27. VII:30.

Leave Worcester, pass through Leicester, Charlton, dine at Stur-bridge, Holland to Stafford, wrong tavern, wretched accommodations.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-28

28. V:30.

Leave Stafford, delightful ride through Tolland to Vernon, excellent breakfast, East Hartford and Hartford, to Tudor, at his house, Wine.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-29

29. VIII.

Hartford. Tudor’s, Church, Mr. Wheaton,1 dine with Tudor, ride to Major Watson’s,2 East Windsor, Connecticut river, return, evening walk.
1. Nathaniel S. Wheaton, rector of the Episcopal church in Hartford from 1821 to 1831, and subsequently President of Trinity College (James Hammond Trumbull, The Memorial History of Hartford County, Connecticut, 1633–1884, Boston, 1886, 1:406, 437).
2. Benjamin Watson, breveted major in 1814 for gallantry in the battle of Niagara Falls (Heitman, Register U.S. Army).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-30

30. VIII.

Hartford. Leave Tudor, agreeable visit, ride up the course of the river, beautiful country, Windsor, Suffield, West Springfield to Springfield, meet Dwight, ride horseback.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0005-0031

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-05-31

31. VIII.

Springfield. Armory U.S., dine with Dwight, pleasant, evening ride to Northampton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0001

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-01

June. 1825. Wednesday. 1. VIII.

Northampton. W. B. Lee, Round Hill,1 ascent of Mt. Holyoke, warm, Miss Warren, dine with Blake, Payne and others. Ives, Sturgis,2 lively and agreeable Supper.
1. The site of the experimental school conducted by George Bancroft and Joseph Green Cogswell.
2. Russell Sturgis, of Boston, a member of the Harvard class of 1823, who did not, however, receive his degree until 1845.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0002

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-02

2. VIII.

Northampton. Weather rainy, leave it and pass through Amherst to Belchertown, dine, irritable, scene with Richardson, pain in my teeth, stop at Ware, conversation.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0003

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-03

3. VII:40.

Ware Factory village, leave it, pass through Brookfield and South Brookfield to Spencer, execrable dinner, through Leicester to Worcester, pleasant day, pain in my teeth.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0004

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-04

4. VIII.

Leave Worcester, rain and uncomfortable, Westborough to Framingham, good dinner, return to Cambridge, evening, Sheafe, agreeable conversation.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0005

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-05

5. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, Mr. Gilman, return to old habits, weather cold, fires, conversation with Sheafe, about Lothrop and others, our conclusions.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0006

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-06

6. VI.

Prayers, a Miss, weather unpleasant, at home all day, Traits of Nature, Miss Burney,1 very quiet. Artillery Election.
1. Sarah H. Burney, Traits of Nature: A Novel, 5 vols., London, 1812.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0007

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-07

7. VI.

Prayers, Lectures, Dr. Webster, Judge Parker,1 to Boston with { 467 } Sheafe, dine at Rouillard’s, long ride, return, find Richardson, at his room, Potter and Conversation.
1. Isaac Parker, Harvard 1786, Royall professor of law from 1816 to 1827, and chief justice of the Supreme Judicial Court from 1814 to 1830 (DAB).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0008

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-08

8. VIII.

Missed Prayers and Dr. Webster, attended Dr. Bigelow and Judge Parker, ride with Sheafe, Neponset, Billiards, my Uncle, return to Boston, Theatre, Tom and Jerry, Exchange, Supper, late return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0009

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-09

9. VIII.

Missed Prayers and Lectures, ride with Richardson, Billiards at the Franklin Hotel, Dedham, Howard and Sheafe, hot and dull, Boston, Museum,1 Exchange, Supper, late return.
1. The Boston Museum, on what was called Conduit Street, between the conduit and Roebuck Passage, for the exhibition of “curious and rare objects” (Shurtleff, Description of Boston, p. 402).

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0010

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-10

10. VIII.

Missed Prayers and Lectures, attended Dr. Bigelow, afternoon ride with Richardson, long ride, Franklin Hotel, billiards, early return and quiet evening.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0011

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-11

11. VIII.

Missed Prayers, and Lecture, quiet day at home, afternoon ride with Sheafe to Woburn Pavillion, return, thunder storm, darkness and fire flies, arrive safe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0012

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-12

12. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, Dr. Kirkland, quiet at home, conversation with Richardson and Sheafe, argument, Nahant.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0013

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-13

13. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, ride with Sheafe to Nahant, Nine pins, dress for dinner, no company, Mrs. Hammond, fishing, billiards, quiet evening.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0014

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-14

14. VII.

Nahant, Fishing and Billiards, Company, Prescott, Rowe and others, disgusting, return to fishing, quiet evening, Picquet with Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0015

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-15

15. VII:15.

Nahant, Billiards, arrival of Richardson and Howard shortly after, dinner, large company, Lothrop, our feelings, Cod fishing, boat, qualmish, ride to Lynn, conversation with Richardson, evening, Supper, very jovial.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0016

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-16

16. VII.

Rain, leave Nahant, Lynn, Cambridge, thence with Sheafe to Boston, dine at the Exchange Coffee House, crowd, George, return to Cambridge.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0017

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-17

17. VI.

Prayers, no lecture, ride to Charlestown with Richardson, Bunker Hill, Mr. Webster’s address,1 crowd, to Boston, Franklin Hotel, billiards, return to Cambridge fatigued.
1. Daniel Webster made the principal address at the laying of the cornerstone of the Bunker Hill monument. It was printed as An Address Delivered at the Laying of the Corner Stone of the Bunker Hill Monument, Boston, 1825, and went through numerous editions.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0018

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-18

18. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, and Lecture, at home all day, quiet, Rothelan,1 reflection, evening at Sheafe’s, conversation.
1. John Galt, Rothelan: A Romance of the English Histories, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1824.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0019

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-19

19. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Mr. Colman, figures, evening, to Boston with Richardson, Boston Common, Supper at the Exchange and return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0020

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-20

20. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and exercises, to Boston with Sheafe, dine at the Exchange, ride to Savin Hill, Billiards, return to Boston, Theatre, Genl. La Fayette, Supper, return late.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0021

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-21

21. IX.

Missed Prayers and exercises, ride with Howard, Roxbury, Strawberries, return, election of officers for Company, Corn. McLean, to Boston with Richardson, Exchange, return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0022

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-22

22. VIII.

Missed Prayers and exercises, party to the Blue Hills,1 ride with Richardson, Champagne, Howard and Sheafe, return early.
1. In Milton.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0023

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-23

23. VIII:30.

Missed Prayers and exercises, to Boston with Richardson, dine at Rouillard’s, George, to Neponset, billiards, return to Cambridge.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0024

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-24

24. VII:30.

Missed Prayers and exercises, morning at home, afternoon Declamation, ride with Richardson to Woburn, thence to Boston, return late to Cambridge.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0025

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-25

25. VII:30.

Missed Prayers, unpleasant weather, at home all day, Juliet Grenville, Sheafe returns, quiet and reflection upon the past fortnight.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0026

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-26

26. VIII.

Missed Prayers, Chapel, Dr. Ware, Dr. Kirkland, evening, pleasant ride with Richardson, conversation, Juliet Grenville.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0027

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-27

27. VIII:20.

Missed Prayers and recitation, Lecture, Judge Parker, Law, to Boston with Richardson, George, argument. Neponset, billiards, Sheafe, strawberries, early return.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0028

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-28

28. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, morning at home, sick and low spirits, private admonition for negligence, farce, at home, Conversation with Sheafe.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0029

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-29

29. VII.

Missed Prayers and review, morning at home, Novels, Rhoda,1 ride with Sheafe, conversation, evening at home.
1. Anon., Rhoda: A Novel, 3 vols., London, 1816.

Docno: ADMS-13-01-02-0004-0006-0030

Author: CFA
Date: 1825-06-30

30. VI.

Prayers, recitation, Paley, a review, at home all day, finish Rhoda, Otis, conversation, Sheafe and Richardson, Lyceum Club troubles.
Cite web page as: Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses, ed.C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2014.
http://www.masshist.org/apde2/