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Browsing: Diary of John Quincy Adams, Volume 1


Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-17

Thursday 17th of August 1780.

This morning Pappa went out with Mr. Deneufvilles son and stay'd some time. At about one o clock Pappa got back. At about 2 { 56 } o clock Pappa went out to dinner with Commodore Gillon but brother Charles and myself dined at home. After dinner Brother Charles went to take a walk and got back at about 4 o clock. Pappa Got home at about six o clock.
End of the first Volume of my Journal. J Q Adams. MDCCLXXX.1
1. In the margin, to the left of this paragraph, is a note which reads: “Vive the King of france [ . . . ] mon ami Navarre mon cher ami,” a reference to the French king Henry IV (1553–1610). Possibly JQA had attended a performance of a work such as Henri IV, ou la Bataille d'lvry, Paris [1775], by Jean Paul Egide Martini and Barnabé Farmian Durosoy, in which are the lines: “Vive Henri, mon Roi! a mon Sire! mon bon Maître,” followed by the refrain of a song, “Vive Henri” (Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-18

Friday 18th of August 1780.1

This morning Mr. Deneufville's son came here with his father's carriage and at about ten o clock Pappa, Mr. Deneufville son, brother Charles, and myself went to see the admiralty. We saw all the magazines of cables, ropes compasses, Blocks, sails, Flags, &c. After this we went on board one of the Dutch Men of war of seventy four Guns which was on the camels which are machines made to lift the body of the ship this harbour not being deep enough to come in without. The ship is call'd the Admiral de Ruyter who was a famous dutch Admiral. The Ships here are not so long as the French ships are in general. The Officers on board treated us with a great deal of Politeness. The dutch ships as well as every thing else in Holland are exceeding clean. The decks are as clean as any room could be kept. After this we went on board a yatcht which was very fine and elegant indeed. This Yatcht is for the Admiralty whenever they go out on a party of pleasure. After this we went to see a seventy four gun ship which is on the stocks and then we came home again, when we got to our lodgings Mr. Deneufville son left us. We all dined at home. After dinner Pappa went to the Premiere Bible2 to see some American Gentlemen who live there. Pappa got back at about six oclock.
1. This entry begins after two blank leaves which separate the first and second parts (“volumes,” in JQA's terminology) of this Diary booklet.
2. Here JQA has inserted in the margin, “see volume 1st. page 37 of my Journal,” a reference to the last sentence in his entry of 10 Aug. (above).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-19

Saturday 19th of August 1780.

This morning Pappa, brother Charles, and myself went to a booksellers shop where we bought a dictionary, a Grammar, and the History of Gilblas in Dutch.1 We met there Mr. Guile2 who brought letters for us Mr. Ingraham3 and another american Gentleman, we came to our lodgings and Mr. Guile gave us some letters. I receive two letters one dated april tenth and the other may eighth4 but no news. At about two oclock Commodore Gillon came here and, Pappa Commodore Gillon brother Charles and myself went to dine at an American Gentleman's house who has been here Nine years. After dinner we went to see some horses. We saw seven horses which were of a brown colour with white manes and tails. They are very rare and they ask five thousand Gilders for the seven. We came back and drank tea at Mr. Le Roi5 (for that is the name of the Gentleman's) house. After tea we all came home. Commodore Gillon did not come in.
1. Among JQA's books is Alain René Le Sage, Het Leven van Gil Blas van Santillane, 4 vols., Amsterdam, 1756, with the MS inscription, “J.Q. Adams, Nov. 22: 1780.” On 25 Aug. he received from his father William Sewel's Nieuw Woordenboek Der Nederduytsche en Engelsche Taale, Amsterdam, n.d., and the companion work by the same author, A New Dictionary English and Dutch, Amsterdam, 1691 (Catalogue of JQA's Books); see also Adams Family Correspondence,3:xv. No Dutch grammar as such survives in either JA's or JQA's library.
2. Benjamin Guild, who had left for Europe in the late spring “to extend his Connections and make useful Observations,” and returned to Massachusetts in Nov. 1781 (Samuel Cooper to JA, 11 May, Adams Papers; Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates, 17:161–166).
3. Probably Duncan Ingraham Jr., a Bostonian and partner in the American mercantile firm of Sigourney, Ingraham & Bromfield, which was established in Amsterdam in early 1781 (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:535; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:453–454, 456).
4. Neither letter found.
5. Herman Le Roy, oldest surviving son of Jacob Le Roy of New York, had strong kinship and mercantile connections in the Netherlands. In the late 1780s he formed a mercantile firm with his brother-in-law, William Bayard, which became one of the largest commercial houses in New York city (Alexander Du Bin, ed., Le Roy Family and Collateral Lines . . ., Phila., 1941, p. 5–6. For a discussion of JA's relationship with the Le Roy family, see Adams Family Correspondence,4:148.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-20

Sunday 20th of August 1780.

This morning Commodore Gillon came here at about nine o clock and We all went to a gentleman's house who lives in the Country. We walk'd out of the City and then we found a coach with four horses waiting for us which Commodore Gillon had hired for us. At about a quarter after eleven o clock we arrived there. We went to walk with that Gentleman Whose name is { 58 } Hooft1 and who is a Burger master of the city of Amsterdam, we walk'd some time and then came back and dined. After dinner we went to see a Gentleman whose name is Crommelin,2 he came from New York fifty Six years agone. We stay'd there some time and walk'd in his Garden and then came back to the Burger Masters and drank tea there. After tea we set away from there, and arrived at home at about half after eight o clock.
1. Henrik Hooft, Danielszoon, Amsterdam merchant and banker, regarded by JA as “the most respectable friend of America in that city” (Johan E. Elias, De Vroedschap van Amsterdam, 1578–1795. . ., 2 vols., Haarlem, 1903–1905, 2:726; JA, Corr. in the Boston Patriot, p. 345–346).
2. Daniël Crommelin, of the Amsterdam mercantile house Crommelin & Zonnen, who supported American independence and with whom, as the elder Adams' Diary records, JA had early and frequent contact (Eliza Fenno Richards, “The Crommelin Family in Europe and America,” N.Y. Geneal. and Biog. Rec., 24:67–70 [April 1893]).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-21

Monday 21st of August 1780.

This morning Commodore Gillon came here and went out with Pappa to take a Walk and did not come back till about half after eleven o clock: at about two o clock Pappa went out to dinner but Brother Charles and I dined at home. At about five o clock a man came to be a Dutch Master for Brother Charles and I, he is to give us his first Lesson to morrow morning at six o clock. At about 6 o clock Pappa went to the play with Commodore Gillon and got back at about ten o clock P.M.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-22

Tuesday 22d of August 1780.

This morning Pappa went out to take a walk and did not come back till about three quarters after eleven. At about half after twelve Mr. Guile came here. Pappa dined at home and Mr. Guile dined here. Very bad weather all the fore part of the day but in the afternoon it clear'd up. The weather is very uncertain here. There was one man kill'd and another stunn'd to day by a clap of thunder in the morning at about nine o clock just out of the gates of this city.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-23

Wednesday 23d of August 1780.

Pappa went out in the morning and came home and dined at home. Our Master comes every morning at six and every noon. Nothing very remarkable this day.
Reading a Volume entitled the World I found this fable.1
{ 59 }
1. A fable about wisdom and folly, copied on the following half-page of the Diary, appeared in The World No. 120, 17 April 1755. The edition that JQA used is not known.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-24

Thursday 24th of August 1780.

This day at about half after twelve PM. Commodore Gillon came here and went into the country with Pappa, but Brother Charles and I did not go. At about half after five Pappa came back and stay'd about an hour when Commodore Gillon came again and Pappa went out to spend the evening some where with Commodore Gillon but I do not know where. At about half after ten o clock Pappa got home again.
Reading the World I found another fable which I will transcribe also.1
1. A fable about labor, health, and contentment, which follows on the next two and one-half pages of the Diary, appeared in The World No. 143, 25 Sept. 1755.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-25

Friday 25th of August 1780.

This morning at about half after ten o clock Mr. Leroi came to our lodgings and then went with Pappa brother Charles and myself to see the medicinal garden, we saw there several american Plants. After having seen this we walk'd out of town upon the dyke and got home at about two o clock. Pappa dined out but brother Charles and myself dined at home. At about half after four o clock Pappa got home and at about five we went to Mr. Leroi's where we drank tea, after tea Mr. Le Roi and two other Gentlemen went with us to see the Jews Synagogue and hear them sing. When we first got there it was not begun and therefore we went to another Synagogue Which does not sing tonight. When we got back it was almost time for them to begin. An old man with a long beard read a chapter of the bible in hebrew after which three of them sung. They seem'd to me to be songs as I beleive they were and not psalms. There was a vast congregation. The women have a place up above but no woman can go to church without being married but the men can.
They say there are an hundred Thousand Jews in this town, I am sure they are all wretched creatures for I think I never saw in my life such a set of miserable looking people, and they would steal your eyes out of your head if they possibly could. At about eight o clock we got back. Brother Charles and I went to the Post office for Letters but found but one which was for Stephens.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-26

Saturday the 26th of August 1780.

This morning at about eight o clock Mr. Le Roi came here and went with Pappa, brother Charles and myself to buy some books. We went through the Exchange into a street call'd Kalve Straat. We went to 2 booksellers shops and Pappa bought a Latin Grammar and some Greek testaments.1 After this we went along another road back again, coming we came through the Exchange. At about twelve o clock we got back to our lodgings. Mr. Le Roi left us. In the afternoon brother Charles and I went to take a walk.
1. These works cannot be positively identified.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-27

Sunday August 27th 1780.

This morning at about half after seven o clock Mr. Le Roi came to our lodgings and at about eight o clock he went with My Pappa, brother Charles, Stevens, and myself down to a boat where we found two Gentlemen and two ladies. We set away and went out of the port on board the1 South Carolina for Captn. Joyner we did not go on board. We then went to Surdam[Zaandam?] which is a Village in North Holland. We took a walk there and we went into the church where there is the picture of something which happen'd here some Years agone, A Wild Bull having got loose he run to a Woman took her upon his horns and threw her at an immense Height, while she was up in the air she was delivered of a Child which fell down and was kill'd. The bull then run and kill'd a Man and when the Woman fell she was kill'd also, this picture is represented in the Church. After having walk'd a mile or two we came back to the boat and set sail. We pass'd by Amsterdam again and went down to another place the name of which I don't know. We went and took a walk and then came back and dined on board the boat. After dinner Mr. Le Roi a nother Gentleman Stephens, my brother Charles and myself went to see if we could not find a place to go into water. We walked some ways and at last found a good place to go into. We went in and found the Water very deep. We swam a little while and then came back on board the boat and we then set sail and went again on board the South Carolina where we drank tea and stay'd some time, after tea we set away from on board the ship and sail'd to Amsterdam. The Gentlemen and ladies came with us as far as our lodgings and then left us.
{ 61 }
1. At this point JQA makes the marginal note, “see Volume 1st of my Journal Page 43d.,” which refers to his entry of 14 Aug. (above), describing his first visit on board the South Carolina. As Joyner was captain of the South Carolina, the meaning of the remainder of this sentence remains obscure.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-28

Monday August 28th 1780.

This morning Pappa went out to take a walk and did not get back till about half after one o clock. At about two o clock Pappa went out to dine at Mr. Staphorst where I dined Some Time agone.1 At about half after four o clock Mr. McCrery2 came here with another Gentleman to see Pappa but not finding him they went away again. At about Six o clock Pappa got back to our lodgings. I received three Letters from Paris from my Schoolmates3 which Mr. McCrery brought with him.
1. JQA's marginal note here, “Vide Volume 1st page 42 of my Journal,” refers to his entry of 14 Aug. (above).
2. William McCreery, an American merchant at Bordeaux (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:294, 450).
3. Letters not found.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-29

Tuesday August 29th 1780.

This morning Mr. Le Roi came here and also Mr. Guild. Mr. Guild dined here and drank tea here. At about tea time Mr. LeRoi came here. He has recieved a letter from Bruxelles in which there is some good news and an Extract of which I will now take.
Extract of a Letter from Bruxelles August 27th. 1780.
The English Post due three days ago is not yet arrived but by a private Conveyance we learn that the English Admiralty have received certain advice that their fleet bound to the West Indias consisting of fifty four Sail with a regiment of Soldiers on board convoy'd by a Ship of the line and a frigate and accompanied by five East India Ships had, on the 8th Instant in Lat. 36:40 and Long 15 West fallen into the combined French and Spanish fleet from Cadiz, and that almost the whole convoy was taken.1
After tea Pappa went out with Mr. Le Roi and Mr. Guile and got back at about 8 o clock.
1. For a more detailed account of the losses suffered by the British convoy, see The Annual Register . . . for the Year 1781, London, 1782, p. 2–3; and DNB, under John Moutray.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-30

Wednesday 30th of August 1780.

This morning Pappa went out and came back again with Mr. Le Roi. Pappa dined out. Charles and I dined at Mr. Le Roi's. After dinner Mr. Le Roi went with us and some other Gentlemen to see if we could find any Carriage to go into water (as their is no place within 6 Miles) but we could find none and so went back to Mr. Le Roi's where we drank tea and Supp'd. After Supper Mr. Le Roi went with us to a School and left us here. How long we shall stay here I can not tell.1
1. JQA wrote this entry from the famous Latin School on the Singel, Amsterdam's innermost canal, which he and his brother were to attend until 10 Nov., when JA, angered by what he deemed the preceptor's injustice, had them removed (Adams Family Correspondence, 3:425; 4:1112).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0004-0031

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-08-31

Thursday 31st of August 1780.

This morning we got up and I asked the names of all the scholars who board here. They are as follows.
Roghe, Toelaer, Vander Burgs, Hulft, Slingelandt, Brants, Van Lennep, Koene, de Graft, Genets, Petri, Van der Paul, Clifford.1
I will also take down some of the rules of the school. First. In the morning at about six o clock a Servant comes to your chamber (as everyone has his own) and wakes you up. You dress yourself and go into the yard where <you> they amuse themselves till about half after seven and then they go to breakfast which is generally tea or coffy without sugar and a piece of bread and butter, each Scholar has two dishes of tea. They are generally about half an hour at breakfast which brings it to eight o clock. Then they go in to school and stay till eleven and a half when they come out and amuse themselves till one, at one they dine which is upon sometimes one thing some times another. After dinner they amuse themselves till about two when they go in and stay till four and a half. Then they come out for the whole day. At about 9 o clock they sup which is in general what is cold that was not eat at dinner. Generally after supper one of the Scholars reads two or three chapters in the bible. Every one of the young Gentlemen Speak french and it is a general Custom for the Gentlemen to have their sons speak french. Their comes here every day an hundred boys to learn latin. This place was formerly a charity house of a Convent of Religious women. I have a book call'd le { 63 } Guide D'Amsterdam in which this School is spoke of. It is in french but I will translate it as well as I can into English.
LATIN SCHOOL.2
The city having obtained of William 4th Count of Holland in 1342 the Priviledge to establish some Schools, for the instruction of the youth in the Greek and latin tongues: they erected two, one in the convent of the Religious women of the order of Bethani, in the Koestraat, the year 1594. It Stood till the year 1670 when it was left and there was a famous tavern made of it which was call'd groot School. The second School was near the New Church, in the place where the famous John Blaauw had since that Established his printing house which was consumed by fire in 1672.
The Latin School is at present upon the Singel, betwixt the Street call'd Heiligen-weg and the Money tour [tower]. It is a very fine house, it was formerly a charity house, built in the middle of the convent of Religious women of the order of Ste. Claire. There is a large-gate by which you may go in to the yard and on it are these words:
DISCIPLINA VITAE SCIPIO
and under
Arte probus, probitate pius, pietate beatus,
Ut vere fias, haec Schola culta dabit.
which is
by frequenting this School one may learn to be upright by art, pious by sincerity and happy by Piety.
The school is divided into six classes, which have each of them their regent. The one of the first Class is the Rector of the whole college and the one of the second is the con-rector. This School is under the inspection of five persons chosen by the Magistrate; of which three are call'd Scholarques and the other two visitors who are ordinarily a Professor of the Illustrious School and a minister. These five inspectors examine the Scholars every Six months and distribute the prices [prizes] to those who have done the best. Those who after having finish'd their classes wish to be admitted into the Illustrious School are obliged to pronounce a publick Harangue in the Choir of the New church.
ILLUSTRIOUS SCHOOL.
This School was establish'd in 1631 for the commodity3 of the Inhabitants of this city and that the children might have means { 64 } after having finished their Classes to follow their Studies without being obliged to go to any of the universities. The church of the convent of St. Agnes was chosen for that purpose and several of the most distinguished persons for their knowledge in all sorts of Sciences were chosen to be the professors of it, and amongst others Gerard Vossius and Caspar Barlaeus so famous for their works. This last signalized his entry by a very fine speech which he published under the title of the wise merchant; in which he shew the strait union which subsists between the Sciences and Trade.4 There are professors in all sorts of faculties who give regularly publick Lessons at certain days of the week. And for the commodity of those who do not understand the Latin there is a Lector, or Preceptor of Mathematicks, who ever since the year 1709 has given Lessons,5 but whether it is because there were but few auditors or for other reasons, it is not done regularly at present.
There is a very handsome Library there, which is open every wednesday and Saturday, from two till half after five o clock of which one of the Professors takes care in quality of Library Keeper. The Small books are shut up and the great ones tied to brass chains. New books are placed there every year. This School is on the East Side of the Oudezyds Voorburgwal.
Thus I have Translated it as well as I can. At about 10 o clock our things were brought here by Stevens. Pappa and Mr. Le Roi came to see us.
The Holidays are on wednesdays in the afternoon and saturdays in the afternoon. There is eleven weeks Vacancies6 every year.
1. JQA's markings over the students' names, presumably to aid pronunciation, have been deleted.
2. Le Guide,ou nouvelle description d'Amsterdam, Nouvelle édition, augmentée, Amsterdam, 1772, p. 220–222; the book is in JA's library at MB.
3. That is, benefit or advantage (OED).
4. The passage in the source refers to the limited connection between literature and business.
5. Followed in the source by: “in the vernacular, Thursdays and Fridays” (p. 222).
6. That is, vacation.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-01

Friday September the 1st 1780.

To day Pappa came here and brought me a letter from Mr. Thaxter.1 Pappa Says that the news of the English East and west India fleet is confirmed.
{ 65 }
As I shall have but very few things to put down I shall keep a Journal only the days when there will be something Extraodinary.
1. Probably that of 21 Aug. (Adams Family Correspondence, 3:399–400).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-02

Saturday September the 2d 1780.

Half holiday. After School went to Pappa's house. We dined there. After dinner we went to buy the spectators.1 At about six o clock Mr. Guile came to Pappa's and stay'd there a little while. They say that an American Frigate has fell in with sixteen sail of merchant vessels and had taken twelve of them.2 At about 8 o clock Mr. Guile went away. Brother Charles and I are to lodge here this night and we shall not go to school till monday next.
1. See entry for 4 Sept., note 2 (below).
2. On 12 July an American frigate and two privateer brigs captured fourteen vessels of the Quebec Fleet off the banks of Newfoundland (W.S.C. [i.e. Thomas Digges] to JA, 29 Aug. 1780, Adams Papers; The Annual Register . . . For the Year 1781, London, 1782, p. 3).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-03

Sunday September the 3d 1780.

This morning young Mr.1 Brants came and stay'd here. At about nine o clock Mr. Deneufville came here, and a little after that Mr. Guile Mr. Ingraham and Captn. Joyner came and we all set out for Mr. Deneufville's country seat. Mr. Guile, Mr. Ingraham, Pappa, and Captn. Joyner, went in one Coach, and Mr. Deneufville another Gentlemen, young Mr. Brants brother Charles and Myself in the other. At about twelve o clock we arrived at Mr. Deneufville's country seat which is at Harlem. We went to take a Walk before dinner. We dined at about three o clock. At about Six o clock we set away from Harlem after the same manner as we <came> went. We arrived at Amsterdam at about 8 o clock and then Mr. Deneufville and Captn. Joyner left us and young Mr. Brants but Mr. Ingraham and Mr. Guile came in and drank a dish of tea and then they left us. At about ten o clock we went to bed.
1. JQA's marginal note here, “see page 20 of this volume of my Journal,” refers to his entry of 31 Aug. (above), where Brants is listed among the students who board at the school with JQA.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-04

Monday September 4th 1780.

This morning got up at about 7 o clock dressed and breakfasted. After breakfast Pappa wrote a line to the rector1 desireing him to let MY brother Charles and I come to his lodgings every wednesday and Saturday.
Reading a volume of the Spectator I found something in it which is worth copying and therefore I will do it.2
There is another which I will take down also.3
1. Not found.
2. Here follows a quotation of twelve four-line stanzas of a poem in The Spectator, otherwise unidentified by JQA, beginning “When all thy Mercies o my God.” No edition of The Spectator exists in either JA's or JQA's library, though a later citation by JQA to a piece he copied from it indicates that he was using the less common nine-volume edition. Notes regarding JQA's copied passages from The Spectator are based on the five-volume Oxford edition of 1965, edited by Donald F. Bond.
The poem, published in The Spectator No. 453, 9 Aug. 1712 (ed. Bond, 4:96–98), contains thirteen stanzas, the sixth of which was left out by JQA, probably inadvertently, and the rest were numbered out of order by him in the Diary. Like nearly all of his transcriptions, this one has many discrepancies in capitalization and punctuation; in other respects it is faithful. There seems to be no pattern to JQA's choices of poems to copy.
3. Joseph Addison's “translation” of the Twenty-third Psalm, which appeared in The Spectator No. 441, 26 July 1712 (ed. Bond, 4:51).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-05

Tuesday September the 5th 1780.

As I have nothing else to write for to day I will translate from the Guide D'Amsterdam something about the Medical Garden.1
This is all which is said in the book of that garden.
This evening Stevens came here and brought me two letters from Paris one from Cockran and the other from Deane2 two of my Schoolmates at Paris.
1. JQA's marginal note here, “vide Page 11 of this volume of my Journal,” refers to his entry of 25 Aug. (above), where he describes his visit to the Medicinal Garden.
This paragraph is followed by JQA's English translation of Le Guide, ou nouvelle description d'Amsterdam, p. 224–226, though JQA's description of the Medicinal Garden differs somewhat from the source. There are mistranslations and omissions, and some paraphrasing and alterations, a number probably arising from changes in the Garden since the publication of Le Guide in 1772.
2. Letters not found.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-06

Wednesday 6th of September 1780.

Half Holiday. At about ten o clock Mr. Le Roi came here and invited us to go and dine with him. We told him we would. At about half after twelve I went to Pappa's lodgings but found he { 67 } was gone out, and then I went to Mr. Le Roi's, he was gone out and got home soon after. We dined at his house. After dinner we went with him to take a long walk out of the city and we drank tea there, after tea we came back again to Mr. Le Roi's where we supp'd. We came back to our School. Mr. Chabanel1 came with us as far as the door and then left us, we found the boys Just going to bed. The rule is to be home the holidays at half after ten. Brother Charles and Myself Study in a little chamber apart because we dont understand the Dutch.
1. Herman Le Roy's cousin (entry of 11 Sept., below).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-07

Thursday 7th of September 1780.

Holiday for the first Class, but not for the rest of the School.
Reading a Volume of the Spectator I found this.1
Nothing very remarkable to day.
1. Here follow, on about two pages in the Diary, 31 lines cited by JQA as coming from “Spectator Vol 9th. page 270–271,” which appeared in The Spectator No. 628, 3 Dec. 1714 (ed. Bond, 5:147–148). The piece is the entire first scene of Act V of Addison's play Cato.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-08

Friday 8th of September 1780.

Nothing very remarkable to day.
Reading another Volume of the Spectator I found this which I shall take down.1
1. Here follow, on about four pages in the Diary, an allegory beginning, “There were two Families,” which JQA cites as coming from “Spectator Vol 3d. Page 62–63–64.” This appeared in The Spectator No. 183, 29 Sept. 1711 (ed. Bond, 2:222–223).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-09

Saturday 9th of September 1780.

Half Holiday. At about twelve o clock Stevens came here for us, as we were going we met our Dutch Master who was coming to give us a Lesson. When we got home we found Mr. Guile at our house with Pappa. At about 1 o clock Mr. Guile went away. At about half after one Commodore Gillon came to Pappa's lodgings stay'd some time and went away. At about four o clock young Mr. Crommelin came with a coach for us to go to his father's house in the country, we went away and arrived there at about 7 o clock. We shall stay here till to morrow night.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy

[End]

End of the second Volume of My Journal.
J.Q. Adams
MDCCLXXX

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy

[Cipher]

hzo er fryjei of vaf jhfirnofj
hzo vijzear er frjjei of vaf jhfirnofj rokof ha pero ih zado.1
a b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u v, w, x, y, z.
u, p, h, z o m, b, w e, r, c, x q d, a g, n, f k, v, i, j, y, l, s, t.
1. These two lines and the alphabet cipher which follows, appear undated, facing each other on two different and otherwise unused leaves, separating JQA's second and third “volumes” of his journal in D/JQA/3. For related material, see the titlepage and note for D/JQA/3 (above).
The inscription, above, contains two lines in code, the latter being an elaboration of the first. Through the help of Ralph E. Weber of Marquette University, and Brian J. Winkel of Albion College, Albion, Michigan, the message has been deciphered as follows:
hzo vijzear er frjjei of vaf jhfirnofj rokof
the fashion in russia is for strangers never
ha pero ih zado.
to dine at home.
There is an error in the cipher for the plain text is, which should be enciphered “ej.” Some similarities exist between the transposition cipher JQA began to construct on the titlepage and the encoded message above, for the letters e, i, o, and r remain enciphered the same. The code appears to be much simpler than typical codes used during the American Revolutionary era, which generally employed letter and number substitutions, but Prof. Weber has found ciphers similar to this being used by John Jay and Robert Livingston in 1780 (Edmund C. Burnett, “Ciphers of the Revolutionary Period,” American Historical Review, 22:329–334 [Jan. 1917]; Weber, United States Diplomatic Codes and Ciphers, 1775–1938, Chicago, 1979, p 37–38). It seems likely that JQA was attempting to create a cipher, possibly inspired after his meeting on 7 Aug. with C. W. F. Dumas, the close associate of JA, who devised Revolutionary codes built upon more sophisticated methods (Burnett, “Ciphers,” p. 330–331). JQA's enciphered message apparently antedates all others in the Adams Papers, the next earliest of which appears in a letter from James Lovell to JA the following December. JQA's work on a cipher suggests that codes were a focal point of conversation among the Adamses for some time (“The Lovell Cipher and Its Derivatives,” Adams Family Correspondence,4:393–399).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-10

Sunday 10th of September 1780.

This morning we got up at about 8 o clock and at about half after 9 Mr. Crommelin, and his son, Pappa, brother Charles, and Myself went to take a ride. We went about 15 Miles and got back at about half after twelve o clock. We dined at Mr. Crommelin's at about three o clock. At about six o clock Pappa, young Mr. Crommelin his wife brother Charles, and Myself set away from Mr. Crommelin's for Amsterdam, we rode along on the dyke and got to Amsterdam at about 8 o clock. The coach deliver'd us at our door and then Young Mr. Crommelin and his wife left us. We shall lodge at Pappa's house this night.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-11

Monday September the 11th 1780

Half Holiday for the school. This morning at about 9 o clock we left Pappa and went to school.1 We stay'd there till about half after twelve o clock when we went again to Pappa's. We dined there. After dinner we went to Mr. Le Roi's but he was not at home. We stay'd there some time. Mr. Le Roi came home at about half after four. At about five o clock Mr. Le Roi, brother Charles and myself went to take a walk. We got back to Mr. Le Roi's at about Six o clock. We met Mr. Amiel and Captn. Spencer who drank tea with us at Mr. Le Roi's. After tea they went away. Brother Charles and myself stay'd to supper. After Supper Mr. Le Roi and his Cousin Mr. Chabanel came back to the school with us as far as the door and then they left us.
1. JQA's marginal note here, “vide page 20 of the second volume of my Journal,” refers to his entries of 3031 Aug. (above), concerning school.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-12

Tuesday the 12th of September 1780.

Received <two lett><one> a Letter from Mr. Thaxter.1 Nothing remarkable this day.
Reading a Volume of the Spectator I found something which I will copy.2
1. Undoubtedly that of 4 Sept., on which date Thaxter also wrote to JA (Adams Family Correspondence, 3:411–413).
2. Here follows, on three and one-half pages in the Diary, Alexander Pope's poem, “Messiah, A sacred Eclogue . . . in Imitation of Virgil's Pollio,” from “Spec. vol 5, Number 378,” where the poem was published for the first time on 14 May 1712 (ed. Bond, 3:419–422).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-13

Wednesday the 13th of September 1780.

Half Holiday. To day at about twelve o clock we went to Pappa's lodgings and went from thence with him to Mr. Le Roi's where we dined. After dinner Mr. Le Roi Pappa, Several other Gentlemen, and brother Charles and myself went to the (Rasp huis) or house of correction. There is there a man who is so strong that fifteen men could not take him and he broke some Iron which was put round his arms. We saw several others some who got there for one thing some for another; They are Judged once and a while and when there is a criminal the Judge [will sentence him] for so many years according to his crime and they are examined after this once every year, and wherever they are found to have behaved well the past year the Judges shorten { 70 } their time sometimes for a year sometimes 2, 3 or four but that is the most. It is a miserable hole to be sure. They are obliged to saw so much wood every day and when they go in they are branded on the back. There are but 56 here which I think must be but few for such a city as this. After this we went back to Mr. Le Roi's and drank tea. After tea Pappa left us and brother Charles and myself stay'd and supp'd at Mr. Le Roi's after which we came back to school.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-14

Thursday the 14th of September 1780.

Rain'd in the afternoon but clear'd up at night.
Reading a Volume of the Spectator I found a dream of his which I will copy.1
1. Here follows, on eight pages of the Diary, “Spectator Vol 2d. No. 83,” published on 5 June 1711, but omitted are the first two paragraphs of the piece (ed. Bond, 1:354–356).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-15

Friday the 15th of September 1780.

Nothing Remarkable to day.
Reading a Volume of the Tatler I found something which I will copy.1
1. On the following six and one-half pages in his Diary JQA set down an allegory, with several omissions, about Hercules' being courted by virtue and pleasure, from The Tatler No. 97, originally published on 22 Nov. 1709, which he later cites as “Tatler. Vol. 2d. Page, 82, 83, 84, and 85.” If, as it seems reasonable to assume, JQA was using the four-volume 1728 edition of The Tatler, which his father gave to him and CA presumably on the following day (Catalogue of JQA's Books), the citation was miscopied, as it appears there at 2:282–285.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-16

Saturday the 15th [16th] of September 1780.

Half Holiday. Today about 1 o clock brother Charles and I came to Pappa's lodgings where we dined. After dinner Mr. Guild and Mr. Ingraham came here and went with us to see the Hortus Medicus1 of which I have spoken already. We walked about a little while and then we came home again, as we were coming we went into a Church and looked about it a little. When we got to Pappa's door Mr. Guild and Mr. Ingraham left us. At about 8 o clock Commodore Gillon came to Pappa's lodgings and stay'd some time. At about half after nine o clock Pappa received a Letter from Mr. Dana2 who has just arrived in Town. Pappa went to see Mr. Dana who Lodges at the first Bible.
{ 71 }
1. JQA's marginal note here, “Vide Volume 2d. Page 11, and 36, 37, 38, 39,” refers to JQA's Diary entries of 25 Aug. and 5 Sept. (both above).
2. That of [16 Sept. 1780], Adams Papers.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-17

Sunday the 17th.

This morning My brother Charles and myself went to the first bible to see Mr. Dana and Mr. Austin. We stay'd there a little while and then came back to Pappa's lodgings. A little after we got there Mr. Guile and Mr. Ingraham came here for us to go to church with them but Pappa could not go. Brother Charles and I went. After service Mr. Guile and Mr. Ingraham left us and we came back to Pappa's. Mr. Dana dined here with us. After dinner I went to take a Walk with Dana and then went back to the first bible. We stay'd there a little while and Mr. Austin got back. We then went and took a walk about the town and walked a great ways and at about 7 o clock I left Mr. Dana and Mr. Austin and came back to Pappa's lodgings.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-18

Monday the 18th.

Went back to the school. Nothing remarkable to day.
Reading in a Volume of the guardian I found something in it which I will copy.1
1. Here follows, on two pages of his Diary, Philip Sidney's translation of Psalm 137, five eight-line stanzas, which appeared in No. 18, not No. 19 as JQA cites it, of The Guardian, 1 April 1713. In JQA's edition of the work, London, 1745, at MQA, it is found at 1:84–85.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-19

Tuesday the 19th.

I received a letter from one of my schoolmates at Paris.1
Rain'd hard most all day.
Reading in a Volume of the guardian I found something which I will copy.2
1. Letter not found.
2. Here follows, on two pages in the Diary, Pope's 46-line “Prologue to Addison's Tragedy of Cato,” from No. 33, 18 April 1713. This appears in JQA's edition of The Guardian at 1:142–143.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-20

Wednesday the 20th.

This day I went to Pappa's to day. Got back to the school at eight oclock P.M. Nothing remarkable.
{ 72 }
Reading a Volume of the Tatler I found something worth copying.1
1. Here follows, on seven and one-half pages of the Diary, the latter part of The Tatler No. 146, originally published on 16 March 1710 (London, 1728, 3:148–152, at MQA). The portion JQA copied, the dream about Jupiter and the Destinies, begins with the third paragraph and continues to the conclusion of the number (same, p. 150–152).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-21

Thursday the 21st.

Holiday for the school. At about half after twelve brother Charles and myself went to Pappa's lodgings where we dined. After dinner we went to Mr. Le Roi's and from there to Mr. Hartswick's1 house where we stay'd about an hour and then returned to Mr. Le Roi's where we stay'd till supper, and after supper Mr. Le Roi went with us to the school door and then left us. We got home at about ten o clock. The address of our school is.
den de Latijnsche School op de Cingel by de munt.
1. Or Hartsinck: JQA's marginal notation reads, “he is brother in law to Mr. Chabanel.”

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-22

Friday the 22d.

Vacancies for three weeks begins this day. To day I went with all the scholars to see the promotion and the proemiums given. It was in the old Church. There were present two burgermasters the inspector of the school the rector the Conrector, the Praeceptors and the professors, and all the scholars. In the first place three scholars spoke Orations one after the other and then the rector named those who were to receive the praemiums and they Went and received them from the Hand of one of the Burger master's. The praemiums of the first and Second Classes were folio Volumes magnificently bound, those of the 3d and 4th's Quarto Volumes and the fifth and sixth Octavo Volumes. After that the praemiums were given it was finish'd, and brother Charles and myself went to Pappa's where we dined. At about half after eight o clock P.M. we got back: to the school where we shall lodge all the vacancy.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-23

Saturday 23d.

Went to Pappa's house, stay'd there till about half after eight O clock and then we went back to the school.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-24

Sunday 24th.

This morning I went to Pappa's to go to meeting with him. We Went first to Mr. Dana's but he could not go with us and we went and heard a Sermon. The text was.
Then he which had received the one talent came, and Said Lord, I Knew thee that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strawed. Matthew. c. 25 v. 24th.
After Church we came home and at about two o clock Commodore Gillon came here and went out to dinner with Pappa. We got back to school at about 10 o clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-25

Monday the 25th.

Dined at Pappa's with several American Gentlemen. Supp'd at Mr. Le Roi's. Got back to School at about ten o clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-26

Tuesday the 26th.

Dined and supp'd at Mr. Le Roi's. Went to see the fair. Got back to School at about ten oclock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-27

Wednesday the 27th.

Dined at Pappa's house. Went to see the fair. Got back to School at about 9 o clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-28

Thursday the 28th.

Dined at Pappa's house. Got back to school at about half after eight o clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0031

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-29

Friday the 29th.

Rain'd hard all day. Dined at Mr. Le Roi's with Pappa, Commodore Gillon Captain Joyner, Mr. Coltyzer, Mr. Dana, And My brother Charles. After dinner all the gentlemen went away but My brother Charles and myself stay'd and supp'd there. After supper Mr. Le Roi went with us to the school. We got back to the school at about half Past ten o clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0002-0005-0032

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1780-09-30

Saturday the 30th.

Dined at Pappa's. Got back to school at about half after eight o clock. Nothing Remarkable to day.
End of My Journal.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-09

Saturday June the 9th 1781.1

Got up in the morning at about 6 o'clock, and set myself to work; breakfasted at half past seven on tea. At about 1 o'clock Pappa came from the Hague; and ask'd me if I wou'd go to Amsterdam with him; I told him I would, with all my heart. He then told me, that I must put up some clothes and get ready before dinner, and come to dine with him at the Sign of the Golden Lion, all which I did. After dinner the horses were put into the carriage and we set away at about three o'clock. We went along down the broad Street and went down a small lane and out of the Haerlem-Poort; and down along by the Canal. We rode about 3 hours and arrived at about 6 o'clock at a house near Haerlem; we drank tea, and had our horses refresh'd at this house; and set away from it at about seven o'clock; we pass'd thro' Haerlem, a small city where the Dutch say that the art of printing was invented by Laurence Janzoon Koster [or Coster,] Sexton of the Church; I have seen the first book which (they say) he printed; but there is a great dispute with this city and that of Stratsburg [Strasbourg] about this; these last say that one John Guttemberg invented it, and that Koster had only printed upon wood, as the Chinese had done for a long time before. The people of Haerlem say that Koster did print upon wood at first but that he tried it afterwards upon lead and finding he did it successfully he made it public; and that John Guttemberg was an apprentice of Koster's; and that he stole his masters tools and ran away to Stratsburg and there sat himself up as the inventor of printing.
I do not pretend to ascertain which of the two was the true inventor of it; for I believe that it would be a hard matter to prove.
We passed along by the side of a Canal the whole way from Haerlem to Amsterdam. Arrived here at about 8 1/2 o'clock. Went into the Haerlem Port and after several twistings and turnings we arriv'd at Pappa's house, which is upon the Keizers Gragt;2 in English the Emperors Canal. We found Mr. Dana here; brother Charles was gone out, but came home soon after. I shall copy in general every day some piece of Poetry or prose; { 75 } and shall begin with that fine Soliloque of Hamlet, from Shakespeare.3
1. This is the first entry in D/JQA/4, which covers the brief period from 9 June to 27 Aug. 1781, consisting of JQA's remaining days in Holland and his journey with Francis Dana to St. Petersburg. This unbound Diary, with pages measuring 7⅝ ″ × 4¾″, is composed of eleven twelve- or sixteen-leaved sections, consecutively numbered by JQA to page 162, with the last ten leaves left blank. A number of the leaves are missing and have been noted later at the appropriate places in the Diary.
Much of what is known about JQA's activities between Oct. 1780 and June 1781, for which no Diary exists and none was probably written, comes from letters, especially to and from JA, all of which are printed in volume 4 of Adams Family Correspondence. After the unsettling school experience of his sons in Amsterdam, JA wrote to Benjamin Waterhouse for some advice on how the boys might pursue their studies at Leyden. Waterhouse, later to become the first professor of physic at Harvard, had pursued medical studies at Edinburgh, London, and Leyden, taking his degree at the last-named in 1780 and afterward attending additional lectures there. He recommended Leyden to JA enthusiastically. Not only could JA's sons live more cheaply there than in Amsterdam, Waterhouse wrote, but also they could advance their knowledge of Greek and Latin through private instruction, and they might attend lectures at the university. Within a week after the receipt of Waterhouse's letter, JA sent the boys there with John Thaxter. While Waterhouse found accommodations, Thaxter hired a Latin and Greek master named Wensing (or Wenshing), who came twice daily to lecture for an hour. Between sessions the boys spent their time translating Homer and the Greek testament and working on grammar and lessons from the master. Under Thaxter's counseling, JQA also attended lectures at the university ranging from medicine to law, the latter given by the celebrated professor Frederik Willem Pestel. In early Jan. 1781 Thaxter and JQA were matriculated, and CA, at first regarded as too young for consideration, eventually was admitted later that month . Aside from requests for ice skates and riding lessons, JQA's full attention in Leyden was on his studies, adhering to them, wrote Waterhouse in the spring, “with a consistency rarely seen at that age.”
At least two of JQA's schoolwork manuscripts for this period have survived among the Adams Papers. One is a 100-page French translation of the fables of Phaedrus, copied between February and May 1781 evidently from Wensing's translation; the other is a 104-page Greek treatise, compiled in Jan. 1781. Another French translation of the fables, of 76 pages, as well as a partial, 56-page rendition in French of Cornelius Nepos' Vitae Excellentium lmperatorum, a school text for elementary Latin, may also date from this period (M/JQA/23, 22, 43, Microfilms, Reel Nos. 218, 217, 238). Near the time that JQA resumed his Diary, in June of 1781, his father was advising him by letter to turn to Demosthenes and Cicero, and also not to neglect authors in his own language, especially the English poets. This may help to explain why D/JQA/4 resembles not only a Diary but also a commonplace book with samplings of several English poets, dramatists, and essayists.
When JQA resumed his Diary on 9 June, he was still at Leyden. He left for Amsterdam that day and returned on 27 June, sometime after the decision was made for him to accompany Dana to Russia.
2. For a description and view of JA's residence in Amsterdam, see JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:ix, facing p. 322.
3. Here follows, on one and one-half pages in the Diary, Hamlet's “To be, or not to be” soliloquy. JQA's citation of the scene number and other internal variations show that he was using William Warburton's edition of Pope's The Works of Shakespear in Eight Volumes . . ., London, 1747, 8:182–183. This passage is titled “Chap. 1.” by JQA. For each subsequent piece copied in this Diary he has assigned a chapter number.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-10

Sunday June the 10th 1781.

This morning I got up at about 7 1/2 o'clock breakfasted and at about 9 o'clock Pappa, brother Charles and myself went to the English presbyterian Church and heard a Sermon; the text was in Thessaloniens 1st: 5 Ch: 17th vs. “pray Without ceasing.”
We got home at about eleven o clock. As we came out of the Church we found Mr. Jennings in the Coach, he said he had been deterred by his barber. We dined at home; Mr. Jennings din'd with us; at two o'clock brother Charles and Myself went again to Church; our text was in the Psalms: after Church we went to Mr. Kaa's to see Mr. Bordly but he was gone out to take a walk; but we found Mr. Jennings, Mr. Brush,1 Dr. Brown, Mr. Greves and two other gentlemen, and soon after Mr. Bordly came in. We stay'd there some time and then Mr. Jennings came with brother Charles and Myself to Pappa's house; the other gentlemen went to take a walk; at about 6 o'clock Pappa and Mr. Jennings went out together, and brother Charles and I, went to see Messrs. Sigourny2 and Ingraham. They were gone to take a walk, but the ladies were at home, we found Mr. Thaxter there, some time after the Gentlemen came home; we stay'd there about an hour and at about 7 o clock we came back again; we found Mr. Guild and Mr. Jennings here; at about Nine o clock we went to Madm. Chabanel's; we found her, and the young ladies at home, but Mr. Le Roi and young Mr. Chabanel were gone out; we supp'd there and got home at about 10 1/2 o'clock. At about 11 o'clock we went to bed.3
1. Eliphalet Brush, New York shipowner and merchant, who returned to America from Amsterdam in late September with dispatches to congress from JA. He and his brothers, sons of a prominent Huntington, N.Y., merchant, owned extensive plantations in Demarara, British Guiana, now called Georgetown, Guyana (Conklin Mann, “Thomas and Richard Brush of Huntington, Long Island,” N.Y. Geneal. and Biog. Rec., 67:21, 132 [Jan., April 1936];Adams Family Correspondence,4:219).
2. Charles Sigourney, a Boston merchant and partner in the Amsterdam mercantile firm of Sigourney, Ingraham & Bromfield (Sigourney to Aaron Lopez, 6 March 1781, MHi:Wetmore Coll.; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:453–454, 456; Boston Directory, 1789). See also entry for 19 Aug. 1780, note 3 (above).
3. Here follows “Chap. 2.” on about one and one-half pages in the Diary, 28 lines, beginning, “All the world's a stage,” from As You Like It.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-11

Monday June the 11th 1781.

This morning I got up at about 8 o'clock breakfasted, and went to see Mr. Deneufville; we staid there about a half an hour and { 77 } then went and took a walk; we went to the Western market and walked about 1/4 of an hour and then went to Mr. Guild's lodgings, but did not find him at home; we then return'd to Pappa's house. In coming we saw young Mr. Chabanel and spoke to him. At two o'clock we din'd; Mr. Guild din'd with us. After dinner, Mr. Dana, Mr. Guild, brother Charles and myself went and drank tea at Madam Chabanel's. After tea we went to the old-Man-house1 and bought some things; after that, Mr. Dana, brother Charles and myself, went to see Mr. Tegelaar, we found Burger-Master Hoofd there; after staying about a half of an hour we went to Mr. Hartsinck's where we found the Young Miss Chabanel's, Mr. Menoir (a french Gentleman,) and another Gentleman, who lives at Rotterdam, we Stay'd there a little while and from thence went home, we got here at about 9 o clock. At about half past ten I went to bed.2
1. The Oude Mannen en Vrouwengasthuis; that is, a home for old people, founded in 1559, built around a courtyard on the south side of which was a broad and high gallery with eighteen arcades rented as shops whose profits were returned to the home (Le Guide, ou nouvelle description d'Amsterdam, p. 175–176).
2. Here follows “Chap. 3d.,” covering almost two pages in the Diary and consisting of twenty-eight lines from King Henry IV, Part II, Act III, scene i, lines 4–31, beginning “How many thousand of my poorest subjects.”
Because of occasional differences in act, scene, and line numbers of plays by Shakespeare as quoted and cited by Adams in his Diary, these quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are given modernized citations without volume and page number from the authoritative Cambridge edition (Works of Shakespear, ed. Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, John Dover Wilson, and J. C. Maxwell, Cambridge, Eng., 1921- ).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-12

Tuesday June the 12th 1781.

This morning after breakfast I went to Mr. Sigourny's to see about some quill's. He gave me a paper of the place where he buys his; after that I went and bought some. I din'd at home, Mr. Dennie, Mr. Donalson, and Mr. Sigourny and Mr. Du Barry din'd with us; Mr. Dennie, Mr. Donalson and Mr. Du Barry have just arriv'd here from the West India's; after dinner I went to see Mr. Greves and Mr. Brailsford, but they were not at home. I went to the first bible to see Mr. Bordly; I stay'd with him sometime and then came home.
From Guthrie's Grammar. NETHERLANDS. Chap 4th §:I.1
1. Here follows, on four pages of the Diary, the first three “sections,” as JQA describes them, of the account of the United Provinces of the Netherlands by William Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, p. 399–400, at which point are described { 78 } the physical “extent, situation and boundaries,” as well as the “air, seasons, soil, and face of the country.” JQA collectively designated material copied from Guthrie as “Chapter 4,” assigning “section” numbers roughly matching Guthrie's topical subheadings, which are unnumbered in the source. JQA acquired a copy of the 1779 edition sometime in 1781 (Catalogue of JQA's Books).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-13

Wednesday June the 13th 1781.

This morning Mr. Cerisier1 came here and said that he had read in the Brussels Gazette, that there had been a second action between Lord Cornwallis and General Green, that General Green had been repulsed with the loss of 400 men, but he says he don't know by which way the news comes.2
At eleven o'clock I went to take a walk with Mr. Bordly and brother Charles; we met Mr. Le Roi on the Way. He ask'd us to go to Sloot [Sloten?] with him this afternoon, we told him we would.
Mr. Cerisier din'd with us, after dinner brother Charles and I went to Sloot, which is a small village, about 7 Miles from Amsterdam, we found Mr. Hartsinck, Mr. Le Roi, Young Mr. Chabanel, Mr. Scravensvert, and Mr. Menoir there; we went into water, in the Haerlem me[e]r. We got home at about half past 8 o'clock.
From Guthrie's Grammar. (continued from yesterday) Chap 4th §: 4th.3
1. Antoine Marie Cerisier, a French publicist and historical writer living in Amsterdam, who earlier in 1781 established the periodical paper, Le politique hollandais, the Dutch Politician, which actively promoted the American cause and was widely read (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:454).
2. There was no “second battle” after Guilford Court House between Greene and Cornwallis. Greene fought Rawdon unsuccessfully at Hobkirk's Hill on 25 April. Technically Rawdon was under Cornwallis' command. American casualties numbered 134 (Willard M. Wallace, Appeal to Arms, N.Y., 1951, p. 240–241).
3. Here follow, on about two and one-quarter pages in the Diary, the description of Dutch rivers and harbors, and Section 5, “vegetable and animal productions by sea and land,” from Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, p. 400–401.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-14

Thursday June the 14th 1781.

This morning Mr. Jennings and Mr. Greves came here with An English Gazette; in which there is the detail of the action between Cornwallis and Green. Cornwallis writes1 that he has obtain'd a compleat victory; but he has thought proper to run away to Wilmington, General Green is at Camden; Cornwallis has made a Proclamation of pardon to every body (murderers ex• { 79 } cepted) but does not mention of one single man's having came over to him yet; his army was two days without any provisions. He writes in one part of his letter that a defensive war wou'd be certain destruction to the british forces; in another, he says he can only act upon the defensive; therefore by his own confession let him act after what manner he will; it is certain destruction to the british there.
Mr. Jennings and Mr. Greves breakfasted here; I did not go out in the forenoon: Mr. Waldo din'd with us; after dinner I went and took a walk with Mr. Dana. We went to the printer's of the Amsterdam Gazette for a couple of old numbers for Mr. Dana, We Walk'd to the Western market; and look'd about the shops, and then came home.
Continued From Yesterday from Guthries Grammar. Chap: 4th §:6th.2
1. Cornwallis to Lord George Germain, Secretary of State for the Colonies, 17 March (two letters), Cornwallis to Germain, 18 April, with his Proclamation of 18 March, all published in the London Chronicle for the Year 1781, 49:537–540 (5–7 June).
2. On the next two and one-half pages in the Diary JQA has copied the first paragraph of the section entitled “population, inhabitants, manners, customs and diversions,” from Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, p. 401.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-15

Friday June the 15th 1781.

This morning Mr. Dana, Mr. Thaxter, brother Charles and myself went to Kaa's, to see Mr. Jennings and Mr. Bordly. We found Mr. Searle1 there; he has just arriv'd from the Texel; where he has been since saturday.
We stay'd sometime there and then went to take a ride; we went out of the Haerlem Port, and rid round by the side of the outer Cingel2 and came in again into the Leyden Port.
After dinner I wrote a letter to Dr. Waterhouse;3 and then went to Madam Chabanel's where I found Mr. Brailsford; he went away soon after, and I went to take a walk, with the young ladies; when we got back we found Mr. Le Roi, and young Mr. Chabanel at home; I return'd home soon after.
The English papers are arriv'd. There is an account of an action between Commodore Johnstone and the french Squadron which was going to the East India's, but we have not got the paper in which an account of it is given; and therefore, do not yet know the details.
{ 80 }
From Guthrie's Grammar. Chap 4th § 6th (Continuation from yesterday).4
1. James Searle, member of the Continental Congress, 1778–1780, was in Europe from 1780 to 1782 as a commissioner for Pennsylvania to negotiate a loan with France and Holland, but his efforts were unsuccessful (Biog. Dir. Cong.; Mildred E. Lombard, “James Searle: Radical Businessman of the Revolution,” PMHB, 59:284–294 [July 1935]).
2. The outer Singel canal, one of two by that name in Amsterdam: this one formed the outer boundary of the old city.
3. Letter not found.
4. On the following two and one-half pages in the Diary JQA continued his transcription of the second paragraph from the same subsection of Guthrie which he began the day before (p. 401–402).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-16

Saturday June the 16th 1781.

This day Mr. Brice, Commodore Gillon, Colo. Searle, Major Jackson, Captn. Coltyzer and Mr. Jennings din'd here; Major Jackson1 has read in Lloyd's list an account of an old French sixty four gun Ship's having been taken by the Jamaica fleet with eighty pieces of brass cannon twenty thousand suits of cloaths and two Millions of Livres on board bound to North America, but this news is not yet ascertain'd. We have a letter in one of the papers from Commodore Johnstone, containing the details of the action which I spoke of yesterday; he gives himself a Victory but his letter gives but a poor and broken account of it, and the French might call it a victory to them with as much (and perhaps more) truth than the English can.
From Guthrie's grammar (continuation from Yesterday) Chap 4th §:6th.2
1. William Jackson, from South Carolina, who served under Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln in his southern campaign, 1778–1780, and then accompanied John Laurens to Europe in the spring of 1781 to obtain additional financial aid and military supplies. In August, JA put CA in the care of Jackson, who was returning to America on the ill-fated South Carolina. Both changed passage in La Coruña, however, and finally arrived in Massachusetts in Jan. 1782 (Adams Family Correspondence,4:55, 170–171).
2. On the next three pages of the Diary, JQA copied the final two paragraphs on Dutch “population, inhabitants, manners, customs and diversions,” begun on 14 June (p. 402).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-17

Sunday June the 17th 1781.

This morning Pappa, Mr. Dana, brother Charles and I, went to the English presbyterian Church, to hear a Sermon, the text was.
“And the times of this ignorance god winked at; but now commandeth all men every where to repent.” Acts 17:30.
{ 81 }
Mr. Brice din'd with us, after dinner I went alone to Church again; the text was.
“And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus: for he shall save his people from their sins.” Matthew 1st. 21st.
After Church I went to see Mr. Bordly; a little after brother Charles and Mr. Brice came there, brother Charles, Mr. Bordly and I went out to take a walk. We went to see Mr. Greves, but he was not at home; brother Charles and I went from thence to Madam Chabanel's where we supp'd; at about half past ten we came home.
From Guthrie's Grammar (continued from yesterday) Chapter 4th §: 7th.1
1. Here follow, on two pages of the Diary, “sections” 7, 8, and 9 from Guthrie's Geographical Grammar, p. 402–403, on Dutch dress, religion, and language. JQA copied the “Lord's Prayer” in Dutch from a source other than Guthrie because, as he later explained, it had been rendered incomplete there (entry for 10 July, below).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-18

Monday June 18th 1781.

This morning I went to a bookseller's to get the Politique Hollandois; Mr. Cerisier din'd here; after dinner I went to Mr. Sigourney's and drank tea there; after tea I went to see Mr. Greves, he was not at home, but as I was returning I met him in the Street and went to his house with him again, we went to the Coffy house where I left Mr. Greaves, and return'd home at about 9 o'clock.
(From Guthrie's Grammar continued from Yesterday) Chap. 4th §: 10th.1
1. On the next three and one-half pages of the Diary, JQA transcribed sections 10–12 from Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, p. 403, concerning Dutch learning and learned men, universities, and “antiquities and curiosities, natural and artificial.”

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-19

Tuesday June the 19th 1781.

This day we all din'd at Mr. Deneufville's with Mr. Cerisier Colo. Searle Mr. Brice Mr. Van Hasseldt, Mr. Le Comte, Commodore Gillon, and Mr. Jennings, after dinner I went to Madam Chabanel's: after I had been there a little while Mr. Thaxter, Mr. Bromfield,1 Mr. Guild and brother Charles came there; we { 82 } went to take a walk out of the town. We walked some ways and then we return'd home and the gentlemen left us.
§: 13th.2
1. Probably Henry Bromfield Jr., who had left Massachusetts the previous July to settle some of his father's accounts, and who possibly had helped establish earlier in 1781 the Amsterdam mercantile firm of Sigourney, Ingraham & Bromfield (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:453–454, 456; Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 2:272; 3:434; 4:49, 313).
2. On the following two and one-half pages from the Diary is Guthrie's account of Dutch “cities, towns, and other edifices, public and private” (Geographical Grammar, p. 403–404). At the point where Guthrie's commentary turns to the Dutch village of Saardam (p. 404), in which Peter the Great served an apprenticeship in shipbuilding, JQA has inserted the note, “Vide. Voltaire History of Russia. Chapter 9th.,” in which the French historian elaborates on the Russian czar's experience there (Histoire de l'Empire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, 2 vols., n.p., 1759, 1:152–154). This work was purchased by JQA a month later in Cologne on his journey to Russia and is listed in the Catalogue of JQA's Books.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-20

Wednesday June the 20th 1781.

This morning I went to Mr. Sigourney's to carry the English news Papers to him, din'd at home. After dinner I went with Mr. Dana to take a walk, we went to Commodore Gillon's, he was not at home, but as we were returning, we met him, and Mr. Dana went to his house again with him, and I return'd home.
Chapter 4th. §: 14th.1
1. Here follows, on about two and one-quarter pages in the Diary, JQA's transcription of Dutch “inland navigation, canals, and manner of travelling,” from Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, p. 404.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-21

Thursday June the 21st 1781.

This day I din'd at Madam Chabanel's, with Mr. Jennings, Captn. Coltyzer Mr. and Madam Hartsinck Mr. Searle Mr. Dana, Mr. Thaxter, Mr. Nickson, Pappa and brother Charles; after dinner I went to see Mr. Bordly, and return'd home at about 9 o'clock.
From Guthrie's grammar (continued from yesterday[)] Chap 4th §: 15th.1
1. The next two pages in the Diary contain the first half of the section on Dutch commerce and manufacturers (p. 404).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-22

Friday June the 22d 1781.

This morning I went to Mr. De la Lande and Fynje's;1 din'd at home. Mr. Guild din'd Here. After dinner I went to Madam Cha• { 83 } banel's with the coach; she went to take a ride; we went through a village call'd Diem[en?], and went to Mr. Hartsinck's country seat. We stay'd there a little while and then return'd in to town to Madam Chabanel's, Mr. Brailsford came there soon after; and brother Charles and I went with him to the coffy House where we found Mr. Greaves and Mr. Brush, from thence we went to Mr. Brailsford's lodgings, and return'd home at about 10 o'clock.
From Guthrie's Grammar (continued from yesterday) Chap 4th §. 15th.2
1. Jacobus de la Lande and Hendrik Fynje, merchant bankers of Amsterdam, who, with the Willinks and Van Staphorsts, raised the first Dutch loan to the United States in 1782 (Chr. Kroes-Ligtenberg, “Een Vriend van Aagje Deken,” De Gids, Amsterdam, pt. I [1942]: 96; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:451).
2. Here follows, on two pages in the Diary, the concluding section on Dutch commerce and manufacturers (p. 401–402).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-23

Saturday June the 23d 1781.

This morning I went with Mr. Dana to the old Man House to buy a few things. We hear that a courier is arriv'd at the Hague from Madrid who was only eleven days upon the Journey, he brings news that two Dutch fregates commanded by the Captains Oorthius and Melvill had been out to meet the Dutch East India Ships which were coming home; and had done it accordingly, and were returning to Cadix with them when they fell in with two English 74 Gun Ships and after a Smart battle Melvill was taken and one of the E. I. M. Sunk but Oorthius carry'd into Cadix the five others.
Mr. Guild and Mr. Jones din'd here. Nothing remarkable in the afternoon.
From Guthrie's grammar. (continued from yesterday) Chapter 4th §. 16th.1
1. On the next one and one-half pages of the Diary, JQA has transcribed the section on Dutch public trading companies (p. 405).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-24

Sunday June the 24th 1781.

Nothing remarkable in the forenoon, Mr. Thaxter din'd at Mr. Sigourney's; I din'd at home, after dinner I went to take a walk with Mr. Dana; we walk'd someways out of town, in the evening I went to Madam Chabanel's where I supp'd; got home at about 10 1/2 o'clock.
{ 84 }
(Continuation from yesterday) From Guthrie's grammar. Chapter 4th §: 17th.1
1. Here follows, on about one page in the Diary, the first paragraph of the section on the Dutch constitution and government (p. 405). JQA did not resume his copying from this section until 7 July.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-25

Monday June the 25th 1781.

This morning I went to Mr. Crajenschot's to get the 20th No. of the Politique Hollandois which comes out every week, there is something in the last No. worth coppying which I shall do at the end of this day's journal. Din'd at home, after dinner went to see Mr. Bordly and afterwards to Madam Chabanel's. Got home at about half past nine o'clock.
From the Politique Hollandois Chapter 5th.1
1. On the following two pages in the Diary, JQA has translated into English the first half of a portion of an article in the 25 June issue of Le politique hollandais, 1:315. The passage, which is continued in the following day's entry, relates an imaginary dream in which a Dutch courier is sent to St. Petersburg to exchange diplomatic assurances for armed ships of war (under the Russian Declaration of Armed Neutrality of 1780) and concludes with what the Russians supposedly gave in return. As a whole, the article argues for all-out war by the Dutch against the English, since Russia's friendship with England makes the league of armed neutrality futile.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-26

Tuesday June the 26th 1781.

Nothing remarkable in the forenoon; after dinner I went with Doctor Brown to the New French Coffy House where we found Mr. Greaves and Mr. Brush, we then went and took a long walk and came along by the first bible and there I left the gentlemen and went to see Mr. Bordly, brother Charles came in soon after. We staid there some time and got home at about 8 o'clock.
From the Politique Hollandois (continued from yesterday).1
1. Same, p. 315–316, on two pages in the Diary.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-27

Wednesday June the 27th 1781.

This morning I went to take a walk with Mr. Bordly met in the street two of my old schoolmates; went to Madam Chabanel's. We did not Stay there long; din'd at home; after dinner brother Charles and I went out of the Leyden Gate, and from thence to the Haerlem Schout with an intention of going to Leyden this { 85 } day. When we got to the Schout we found the Roof was hir'd and some were obliged to go in the Ruim.1 We had a number of fellow travellers, but one of them who was some peasant or other, and who had drank full his portion, thinking himself very wise took all the conversation to himself and pleas'd us very much by his talk. When we had got half ways to Haerlem we chang'd boats, and our Boor2 took a<nother> glass of gin which made his tongue run about half as fast again as it did before. We got to Haerlem at about half past five o'clock; we found that the fair is at Haerlem at present; We passed through the city and went out to the Leyden Boat; but found that the Roof was hir'd again and so we were oblig'd to go again in the Ruim; Our Boor did not go to Leyden with us; we arriv'd at Leyden at about half past ten.
Fine weather all day.
Chapter 6th. From Pope's works. Messiah. a sacred eclogue, in imitation of Virgil's Pollio.3
1. Schout (schuyt or schuit): a boat or barge; roof (roef): the cabin of a small vessel; ruim: the hold of a boat (William Sewel, Nieuw Woordenboek Der Nederduytsche en Engelsche Taale, Amsterdam, n.d.). “A treckscuit [covered boat] is divided into two different apartments, called the roof and the ruim; the first for gentlemen, and the other for common people, who may read, smoke, eat, drink, or converse with people of various nations, dresses, and languages” (Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, p. 404, which JQA copied into his Diary entry of 20 June, above).
2. That is, a boer, or Dutch peasant.
3. Here follows, on five and one-half pages in the Diary, Pope's “Messiah . . .,” which had been copied in JQA's entry of 12 Sept. 1780 from The Spectator. It is likely that here JQA was using the J. Balfour edition of The Works of Alexander Pope, Esq., Edinburgh, 1764. The JA Library contains an incomplete set of this six-volume edition. Three of the four extant volumes contain JQA's earliest bookplate and classification numbers, which indicate that the volumes were probably purchased sometime in 1781 (Catalogue of JA's Library). In the Balfour edition this poem is at 1:37–43.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-28

Thursday June the 28th 1781.

This morning brother Charles and I, went to buy a trunk, when we had got it here we began to pack up our books, which we did before dinner. After dinner Pappa sent for us from the golden Lion. We went there and found Mr. Jennings there. We did not stay there long, but went to Mr. Lynch's, and went into water with him and some other gentlemen; at eight o'clock our Master came here and we took leave of him.
Chapter 7th. From Pope's works.1
1. Here follows, on about four pages in the Diary, the first four sections (seventy lines) of Pope's “Ode for Music on St. Cecilia's Day” (Pope, Works, Balfour edn., 1:69–71).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-29

Friday June the 29th 1781.

This morning brother Charles and I packed up our trunks, and I went to take leave of our riding master; in the afternoon Pappa came here but stay'd only ten minutes; we went to Mr. Lynch's at about 4 o'clock; he asked us to go into water with him at 5 o'clock, we told him we would, we went then to take leave of Mr. Luzac.1 At five o'clock we went again to Mr. Lynch's and went with him into water. Mr. Cook2 told us that he would go to Amsterdam with us. We got home at about 7 o'clock.
From Pope's works (continued from yesterday).3
1. Although this is the first mention in the Diary, Jean Luzac had taken special interest in JQA and CA during their brief attendance at the University of Leyden in 1781. Luzac was editor of the widely influential Gazette de Leyde, as well as a lawyer and a scholar of history and the classics. He was on JA's list of persons to be consulted in Holland in 1780 and became an invaluable supporter of the campaign to obtain Dutch recognition of American independence and financial support (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:444–445; Adams Family Correspondence,4:xiv).
2. John Cooke, an Englishman who completed his medical studies at Leyden and practiced in London (JQA, Diary, 2 Dec. 1795; DNB).
3. JQA copied on about the next three and one-quarter pages in the Diary the concluding two sections of Pope's “Ode for Music on St. Cecilia's Day,” begun in the previous entry (Pope, Works, Balfour edn., 1:71–73).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0001-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-06-30

Saturday June the 30th 1781.

This morning Mr. Cook came here and breakfasted with us and at half past six we went to the boat to go to Amsterdam; we had nothing very remarkable, going to Haerlem, where we arriv'd at half past ten o'clock. We went thro' the city to the Amsterdam boat, we found that there was place in the Roof; we had one gentleman with us. We arriv'd at Amsterdam at half past one o'clock, brother Charles went to show Mr. Cook the way to the first bible; Mr. Van Heukelom din'd with us; after dinner I went to Kaa's to see Mr. Bordly; but found he was out, and therefore I return'd home.
From Pope's works. Prologue to Mr. Addison's Tragedy of Cato. Chapter 8th.1
1. The 46 lines of the Prologue take up two and one-half pages in the Diary (Pope, Works, Balfour edn., 1:158–159).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-01

Sunday July the 1st 1781.

This morning Pappa and brother Charles and I went to church; din'd at home, Mr. Cook, Mr. Jennings, and another { 87 } Gentleman din'd with us; brother Charles and I went again to church. After Church Mr. Sigourney, Mr. Ingraham, Mr. Bromfield and Mr. Merrick came here but did not stay here long.
From Dr Garths' works. Epilogue to the Tragedy of Cato. Chapter 9th.1
1. The forty-line Epilogue, containing several transcription errors, follows on the next two pages in the Diary (Samuel Garth, Works, Dublin, 1769, p. 117–118). On this day JQA also copied, on two and one-half pages in the Diary as Chapter 10, the fifty-line “Epilogue to Mr. Rowe's Jane Shore,” with several slight irregularities (Pope, Works, Balfour edn., 1:160–161).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-02

Monday July the 2d 1781.

This morning Major Jackson came here; I went to Mr. Crajenschot's for the Politique Hollandois. At about ten o'clock Pappa set out upon a journey for Paris; We all din'd at home; after dinner, I went to Mr. Sigourney and Ingraham's but did not Stay there long. I went to Madam Chabanel's; but found no body but the old lady at home; Mr. Le Roi and young Mr. Chabanel came home. At about half past nine I got home.
The Universal Prayer. (From Pope's works) Deo. Opt. Max. Chap: 11th.1
1. The thirteen four-line stanzas fill three and one-half pages of the Diary (same, 2:67–69).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-03

Tuesday July the 3d 1781.

Din'd at home, after dinner Mr. Searle and Major Jackson came here. At about nine o'clock a thunder Storm came up, and lasted till about eleven, it Struck a Windmill, and burnt it to the ground, and would probably have communicated itself to another which was near it, if a very heavy shower of rain had not hinder'd it.
From Waller's works. Chap. 12th. Of The Fear of God. In two Cantoes.1
1. Here follows, on three and one-half pages in the Diary, the first canto (64 lines) from Edmund Waller's poem, “Of the Fear of God. In Two Cantoes.” Possibly JQA transcribed it from his own copy of Works of Edmund Waller, Esq. in Verse and Prose . . ., London, 1772, p. 147–149, which, according to his bookplate, he purchased sometime in 1781 (MQA).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-04

Wednesday July the 4th 1781.

This day being the Anniversary of American Independance, all the Americans din'd together, at a place call'd De Nieuwe Stads Herberg, but brother Charles and I could not go. In the afternoon Brother Charles and I went to the Oude Man Huis to buy some things, We went to Madam Chabanel's, brother Charles went away soon after and I went to take a walk with the young ladies, I supp'd there, and after supper went again to take a walk. I got home at about 11 o'clock.
From Waller's Works. (Continued from Yesterday) Canto 2d.1
1. The second and final canto, of 54 lines, takes up three pages in the Diary (same, p. 149–150).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-05

Thursday July the 5th 1781.

This morning I went to see when the boats go for Utrecht. Mr. Dana and Mr. Thaxter din'd at Mr. Sigourney's; I din'd at home. After dinner went to see Mr. Greaves; but found only Mr. Brailsford at home; I stay'd there but a little time, and went for Kaa's; in the way I met Mr. Greaves and Captn. Henzel; and went to take a walk with them out of the Haerlem Porte and down along upon the Dyke; as we were returning we stopp'd at the third Bible to see Captn. Cazneau. When we had got to the first bible I went in to see Mr. Bordly. I got home at about half past ten.
From Addison's Poems Chapter 13th. HORACE. Ode 3d. Book 3d.1
1. The first seventy lines of Addison's translation of Horace's Ode III, Book III, fill the next three and three-quarter pages in the Diary (Joseph Addison, The Miscellaneous Works in Verse and Prose . . ., 3 vols., London, 1766, 1:156–159, in JA's Library at MB).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-06

Friday July the 6th 1781.

This morning Dr. Waterhouse came here and told us that Colo. Trumbul1 had arriv'd in Town. I went to the first Bible to see Mr. Bordly, I found Mr. Trumbel there. I din'd at home. Dr. Waterhouse din'd with us; after dinner Colo. Searle and Major Jackson came here; I went and took a walk with Major Jackson and Mr. Dana. I spent the evening and supp'd at Madam Chabanel's, got home at about 10 o'clock.
From Addison's Poems, (continued from yesterday.)2
{ 89 }
1. John Trumbull, the Revolutionary painter, whom JQA had met in Paris in 1780 just prior to the artist's departure for London, where he briefly studied under Benjamin West. In Nov. 1780, shortly after his arrival in London, Trumbull was imprisoned on suspicion of treason. He secured his release in June 1781 through the intercession of Charles Fox and Edmund Burke. Trumbull had come to Amsterdam as the fastest route back to America, and there at the request of his father (Gov. Jonathan Trumbull) attempted to obtain a loan for Connecticut through the de Neufvilles and van Staphorsts; he was unsuccessful (The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, Patriot-Artist, 1756–1843, ed. Theodore Sizer, New Haven, 1953, p. 58–74).
2. On the next three pages in the Diary, JQA copied fifty-nine of sixty lines to conclude Addison's translation of Horace's Ode III, Book III (Miscellaneous Works in Verse and Prose, 1:159–161).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-07

Saturday July the 7th 1781.

This morning we pack'd up everything; to go a Journey; At about 11 o'clock Mr. Trumble and Dr. Waterhouse came here; I went with Dr. Waterhouse to show him the way to Madam Chabanel's; At about half past twelve I set away from our house with Mr. Dana's servant, and went to the Utrecht Boat; at 1 o'clock we set off; I had for companions A French gentleman and lady, and two Dutch gentlemen; We travell'd about three hours, without seeing anything remarkable but after we had pass'd a small village call'd Niewen Sluys [Nieuwersluis] along for the Space of Seven or eight English Miles, the whole way is lin'd on both Sides with country Seats with their gardens belonging for the most part to Citizens of Amsterdam. We arriv'd at Utrecht at about half past eight o'clock, it is about thirty English Miles by water. Utrecht is about sixteen feet higher than Amsterdam, and the ground here is much higher than the water, which is not a very common thing in Holland; We found Mr. Dana and Mr. Deneufville here; It raind hard when we arriv'd: We lodge at the New Castle of Antwerp.
From Guthrie's Grammar. Continuation of Chapter 4th. § 17th. (continued from Page 57.)1
1. Here follows, on four pages in the Diary, the completion of JQA's transcription on the Dutch constitution and government from Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, p. 405–406, which he began on 24 June.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-08

Sunday July the 8th 1781.

This morning Mr. Dana and Mr. Deneufville1
1. The day's entry breaks at this point because the succeeding MS leaf containing p. 113–114 of the Diary volume is missing. This and similar losses of leaves from the same volume containing p. 127–128 and 149–156, affecting entries for 11, 12 { 90 } { 91 } July, and 27 July–17 Aug., were noted in the MS by Worthington C. Ford in April 1911. Dana's Journal, which covers the entire journey to St. Petersburg, helps to fill in the gap for this day's activities. Dana and JQA did not continue on their trip, though young Adams may have accompanied Dana when he briefly visited the nearby Moravian settlement of Zeyst. Otherwise, both remained in Utrecht until the following day, so that they could purchase a coach for the trip to Russia in order to “avoid the trouble and delay of changing carraiges as well as horses, as in the manner of the Posts in Germany” (Dana, Journal).
The entry in its present state concludes with a passage from the Geographical Grammar (p. 406–407), which probably began at the point where JQA had left off copying the day before. However, as the MS remains there is a hiatus.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-09

Monday July the 9th 1781.

This morning Mr Deneufville and Mr. Dana went to look for a carriage, I did not go out in the forenoon; din'd at the Inn; after dinner I went to buy some things at the fair, which began here this morning; got home at about six o'clock.
From Guthrie's Grammer. (continued from yesterday) Chapter 4th. §. 21st.1
N. B. As there are several errors in this description I shall tomorrow point out such of them as I know.
1. JQA concludes his copying from Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, with the section on the history of the seventeen provinces, which covers nearly five pages in the Diary. To this he has added a list of towns and provinces in the Netherlands retained by the French as provided in the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748 (p. 411–412, 408).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-10

Tuesday July the 10th 1781.

This morning at about half past nine o'clock Mr. Dana, his servant and I set away from Utrecht, and arriv'd at Ni[j]megen at about 8 o'clock P.M. the distance, is about 50 Miles; We pass'd along thro' the province of Utrecht, the land is very bad and gravelly. Nimegen is the last City in the Republic, in the Province of Gelderland; the land in this Province is much better than in that of Utrecht. At 4 ½ o'clock we pass'd the Rhine by a rope ferry and at about five o'clock we came upon a dyke on the banks of the river Waal; and rode along upon that till we came opposite Nimegen, where we cross'd it upon a moveable bridge of boats; the construction of which is thus. There are several boats join'd to the shore, with timbers laid over them, and planks over the timbers, at the end of these are two more boats, join'd together { 92 } (with timbers and planks over them also,) which are seperated from the rest but join'd by a rope when these boats arrive. On the platform of these two boats are two small masts, connected by a cross piece together; over this cross piece goes a small cable fix'd to the stern of the boats; the other end goes up the stream to several small boats which are in the river and then there is a Chain fasten'd to the cable which goes over all these small boats and is hook'd at the stern of each of them. (These small boats are at a small distance one from the other in a perpendicular line, up the stream). The highest small boat is secured by an Anchor; When they cross, they cast of[f] the rope which joins them to the boats which go to the shore and the two boats are wafted over, gradually, by the current to the other shore where there are several more boats connected to the shore, after the same manner.
This is a very convenient method, as five or six hundred men can cross upon one of these machines at a time, and there is but very little trouble in it. But there must be a strong current which runs always the same way; otherwise they cannot go over.
Remarks upon Chapter 4th.
§. 6th. (Page 27. line 9 to 11) Their tradesmen &c.1
This is certainly a great mistake, for the tradesmen will always ask for a thing the double of what it is worth and if you have any thing made, you will certainly get greatly cheated if you do not make the bargain before hand as the dutch themselves always do.
Do. lines 13 and 14) Smoaking tobacco &c.2
The men and boys smoak almost universally but the Women never do.
Do. Page 32 lines 18 and 19.) They are &c.3
The dutch it is true skate exceeding swiftly, but with not half that elegance that I expected they wou'd.
§ 9th: (Page 36 line 10 to Page 37 line 2) Onze Vader &c.4
I have not coppy'd the lords pray'r from Guthrie, because there are several words left out in his book and it is not entire.
§ 17th. (Page 111 line 12 to line 15) And such is &c.5
In the city of Amsterdam when a Schepen (a Sheriff) is apointed,6 his name is given to the Stadholder, and he can reject him and appoint another in his place but after that he cannot change him, but he can in all the other cities.
(End.)
{ 93 }
1. Passage copied in entry of 15 June (above), quoting material from Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, p. 401: “Their Tradesmen are in general very honest in all their dealings. ...”
2. P. 401: “Smoaking tobacco is practised by old and young of both sexes. . . .”
3. From entry of 16 June (above), same, p. 402: “They are the best skaters upon the ice in the world.”
4. From entry of 17 June (above), same, p. 402–403, concerning Guthrie's rendition of the Lord's Prayer in Dutch.
5. From entry of 7 July (above), same, p. 406: “The Stadtholder is president of the states of every province; and such is his power and influence, that he can change the deputies, magistrates, and officers, in every province and city.”
These comments on Guthrie's misstatements about the Dutch were more than matched by JQA's criticisms of Guthrie's account of France (p. 373–399), a country of which he had had some firsthand knowledge, exclaiming at one point in a marginal note to his copy of the volume, “how long O Englishmen will be prejudiced against the French” (p. 378). In his copy of Geographical Grammar, now at MQA, he labeled many of Guthrie's statements “false,” at one point “horribly false,” and at another called the author a fool for describing the properties of the French language as “undoubtedly greatly inferior to the English, but they are well adapted to subjects void of elevation or passion. It is well accommodated to dalliance, compliments, and common conversation” (p. 378–381).
6. At this point in the margin JQA inserted: “there are three appointed every year.”

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-11

Wednesday July the 11th 1781.

This morning at about six o'clock we set off from Nimegen and arriv'd at about 8 P.M at Hochstrass the distance is about 70 Engh. Miles; We pass'd thro' Cleves[Kleve], Xanten, and Rheimberg [Rheinburg], three small unfortified towns, they all belong to the King of Prussia as does Hochstrass Which is the last town in his dominions, in this part of the country. There are but a few houses in Hochstrass, but there is a pretty good Inn there. The road this day was not good, and all that the ground produces here is Wheat, Buck Wheat, and Spelts.1
From the Spectator. Chapter 14th. No. 631.2
1. A species of grain related to wheat and grown in Europe (OED).
2. Here follow nine lines from the first paragraph of the essay on cleanliness which appeared in the issue of 10 Dec. 1714 (Spectator, ed. Bond, 5:156–158). The entry is incomplete through the loss of the following leaf (p. 127–128; see note to entry of 8 July, above). The concluding section undoubtedly carried the quotation from The Spectator to the end of its second paragraph since the quotation is resumed at paragraph three to conclude the entry of the following day, the 12th. The opening lines of that entry were also contained on the missing leaf.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-12

Thursday July the 12th 1781.1

Dusseldorp a small town strongly fortified on the land side, but open on the river Rhine which we were obliged to cross, (on one { 94 } of the same machines that I have mention'd yesterday)2 before we got there, it is in the Dutchy of Burgin [Berg] and is subject to the King of Prussia. There is a famous cabinet of Paintings here, but as we only stopp'd here to dine, and the cabinet not being then open, we did not see it. We set off from Dusseldorp directly after dinner and arriv'd at Cologne at about 8 o'clock; on the way we pass'd by a palace in which the Emperor, or the Archduke lodge, whenever they come this way. The roads this day were pretty good, but the produce of the ground is the same as what we have seen all along, that is, wheat, Buck wheat, and Spelts. We cross'd the Rhine again, when we got opposite Cologne, where there is a village, inhabited by Jews; A Nasty, dirty, Place indeed, and fit only for Jews to live in.
From the Spectator. (continued from yesterday).3
1.   The first part of this entry is missing; see the preceding note. According to Dana's Journal, the party left Hochstrass at 6 A.M. for Cologne, a distance of sixty English miles, and arrived at noon in Dusseldorf, at which point JQA's Diary continues.
2.  JQA's reference is to his entry of 10 July. The journey probably made Diary entries on a day-to-day basis difficult, if not impossible. Under these circumstances entries for 10 and 11 July were probably written on the same day.
3. Here follow, on about a page and one-quarter of the Diary, the third and fourth paragraphs of The Spectator No. 631 (ed. Bond, 5:157).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-13

Friday July the 13th 1781.

This morning Mr. Dana and I went to see a gentleman for whom Mr. Dana had letters. He went to take a walk with us about the City which is large, but irregular, very old, and dirty, the streets are very narrow, and the houses are in a decaying situation. We went to see one of the Churches in which they say that the bodies of the three Wise men of the east are interr'd. The priests show their riches every day at 9 o'clock A.M. They have this inscription on the tomb.

“Corpora sanctorum recubant Hic terna Magorum,

Ex His sublatum Nihil est alibive Locatum”1

There are here, about 50 protestant families; they are not allow'd to have any place of worship in the city, but they have a Church about 3 Miles from the city, where they go every Sunday, at a Small village call'd Mulheim; Subject to the Elector Palatine; the Protestants here cannot own houses or farms, but they buy them, and agree with a Catholic to own the house or { 95 } farm under his name; they can sell goods in retail only; and they cannot be mechanics; this is all thro' the bishoprick; yet Jews are tolerated and have their Synagogue in a Village, opposite Cologne, of which I have already spoken.
The jesuits are not permitted to stay here; but by changing their habits they do, and have their universities.
Cologne like all the other towns situated upon the Rhine, has no manufactures. The Dutch Vessels come up as far as Cologne, and are oblig'd to unload their cargoes there; and the Vessels which come from up in Germany and from Switzerland where the Rhine takes its rise cannot go with their commodities any lower than Cologne; they unload here also and change their goods for the Dutch ones which come up.
A little way up the river from Cologne is a tower, which stands upon the Rhine. They say that it was there that Julius Caesar built his bridge, a Gentleman told us that in the year 1766 when the waters of the Rhine were exceeding low the ruins of this bridge could be seen, in the winter the water rises about 8 or 10 feet commonly; but in the year 1770 it rose near 18 feet higher than they are at present.
From the Spectator. (continued from yesterday).2
1. “Here lie the three bodies of the Holy Wise Men/From these nothing has been removed or placed elsewhere”—the implication here being that relics shown elsewhere are false.
2. JQA copied on the next one and one-half pages of the Diary the fifth and sixth paragraphs of The Spectator No. 631 (ed. Bond, 5:157–158), originally begun on 11 July.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-14

Saturday July the 14th 1781.

This morning at 6 o'clock we set off from Cologne for Coblentz where we arrived at about 6 o'clock P.M. As we could not get horses to go any farther, we stopp'd here, the distance is about 66. English miles. The roads this day were the best we have had since we left Utrecht. Our road, some part of the way was cut through the mountains on the banks of the Rhine; On these mountains we saw the vinyards which produce the Rhenish Wine; Coblentz has nothing remarkable except the citadel which is on the other side of the Rhine, and is situated upon a high Mountain; We went to see it. From the top of it you have on one side, a large extensive plane, but on the other the mountains hinder you from seeing far. Here the river Meusel [Mosel] runs into { 96 } the Rhine, and this city is built upon the point of land which seperates them. (From the Spectator) (continued from yesterday).1
1. On almost one page in the Diary is the seventh paragraph of The Spectator No. 631 (ed. Bond, 5:158), originally begun in the Diary on 11 July.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-15

Sunday July the 15th 1781.

This morning at about four o'clock we set off from Coblentz for Francfort, Where we arriv'd at 8 ½ o'clock, the distance is 84 English Miles; All the way, the roads are mountainous till you get within about 10 Miles of Frankfort, and then you come upon a very large plain. The roads till the plain are in general very bad; but the soil is good, and cultivated in some places. On this plain we saw some fields of Indian corn, which was the best I have seen in Europe, tho by no means so large and fine as that in America.
From the Spectator (continued from yesterday).1
1. Here follow, on about one page in the Diary, the concluding two paragraphs from The Spectator No. 631 (ed. Bond, 5:158).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-16

Monday July the 16th 1781.

This morning we enquired something about this city: It is situated upon the river Meyn and is call'd Francfort upon the Meyn to distinguish it from another city in Germany call'd Francfort upon the Oder. It is an imperial city, govern'd by its own magistrates: they Choose every year a new burgermaster or mayor. The dominant religion in this city is Lutheran. Catholics and Jews are tolerated, but Calvinists are not; but they go over on Sundays to a village call'd Bockenheim, (which is subject to the Prince of Hannau) where they have a Church. This city is pretty Strongly fortified, but in time of war, whenever an Army appears they throw open their gates, whether friend or Enemy, and let it pass thro.' Here the Emperor is elected and crown'd. They have no Manufactures here, but import them from all parts of Germany France, Switzerland, Italy, England and Holland. There are 600 Jew families here who live all in one street which is shut up every night, and all day on Sundays, when the gates are shut they can only come out upon occasions of necessity, but the jews can keep their shops in any part of the City.
{ 97 }
N. B. As I have not time for the present to copy any-thing, I shall leave it of[f] for some time.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-17

Tuesday July 17th 1781.

Stay'd at Francfort all day, nothing remarkable happen'd.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-18

<Tuesday> Wednesday <17>1 18th 1781.

This afternoon at about 4 o'clock we set of[f] from Francfort upon the Meyn for Hannau where we arrived at about 7 o'clock. It is about 12 English Miles distant from Francfort. The road for the most part is Sandy, the soil poor; about two Miles from Hannau is a Chateau belonging to the prince of Hannau. About this City are several very large fields of the same corn, we saw some days ago, but this is much better than that. Hannau is a small unpeopled city, it is pretty regular, but a miserable city for a capital. Almost every body is a weaver here.
1. Apparently JQA mistook Wednesday the 18th for Tuesday the 17th and carried his error for the rest of the week.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-19

<Wednesday> Thursday <18> 19th 1781.

This morning we set away from Hannau at 4 o'clock A.M. and arriv'd at Hunfeld (which is distant 75 Miles,) at about 8 o'clock P.M. The roads this day were for the most part mountainous but in some places there was a very good made road. The mountains in general, which we have pass'd over this day are pretty well cultivated.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-20

<Thursday> Friday <19> 20th 1781.

This morning we set off from Hunfeld at about 5 o'clock for Gotha where we arriv'd at about 9 o'clock P.M. It is about 66 Miles. The 2 first Posts to Vaach [Vacha] and to Bercka we had very bad roads but the rest was pretty good; Vaach belongs to the Prince of Hesse-Cassel, and Bercka is the first town in Saxony. Here we saw a new Married couple going about the streets with some musicians before them and I suppose half the village following them. They were dress'd in black and the bride had some large gold lace round her head. We were told that this is the third day they have been about so, and that it is generally done for a week after marriage. This they say is the custom { 98 } throughout Saxony, in the villages. After Bercka hardly a spot of ground was uncultivated, and at that we had an exceeding fine view. We lodge out of the city, at the sign of the Negroe.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-21

<Friday> Saturday <20th> 21st 1781.

This morning at five o'clock we set of[f] from Gotha and arriv'd at Naumburg (distant 60 Miles) at about 6 o'clock. Pretty good roads the ground wholly cultivated; flat level country till we get about 10 Miles from Naumburg and then it begins to be a little mountainous.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-22

Sunday July 22d 1781.

This morning at 4 o'clock we set off from Naumburg for Leipsic where we arriv'd at about 11 o'clock A.M. The distance is about 36 Miles. The first post was a little mountainous but pretty well cultivated, the last post is a large plain well cultivated also.
A German Post Mile is 6 English Miles And a German post is generally two German Miles; You pay a German Guilder per post for each horse; for a post and a half you pay a guilder and a half per horse and for two posts in proportion. A German Guilder is about 1 shilling and 10 pence Sterling. The money changes in almost every petty prince's dominions and the same silver money does not pass above 100 Engh. Miles, in general, but French Guineas or Dutch Ducats pass all over Germany. In some places Ducats are better than Louis D'ors, and in others L'D'or's are better than Ducats, but you lose something by either, in the Exchange.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1781-07-23 - 1781-07-25

Wednesday July the 25th 1781.1

On Monday at about 1 o'clock P.M. we set away from Leipsig for Berlin, Where we arriv'd this day at about 11 o'clock A.M. The distance is 120 English Miles; The soil, all the way is thin and sandy, and some part of the way foresty. We rode all night on Monday. At about half past eleven at Night, being in the middle of a Forest and the road being at the bottom of a hill, The postilon run our wheels on one side, upon the hill and there happening to be a mud puddle just there the other side sunk in, and the weight being so heavy on that side, our carriage quite { 99 } overset with one pair of wheels under and the other pair up; but luckily none of us was much hurt. We got the carriage up (by the way of a couple of ropes fasten'd to the wheels Which the horses drew,) but found it was broke in several places, however, we got into it and continued our rout till last night at about 8 o'clock When we arriv'd at Teltow a Village about twelve Miles from Berlin; Where we stopp'd and lodg'd last night; this morning we set off from Teltow and arriv'd here, as I have already mention'd at 11 o'clock. It is the handsomest and the most regular city I ever saw; at the entrance of each Gate the houses form almost a Square; The streets in general are uniform and large. There is one street which goes from one end of the city to the other, and is three English Miles long. The city is situated upon the river Spree. Here the king has a Palace where the Royal Library once was but at present there as building on purpose for it.2
1. Actually 23–25 July, as the entry makes clear.
2. JQA undoubtedly meant that the new Royal Library was being built; Dana describes it as being nearly complete (Dana, Journal, 23 July).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-26

Thursday July 26th 1781.

Nothing remarkable this day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0002-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-07-27

Friday July 27th 1781.

This morning we went to see the kings arsenal, [ . . . ]1
1. The break in the present entry and the absence of all succeeding entries to that of 17 Aug., together with the opening lines of that entry, are attributable to the loss of MS p. 149–156; see note to entry of 8 July (above). The journey from Berlin to Riga can be reconstructed from Dana's Journal. They remained in Berlin until 2 Aug. On that morning they left for Danzig, traveling day and night until they reached their destination in the late afternoon of 6 Aug. They remained in Danzig until early in the morning of 9 Aug., and stayed at the Hotel D'Angleterre, which gave them a fine vantage point to view the ancient Hanseatic city. Their next objective was Königsberg (now Kaliningrad), the capital of Prussia, where they arrived late in the afternoon of 10 Aug. They remained there a day, but set off early the following morning for Memel (now Klaipeda), traveling on a very disagreeable route along a narrow tongue of land which parallels the Baltic, until they arrived at their destination at 6 P.M. on 13 Aug. They stayed the night in Memel, but resumed their travels to Riga early the next morning.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0003-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-08-17

Friday August 17th 1781.1

[Nie]mersat2 we enter'd Poland and were searched there, and about a Mile farther we enter'd into Courland which is a <Prus- { 100 } sian> Polish Province <, taken from Poland in the late division>. We rode in Courland till we came at about 60 English Miles from this place3 and then we enter'd Semigaul [Semigallia], which is a different Province but the same dutchy as Courland; it is call'd the dutchy of Courland and Semigaul; We pass'd Mittau, which is the capital of Courland and Semigaul yesterday afternoon at about 4 o'clock; it is but a small town, but the duke has a palace there; it is distant from Riga about 40 Engh. Miles. We cross'd, just before we enter'd the city, the river Dwina upon which Riga stands; it divides the Province of Livonia from the dutchy of Courland and Semigaul.
The country from Memel to Riga is almost all sand; tho' there is for about 40 English Miles in Courland some very fine land; there are a number of forests on the road, and there is one, which is about 50 English Miles long.
Riga is the capital of Livonia; it stands upon a<n island> point of land formed by the river Dwina, it is strongly fortified, and sustain'd a long siege when taken by the Russians under Prince Menzikoff, in 1710, but it is very small, not more than a mile long if it is so much. The Province of Livonia is reckon'd to be <one of> the most fertile Province of the North except Estonia. It was Conquer'd by Gustavus Adolphus from Russia And retaken by Peter the great from Charles the twelfth. The dominant Religion is the Lutheran; The residence of the governor is at Riga; you must get a Passport (from him,) for Post horses, otherwise you cannot get any, on the road for Petersburg.
1. The first part of this entry is missing; see the notes to entries of 8 and 27 July (above). Had the entry survived intact it might well have covered the events of 14–17 Aug. since Dana recorded in his journal that after leaving Memel on the first of those days they traveled day and night until the night of the 16th.
2. Niemersat, a small town northeast of Memel (Thomas Kitchin Sr. and others, A New Universal Atlas, Exhibiting All the Empires, Kingdoms, States, Republics, &c. &c.in the Whole World, 3d edn., London, 1799, map no. 39).
3. That is, Riga.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0003-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-08-20

Monday August 20th. 1781.1

This day at about 2 o'clock P.M we left Riga, and arriv'd at a village call'd Neuermuhlen at about half past 4, here we are obliged to stop because we found all the horses were gone away; The road is sandy from Riga here, and the land bad.
{ 101 }
1. JQA and Dana remained in Riga over the weekend (18–19 Aug.) in order to obtain the passport mentioned in the previous Diary entry (Dana, Journal).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0003-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-08-24

Friday August 24th. 1781.

This day at about 3 o'clock P.M. we arriv'd at Narva after having rode night and day from Neuermuhlen Which we left the 21st at about 3 o'clock A.M. The distance from Riga here is 409 Russian Wersts1 7 of Which make 5 English Miles; Part of this way, the roads are very fine as is the soil but here and there you find a station of Sand. Just before you come to Nenal (a Village which is about 110 Wersts from Narva) you Come upon the Lake Peipus; we rode along the side of it about 3 English Miles and then turn'd, off; and at about 30 Wersts from Narva we came in sight of the Baltic, but did not ride along side of it.
The city of Narva is very small <middlin> pretty well fortified, there are not more than 200 hundred houses in the city, but the Suburbs Which are on the other side of the river are larger than the city itself. There are about 3000 Souls in the whole. It is the capital of Estonia, another province conquer'd by Peter the great from Sweden, and is famous for the battle fought there, in which Charles the twelfth gain'd so much glory.2 It was taken by Peter in 1704: They say that this is a better port than that of Petersburg, and think that if he had been sure he should have got this Place, for he would have made Peace at first if Charles would have given him one town upon the Baltic; And even when the Peace was made They say that Peter said “that if Charles had sent him a sheet of blank paper with his name wrote at the bottom of it he should not have taken as much as his ministers had.”
1. Germanic form of the more commonly used spelling, verst (OED).
2. The battle was fought on 30 Nov. 1700.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0003-0003-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1781-08-27

Monday August 27th. 1781.

This day at about 10 o'clock A.M. we arriv'd at St. Petersburg having left Narva yesterday morning at about 9 ½ o'clock. The roads in general are very good, the country in some part is sandy; but there it is almost all paved, the distance is about 145 Wersts.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0001-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1782-01-27 - 1782-11-23

[Titlepage]

John Q. Adams—
Jany. 19/30th 1782
A
Journal.
at
St. Petersbourg
New Stile
From the 27th. of January
1782.1
1. Titlepage of D/JQA/5 which covers the period 27 Jan.–23 Nov. 1782 and consists of JQA's entries for the remainder of his stay in St. Petersburg and for part of his return trip to western Europe. This Diary, the first actual blank book purchased for this purpose, measures approximately 5⅞″ × 3¾″” and contains 118 pages. Presumably it was JQA who marked off in pencil margins on the top and left side of each page in order to designate months and days.
Arriving in late Aug. 1781, Dana and JQA took lodgings at the Hôtel de Paris in the heart of the Russian capital, not far from the Imperial Winter Palace. For the next fourteen months JQA served as Dana's secretary and companion and continued his studies, albeit with many difficulties (Dana to Edward Dana, 9/20 Sept. 1781, MHi:Dana Papers; Storch, Picture of Petersburg, p. xiii, xvii).
One of the probable reasons why JA let Dana take his eldest son to Russia was JA's assumption, certainly shared by both JQA and Dana until shortly after their arrival, that JQA could continue his education there without complications. But it soon became apparent that “this [was] not a very good place for learning the Latin and Greek Languages,” studies necessary for admission to college. There were no schools, academies, or reasonably priced masters available for him; the Russians themselves sent their children to western Europe for education. Thus, Adams was reduced to what he could find and read himself and to whatever direction Dana might provide (Adams Family Correspondence,4:234–235, 275–278).
According to letters and his Diary, JQA seems to have spent a large portion of the year in Russia reading English and European history by such authors as Hume, Macaulay, and Robertson. In his early months in Russia, before this Diary begins, he copied the poetry of Dryden, Pope, and Addison. Because JQA did not bring a Latin dictionary and could not find one in St. Petersburg for several months, he was unable to continue his classical studies until early 1782. Thereafter, he translated the biographical sketches of Cornelius Nepos and several of Cicero's orations, but apparently little else. The Diary indicates that he briefly took up the study of German, while his small commonplace books show that during the summer of 1782 he devoted much time to reading and copying portions of the works of minor English poets from several anthologies, including John Nichols' A Select Collection of Poems: With Notes, Biographical and Historical, 8 vols., London, 1780–1782 (same, 4:286–287).
Convinced for months that the sojourn had been a mistake for JQA's education (and possibly for his morals), JA finally insisted on his son's return to western Europe, where he might enroll in some regular course of study. Even though Dana wished the boy might stay, he realized that without schools, instructors, or books he could not guide his education. “Had he finished his classical studies I should meet with no difficulty in his future education,” he wrote to JA only months after his arrival in St. Petersburg; “I wou'd superintend and direct that in the course you wou'd choose and point out” (same, 4:264–265, 317, 322–323; Dana to JA, 11–13 Jan. 1782, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0002-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-01-27

N.(1782)S. January 27th

Began to read Hume's history of England.1
1. David Hume, The History of England, from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688, 8 vols., London, 1763, which JQA borrowed from the English or British Library of St. Petersburg, where he found “a good collection of English Authors” (Dana to JA, 25 Jan., Adams Papers). JQA's notes (copied quotations) from his reading of Hume appear in M/JQA/1, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 199.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0002-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-01-29

29th

Dined at Mr. Rimbert's;1 changed Lodgings.
1. Or Raimbert, French vice-consul in St. Petersburg (Almanach royal, 1783, p. 262).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0002-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-01-30

30th. Wednesday.

Went to the Shops, bought this book,1 with some other matters. Began to translate Cicero's first Catilinary.2 Finish'd Hume's first volume of the History of England 503. Pages.
1. That is, his Diary booklet, D/JQA/5.
2. Probably the edition JQA used for his translations into French was Selectae . . . Orationes . . ., Paris, 1747, p. 510–525, in which JQA has inscribed “J.Q.Adams, a present from Mr. Cussy [rendered Cressy in Catalogue of JQA's Books, p. 90],” possibly the same man whom he mentions in his Diary on 11 March but who is otherwise unidentified. This edition of Cicero, now among JQA's books at MQA, contains the same internal divisions of chapters and sections found in his translation of the first Catilinary in M/JQA/45, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 240. In fact, the four Catilinaries which JQA mentions in this and subsequent entries, as judged from JQA's translations, are from this printed source (p. 510–563). The pages in Selectae . . . Orationes bear MS markings by JQA presumably made while he was translating.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0002-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-01-31

31st. Thursday.

Began Hume's second volume of the History of England. Went to the shops and bought some things.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-01

N.(1782)S. February 1st.

Stay'd at home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-02

2d Saturday.

Went to the shops, and bought some things A.M. P.M Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud1 went to the German play, I stay'd at home.
{ 104 }
1. Artaud's identity is uncertain, but in a Diary entry written seventeen years later, JQA provides a fuller account of his relationship with this man. “The Chevalier de Villenotte, told me,” JQA wrote, “he had seen me at Artaud's at Petersburg in the year 1782. I had altogether forgotten it. Poor Artaud, died it seems in 1784 of a fever, caught at Peterhoff, at the annual festival there, upon St. John's day, in June. His woman then returned to Dunkirk, and afterwards went back to Petersbourg, where she was taken by a Venitian minister; who upon being removed to Constantinople, carried her with him; since which Villenotte has heard nothing of her” (JQA, Diary, 26 July 1799). JQA's and Dana's change of lodgings, mentioned in the entry for 29 Jan. (above), Artaud's daily presence thereafter, his frequent absence at dinner, and JQA's having been seen “at Artaud's” all suggest that the two Americans were probably lodging at Artaud's house. Artaud's “woman” may have been his housekeeper, who would have served them meals and would have seen to other needs. Some such role would explain why JQA gave so much space to her in his 1799 entry.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-03

3d. Sunday.

Thermometer in the morning at 15 degrees cold. Fine weather. I went to take a walk with Mr. Peyron the Swedish Consul,1 and Mr. Montréal. Went into the house where Peter the great resided; it is of wood painted in imitation of brick <and> is but one Story high, and has four very small rooms in it. There is a Porch since put round it to sustain it, and under the Porch is kept a barge of Peter the great's own building.2 Finished Hume's 2d. Volume. 515 pages.
1. Claës Bartholomeus von Peyron, Swedish consul at St. Petersburg, 1778–1786 (Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon, 8:178).
2. The first wooden cottage of Peter the Great was constructed in 1703, the year building of the city was begun. Over it was erected a brick porch, or arcade, to preserve it from the weather on Petersburg Island in the Neva Delta (Storch, Picture of Petersburg, p. 54).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-04

4th. Monday.

Very unwell all day, but went notwithstanding that to the English Library and took out the 3d. and 4th. Volume's of Humes history, and begun the third, but read but a few pages.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-05

5th. Tuesday.

Went with Mr. Artaud to the shops and bought some things. Fine weather. The Thermometer at night was. 15 degrees below.0. which is the degree of freezing.1 On the 20th. of December last and on the 25th. of the same month our Thermometer was at 25. below 0. and at that of the academy2 it was at 28, which is colder than it has been here since the year 1776. In 1759 it was as low as 33.
{ 105 }
1. The calibration is that of René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French physicist and naturalist. Under Réaumur's system the temperature range between freezing and boiling was divided into eighty degrees; hence −33°R., mentioned later in the entry, would equal −42°F., or −41°C. (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale; entry for 12 Aug. 1783, below; Adams Family Correspondence; 4:287).
2. The Academy of Sciences, founded by Catherine I in 1725 in accordance with a plan of Peter the Great for the promotion of literature and science (Storch, Picture of Petersburg, p. 297–302, 313–321, 324–344).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-06

6th. Wednesday.

Staid at Home all day. Mr. D. went to Mr. Wolff the banker's.1
1. Member of Strahlborn and Wolff, St. Petersburg bankers, who handled financial matters for Dana in the Russian capital (Dana to Benjamin Franklin, 29 April/[10 May] 1782, and to Robert Morris, 21 Oct./[1 Nov.] 1782, both LbC, MHi:Dana Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-07

7th. Thursday.

Mr. D. very unwell all day. Mr. Artaud dined out. Finished the 3d. Volume of Hume's history. 472 pages.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-08

8th. Friday.

Thermometer at 18 below.0. in the morning. Mr. D. Continues unwell. Stay'd at home all day as well as, Yesterday. Begun Hume's 4th. Volume, Mr. Montréal came to pay us a visit in the forenoon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-09

9th.

Staid at Home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-10

10th. Sunday.

Finished Hume's 4th Volume. 480 pages. Mr. Artaud dined out. Mr. Peyron Mr. Montreal and Mr. Abraham came to pay us a visit.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-11

11th. Monday.

Mr. Peyron, Mr. Montréal and several other gentlemen dined with us. I went to the English Library and took out the 5th. and 6th. Volumes of Hume's history of England, begun the fifth but read but 3 or 4 pages; went in the evening to the concert got home at about 9. o'clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-12

12th.

Thermometer in the morning at 22 ½ degrees below.0. Stay'd at Home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-13

13th. Wednesday.

Thermometer in the morning at 25 degrees below 0. Went in the forenoon to Mr. Rimbert's. In the afternoon, I went with Mr. Artaud to the Shops, and bought some things. Thermometer at night at 26 ½ degrees. below.0. Fine clear weather all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-14

14th.

Mr. Artaud dined out. Stay'd at home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-15

15th. Friday.

Fine weather all day. Thermometer at 28 degrees below.0. At the Academy it was 30. Finished the 5th. Volume of Hume's history of England 577. pages, and begun the 6th.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-16

16th. Saturday.

Thermometer in the morning at [home] 29 academy 32 degrees below 0. Stay'd at home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-17

17th. Sunday.

Mr. Montréal came in the forenoon to pay us a visit. Mr. D. went out for the first time since his sickness. Mr. Artaud dined out. Mr. Hoogwerst came to pay us a visit in the afternoon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-18

18th. Monday.

Finished the 6th. Volume of Hume's history. 480 pages. Went to the English Library and took out the 7th. and 8th. volumes of Hume's history. Begun the 7th. In the afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the Shops.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-19

19th. Tuesday.

Went to two booksellers shops in the forenoon for some books.1 Mr. Artaud dined out. Fine clear weather all day.
{ 107 }
1. None of JQA's extant books is inscribed with this date, though he may be referring to at least one book, Peter Rondeau [i.e., Johann Theodor Jablonsky], Nouveau dictionnaire françois—allemand, Basel, 1739, which he records as having bought on 18 Feb. (Catalogue of JQA's Books).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-20

20th. Wednesday.

In the forenoon Mr. Wolff came to pay a visit to Mr. D. In the afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to a booksellers and bought Cicero's catilinaries French and Latin,1 and to the academy to get an almanack. In the evening Mr. Rimbert came to pay Mr. D. a visit.
1. This is undoubtedly Phillippiques de Demosthene, et Catilinaires de Ciceron . . ., transl. Pierre Joseph Thoulier, l'Abbé d'Olivet, Paris, 1771, now in MQA with JQA's bookplate. JQA apparently used Olivet's French translation of the Catilinaries to compare it with his own, begun on 30 Jan. (above). In a partial, undated translation of the first oration (M/JQA/44, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 239), he wrote out Olivet's translation and footnotes (from Olivet's version, p. 209–214) on even-numbered pages, writing on the odd-numbered pages a fair copy of his own French translation begun on 30 Jan. (M/JQA/45, same, Reel No. 240).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-21

21st. Thursday.

Went in the forenoon with Mr. D. to the Hotel of the Marquis de Verac,1 the French minister here. Mr. Artaud dined out. In the afternoon Mr. D. went to take a ride. Finished the 7th. Volume of Hume's history of England. 526. pages. Cloudy weather in the morning, but in the afternoon it cleared up.
1. Charles Olivier de Saint Georges, Marquis de Vérac, formerly French minister to Denmark, 1775–1777, served as minister at St. Petersburg from 1780 to 1783 (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:133).
Dana had been instructed to consult the Marquis de Vérac (and through him, French foreign minister Vergennes) with regard to the appropriate time to present his letters of credence to the Court of Catherine the Great. But Dana's efforts got off to a shaky start, as neither he nor Vérac was able to communicate in each other's native tongue, and JQA was judged by the French ambassador as having only a middling ability in the French language. Vérac counseled Dana (and continued to advise him in the months ahead) that this was not the time to present his credentials, but this delay made Dana increasingly suspicious of French motives (David M. Griffiths, “American Commercial Diplomacy in Russia, 1780 to 1783,” WMQ, 3d ser., 27:379–410 [July 1970]; Francis Paul Renaut, La politique de propagande des Américains durant la guerre d'indépendence (1776–1783), 2 vols., Paris, 1922, 1:127, 181–183, 236–237).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-22

22d. Friday.

Stay'd at home all day. Begun The 8th. Volume of Hume's history of England. Mr. D. wrote a letter to Holland.1 In the after• { 108 } noon he went to Mr. Wolff's. Cloudy in the morning, but clear'd up in the afternoon.
1. Undoubtedly Dana to JA, 21 Feb., the only letter written to Holland at this time in Dana's letterbooks; the letter was sent by post on 22 Feb. (Adams Papers; MHi:Dana Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-23

23d. Saturday.

Finished translating the first Oration of Cicero against Catilina, and began the second.1 In the forenoon Mr. D. went out to take a walk. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather.
1. M/JQA/45, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 240. See entry for 30 Jan., note 2 (above).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-24

24th Sunday.

Finished the 8th. and last volume of Hume's history of England 327. pages. Mr. D. went to Mr Wolff's in the forenoon, and dined at Mr. Rimberts. Mr. Artaud dined out also. Mr. D. receiv'd a letter from England in the afternoon. Cloudy weather. Stay'd at Home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-25

25th. Monday.

Went in the morning to the English Library and took out the three first volumes of Mrs. Macauley's History of England1 begun the first. Went to the Hotel of the French Minister. Went to the shops with Mr. Artaud and Mr. Montréal, and to a booksellers. In the afternoon Mr. Artaud went to the concert. Cloudy weather all day, and it is so warm that it does not freeze at present.
1. Catharine (Sawbridge) Macaulay, The History of England from the Accession of James I to that of the Brunswick line, 8 vols., London, 1763–1783. JQA's single note (a copied passage) from Mrs. Macaulay's history is in M/JQA/1 (14/25 Feb. 1782), Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 199.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-26

26th. Tuesday.

In the forenoon Mr. D. went to take a walk. After dinner I went to a booksellers and bought a Latin and French Dictionary.1 Cloudy weather.
{ 110 } { 109 }
1. This is possibly Jean Boudot, Dictionarium Universale Latino-Gallicum, Paris, 1774, or his third edition, Paris, 1775, both of which contain JQA's earliest bookplate, but no date of purchase. During his first month in St. Petersburg, he bought for “8 R[ubles] 50 C[opecks]” another volume which includes a Latin-French dictionary, François Antoine Pomay, Le Grand dictionnaire royale en trois langues, savoir, la françoise, la latine et l'allemande, 2 vols., Augsburg, 1767 (Catalogue of JQA's Books).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-27

27th. Wednesday.

Went in the forenoon with Mr. D. to a bookseller's and bought the King of Prussia's works.1 Mr. D. went to take a walk after dinner. Mr. Hoogwerst came to pay us a visit. Mr. Artaud dined out. Cloudy weather all day.
1. Frederick the Great, (Oeuvres du philosophe de Sans-Souci, 4 vols., Neuchatel, 1760, with JQA's notation: “bo't St. Petersbourg, Feby. 16/27, 1782 ... 3 R[u]bl[es], 25 Cop[ecks]” (Catalogue of JQA's Books).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0003-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-02-28

28th. Thursday.

In the forenoon I received a letter from Holland, from my Father;1 and another From America.2 Mr. D went to take a ride after dinner. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather. Finished the first volume of Mrs. Macaulay's history of England 420 pages and begun the 2d.
1. That of 5 Feb. (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:282–283), which JQA says he “receiv'd three days agone” (JQA to JA, 4 March, same, p. 286–287).
2. The only possibility, from evidence in surviving letters, is Elizabeth Cranch to JQA, May 1781 (same, p. 146–148), which JQA states he received “some days agone” in his reply to her of 17 March (same, p. 297).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-01

N.(1782)S. March. 1st. Friday.

Mr. D went to take a walk in the forenoon. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-02

2d. Saturday.

In the Forenoon Mr. Wolff came to pay a visit to Mr. D. Went to a bookseller's for a book for Mr. D. In the afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the shops, and bought some things. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-03

3d. Sunday.

Several persons dined and supped here this day. Mr. D. receiv'd some letters from America. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-04

4th. Monday.

A French Gentleman dined with us this day. I wrote a letter to my Father.1 Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather. Finished Mrs. Macaulay's second volume 498. pages: and begun the third. Mr. Artaud went to the concert in the evening.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-05

5th. Tuesday.

Went to Mr. Wolff's and to Mr. Rimbert's in the afternoon to carry letters to be sent to Holland.1 Mr. D. went after dinner to take a walk. Cloudy weather.
1. In addition to his own letter of the 4th to his father, JQA probably carried Dana's to JA of the same date (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-06

6th. Wednesday.

Went in the forenoon with Mr. Artaud to take a walk. Mr. D stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather in the morning, and snow in the afternoon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-07

7th. Thursday.

This morning Mr. D. went with Mr. Artaud to get some maps at the Academy. I went to a bookseller's and bought Manstein's Memoir's upon Russia, and Anecdotes du Nord.1 Mr. Artaud dined and supped out. Clear weather.
1. Christoph Hermann von Manstein, Memoires historiques sur la Russie depuis 1727 jusqu'à 1744, Paris, 1771, with JQA's notation: “bo't at St. Petersbourg, March 7th., 1782, No. 20”; Pierre Antoine de La Place and others, Anecdotes du Nord, la Suede le Danemarck, etc., Paris, 1770, with notation: “bo't at St. Petersbourg, March 7, 1782. No. 21. R[u]ble 1 Cop[ecks] 50” (Catalogue of JQA's Books). The book numbers refer to JQA's book purchases in St. Petersburg.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-08

8th. Friday.

In the forenoon I went to the English Library for some books but the keeper was not at Home. Finished the third volume of Mrs. Macaulay's history of England. 443 pages.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-09

9th. Saturday.

Finished the second oration of Cicero against Catilina.
In the morning about ten o'clock Mr. D. Mr. Artaud and myself went to Mr. Rimbert's, where we breakfasted; and then The Swedish Consul and his Lady and two of Mr. Rimbert's Nephews, and another Gentleman and [the rest of us] set off in three slays for Cronstadt.1 We left the city at 10 o'clock and 40 minutes and arrived at Cronstadt at 12 o'clock and 35 minutes. The distance is 28 wersts which is 20 English miles.2 We went to see the port of Cronstadt before dinner; after dinner we went to drink tea at a gentleman's house. We then went to take a walk, and then left Cronstadt at five minutes past five for Oranienbaum3 where we arrived at six o'clock wanting twenty minutes. The distance is 7 wersts or five English miles. We found at Oranienbaum Madam Peyron's brother.4
1. Evidently the party was still able to cross safely the ice-bound Kronstadt Bay, from St. Petersburg to Kotlin Island. The port of Kronstadt remained blocked by ice for about five months each year, and the first vessels did not arrive there in 1782 until 24 May, according to JQA's Diary.
2. In the margin: “N.B. <9> 7 wersts make 5 english Miles.”
3. Oranienbaum, a country palace, built in 1714 by Prince Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, on the Gulf of Finland facing Kronstadt (Storch, Picture of Petersburg, p. 67–70).
4. Probably a Mr. van Brienen, brother of Magdalena Peyron, the consul's wife, and son of a Dutch merchant in Archangel (Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon, 8:178).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-10

10th. Sunday.

This morning we went to see the palace at Oranienbaum, and then dined and after dinner set off in our slays from Oranienbaum for Peterhoff at five minutes past two o'clock, and arrived there, at three o'clock wanting twenty minutes the distance being 9 wersts. We came from Oranienbaum to Peterhoff on the land whereas yesterday we were upon the Gulph of Cronstadt. We saw the palace of Peterhoff and then set out for St. Petersbourg upon the Gulph, and arrived there in one hour and three quarters, (from 10 minutes before 4. to 35 past five[)] the distance is 27. wersts which is about 19 ¾ English Miles. We stopp'd { 113 } some time at Mr. Rimberts and then Mr. D. Mr. Artaud and myself return'd home.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-11

11th. Monday.

This day Mr. Blondot and Mr. Cussy dined here, after dinner I went with Mr. Artaud to the Concert. Went after the concert was over, and supped at Mr. Rimbert's. Mr. D. receiv'd this day a letter from Holland1 inclosing some from America.
1. Thaxter to Dana, 15 Feb. (MHi:Dana Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-12

12th. Tuesday.

In the afternoon I went to take a ride with Mr. D. Begun the third Oration of Cicero against Catiline.1 Mr. Hoogwerst came to pay us a visit in the evening. Mr. Artaud supp'd out. Cloudy weather.
1. M/JQA/45, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 240.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-13

13th. Wednesday.

In the forenoon I went to the English Library and took out the 4th and 5th volumes of Mrs. Macaulay's history of England and the first volume of Robertson's history of Charles the 5th.1 Begun Mrs. Macaulay's 4th. volume. After dinner I went to a bookseller's and bought some books. Cloudy weather.
1. William Robertson, The History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V. . . ., 3 vols., London, 1769.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-14

14th. Thursday.

This morning when we got up we found our Thermometer stolen. In the forenoon Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud went to take a ride; we dined at Mr. Rimbert's; Mr. Artaud supp'd out. In the evening Mr. Hoogwerst came to pay us a visit.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-15

15th. Friday.

This morning I went with Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud to take a walk. After dinner I went in a Slay with Mr. Artaud to a place called Crasna-Kabak at about eleven wersts or eight English Miles from the city, and drank coffeé there. In the evening I { 114 } went to carry a letter for Mr. D. to Mr. Rimbert's. to be sent to Holland.1 Mr. Artaud supped out.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-16

16th. Saturday.

This morning I went to the Academy and bought some almanacks. After dinner I went with Mr. Artaud to the Post office to subscribe for the French Amsterdam Gazette. We went after that to the Club,1 and return'd home at about nine o'clock. Clear weather.
1. Most likely the English Club, described by Henry Storch as containing about three hundred members and requiring 40 rubles for admission and 20 more for the annual subscription. The Club had newspapers and journals available as well as a “small but choice collection of books” (Picture of Petersburg, p. 424–425).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-17

17th. Sunday.

This morning Mr. Peyron and two of Mr. Rimbert's Nephews came to pay us a visit. Mr. D. went to Mr. Wolff's. We dined with Mr. Rimbert, Mr. Peyron and several other gentlemen, at Mr. Colombi's. Wrote a letter for America.1

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-18

18th. Monday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the Academy and bought a Russian and French Grammar. Wrote a letter to Mr. Thaxter.1 Went to carry out letters to Mr. Felleisen. Mr. D. dined at Mr. Wolff's. After dinner Mr. D. Mr. Artaud and myself went to the concert. We returned at about 9 o'clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-19

19th. Tuesday.

This forenoon Mr. D went to take a walk. After dinner he went with Mr. Artaud to the shops. Mr. Hoogwerst came to pay us a visit.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-20

20th. Wednesday.

This morning Mr. D and Mr. Artaud went to take a ride, in the afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to take a ride in a slay. In the evening, news came of Port Mahon's being taken. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-21

21st. Thursday.

This morning our German master1 came to give us a lesson for the first time; Mr. Rimbert came to pay a visit to Mr. D. Dined at Mr. Rimbert's with Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud. After dinner we went to see Mr. Colombi. Mr. Artaud supped out.
1. The extent of JQA's German language instruction while he lived in St. Petersburg was limited, and the name of his master is unknown. Believing that JA would prefer that JQA learn German rather than Russian, Dana hired an instructor who gave young Adams three lessons a week at about a guinea a month (Dana to JA, 28 March O.S., Adams Papers; Adams Family Correspondence4:302–303). As later Diary entries indicate, JQA did not long pursue this study, although sixteen years later, while serving as minister to Berlin, he again “began an attempt to acquire the practice of reading German” (JQA, Diary, 12 March 1798). He soon obtained a mastery of the language. The only remnant of JQA's early German education, completed on 17/28 Aug. 1782, is a transcription, in German script, of Ludwig Holberg's play, Der Geschwätsige Barbierer (The Talkative Barber), M/JQA/25, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 220.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-22

22d. Friday.

This morning I went to the English Library, and brought [home] The second volume of Smith's wealth of Nations.1 Mr. Blondot came in the forenoon to pay us a visit. In the afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the shops and bought some things.
1. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vols., London, 1776.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-23

23d. Saturday.

This day Mr. Blondot dined with us. In the afternoon Mr. Hoogwerst came to pay us a visit. Stay'd at Home all day. Our German master gave us the second lesson. He comes every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-24

24th. Sunday.

Mr. Artaud dined and supped out. Stay'd at home all day. Snowy and rainy weather. Mr. D. receiv'd a letter from Holland.1
1. Letter unidentified, but apparently not from either JA or John Thaxter.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-25

25th. Monday.

Finished the 4th. volume of Mrs. Macaulay's history of England. 409 p. Mr. Colombi came to pay us a visit. In the evening Mr. Artaud went to the concert.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-26

26th. Tuesday.

Begun the fifth volume of Mrs. Macaulay's history. Finished the third oration of Cicero against Catiline. Stay'd at home all day. Mr. Artaud supp'd out. Our German master gave us a lesson.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-27

27th. Wednesday.

This morning I went with Mr. D. to the house of the Spanish chargé d'affaires.1 Mr. D went to take a ride with Mr. Artaud. In the afternoon they went to the shops together. In the afternoon I went to take a walk. Begun the fourth Catilinary of Cicero.2 Fine weather.
1. Pedro Normande, Spanish chargé d'affaires to Russia, 1776–1777, 1778–1782, minister ad interim to Russia, 1784–1788, and later envoy to Poland and Denmark (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, p. 440, 438, 429).
2. M/JQA/45, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 240.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-28

28th. Thursday.

This forenoon Mr. Gonset came to pay us a visit. Mr. D. went in the afternoon to Mr. Wolff's. Mr. Artaud dined out. Stay'd at home all day. Fine, Clear weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-29

29th. Friday.

This morning I went with Mr. Artaud to the shops and bought some things. We went to the Academy for some Maps but found it shut up, and to Mr. Rimbert's for the Newspapers. In the afternoon I went and took a walk with Mr. D. Mr. Artaud supped out. Fine clear weather. Thermometer above 0.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-30

30th. Saturday.

Mr. Rimbert, Mr. Peyron and his Lady, Mr. Abraham, Mr. Rosat, and the youngest Mr. Montréal dined with us this day: Mr. Artaud supp'd out. Fine weather. Stay'd at home all day. Finished the 5th. and last volume1 of Mrs. Macaulay's history of England 470. pages.
1. Three additional volumes of her History of England were published between 1781 and 1783(DNB).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0004-0031

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-03-31

31st. Sunday.

Wrote a letter to my Father.1 Mr. Artaud dined and Supped out. Fine weather. Thermometer at 9 degrees above.0. Stay'd at home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-01

N.(1782)S. April. 1St. Monday.

Stay'd at home all day. Begun to read Robertson's history of Charles the 5th.1 Mr. Artaud supped out. Weather Cloudy in the morning and Clear in the afternoon. Thermometer at 9 degrees above.0.
1. JQA's notes (copied passages) from Robertson appear in M/JQA/1 (10/21, 11/22 April), Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 199.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-02

2d. Tuesday.

This day Mr. D. went to carry our letters to be sent to the post office. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather. Thaws fast.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-03

3d. Wednesday.

This forenoon I took a walk to the academy with Mr. Artaud and bought some maps. Mr. Artaud dined out. In the afternoon Mr. D went to take a walk. Fine weather. Thaw.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-04

4th. Thursday.

This forenoon Mr. Gonset came to pay us a visit. Mr. D and Mr. Artaud went to the shops, and bought some things. Mr. Artaud dined out. In the afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the Shops and bought some things. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-05

5th. Friday.

This forenoon Mr. D. went to take a ride. I went with Mr. Artaud and took a long walk upon the key.1 In the afternoon I went to the shops with Mr. Artaud. And I carried my watch to the watch maker's, to be mended. Clear weather.
1. That is, quay.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-06

6th. Saturday.

This forenoon Mr. D. went to take a ride, in the afternoon, I went and took a walk upon the quay. I Met Mr. Peyron there. Fine, clear weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-07

7th. Sunday.

Esther day a great holiday for the Russians. They present eggs, this day. Mr. Artaud dined out, in the forenoon. In the afternoon I went and took a walk upon the quay. Very Fine weather. Finished the first volume of Robertson's history of Charles V. 394 pages.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-08

8th. Monday.

Finished the fourth and last Catilinary of Cicero. In the forenoon I went to the English Library and took out the second and third Volumes of Robertson's history of Charles. V. Begun the 2d. Mr. Peyron came to pay Mr. D. a visit. Mr. D. receiv'd a letter from Holland from my Father.1 Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimberts. In the afternoon I went to take a walk upon the quay. Mr. D. wrote a letter to my Father.2 Very fine weather.
1. That of 15 March (MHi:Dana Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-09

9th. Tuesday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. D. to the French minister's hotel. Mr. Normandes the Spanish Chargé d'affaires came to pay a visit to Mr. D. In the afternoon I went to the Shops with Mr. Artaud, but found them all shut-up because of the Esther holidays. We went to see some of their diversions. We went also to Mr. Rimbert's, to see how Mr. Montreal does. Mr. D. went to carry his letter to be sent.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-10

10th. Wednesday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the shops and bought some things. Before dinner we went and took a walk upon the quay. In the afternoon we took another walk, and went to Mr. Rimbert's. Fine weather. It thaws fast still.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-11

11th. Thursday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the Shops. Dined at Mr. Rimberts. Mr. Colombi dined there also. Borrowed of Mr. Peyron the first volume of Dryden's Virgil.1 In the afternoon we went to see the Katchells.2 Mr. Artaud supped out.
1. The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Aeneis. Translated into English Verse; by Mr. Dryden, London, 1697. Later editions contained 3 volumes.
2. JQA may be referring to the Kamchadals, natives of the Kamchatka Peninsula on the Russian Pacific coast, who were the source of comment by other foreign observers (John Ledyard's Journey Through Russia and Siberia, 1787–1788, ed. Stephen D. Watrous, Madison, 1966, p. 54–56).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-12

12th. Friday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. went in the forenoon to take a ride. Cloudy weather. Begun Cicero's Oration for Archias.1
1. JQA's French translation is in M/JQA/45, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 240. Some evidence in the translation suggests that he probably used as his Latin source Oraisons choisies de Cicéron, traduction revue par M. de Wailly, 3 vols., Paris, 1772–1778, 2:178–207, which he had purchased in St. Petersburg on 26 Feb. (Catalogue of JQA's Books), although several MS markings in another edition of the oration, Selectae . . . Orationes, Paris, 1747 (same), indicate that he may have consulted it as well.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-13

13th. Saturday.

Mr. Artaud dined out. Mr. D. went to take a ride in the afternoon. Finished the 2d. Volume of Robertson's history of Charles 5th. 479. pages, and begun the third. Cloudy weather, and Rain.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-14

14th. Sunday.

This day the Marquis de Verac the french minister here gave a mascarade ball and supper for the birth of the Dauphin.1 Mr. D. went there. Mr. Artaud dined and supped out. Stay'd at home all day.
1. Louis Joseph Xavier François (1781–1789), eldest son of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-15

15th. Monday.

This afternoon Mr. D. went to take a ride. Mr. Artaud supp'd out. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy, rainy, weather.
{ 120 } { 121 } { 122 }

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-16

16th. Tuesday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the shops and bought some things. Mr. D. went to take a walk. Went to Mr. Rimberts for the Gazette.1 Mr. Artaud dined and supped out.
1. Undoubtedly the Gazette d'Amsterdam (see entry for 16 March, above; Adams Family Correspondence, 4:302).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-17

17th. Wednesday.

This morning before breakfast I went and took a walk upon the quay of the river. The Swedish consul and his lady, Mr. Rimbert, his youngest nephew, Mr. Abraham Mr. Colombi, and Mr. Gonset dined with us. In the afternoon Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud went to take a walk. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-18

18th. Thursday.

This day at about 7. o clock P.M. the river broke up, and The major of the fortress passed it in a boat descended at the Palace, and announced it to the Empress, for which he receives a present of 500 Roubles pr. year. Dined at Mr. Rimberts. In the forenoon the Swedish consul came to see us. Mr. Artaud supp'd out. Fine Weather but, a high wind.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-19

19th. Friday.

In the forenoon Mr. D went to take a ride, and after dinner he took a walk. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather. Mr. Artaud supp'd out.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-20

20th. Saturday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. D. to the Hotel of the Dutch Resident Mr. de Swart.1 In the afternoon Mr. D. took a walk. Finished the third and last volume of Robertson's history of Charles. 5th. Fine weather.
1. Johan Isaac de Swart, Dutch resident to St. Petersburg, 1773–1794 (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, p. 268).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-21

21st. Sunday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Artaud to take a ride, we went into the Catholic church. We [met] there, Mr. Rimbert's two { 123 } youngest nephews; before dinner I went and took a walk upon the quay with Mr. Artaud. Mr. D went to Mr. Wolff's. Fine weather A.M. Snow. P.M.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-22

22d. Monday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the English Library and took out Watson's history of Phillip the second and the life of Garrick.1 We went to the shops. In the afternoon we went and bought a pair of buckles for me. Went to Mr. Rimbert's for the Gazette but it was not there. Mr. Artaud went in the evening to the concert. Snowy weather all day. Begun Vol. I. of the history of Phillip II.
1. Robert Watson, The History of the Reign of Philip the Second, King of Spain, 2 vols., London, 1777; Thomas Davies, Memoirs of the Life of David Garrick . . ., London, 1780.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-23

23. Tuesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. wrote a letter to my Father in Holland.1 Mr. Artaud supp'd out. Cloudy weather.
1. That of 23 April (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-24

24th. Wednesday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Artaud to Mr. Rimbert's, Mr. Abraham's and Mr. Colombi's. In the afternoon Mr. D. took a ride.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-25

25th. Thursday.

Went with Mr. Artaud in the forenoon to the shops and bought some things. Dined at Mr. Rimberts; where Mr. Abraham dined also. Mr. Artaud went in the evening to the Clubb. Windy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-26

26th. Friday.

In the forenoon I went to take a ride with Mr. Artaud. In the afternoon Mr. D. went to take a walk. I went to the post office to see about some newspapers.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-27

27th. Saturday.

This morning I went to take a walk upon the quay with Mr. Artaud. In the afternoon I went to the shops and bought some things. Mr. Wolff came to pay Mr. D a visit A.M. Mr. D. went and took a ride after dinner. Mr. Hoogwerst paid us a visit. Fine weather, but windy.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-28

28th. Sunday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. D. to the Hotel of the Marquis de Verac, and from thence to that of the dutch Ambassador1 with the Marquis, but he was not at home; dined at the Marquis de Verac's: Mr. Artaud supped out. Fine weather.
1. Willem Lodewijk (Baron) van Wassenaer Starrenburg, minister plenipotentiary and ambassador extraordinary plenipotentiary to St. Petersburg, 1780–1785 (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, p. 268).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-29

29th. Monday.

This forenoon I went and took a walk with Mr. Artaud to Mr. Rimbert's. After dinner the youngest Mr. Montréal came here and I went with him and Mr. Artaud to the shops. In the afternoon Mr. D took a ride. In the evening Mr. Artaud went to the Concert.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0005-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-04-30

30th. Tuesday.

This afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the Post office to see about the news papers. Went to take a walk. Mr. D took a ride. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-01

N.(1782)S. May.
1st. Wednesday.

In the forenoon Mr. Artaud and Mr. D. went and took a walk upon the Neva. After dinner the youngest Mr. Montréal came here, and I went with him and Mr. Artaud to the Shops. Mr. D went and took a ride. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-02

2d. Thursday.

This day, which according to the Russian stile is the 21st. of April, is the Anniversary of her Majesty's birth. Went with Mr. { 125 } D. to the Marquis de Verac's and from thence to the Dutch Ambassador's. In the afternoon Mr. Peyron and the youngest Mr. Montréal came here. Snowy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-03

3d. Friday.

In the forenoon Mr. D went and took a walk. After dinner Mr. Colombi came to see us. I went to the postoffice with Mr. Artaud. Windy weather. Finished the first volume of Watson's history of Phillip the II. 443 p: and begun the 2d.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-04

4th. Saturday.

This forenoon I went and took a walk upon the quay with Mr. Artaud. In the afternoon the youngest Mr. Montréal came here and went with Mr. Artaud and myself to the Shops. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-05

5th. Sunday.

Dined at Mr. Rimberts: Mr. D received a letter from Holland.1 Took a ride in the afternoon.
1. Possibly JQA is referring to a letter from Thaxter of 9 April, received by Dana on 2 May (MHi:Dana Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-06

6th. Monday.

Went in the forenoon and took a walk upon the quay, went in the evening to the concert; with Mr. Artaud. Clear, Windy Weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-07

7th. Tuesday.

In the forenoon I took a walk with Mr. Artaud upon the quay. Mr. D. went and took a ride. Cloudy, windy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-08

8th. Wednesday.

Mr. Artaud went out on hunting. Mr. D. went in the forenoon and took a ride. In the afternoon went to Mr. Colombi's but found he was not at home. Took a walk upon the quay. Fine clear weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-09

9th. Thursday.

Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimbert's. In the afternoon he came with two of Mr. Rimbert's nephews and we went to the shops. Took a ride. Mr. Hoogwerst came and made us a visit. He told us that the States General of the United Provinces had on the 19th. of April <declared> acknowledged America, independant.1 Fine clear weather.
1. For a discussion of JA's long and persistent efforts to achieve Dutch recognition, see Diary and Autobiography, 3:3–5. JA's own account of events just before and immediately following the recognition appears in Adams Family Correspondence,4:312–313.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-10

10th. Friday.

This morning I went with Mr. D. to the Dutch Ambassador's and to the Resident's.1 Went and took a walk upon the quay with Mr. Artaud. Mr. D. spent the evening out. Clear weather.
1. Dutch recognition of American independence brought closer diplomatic ties between the isolated Dana and Dutch representatives at St. Petersburg. Dana wrote to JA on this day: “The Dutch Resident made a visit yesterday to give me the news. I have visited [him] today. . . . The Ambassador this week, returned a visit I had made him [on 2 May, see entry, above] in consequence of an intimation he had given that it wou'd be agreeable to him. I have visited him again to day on this occasion” (29 April O.S., Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-11

11th. Saturday.

This forenoon Mr. Wolff came to see Mr. D. Mr. D. went and took a walk upon the quay. Stay'd at home all day. Fine clear weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-12

12th. Sunday.

This forenoon Mr. Peyron came to see us. Mr. D. went to Mr. Wolff's. Mr. Colombi came here. Dined at Mr. Rimbert's. After dinner we went and took a ride to Catharinen hoff.1 This is the same holiday here, as long-champs at Paris.2
1. Catarinenhoff or Katarinenhof, a palace, located south and west of St. Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland, built in 1703 by Peter the Great and named after his wife the Empress Catherine I (John Parkinson, A Tour of Russia, Siberia and the Crimea, 1792–1794, ed. William Collier, London, 1971, p. 244; Storch, Picture of Petersburg, p. xv).
2. The annual procession of carriages through the Bois de Boulogne on the Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday before Easter, which allowed Parisians to show off their carriages, horses, and of course themselves; see entry for 25 March 1785 (below).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-13

13th. Monday.

Mr. D went out in the forenoon. Took a walk with Mr. Artaud in the forenoon upon the quay. Mr. D. dined at Mr. Wolff's; went with Mr. Artaud to the concert. Thermometer 10. degrees above 0.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-14

14th. Tuesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Very high wind. Mr. D went out in the forenoon and in the afternoon. Mr. Artaud went out in the evening. Thermometer 10. degrees above.0.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-15

15th. Wednesday.

Went and took a walk with Mr. Artaud in the Jardin d'été.1 Spent the evening and supp'd at Mr. Rimbert's. Fine weather. Thermometer 16. degrees above.0. Took off our double windows.
1. A public garden located on the banks of the Neva and originally part of Peter the Great's summer palace (Storch, Picture of Petersburg, p. 40–41).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-16

16th. Thursday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. Artaud went on hunting. In the forenoon Mr. D. went and took a walk; and in the afternoon to Mr. Wolff's. Thermometer 19 degrees. heat. Thunder shower in the afternoon. Cleared up afterwards.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-17

17th. Friday.

Stay'd at home all day. In the forenoon Dr. Blondot came and took his leave of us, going for Moskow. Mr. D took a walk in the forenoon. Clear in the forenoon, but Rain after dinner.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-18

18th. Saturday.

In the forenoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Cloudy weather. Thermometer 20 degrees above.0. Stay'd at home all day. Mr. Wolff came to see Mr. D.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-19

19th. Sunday.

This day Mr. Artaud went on hunting. In the afternoon Mr. D. took a ride out of town. Cloudy, rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-20

20th. Monday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. went out in the forenoon. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-21

21st. Tuesday.

In the afternoon Mr. D went and took a ride. Took a very long walk out of town with Mr. Artaud. Left him at the Clubb. Changing weather. Mr. Hoogwerst came and paid us a visit in the afternoon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-22

22d. Wednesday.

This day a french Gentleman dined with us. Mr. D went and took a walk in the forenoon. Mr. Artaud went in the afternoon to the Clubb. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-23

23d. Thursday.

This morning I went with Mr. D. Mr. Artaud and several other gentlemen to see her Majesty's cabinet of paintings in the Palace. Mr. D and Mr. Artaud took a walk upon the quay. Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimbert's. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-24

24th. Friday.

This day a French Gentleman dined with us. Mr. D took a ride in the afternoon. Mr. Artaud went to the Clubb. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather. First vessels arrived, at Cronstadt.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-25

25th. Saturday.

Mr. D took a ride in the forenoon. Finished the second and last volume of Watson's history of Phillip the II. 437. pages. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-26

26th. Sunday.

Mr. D. unwell. Pentecost day. Mr. Artaud went out in the afternoon. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather in the forenoon but clear'd up after dinner.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-27

27th. Monday.

Mr. Artaud went into the country. The Dutch resident came to see Mr. D. Mr. D. went and took a walk in the forenoon. Mr. Rimbert came here. This day the Wooden shops caught fire, and were all burnt to the ground. Mr. D took a ride in the afternoon. Clear in the morning, but cloudy in the afternoon. Stay'd at home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-28

28th. Tuesday.

Mr. D went and took a ride in the afternoon. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy, weather, some rain.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-29

29th. Wednesday.

In the afternoon Mr. D. took a ride. Stay'd at home all day. Very windy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-30

30th. Thursday.

This forenoon I went to the shops with Mr. Artaud and bought some things. Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimberts. In the afternoon Mr. Hoogwerst came to see us. Pretty good weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0006-0031

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-05-31

31st. Friday.

In the forenoon Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud went to the shops. After dinner Mr. D went and took a ride. Stay'd at home all day. Fine clear weather. Finish'd Ciceros Oration pro Lege Manilia.1
1. JQA's French translation here and that mentioned in the next entry are in M/JQA/45, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 240. His Latin source was probably the de Wailly edition, 2:2–67, and 3:2–113, respectively. See entry for 12 April (above).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-01

N.(1782)S. June 1st. Saturday.

Dined with Mr. Colombi. In the afternoon went and took a walk in the jardin d'été. Begun Cicero's oration pro Milone. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-02

2d. Sunday.

Mr. Artaud out all day. In the afternoon the youngest Mr. Montréal came here, went and took a walk in the Jardin d'été, where I found Mr. Gonset, very fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-03

3d. Monday.

Mr. Artaud dined out. Stay'd at home all day. Rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-04

4th. Tuesday.

This day several Gentlemen dined here. Mr. D walk'd out in the forenoon and went in the afternoon with Mr. Artaud to the Jardin d'eté. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-05

5th. Wednesday.

This forenoon Mr. D. went and took a walk in the garden. After dinner I went with Mr. Artaud to the Shops. We took a ride out of town. Went to Mr. Rimberts took a walk to the garden. Mr. Artaud supp'd out. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-06

6th. Thursday.

Mrs. Peyron was brought to bed of a girl this day. Mr. D. took a walk before dinner. Mr. Montréal dined here. After dinner I went and took a walk in the garden. Fine weather. Mr. Hoogwerst came to see us in the evening.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-07

7th. Friday.

This forenoon Mr. D went and took a walk to the garden. Mr. Artaud dined out. In the afternoon I walked. Good weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-08

8th. Saturday.

Went in the forenoon and took a walk. Mr. D. went out in the afternoon. Went and walked in the garden in the evening. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-09

9th. Sunday.

This day Mr. Artaud went into the country. Mr. D. went to the French Minister's Hotel in the forenoon. After dinner he { 131 } went and took a ride. Walk'd in the garden in the evening. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-10

10th. Monday.

In the forenoon Mr. D. went and took a walk. In the afternoon he rode out. Went to the concert in the evening with Mr. Artaud. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-11

11th. Tuesday

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D walk'd out in the forenoon, and took a ride in the afternoon. Mr. Artaud supped out. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-12

12th. Wednesday.

Receiv'd the news of a battle between the french and English fleets in the West Indies.1 Went to the shops with Mr. Artaud before dinner. Went in the evening with Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud to the concert. After the concert we walked in the garden. Cloudy weather.
1. The battle off Les Saintes, a small group of islands between Guadeloupe and Dominica, which took place 9–12 April 1782 and set Adm. Rodney's fleet against that of Grasse, who was defeated (Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence, Boston, 1913, p. 206–226).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-13

13th. Thursday.

Went in the afternoon and took a walk in the garden. Mr. Hoogwerst came to see us. Clear weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-14

14th. Friday.

Mr. D. went and took a ride in the afternoon. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-15

15th. Saturday.

This forenoon Mr. D. went and took a walk. In the afternoon he rode out. Walked in the garden in the evening. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-16

16th. Sunday.

Stay'd at home all day. Very bad weather. Strong wind, and rain.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-17

17th. Monday.

In the afternoon I went and took a ride with Mr. D. Rainy weather all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-18

18th. Tuesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Rainy weather. Mr. D. went and took a walk in the afternoon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-19

19th. Wednesday

Went to the English library for books. Mr. Montréal dined with us. Rainy Weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-20

20th. Thursday.

Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimbert's. Mr. D. went and took a walk in the forenoon, and went to Mr. Wolff's after dinner. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-21

21st. Friday.

Mr. D. took a ride in the afternoon. Mr. Artaud and I, went and took a walk to a gentleman's country seat at about 6. wersts from the town, where we supp'd. We got back at about 12. o'clock at night. Fine weather. This day the sun rose at 45 minutes past two o'clock, and set at 15 minutes past nine. At midnight it is but very little darker than at noon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-22

22d. Saturday.

This forenoon I went and took a walk with Mr. Artaud in the garden. Mr. Wolff came and paid a visit to Mr. D. After dinner, I took a ride with Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud to Caminostrow which is an Island near Petersbourg, which belongs to the Grand-Duke.1 We went and saw the Botanical garden.
1. Grand Duke Paul (1754–1801), later Paul I, who succeeded his mother, Catherine II, to the throne in 1796 and was assassinated five years later (Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-23

23d. Sunday.

In the afternoon went with Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud; to a Garden about 6 wersts out of town, called Jardin de Narischkin belonging to a nobleman of that name, who keeps it open to the publick.1 Went afterwards to a country seat belonging to a gentleman here.
1. Henry Storch portrayed a visit to the Narischkin garden as a popular Sunday pastime of the “higher classes”:
"A friendly invitation, in four different languages, inscribed over the entrance to the grounds, authorizes every one of decent appearance and behaviour, to amuse himself there in whatever way he pleases without fear of molestation. In several pavilions are musicians for the benefit of those who chuse to dance; in others are chairs and sophas, ready for the reception of any party who wish to recreate themselves by sedate conversation after roaming about with the great throng; some parties take to the swings, the bowling-green and other diversions; on the canals and lakes are gondolas, some constructed for rowing, others for sailing; and, if all this be not enough, refreshments are spread on tables in particular alcoves, or are handed about by servants in livery. This noble hospitality is by no means unenjoyed; the concourse of persons of all descriptions, from the star and ribband to the plain well-dressed burgher, forms such a party-coloured collection and sometimes groupes are so humourously contrasted, that for this reason alone it is well worth the pains of partaking once in the amusement" (Picture of Petersburg, p. 440–441).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-24

Monday. 24th.

This morning I went to the English library and took out Foote's plays1 and two volumes of the English Theatre.2 Mr. D. went out in the afternoon. I took a walk with him in the Summer Garden in the evening. Fine weather.
1. Samuel Foote, Dramatic Works, 4 vols., London, 1778.
2. The English Theatre, Containing the Most Valuable Plays Which Have Been Acted on the London Stage, 8 vols., London, 1762.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-25

25th. Tuesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. Artaud dined out. Mr. D. took a walk in the afternoon. Stormy weather the fore part of the day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-26

26th. Wednesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimbert's. In the afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-27

27th. Thursday.

Dined this day at Mr. Rimbert's with Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud. Rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-28

28th. Friday.

This day I went with Mr. Artaud and Mr. D. to the Comedy at the Court. We had the Misanthrope with a ballet. Mr. Artaud went afterwards to Mr. Rimbert's. Went and took a walk with Mr. D. in the summer garden. Cloudy weather in the morning, but cleared up at about noon. Mr. D received a letter from Holland.1
1. Letter unidentified, but apparently not from either JA or Thaxter.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-29

29th. Saturday.

Stay'd at home all day. In the afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Mr. Hoogwerst came and paid us a visit.1 After supper Mr. Peyron came here with Mr. Montréal. Good weather.
1. Terminal punctuation supplied.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0007-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-06-30

30th. Sunday.

In the forenoon Mr. D went to Mr. Wolff's. In the afternoon I went and took a ride with him. Fine weather.1
1. In the margin: “Mrs. B. brought to bed.”

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-01

N(1782)S. July. 1st. Monday.

This morning I went to the English Library and took out 1. volume of the preceptor, and thrée of Clarissa.1 Rained all the afternoon.
1. Robert Dodsley, The Preceptor: Containing a General Course of Education. Wherein the First Principles of Polite Learning are Laid Down . . . for . . . the Instruction of Youth . . ., 2 vols., London, 1748; and Samuel Richardson's Clarissa; Or, The History of a Young Lady . . ., 8 vols., London, 1747–1748.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-02

2d. Tuesday.

In the afternoon went with Mr. Artaud to Mr. Rimbert's and to the Shops. Mr. D. went to Mr. Wolff's. Variable weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-03

3d. Wednesday.

This afternoon I went and took a ride with Mr. D. to Caminostrow. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-04

4th. Thursday.

Dined this day with Mr. D. at the Dutch Embassador's; went in the evening to the German Comedy. We had a Tragedy call'd Demetrius Ivanowitsch Czar of Muscovy,1 a new piece play'd here for the first time: this evening.
1. A play by August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue, which was written in St. Petersburg in 1782. Kotzebue was serving as secretary to Baron Friederich Wilhelm Bawr, governor general of St. Petersburg, and helped in the management of the German theater in the Russian capital. The play, which had difficulty passing the censors, was the first German one on the theme of Demetrius, a popular subject of 19th-century German playwrights, and was quite unrepresentative of later treatments. The play depicts Demetrius, third son of Ivan the Terrible, as escaping Boris Godunov's assassins and recovering the throne by his noble instincts and good deeds after Godunov's death in 1605. Historically, Demetrius either was killed or stabbed himself to death while in an epileptic fit in 1591 (Erwin C. Brody, The Demetrius Legend and Its Literary Treatment in the Age of the Baroque, Rutherford, N.J., 1972, p. 220, 9; Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-05

5th. Friday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. walk'd out in the forenoon. Changeable weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-06

6th. Saturday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. Wolff came here in the forenoon. Mr. D. went and took a walk in the afternoon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-07

7th. Sunday.

This forenoon I went and took a walk with Mr. Artaud. Went to the summer garden; where we saw her Majesty. In the afternoon went to see a 64 Gun ship launched. Went afterwards and took a ride to Catherinen hoff and then walked again in the summer garden. Changeable weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-08

8th. Monday.

Took a walk this morning with Mr. Artaud in to the Country, and Stay'd there all day. We returned at about 12 o'clock at night. Pretty good weather. Anniversary of the battle of Pultawa1 —Russian Holiday.
1. Poltava or Pultava, the Ukranian city which was the scene of Peter the Great's final and decisive victory over Charles XII of Sweden on 8 July 1709 (Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-09

9th. Tuesday.

Went in the afternoon to Mr. Rimberts with Mr. Artaud to borrow Domino's1 for the mascarade of tomorrow. Went to the shops. Anniversary of her Majesty's coming to the Throne.
1. A domino is a loose cloak with attached half-mask worn by those at masquerades who chose not to go as particular characters. The word sometimes signifies only the mask itself (OED).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-10

10th. Wednesday.

St. Peter and St. Paul's day. Grand Duke's fête. Mascarade ball and illumination at Peterhoff.1 At about 1. o'clock P.M. set out for that place with Mr. Artaud and Mr. D. and arriv'd there at about half past 5. Walk'd in the Garden till seven, and then went to the ball.
1. On this day, according to Henry Storch, “every being susceptible of pleasure left the town,” to go to Peterhof, the imperial palace on the Gulf of Finland. This Palace was begun in 1711 and built under the direction of Jean Baptiste Alexandre Leblond, Peter the Great's architect, who designed the famous water cascade. The road from St. Petersburg, about sixteen miles long, was “so covered with equipages, horsemen and pedestrians, that it resembled one continued caravan.” At twilight “the whole gardens are illuminated; the branches of the trees, and the water of the fountains seem to be converted into fire. The excellent situation of Peterhof and its variety of water-works here combine with the effects of pyrotechnics, to fascinate the sight by a grand picture, produced as it were by magic, and which, once beheld, can never be forgotten.” Meanwhile, inside the palace, “the motley-coloured multitude of masks press round the well-furnished tables or join hands in the mazy dance” (Picture of Petersburg, p. 460–462; Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel; Thieme and Becker, Lexikon). JQA's attendance at the annual festival in 1811, while minister to Russia, is described in Memoirs, 2:284–288.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-11

11th. Thursday.

Left the ball at about 1. o'clock, after Midnight, and set out for St. Petersbourg. Arrived at about. 5. distance. 32 wersts. Went to bed and slept till noon. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-12

12th. Friday.

This afternoon I went with Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud to the Shops, and bought some things. Returned the domino's. Fine weather in the morning. A thunder storm after dinner. Thermometer at 27. degrees.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-13

13th. Saturday

Went this morning to the English Library. Took out the 2d. volume of the Preceptor and 3 volumes of Clarissa. In the afternoon Mr. D went and took a ride. Very fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-14

14th. Sunday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. went and took a ride in the forenoon. After dinner Mr. Montréal came here.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-15

15th. Monday.

This forenoon Mr. Hoogwerst came here. Mr. D. dined at Mr. Wolff's. Went in the evening to see the rope dancer. Changeable weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-16

16th. Tuesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. went to the court Comedy to see a Russian play. Stormy windy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-17

17th. Wednesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. went and took a walk in the afternoon. Very bad weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-18

18th. Thursday.

Stay'd at home all day. In the evening Mr. Hoogwerst came here. Mr. Artaud din'd at Mr. Rimbert's. Cloudy weather, and a heavy shower of Rain in the evening.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-19

19th. Friday.

Stay'd at home all day. In the afternoon Mr. D. went to take a ride. Changeable weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-20

20th. Saturday.

This forenoon Mr. Wolff came to see Mr. D. Mr. D. went and took a ride in the afternoon. I went with Mr. Artaud to the shops. Mr. Artaud went into the country. Clear weather, but windy.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-21

21st. Sunday.

This morning I went to Mr. Rimbert's to see if Mr. Montréal could go into the country with me. As he could not I went alone. Stay'd there all day and return'd with Mr. Artaud. We got home at about half past eleven o'clock. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-22

22d. Monday.

This forenoon I went to the English Library and took out the 2 last volumes of Clarissa and Nichols's collection of Poems.1 In the afternoon I wrote a letter to Mr. Thaxter in Holland.2 Mr. D. wrote to my Father.3 Windy Rainy weather. Finish'd Cicero's oration pro Milone.
1. John Nichols, A Select Collection of Poems: With Notes, Biographical and Historical, 8 vols., London, 1780–1782. JQA copied several of the poems into his small commonplace books at this time (M/JQA/24, 26, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel Nos. 219, 221).
3. That of 22 July (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-23

23d. Tuesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Stormy windy weather. Send my Letter.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-24

24th. Wednesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Very bad weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-25

25th. Thursday

This day Mr. D receiv'd some letters from America through Holland. Mr. Artaud dined out. In the afternoon Mr. Hoogwerst came to see us. Bad weather. Stay'd at home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-26

26th. Friday.

Stay'd at home all day. In the forenoon Mr. D. went to Mr. Wolff's. In the afternoon he went and took a ride. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-27

27th. Saturday.

Stay'd at home all day. In the forenoon Mr. Wolff came to see Mr. D. In the afternoon Mr. D went and took a ride. Pretty good weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-28

28th. Sunday.

This forenoon Mr. D. went to Mr. Rimbert's. Mr. Montréal came here. Mr. D went and took a walk in the garden. Mr. Artaud went into the country. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-29

29th. Monday.

Begun Cicero's oration pro Marcello.1 Mr. D. walk'd out in the forenoon. In the afternoon he went and took a ride. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather.
1. JQA's French translation is in M/JQA/45, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 240. JQA probably used as his Latin source the de Wailly edition, 3:116–145 (see entry for 12 April, above).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-30

30th. Tuesday.

This afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Went to take a walk in the summer garden. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0008-0031

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-07-31

31st. Wednesday.

Stay'd at home all day; a little unwell. Mr. D. stay'd also all day at home. Rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-01

N.(1782)S. August.
1st. Thursday.

This forenoon Mr. Rimbert came to see us. Dined at his house. After dinner went with Mr. D. Mr. Gonset and Mr. Artaud, to Krasna-Kabak to see the hawking: but we arriv'd too late. Drank tea at Krasna-Kabak, and then return'd home.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-02

2d. Friday.

Mr. Rimbert dined with us this day. Mr. Artaud unwell. Stay'd at home all day. Rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-03

3d. Saturday.

This afternoon young Mr. Montréal came here. Mr. Hoogwerst came to pay us a visit in the evening.1 Mr. D. went and took a walk. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather.
1. Terminal punctuation supplied.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-04

4th. Sunday.

This afternoon I went with Mr. D. to the Jardin de Narischkin. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-05

5th. Monday.

This forenoon Mr. D. went to Mr. Wolffs. Mr. Rimbert came here.1 In the afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Fine weather. Mr. Artaud better.
1. Terminal punctuation supplied.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-06

6th. Tuesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D rode out in the afternoon. Pretty good weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-07

7th. Wednesday.

This morning I went to the English library and took out 2 volumes of a collection of poems one of Popes works and one of Dryden's. Rain'd hard all the forenoon. In the afternoon Mr. D. took a walk.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-08

8th. Thursday.

This forenoon Mr. D went and took a walk. Mr. Artaud din'd at Mr. Rimbert's. In the afternoon Mr. D. went to the summer garden. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-09

9th. Friday.

This forenoon Mr. D. went and took a ride; stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-10

10th. Saturday.

Finish'd Cicero's oration pro Marcello. In the afternoon I went to the shops with Mr. Artaud. Mr. D rode out. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-11

11th. Sunday.

Stay'd at home all day. In the afternoon Mr. D. went to the Jardin de Narischkin. Pretty good weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-12

12th. Monday.

This afternoon Mr. D went and took a walk in the summer garden. Stay'd at home all day. Rainy weather all the forenoon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-13

13th. Tuesday.

In the afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy, rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-14

14th. Wednesday.

In the forenoon Mr. D. went and took a walk. Walk'd with him after dinner in the summer garden. Rainy and Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-15

15th. Thursday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. D. to the Hotel of the Spanish Minister. Took a ride afterwards. Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimbert's. Went and took a walk in the summer garden with Mr. Montréal and Mr. Artaud. After dinner went with Mr. Artaud to the Clubb, when we return'd I found Mr. Hoogwerst here.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-16

16th. Friday.

This forenoon Mr. Rimbert came to see Mr. D. Stay'd at home all day. Rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-17

17th. Saturday.

This day her Majesty dined with all the officers of the regiment of Preobragensky. In the afternoon I walk'd with Mr. Artaud in the Garden. Went to the play, and saw an Italian piece, with a ballet. Went to the English Library and took out some books.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-18

18th. Sunday.

This day the Statue of Peter the great was uncover'd. All the troops in the city amounting to about 10,000 men pass'd in review. Mr. D went to see it. After supper I went to see the statue and the illumination on the square.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-19

19th. Monday.

This afternoon I went and took a ride with Mr. D. out of town. Pretty good weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-20

20th. Tuesday.

This evening, I went with Mr. Artaud and Mr. D. to the Comedy, where they presented in French le Deserteur a Drama, and Crispin rival de son maitre1 with a ballet. Rainy, stormy weather all day.
1. Michel Jean Sedaine, Le Deserteur, Paris, 1769; Alain René Le Sage, Crispin rival de son maître, Paris, 1707 (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-21

21st. Wednesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D went out in the afternoon. Stormy rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-22

22d. Thursday.

This day Mr. Artaud din'd at Mr. Rimberts. Mr. D. went and took a ride in the afternoon. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-23

23d. Friday.

This day Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud went to the play, where was presented Alzire one of Voltaire's tragedies.1 Went in the morning to see the Statue of Peter the great.
1. Alzire, ou les Américains, Paris, 1736 (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-24

24th. Saturday.

This forenoon the eldest Mr. Montréal came here and I went with him to see the hemp Magazines1 on the other side of the Neva. We walk'd in the Garden. Mr. D. went out in the forenoon. Mr. Rimbert came to see Mr. D.
1. That is, hemp warehouses, built extensively on an island in the Neva River, in the Petersburg quarter of the city (Storch, Picture of Petersburg, p. xvi).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-25

25th. Sunday.

This forenoon Mr. Rimberts two Nephews came here to see us. Mr. Artaud din'd out. In the afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Mr. Colombi came to pay us a visit. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather. Mr. Artaud went into the country, 24. wersts out of town.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-26

26th. Monday.

This evening at about 11. o'clock Mr. Artaud return'd from the country. Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D took a ride in the afternoon. Rainy weather in the morning but clear'd up about noon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-27

27th. Tuesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. took a ride in the afternoon. Rainy weather the greater part of the day. Clear'd up at about 5 o'clock P.M.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-28

28th. Wednesday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. went out in the afternoon. Rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-29

29th. Thursday.

This day Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimbert's. Mr. D. received some letters from Holland enclosing others from America.1 Stay'd at home all day. Rainy stormy weather all day.
1. Among them was JA to Dana, 7 Aug. (MHi:Dana Papers), and a packet of letters mentioned therein.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-30

30th. Friday.

Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimberts. Mr. D. wrote a letter to Holland.1 Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather in the afternoon.
1. Dana to JA, 30 Aug. (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0009-0031

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-08-31

31st. Saturday.

Went this morning to the English Library. Went to a bookseller's shop and bought some books.1 Mr. Wolff came here in the forenoon. Rainy weather.
{ 144 }
1. One that can be identified is Jean de La Bruyère's Les Caractères, 2 vols., Paris, 1768 (Catalogue of JQA's Books).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-01

N.(1782.) S. September. 1st. Sunday.

This forenoon the youngest Mr. Montréal came here. Din'd with Mr. Artaud at Mr. Rimbert's. After dinner I took a walk with Mr. Artaud and the eldest Mr. Montréal to the Convent of St. Alexander Newsky.1 We went to see the tomb which is of solid silver. When I return'd Mr. D was gone to take a ride.
1. Alexander Nevski, Russian hero and saint. As prince of Novgorod, he defeated the Swedes in 1240 at the future site of St. Petersburg, on the Neva (Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel; Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-02

2d. Monday.

This day the eldest Mr. Montréal came and dined with us. In the afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride.
Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-03

3d. Tuesday.

Mr. D went and took a ride in the afternoon. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-04

4th. Wednesday.

This forenoon Coll. Vallentin arriv'd from Holland and brought us, letters from my Father.1 Mr. D took a ride, after dinner. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-05

5th. Thursday.

This afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the Shops and bought some things. Mr. Artaud went to the Clubb. Mr. D went and took a ride. Fine weather all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-06

6th. Friday.

This afternoon Mr. D. went to Mr. Wolff's. Wrote a letter to my Father.1 Mr. D. walk'd out before dinner. Stay'd at home all day. Fine weather.
{ 145 }
1. Adams Family Correspondence, 4:378. This letter contains the first indication that JQA was making plans to return to western Europe in response to JA's firmly stated desire, expressed in his letter of 13 May, received two days before.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-07

7th. Saturday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. D to Mr. Rimberts but found no body at home. After dinner I went with Mr. Artaud to the Academy to give my name to be advertised, but could not, because on Saturdays in the afternoon they do not take names. Every body that goes away from hence must have his name advertised in the News-papers at three different times.1
1. This procedure was necessary, as JQA later explained, “because no body can pass the frontiers without having a passport from St. Petersbourg. And no body can get a Passport from St. Petersbourg, without having his name advertised three times in the Newspapers: nor without Producing the Passport with which he came into Russia” (JQA's essay on Russia [ca. Sept. 1783], M/JQA/43, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 238). Public notice was also useful “so that if any occasion should present of a fellow traveller,” JQA might take advantage of it (Dana to JA, 16 Sept., Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-08

8th. Sunday.

This forenoon Mr. D went to Mr. Wolff's. Mr. Artaud dined out. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-09

9th. Monday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the Academy and gave my name to be advertised. Young Mr. Montreal came here. I went and took a walk with him and Mr. Artaud in the summer garden. In the evening Mr. Artaud went to the concert. Mr. D. went and took a ride after dinner. Very fine weather all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-10

10th. Tuesday.

St. Alexander Newsky's Day, a very great holiday for the Russians. There was a procession in the forenoon, of priests that went from the church of Casan to the Convent of St. Alexander. Formerly her Majesty went with it on foot; but has left it of[f] these five or six years. In the afternoon Mr. Artaud went into the country.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-11

11th. Wednesday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. D. to see Mr. Normandes. Several persons dined here. After dinner Mr. D. went and took a ride. Took a walk upon the quay after supper.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-12

12th. Thursday.

This day I din'd with Mr. D and Mr. Artaud at Mr. Rimbert's. Borrow'd of Mr. Peyron two volumes of Piron's works.1 In the evening Mr. Artaud went to the Clubb. Mr. D went and took a ride in the afternoon. Took a walk upon the quay after supper. Pretty good weather all day. Mr. D receiv'd a letter from Holland.
1. Alexis Piron, French playwright and poet, whose nine-volume Oeuvres complettes . . . was published in Paris in 1776 (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale). JQA acquired early a two-volume set of his Oeuvres choisies, Geneva, 1777 (Catalogue of JQA's Books).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-13

13th. Friday.

This forenoon I went to Mr. Normandes's. In the afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. In the evening Mr. Hoogwerst came here.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-14

14th. Saturday.

Stay'd at home all day. In the forenoon Mr. Wolff came to see Mr. D. In the afternoon Mr. D. went out and took a ride. Cloudy Weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-15

15th. Sunday.

This forenoon the young gentlemen from Mr. Rimbert's came here. Din'd at Mr. Rimberts. After dinner we went and took a tour into the country. Pass'd the evening and supp'd at Mr. Rimberts. Cloudy Weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-16

16th.

Spent the evening and supp'd at Mr. Rimbert's. Rainy weather all day. Mr. Artaud dined out.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-17

17th. Tuesday.

This afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-18

18th. Wednesday.

This afternoon I went with Mr. D. and drank tea at Mr. Peyron's. Cloudy Weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-19

19th. Thursday.

This forenoon the younger Mr. Montréal came here. Mr. Artaud dined at Mr. Rimbert's. Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D went and took a ride after dinner. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-20

20th. Friday.

This afternoon Mr. D went and took a ride. In the evening walk'd in the summer garden. Cloudy Weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-21

21st. Saturday.

This afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Stay'd at home all day. Stormy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-22

22d. Sunday.

This forenoon Mr. D. went to the Marquis de Verac's. The young Gentlemen from Mr. Rimbert's came here and I went and took a walk with them and Mr. Artaud in the summer garden. We were surprised by the rain. Dined at Mr. Rimbert's. After dinner Mr. D. came away, and I spent the evening and supp'd there. Mr. Artaud came away before supper. Very variable weather all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-23

23d. Monday.

This afternoon Mr. D went and took a ride. Walk'd in the summer garden after supper. Cloudy weather all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-24

24th. Tuesday.

This forenoon I bought Moliere's works.1 Mr. D. went to Mr. Colombi's in the afternoon. Stay'd at home all day. Cloudy weather.
1. JQA's set in MQA, perhaps imperfect (in two editions) and possibly incomplete when he bought it, is Moliére's Oeuvres, Paris, 1760, vols. 1–4, 6, and 7, and Paris, 1753, vol. 8. An inscription in vol. 1, “J. Q. Adams, St. Petersbourg, Septr. 23, 1782. 2 R[u]bl[es],” indicates that the works may actually have been purchased the day before (Catalogue of JQA's Books).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-25

25th. Wednesday.

This day all Mr. Rimbert's family din'd here. In the forenoon Mr. D. went and took a walk. Mr. Artaud went in the evening to the Clubb. Rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-26

26th. Thursday.

This day I din'd at Mr. Rimberts'. After dinner I went and took a ride with Mr. D. out of town. Cloudy weather. Clear'd up at night.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-27

27th. Friday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D walk'd out before dinner and took a ride in the afternoon. Cloudy weather all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-28

28th.

This afternoon two of the young gentlemen from Mr. Rimbert's came here. Mr. D went and took a ride. Rainy weather All day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-29

29th. Sunday.

This forenoon I went and took a walk with Mr. Artaud and two of the young gentlemen from Mr. Rimberts in the summer garden. Mr. Artaud and Mr. Montréal went into the country to dine. Mr. Artaud return'd at about 6 o'clock P.M. Receiv'd a letter from Mr. Thaxter.1 Fine weather all day.
1. No letter to JQA has been found. On this day Dana actually received two letters from Thaxter, one enclosed inside the other, and dated 21–27, and 31 Aug. (MHi:Dana Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0010-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-09-30

30th. Monday.

This evening I went with Mr. Artaud to the concert. After supper went and took a walk. Cloudy, rainy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-01

N(1782)S. October. 1st. Tuesday.

This day several gentlemen dined and supped here. Rainy stormy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-02

2d. Wednesday.

This day I went to the Comedy where the French troop represented, Le Pere de Famille.1 with a Ballet.
1. Denis Diderot, Le Père de famille, Amsterdam, 1758 (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-03

3d. Thursday.

This day, I dined and supped at Mr. Rimberts. After dinner I went with Mr. and Mm. Peyron to the Academy. We saw the cabinet of natural history. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-04

4th. Friday.

Stay'd at home all day. In the afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-05

5th. Saturday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. went out before dinner. Cloudy weather all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-06

6th. Sunday.

This day I din'd and supp'd at Mr. Rimberts.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-07

7th. Monday.

Mr. D dined at Mr. Wolffs. Mr. Artaud went to the concert. Stay'd at home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-08

8th. Tuesday.

This day the French comedians play'd at the summer garden theatre. L'honnete criminel.1
1. Charles Georges Fenouillot de Falbaire de Quingey, L'honnête criminel, ou l'amour filial, Paris, 1767 (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-09

9th. Wednesday.

Stay'd at home all day. The young gentlemen from Mr. Rimberts dined here. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-10

10th. Thursday.

Went to the Academy to have my name advertised. Dined and spent the evening at Mr. Rimberts.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-11

11th. Friday.

Several gentlemen dined here this day. Cloudy weather, freezes already.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-12

12th. Saturday.

Stay'd at home all day. Mr. D. unwell. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-13

13th. Sunday.

Dined out with Mr. Artaud. Rainy stormy weather. Went to the Clubb in the evening.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-14

14th. Monday.

This evening I went to the concert with Mr. Artaud. Mr. Gummer1 came here and supped after the concert.
1. He would become one of JQA's traveling companions on his return to western Europe through Finland and Sweden.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-15

15th. Tuesday.

This afternoon Mr. D. went and took a ride. Stay'd at home all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-16

16th. Wednesday.

This day all Mr. Rimberts family dined here; in the evening we went to the play and saw Tancrede a tragedy with Le dépit amoureux.1
1. Voltaire, Tancrède, Geneva, 1761; Molière, Le dépit amoureux, Paris, 1663 (Brenner, Bibliographical List;Cioranescu, Bibliographie du dix-septième siècle).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-17

17th. Thursday.

This day I dined at Mr. Rimberts with Mr. D. Return'd directly after dinner. Mr. Artaud stay'd There. Cloudy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-18

18th. Friday.

This afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to the shops and bought some things.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-19

19th. Saturday.

Stay'd at home all day. Before dinner Mr. D went and took a ride. Mr. Wolff came here.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-20

20th. Sunday.

This day I dined and supped at Mr. Rimberts. Return'd at about 11 o'clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-21

21st. Monday.

This day Count Greco,1 My travelling companion to Stockholm dined here. In the evening I went with Mr. Artaud to the Concert.
1. An Italian gentleman of dubious reputation. Facts supplied by a Mr. W[olff?] and later confirmed compelled Dana to write to JQA shortly after his departure from St. Petersburg. He asked JQA to leave the Count at the earliest opportunity, but until that time warned him to be “upon your guard” and to remember “all my cautions” (JQA, Writings, 1:8; Dana to JQA, 21 Nov., Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-22

22d. Tuesday.

This forenoon I went to the shops with Mr. Artaud. Went to the exchange. Mr. Peyron and Mr. Montréal dined here.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-23

23d. Wednesday.

This afternoon I went with Mr. Artaud to Mr. Rimberts and from thence to the play. They represented Le Barbier de Seville and les trois freres rivaux.1 After the play we return'd and supped at Mr. Rimberts.
1. Beaumarchais, Le Barbier de Séville, ou la précaution inutile, Paris, 1775; Joseph de Lafont or La Font, Les trois frères rivaux, Paris, 1713 (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-24

24th. Thursday.

This forenoon I went round to see the fortress with Mr. Montréal Mr. Gummer and Mr. Artaud. Mr. Artaud dined and spent the evening at Mr. Rimberts.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-25

25th. Friday.

This day I dined with Mr. D. and Mr. Artaud at Mr. Colombi's. After dinner I went to Mr. Rimberts. Mr. Artaud went to the Clubb.1
1. Between p. 84 and 85 of the Diary, there has been placed a loose drawing, approximately 3″ × 4″, of a female figure, presumably a Nereid, leaning on an anchor with a banner overhead reading “Meliora speramus.” The source of the drawing, presumably rendered by JQA, is not known.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-26

26th. Saturday.

This day the Count Greco, Mr. Gummer and Mr. Peyron dined here. In the evening I went with Mr. Artaud to Mr. Rimbert's; spent the evening and supped there.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-27

27th. Sunday.

This morning I went with Mr. Artaud to Mr. Rimberts and from thence we set out, eight in one large carriage and two other gentlemen in another small one for Czarsko-Zelo her Majesty's ordinary residence in the summer.1 Before we had got half ways the small carriage's axletree broke and we were obliged to take the two other gentlemen in; so that we went all ten in the same carriage. We arrived there at about 12 o'clock and went directly to see the palace the inside of which is not yet wholly finished. After having seen the palace we return'd into the city and arriv'd at about half past seven o'clock; and returned to our sev• { 153 } eral destinations. Czarsko-Zelo is distant from Petersbourg 22 wersts.
1. The famous summer residence of Catherine the Great at Tsarkoe Selo (renamed Pushkin), located about fifteen miles south of St. Petersburg, was originally a residence of Catherine I. About 1750 it was enlarged and embellished for the Empress Elizabeth in baroque style by the Italian architect Bartolommeo Rastrelli (1700–1771), but its completion and redecoration in neoclassical style was done for Catherine II by the Scottish architect Charles Cameron in the latter part of the century (Storch, Picture of Petersburg, p. 74–78; John Parkinson, A Tour of Russia, Siberia and the Crimea 1792–1794, ed. William Collier, London, 1971, p. 253).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-28

28th. Monday.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Peyron to the Baron Albedhyl's1 to take his orders for Stockholm. In the afternoon Mr. Gummer came here and I went with him to the concert. Return'd at about 9 o'clock.
1. Gustaf Baron von Albedhyll, Swedish chargé d'affaires to Russia, 1782–1783, and later minister to Denmark, 1785–1789 (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, p. 405, 414).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-29

29th. Tuesday.

This forenoon I went to the shops and bought some things. After dinner I went and took leave of Mr. Wolff who gave me a letter of recommendation for Hamborough [Hamburg]. Went to Mr. Rimberts'.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0030

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-30

30th. Wednesday.

This morning I went and took leave of the Baron Albedyhll the Swedish chargé d'affaires here, and he gave me a couple of letters for Stockholm. At about noon I took leave of Mr. D. and of Mr. Artaud and set out upon the road for Wibourg [Vyborg]. We arrived at about 11. o'clock P.M. at the third station and as it was extraordinarily dark we stay'd there till 7 o'clock the next morning.1
1. For 30 Oct. through 1 Nov., indicating dates in the margins, JQA made one continuous Diary entry, which here has been divided up by days.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0011-0031

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-10-31

Thursday. 31st.

We rode all day that day and all the night and arriv'd at the gates of Wibourg the next morning at about 5 o'clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-01

N(1782.)S. November
1. Friday.

We were obliged to wait about 2 hours at a Dram Shop out of the city waiting for the gates to be opened. And there Mr. Gummer overtook us. He had left St. Petersbourg the same day with us, at about 4 o'clock. P.M. At seven o'clock the gates were opened and we went and stopp'd at the tavern. Mr. Gummer dined out. I was very unwell. The Count and Mr. Gummer spent the evening out: I was so unwell I did not go.
List of the roads from [S]t Petersbourg to Wibourg.
From St. Petersbourg to   wersts  
Dranizoukow [Dranichnikowa]1   25.  
Walkiasiary2   15.  
Lindola [Lindoulia]   18.  
Weremcki3   20.  
Surenoja [Souvenoya]   19  
Kamerala [Kämära]   20.  
Wibourg   22.  
  139  
In general people take for the first post private horses. We paid 4 Roubles for 4 horses. For post horses you pay for the first station 2. copicks. pr. horse pr. werst. From Draniznikow to Lindola you pay 1. copick pr. horse pr. werst, and from Lindola forward you pay only 8 copicks pr. 10 wersts for each horse. When we arrived at Draniznikow we gave 30 copicks to the post master and had our horses directly. We gave at every post 5. 6. or 8 copicks to the post master and were very well served for horses. We gave the postillions from 5. to 15 Copicks, but never 15. unless in the night. The roads in general are very bad from Petersbourg to Wibourg, at the present season of the year, because the Land is pretty good and the frequent rains have made a great deal of mud. There are no houses where to lodge, and if one does not go night and day, one must sleep in the carriage.
Wibourg is a small city situated upon the river: []4 very strongly fortified: the houses are almost all of wood; there is but one tavern in the town; and that is not very good.
1. Because JQA's spellings of town names along the route from St. Petersburg to Stockholm often vary widely from contemporary sources, alternate spellings have been supplied from “Carte de la partie européenne de l'empire de Russie avec l'indication des chemins de poste, ainsi que des douanes frontières et de la reparti• { 155 } | view tion actuelle en gouvernements et districts,” St. Petersbourg, 1809.
2. The map, referred to above, lists Bieloostrowskaya Kirka as 18 versts from Lindoulia.
3. The same map lists Pampola as 20 versts from Lindoulia.
4. Left blank in MS.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-02

2d Saturday.

This morning at about 11 o'clock we set off from Wibourg for Frederichshamm; we rode all night and arriv'd, the next day at about 4. o'clock P.M.1
1. The Diary continues into the following day's entry without a break.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-03

3d. Sunday.

Mr. Gummer arrived there at about 8 o'clock in the morning. Here people generally change their russian money for Swedish Rixdallers. We paid 1 Rbl. 40 cop. for each Rixdaller. Mr. Gummer supped out.
List of the roads from Wibourg to Frederichshamm.
From Wibourg to   wersts  
Terwajoki [Tervayokki]   20.  
Willajoki [Willayokki]   17.  
Urpala [Urpola]   23.  
Pytterlax [Puterlar]   16  
Kouckis1   18  
Frederichshamm   16.  
  110.  
From Wibourg to Frederichshamm you pay the same for the horses and for the postillions as from Lindola to Wibourg; the roads in general are at present very bad, and no such thing as a tavern upon the whole way.
1. In the “Carte de la partie européenne de l'empire de Russie,” Hrenwik is listed as 16 versts from Frederichshamm. See entry for 1 Nov., note 1 (above).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-04

4th. Monday.

This forenoon at about 10 ½ o'clock we left Frederichshamm and rode till about 7. P.M. when we arriv'd at the last russian station. There we stopped.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-05

5th. Tuesday.

This morning at about 10 o'clock we pass'd the russian frontiers and arriv'd at Abbo[r]fors which is the first place in Swedish Finland. Here we were visited. We arriv'd at Lovisa at about 12. o'clock. Mr. Gummer arrived last night about 10 o'clock.

List of the roads from Frederichshamm to Lovisa.1

When you come into Swedish Finland you pay every thing in Swedish money. You give 4. schillings pr. horse for each Swedish mile which is 10. russian wersts. They count here the money in Rixdallers schillings, and stübers. A Rixdaller is 48 schillings or about 1 ½ Rouble<s> Russian. A schilling is 4. stübers, or a little more than 3 russian copecks. The postillions commonly have 4. schillings for 3. You are not obliged to give anything, and they are very content for 1 schilling each. There are no regulated posts in Sweden. Each peasant is obliged to furnish a certain number of horses according as he is able, and to prevent their making travellers stop too long, at each post there is a paper where you write your name, where you come from where you go, how many horses you take, and whether you was served quick. At the end of every month the paper is carried before the judge of the village who examines it, and if he finds any complaint against the peasants they are punish'd accordingly. But I should advise travellers always to have their horses ordered before hand for 8 or 10 miles, for then you are sure of having the horses all ready when you arrive at the post. Whereas when you do not have them ordered before hand it is sometimes impossible for them to have their horses ready in less than an hour and sometimes an hour and a half, and it costs but a trifle, to have the horses ordered beforehand.
1. Here follows a blank space of about four lines.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-06

6th. Wednesday.

This day we dined with the major of the garrison here whose name is Grippenwald. After dinner we set off from Lovisa for Helsingfors [Helsinki] and went two stations. Lovisa is as yet but a village without fortifications, or gates. It is but about twenty years since it was founded but it is said they intend to begin soon to fortify it.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1782-11-07 - 1782-11-08

7th Thursday [–8th Friday].1

This afternoon at about 4 o'clock we passed thro' Borgo [Borga] which is a small fortified town. We rode all night and arrived at about 7 o'clock in the morning on the 8th. at Helsingfors, a small town not very strongly fortified, but remarkable for the fortress of Sweaborg [Sveaborg] an island situated at about ¼ of a Swedish mile from Helsingfors and which they say is as strong as Gibraltar. At about 11. o'clock we went and paid a visit to the Count Posse2 governor general of all the troops in Swedish Finland. We desired of him a permission to see the fortress of Sweaborg. He told us that it was impossible for us to go to day because the wind was high and contrary so that we should arrive there too late, but that tomorrow he would willingly give us a permission. We dined and supped with him at his house.
1. Entries for 7–8 Nov. continue without interruption in the Diary; date lines are in the margin, however.
2. Fredrik Arvidsson Posse, a close associate of King Gustav III, who was given full command of the Swedish army in Finland in 1780 and served as commander-in-chief of the Finnish division during the war with Russia in 1788 (Biographiskt Lexicon öfver Namnkunnige Svenska Män, 23 vols., Orebo and Uppsala, 1836–1857).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-09

9th. Saturday.

This morning we went to see the fortress of Sweaborg. Dined with the General Posse. Prince Galitzin1 arrived here this evening.
1. Possibly a brother or son of Prince Dmitri A. Gallitzin (1734–1803), a man of letters and Russian ambassador at Paris, 1763–1768, and at The Hague, 1770–1782 (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, p. 354, 359; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:3, 15, 29; Eufrosina Dvoichenko-Markoff, “Benjamin Franklin, the American Philosophical Society, and the Russian Academy of Science,” Amer. Philos. Soc., Procs., 91 [1947]:252–253).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-10

10th. Sunday.

This morning at about 8 o'clock we left Helsingfors, at the same time as the Prince Galitzin. We went this day, three stations. The Prince went but two.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-11

11th. Monday.

This day we went only two stations and stopp'd at the country seat of Mr. Hising an acquaintance of Mr. Gummer's at Fagerwik.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-12

12th. Tuesday.

We went only 3. swedish miles. Stay'd at the country house of Captain Anrinoff son in law to Mr. Hising, at Åmine.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1782-11-13 - 1782-11-14

13th. Wednesday [– 14th Thursday].1

We left Åmine at about 10 o'clock A.M. and rode all day, and all the night and arrived at about 12. o'clock at Åbo, on the 14th. This is a small town not much fortified but it is the capital of the province of Finland and is said to be the largest town in Sweden except Stockholm.
List of the roads from Lovisa to Åbo.
From Lovisa to   Swed: Miles  
Perna   1   1/4.  
Forsby.   1.    
Ilby.   1   1/4  
Borgo.   1.    
Wäkaski   1   1/4  
Sibbokykeky [Sibbo]   1   1/4  
Hakbolo [Haxböle]   1   1/2  
Helsingfors   1   3/4.  
1. This entry continues into the next day without a pause; the dateline is in the margin.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-15

15th. Friday.

This forenoon we went and paid a visit to General Armfeldt1 governor of Finland. We dined at his hotel with the Prince Galitzin who arriv'd last night. After dinner we went to see the curiosities of the town, but there is nothing extraordinary altho there is a famous University2 here. In the evening the General Armfeldt came and paid us a visit.
1. Gustaf Mauritz, Baron von Armfelt, a native of Finland, who served as a Swedish diplomat and president of the Council of Finland (Biographiskt Lexicon öfver Namnkunnige Svenska Män, 23 vols., Orebo and Uppsala, 1836–1857).
2. Abo Akademi or Universität Abo, the Finnish national university, which was removed to Helsinki in 1827 after a fire. General Armfelt served as its chancellor (Eino Kaila, Les trois sièecles du l'Université de Finlande, 1640–1940, Helsinki, 1940, p. 59–60; Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, p. 492).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-16

16th. Saturday.

This morning at about 10 o'clock we left Åbo at the same time with the Prince Galitzin, but Mr. Gummer intends to stay there { 159 } about a week because he has all his family here and has been a long time absent. We went this day 7 ½ Miles as far as the first passage at Helsings.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-17

17th. Sunday.

This morning we took boat and went as far as Varsala [Wartsala] i.e. two miles: we could go no farther.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-18

18th. Monday.

This morning we set off from Varsala in a boat and went 5. miles as far as Kůmlinge. Fine weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-19

19th. Tuesday.

This day we passed from Kůmlinge to Skarpans by water. The distance is, 6. Swedish miles. We went also two stations by land.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-20

20th. Wednesday.

This day at about 4 o'clock P.M. we arrived at Eckerö. The Prince Galitzin arrived at about eight o'clock.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-21

21st. Thursday.

This morning at 7 ¾ o'clock we set off from Eckerö in a boat and arrived at Grisselham distant 7. Miles at about 11.¼. We stay'd there till 2. o'clock P.M. and went 4 stations after.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-22

22d. Friday.

This evening at about 11.o'clock we arrived at Stockholm. We found all the taverns in the town shut up, and could not get one opened.
List of the roads from Åbo to Stockholm.
From Åbo to   Swed: miles  
Nussis Nummis     2.    
Tursanparo     1.    
Laertes     1   1/2  
Botila     1   1/4  
Helsings     1   3/4.  
à Varsala (par eau) by water     2.    
Bränden. [Brandö] do.     2   1/4  
{ 160 }
Kumlinge   do.     2   1/2  
Wargata.   do.     3   1/4.  
Skarpans.   do.     3.    
Haral[d]sby (par terre) by land     1   1/2  
a river        
Enkarby [Emkarby]     1   1/4  
Trebenby     1   1/4.  
Marby. . (by water)       1/8.  
Eskerö       7/8.  
Grisselham[n] (by water)     7.    
a river        
Taefta (land) [Täfteå]       3/4.  
Stubby     1   1/2  
Swanberg [Svanberga]     1   1/2  
Kragstad     1   1/4.  
Rylanda     1.    
Hall     1   1/4.  
Östby     1.    
Enstad     2.    
Stockholm     2.    
  Swedish Miles   44.   6/8  
Better than one half of the way you are obliged to go by water. And what is worse a traveller is very often obliged to stop at one or another of the passages, especially, at that from Eckerö to Grisselham for whenever the wind is contrary, or if there is no wind at all, you will find no boats, because the mariners will not risk to go over. This is only at the great passage,1 for a calm weather is the best for the small ones because there are a great number of rocks on all sides, at the small passages, and the best way is to row. For the same reason, when the wind is strong, you can't pass the small passages. But at this season of the year it is impossible to row over the passage of the Ålandshaff in a day; and it is dangerous to arrive in the night. When we arrived at Eckerö we found there the post from Åbo, that had stay'd there for want of wind a whole week, and we were very lucky not to stay more than one night. Upon the whole all the passages are very disagreable especially at this season of the year, when the weather is commonly bad. There is another road which some travellers take in winter, which they call here, making the northern tour; but this is never done unless it is impossible to go { 161 } the other way; because it makes a difference of noless than 240. Swedish miles which makes about 1700. English.
1. That is, from Eckerö to Grisselhamn, across the Ålands Haf, or Ålands Sea, the body of water which separates the Åland Islands archipelago and the Swedish mainland, at the entrance of the Gulf of Bothnia.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0012-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-11-23

23d. Saturday.

After having passed the whole night in the street, at last, we found a publick house at the Swedish arms, said to be the best in the city; but if it is the best is not good for much. This forenoon Mr. Brandenburg came here and gave me a letter from Mr. D.1 After dinner we went into a bookseller's shop to buy some books. We found there a gentleman whose name is Watström; he is director of the mines.2 As soon as he found we were strangers without knowing us, he offered to show us every thing that is to be seen in town; and could not have been more polite if we had been strongly recommended to him: indeed I have found from our first entrance into Sweden; that strangers are treated with a great deal of Politeness and civility all over the country.3
1. Probably Dana to JQA, 21 Oct. (Adams Papers), in which Dana gave JQA directions for the delivery of letters to JA, who would probably be in Paris when JQA reached The Hague, and instructions to have the ciphers intended for America thrown overboard in case of capture.
2. Charles Bernard Wadström, with whom JQA was to stay during part of the coming winter, was a Swedish mechanical and mining engineer in government service. In 1769 he was responsible for making navigable the cataract of Trollhättan (sometimes Trolhaéetta or Drolhetta), which JQA saw on 20 Jan. 1783 (below). In 1787 Wadström went to Africa, where he remained for two years. Afterward he visited England, where he advocated the abolition of the slave trade and encouraged the establishment of philanthropic colonies in Africa. While in London he published in 1789 his Observations on the Slave Trade, and a Description of Some Part of the Coast of Guinea . . ., as well as subsequent works of a similar nature. Later, while minister resident to the Netherlands, JQA renewed his friendship with Wadström by correspondence (Helen Maria Williams, “Memoirs of the Life of Charles Berns [Bernard] Wadström,” The Annual Register . . . For the Year 1799, new edn., London, 1813, p. 326–330; Wadström to JQA, 5 Dec. 1795, and JQA to Wadström, 5 July 1797, LbC, Adams Papers).
3. JQA spent the next five weeks (24 Nov.–31 Dec. 1782) in Stockholm, but little is known about his activities there. His seventh Diary, which was written on the blank pages in a Swedish almanac, contains numerous markings by the names of various Swedish officials, presumably those he met while staying in Stockholm. In addition, JQA makes mention, in the few extant letters he wrote during his stay in the country, of Swedish merchants he met in Stockholm, as well as other towns and villages, who were interested in beginning trade with the United States (JQA to JA, 1 Feb. 1783, Adams Papers; JQA to AA, 23 July 1783, Writings, 1:8).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0004-0013-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1782-12-31

December 31. 1782.1

This morning I left Stockholm at about 9 o'clock A M. in company with the Count Greco and Mr. Fyrbergs a Swedish gentleman who intends to go as far as Norrkiöping. We arrived at Nykiöping at about 12. o'clock at Night, we stay'd there a couple of hours and then set out and arrived at Norrkiöping at about 2. o'clock P.M.2
1. First entry of D/JQA/6, which has no titlepage and consists of two 4¾″ × 7⅝″ sets of four sheets of paper folded over to make 32 pages. JQA filled 21 of them before he discontinued this Diary. The period covered is 31 Dec. 1782–26 Feb. 1783; no entries exist for 4, 5, 7, 9, and 21 Feb.
2. In the margin of this page in the Diary, containing this and part of the following day's entry, are two small animal-like figures sketched in pencil.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-01

January 1st. 1783.

We found here Mr. Schiebe a gentleman who left Stockholm about a week before us.
Norrkiöping is distant from Stockholm eighteen swedish miles or 120. English. Its situation is exceeding fine, at present every thing is covered with Snow;1 but it is in the midst of a plain which is bordered all round at about 6. or 8 English Miles from the town by high mountains from which you at first discover the city and in summer it seems to be in the midst of a large garden.
After having dined I went to the coffee house, and found there Mr. Charles Bernard Wadström a gentleman whom I knew in Stockholm and whom I owed a great many obligations during my stay there; he presented me to all his family which was assembled together at one of his brother's, where I stay'd and supped.
1. Reporting to AA on his journey from St. Petersburg to The Hague, JQA wrote that he “was obliged to stop at a small town, called Norrköping ... for a fortnight, because of a very heavy fall of snow, which happened just at that time” (JQA to AA, 23 July, Writings, 1:8).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-02

Jany. 2d.

This day I dined at Mr. C. B. Wadström's. In the evening I went to the coffee house.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-03

3d.

This morning the Count set off from here and continued his route for Carlscrona [Karlskrona]. I went with Mr. Wadström { 163 } about 3. Swedish miles out of town, to pass there this day and tomorrow.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-04

4th.

This afternoon at about 3 o'clock, we set out to return in town and arrived at about 6. o'clock. We went to the coffee house after our return.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-05

5th.

This forenoon I went with Mr. Schiebe to the german church, but it happened this day that we had a Swedish sermon.1 I dined at Mr. C. B. Wadström's. After dinner I went with him out of town to his brother's where we stay'd till after supper, and then return'd in town.
1. In the margin of the entry is a small pencil sketch of a minister at his pulpit with his congregation below.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-06

6th.

This day I dined at Mr. C. B. Wadström's. In the evening I went to the assembly here, of which there are sixteen every winter.1 This was the first for this winter. I return'd home at about 11. o'clock.
1. In the margin of the entry are three small pencil sketches: several figures seated around a table; a man and woman dancing; and two couples dancing in a circle.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-07

7th.

I dined at Mr. C. B. Wadström's with a great deal of company. In the evening I went to the play,1 which can indeed hardly be call'd a play. However, it is as much as this small town can allow. After the play I return'd to Mr. Wadström's where [with?] all the company.2
1. In the margin is a small pencil sketch of two figures standing before a backdrop.
2. Laid in between pages two and three of the Diary is the following four-line poem, written presumably in Wadström's hand:

Monsieur et chèr Ami !

Tout se passe avec le Tems

Le Tems se passe de même

L'Eternité n'a point de Tems

Mon Amitié de meme

a Norrköping en Ostrogothie

CB: Wadström.
le 7me. Janvier 1783

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-08

8th.

I dined at Mr. Pasch's with a great deal of company. We had a ball, in the evening which did not break up till about 4 o'clock in the morning of the 9th.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-09

9th.

Dined at Mr. Körners. In the evening I went to the assembly; at about 10 o'clock I return'd and supp'd at Mr. Körners.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-10

10th.

Dined with Mr. C. B. Wadström: bad weather all day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-11

11th.

Snow storm, all day. Dined at Mr. Wadström's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-12

12th.

This day I went into the country, and spent the day at Mr. Kanterberg's the brother in law of Mr. Wadström.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1783-01-13 - 1783-01-16

13th.[–16th].1

This morning Mr. Schiebe set out for Gottenburgh [Göteborg]. I am to overtake him to morrow morning in Linkiöping. I dined at old Mr. Wadström's and in the evening I went to the assembly. At about 10 o'clock I return'd and supped at old Mr. Wadström's; went to my Lodgings and ordered horses, and at about 2. o'clock. A.M. of the 14th. I set out for Linkiöping where I arriv'd at about 7. o'clock. It is only 4. Swedish miles from Norrkiöping. I found here Mr. Schiebe, and at about 10 o'clock we set out to continue our journey to Gottenburgh, where we arrived on Thursday the 16th. at about eleven o'clock at night. The distance is about 250 Engh. miles. One part of the road is very good because of the snow, but there are some places in the province of Scania [Skåne] where there is no snow at all. It is very troublesome to travel these roads in the winter because from Stockholm to the entry of the Province you cannot go otherwise than in slays, and then very often you find no Snow at all; thro' the whole Province of Scania there is never Snow enough for { 165 } Slaying until the latter end of this month: and sometimes not even then.
1. This diary entry continues through 16 Jan. without a pause or break; the datelines for the 14th and the 16th (omitted here) are in the margin.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-17

17th.

This Day I went with Mr. Schiebe to the exchange, and met there with Count Greco, who has been here already a week. He proposed to me to go with him and two other gentlemen to take a tour to Drolhetta [Trollhättan] where there are famous water falls about 8. Sweedish miles from this Place; he told me they shall set out to morrow, and I agreed to go with them. In the afternoon I went and delivered a letter of introduction to Mr. Lars Kåhre, a capital merchant of this town.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-18

18th.

I left Gottenburg this morning in Company with Count Greco, Mr. Khrumppöck a Sea officer in the Dutch service, and Mr. Gadelius a young Swedish gentleman who belongs to Ud[d]evalla, we are at present (10 o'clock. P.M.) about half ways to Drolhetta; the roads are not very agreable (as we are with a coach,) on account of the Snow.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-19

19th.

We arrived at Drolhetta at about 5. o'clock this afternoon, but at the last post we were obliged to leave our carriage on account of the quantity of Snow, and take Slays.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-20

20th.

This morning we went to see the falls which did not answer my expectations, but this place is still more famous for the expence the Sweeds have been at to cut a canal from hence to the sea so that Swedish vessels might come from the Atlantic, without being obliged to pass the Sound:1 but after all they have not been able to succeed in their enterprize.2 After having seen everything remarkable here, we return'd in Slays to the first Post and then we took our carriage; but could not get further on than Wennersborg [Vänersborg], which is the first Station. The road we took [could?] have taken to return is not the same as the { 166 } one we went. And there has fallen more Snow here than on the other road. Here the Count left us at about 10 o'clock in the evening and set out to return to Gottenburg in A Slay; as he is obliged to continue his journey.
1. That is, Öresund (the Sound), the strait between Sjælland Island, Denmark (on which Copenhagen is located), and southwest Sweden, connecting the Kattegat, an arm of the North Sea, with the Baltic. At its narrowest point the strait is two and one-half miles wide.
2. The Göta Canal, a waterway of canals, lakes, and rivers which passes around the Trollhättan Falls and connects Göteborg with Stockholm, was not completed until 1832.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-21

21st.

This morning we left our carriage at Wennersborg, and took slays, for Udevalla where we arrived at about 5. o'clock P. M. This is the town to which Mr. Gadelius belongs.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-22

22d.

This day we dined and supped at Mr. Gadelius's mother's, in company with several Gentlemen of this town.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-23

23d.

We dined at Mr. Williamson's; a merchant of this place; in the evening we went to the assembly where we stay'd till about 1 o'clock in the morning, very stormy windy weather the greatest part of the day.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-24

24th.

This morning at about 10 o'clock I set out from Udevalla all alone in a Slay for Gottenburgh. When I came to the third station I was obliged to Stop on account of the Storm, at the end of a couple of hours the Snow abated and I continued My Journey till about midnight when I arrived at the last Post where I shall be obliged to Stay untill the morning as the gates of Gottenburg are not opened before 7. o'clock. Very stormy weather.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-25

25th.

This morning I arrived at Gottenburg at about 9 o'clock in the morning. Went to Change; found the Count left Gottenburg the day before yesterday. Mr. Lars Kåhre presented me to the { 167 } French Consul here Mr. De L'isle who appears to be a clever sort of a gentleman. I dined with him at a tavern in the town and in the evening I went to the Coffee House.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-26

26th. Sunday.

I Dined this day at Mr. Kåhre's in company with Mr. De L'isle and Mr. Cederström1 a merchant of this town who has a brother lately established in Boston.
1. Carl Söderström was the brother of Richard Söderström, Swedish merchant and consul at Boston, whom JQA met on 27 July 1785, after his return to America (The Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States of America, from the Signing of the Definitive Treaty of Peace, 10th September 1783, to the Adoption of the Constitution, March 4, 1789 . . ., 7 vols., Washington, 1833–1834, 7:478–480).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-27

27th. Monday.

This morning I carried my Letters of introduction to the Baron Ahlströmmer's and Mr. Arfvidson's. I dined at Baron Claes Ahlströmmer;1 after dinner Mr. Podolyn, a gentleman who lives with Baron Claes, shew me a very compleat Cabinet of Roman medals. This gentleman has travell'd almost all over Europe; and speaks almost all the Languages of Europe very correctly, I went with him in the evening to the concert. Baron Patrick Ahlströmmer2 is a very great Lover of musick; and plays very well himself upon the violin.
1. Clas Alströmer was originally an agriculturalist who studied sheep breeding in six European countries from 1760 to 1764. After his return to Sweden he joined the East Indian Company of Göteborg, an internationally known business firm. Later he formed a partnership with his brother Patrick. During the American Revolution the brothers, through the East Indian Company, planned a great trading venture in metal and cloth products to the American colonies, borrowing considerable capital for the purpose. As soon as peace was established, however, the market for Swedish goods collapsed, and the East Indian Company suffered a loss of 300,000 riksdalers (Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon).
2. Trained in the management of cloth manufacturing, Patrick Alströmer became director of manufactures of Alingsås, a town northeast of Göteborg, in 1758; four years later he visited cloth-manufacturing facilities in St. Petersburg and other Russian cities. After a catastrophic fire in Alingsås ruined Patrick's business, he accepted an invitation from his younger brother Clas to enter into partnership with him. Patrick became director of the East Indian Company in 1777, and the two brothers were raised to the rank of baron the following year (same).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-28

28th. tuesd.

Dined at Mr. Cederströms this day. In the afternoon I went to see a Gentleman whose name is Beckmann.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0026

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-29

29th. Wednesd.

I receiv'd this day several letters from Messrs. Wadström at Norrkiöping.1
1. Letters not found.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0027

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-30

30th. Thursd.

This day I din'd at Mr. Greigg's1 a merchant of this Place. In the evening I went to the assembly, which is much more brilliant here than I have seen it any where: in Stockholm they are much more so, but there were no assemblies there while I was in town on account of the mourning for the Death of the Queen Dowager,2 which is at present finish'd: this is said to be for [opu]lence3 the second City in the King[dom]. I believe there is no Country in Europe where the people are more hospitable and affable to Strangers, or more hospitable among themselves than the Sweeds. In almost every town however small it may be they have these assemblies at least once a week during three months. They are by subscription, but a Stranger may enter by paying 1 half of a Rixdaller. There one may dance Country dances minuets, or play cards just as it pleases you; and every body is extremely polite to Strangers. Besides this they have very often private balls, which without being expensive are very well calculated to pass away agreably, the long winter evenings which they have in this country. Even the peasants, the people of the lowest class are very polite here, and that I believe no other country can boast of. In general I think there can be no country in Europe where the Strangers are more civilly treated than in Sweden.
1. Henry Greig, who had earlier forwarded letters to JA and offered his services “in these parts” to JA or his friends (Greig to JA, 12 May 1781, Adams Papers; Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 2:111, 390).
2. Louisa Ulrica of Hohenzollern, sister of Frederick the Great and wife of Adolphus Frederick V, King of Sweden, 1751–1771. Her son, Gustavus III (1746–1792), was King at this time (Brockhaus Enzyklopadie, Wiesbaden, 1969).
3. Words here and below partially obscured by water damage.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0028

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01-31

31st.

This day I dined at a tavern in town with the French Consul and several other Gentlemen: in the evening I went to the Play, which is certainly nothing extraordinary, but is as much as can be expected from such a Place as this.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0001-0029

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-01

Januarius. 1783.1

Parti de Stockholm le 31. Dec're 1782. Arrivé à Norrkiöping le 1. Janvier. 1783. Depart de Norrkiöping le 14. à 2 heures du matin, arrivé á Gothenbourg le 17.2 à 11. heures du soir. Le 19. je partis de Gottenbourg pour Drolhetta, nous y arrivâmes le 20. Le 21. nous vîmes la cascade et nous partîmes pour Udevalla. Nous fûmes obligés de laisser nôtre voiture à Wennersborg à 3. lieues d'Udevalla à cause de la neige.3 Nous arrivames le 22 à Udevalla.4 Le 24. Je partis tout seul pour Gothenbourg et J'y arrivai le 25. à 9 heures du matin.
1. This monthly summary comes from the first entry in D/JQA/7, a small pocket almanac of 348 pages, approximately 2⅞″ × 5″, entitled Historisk Almanach För Året 1783 . . ., Stockholm [1783]. The first 13 pages consist of a calendar for the year 1783, interleaved with 12 blank pages on which JQA wrote in French short, scattered notes of his activities from 31 Dec. 1782 to 17 Oct. 1783. JQA began writing in this Diary in the form of a monthly summary of his activities, particularly his constant arrivals and departures as he traveled from country to country, but gradually the entries became scattered line-a-day memoranda. Monthly summaries from January through April are placed in the published Diary as the final entry for each respective month. After 26 Feb., when D/JQA/6 ends, D/JQA/7 constitutes the only Diary JQA kept until 6 Aug., when he briefly resumed longer entries in another Diary booklet, D/JQA/8. Entries in D/JQA/7 for 6, 9, 12, 16, and 22 Aug. and 22 Sept. have been omitted in favor of the fuller corresponding entries in D/JQA/8; in one instance, 29 Aug., entries from both of these Diaries have been printed because they contain different information. All other entries from D/JQA/7 after 6 Aug. have been retained.
2. According to JQA's main entry, above, he arrived in Göteborg on 16 Jan.
3. JQA arrived at Trollhättan on 19 Jan., and the events recorded here for 21 Jan. occurred on the previous day.
4. Likewise, JQA arrived at Uddevalla the day before, 21 Jan.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-01

February 1783. 1st. Saturday.

This morning Mr. Schiebe left this place to go to Marstrand where he intends to stay some days.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-02

2d. Sunday.

I dined this day at Mr. Erskine's the English Consul: in the evening I went to the play. Supped at Baron Patrick Ahlströmmer's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-03

3d. Monday.

I spent the evening and supped with a numerous company at counseller Arvidson's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-06

6th. Thursd.

Dined this day with a great deal of Company at Baron Claes Ahlströmmers; in the evening I went to the play and afterwards I return'd again to Baron Ahlströmmers where I supp'd.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-08

8th. Saturday.

This forenoon Mr. Schiebe arrived here from Marstrand, we decided to set out next Tuesday for Copenhagen.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1783-02-10 - 1783-02-11

[10th.–]11th. [Monday–]Tuesday.

Last evening at about 10 o'clock I went to a Mascarade Ball which we had in Town. As it was but the second that has ever been given in this place it was not very brilliant And the masks were almost all the same; the men dressed in sailors, and the women [in]1 Country girls almost universally, but [it] was very well for a beginning. I stay'd there till about 4. o'clock this morning, when I return'd to my Lodgings threw myself upon a bed and slept till about 7. o'clock then pack'd up my trunks, and set away from Gottenburg with Mr. Schiebe at about half past 8. We arrived at Kungsbacka which is 3 1/2. Swed: miles. from Gottenburg, at about 5. o'clock. P.M. We cannot go any further this night on account of the weather and roads which are very bad as within these three weeks there has been nothing but a continual rain. The winter in this part of Sweden is not agreable, as it is either extremely cold or else it rains continually.
1. Editorially supplied here and below; words are obscured in MS owing to some water damage.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-12

12th. Wednesd.

We came this day as far as Warberg [Varberg] which is about 6. miles Swed: from Kungsbacka. The roads are so terrible bad that we shall not be able to go at all, the nights. The weather has been pretty good all day, but very cold.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-13

13th. Thursd.

We rose this morning at about 7. o'clock and left Warberg, we rode till about Nine o'clock this evening when we arrived at Halmstad. The distance is about 7. Swed: miles. The roads are extremely bad all the way.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-14

14th. Friday.

After having rode this day about 8. miles Swedish, we arrived at about 9. o'clock, P.M. At Helsingborg [Hälsingborg] which is the last town in Sweden.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-15

15th. Saturd.

Having left Helsingborg this morning at about 10' o'clock, we pass'd the Sound and at about 11. we arriv'd at Elseneur [Helsingör] which is the first Danish town. We stay'd there about 2 hours to refresh ourselves and have our trunks examined and set out from there at about 1' o'clock afternoon, and arrived at Copenhagen at about 7. o'clock. Copenhagen is distant from Elseneur 5 German Miles; we took up our lodgings at Vassal's in the Strand, and I found here the Count, who has already been here a fort'night, and who has engaged a place in a Vessel, which is to sail next Tuesday for Kiel. As I have nothing of any consequence to do here and as there is nothing very extraordinary to be seen here, I believe I shall go at the same time if there is any more Place in the Vessel.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-16

16th.

This morning I went with the Count and Mr. Schiebe to see the royal Cabinet of curiosities which is vast; but not much in order; there [are] some very curious things in it; but there are others which are not worth looking at. There are two pieces of silver just as they came out of the mines in Norway, one of which is worth 5,000 Rxdallers, Danish and the other about 3,000. One would think seeing such enormous masses that the mines are very rich and that money is plenty, but it is quite the contrary, there is not scarce any specie in Copenhagen, all goes by bank bills, which are falling, and depreciating because they cannot be realized: if you carry one of these bills to the bank; suppose it to be a bill of 100. Rxdallers you will receive 10 Rxdallers Specie and all the rest in smaller bills.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-17

17th. Mond.

This forenoon We went to see a Gentleman who has a Cabinet of Curiosities, in Painting, sea shells and insects. His Cabinet is pretty well furnish'd but not entirely in order. In the evening we { 172 } all went to the play but stay'd there only a few minutes because it was so full. The King goes almost every Night to the play, but was not there this evening because the Prince Frederick's consort is unwell, and the King never stirs out of the Palace without having Prince Frederick, with him.1
1. Christian VII (1749–1808) became progressively more insane during his reign, and in 1784 his son, Prince Frederick (1768–1839), was made regent until his father's death, when he assumed the throne as Frederick VI. The Prince Frederick mentioned here is Christian's half-brother (1753–1805), who married Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1774 (La grande encyclopédic: inventaire raisonné des sciences, des lettres et des arts, 31 vols., Paris, [1886–1902]; Almanach royal, 1784).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-18

18th. Tuesd.

Mr. Schiebe and I have engaged places in the vessel that is to sail for Kiel but the wind is contrary at present. This day I went and carried a letter of Introduction I had for Mr. Soeren Lycke a merchant of this town. I walk'd about the town in the afternoon with Count Greco. In the evening we went to a Coffee House.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-19

19th. Wednesd.

This forenoon Mr. Heiliger;1 a Gentleman from the Danish West India's, and who has liv'd in America some time, came to see me. The wind continues still bad.
1. John Heyliger (sometimes Hyleger or Heiliger), a member of a trading and planting family from St. Croix with New York connections; JQA later recalled that he “was under many obligations” to Heyliger during his three-week stay in Copenhagen (entry for 10 Aug. 1785, below; NYHS, Colls., 14 [1905]:270.)

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-20

20th. Thurd.

This forenoon I went and pay'd a visit to Mr. Heiliger, who invited me to dine with him at a Club of which he is member; he invited at the same time Mr. Schiebe. We accepted his invitation. After dinner we left him, and return'd in the evening to sup with him at his own house.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-22

22d. Saturday.

We dined this day with a numerous company at Mr. Lycke's. In the evening I went to the play and had there an occasion of seeing the King, and Prince royal. As I was in Company with a gentleman of the town I ask'd him some question about the King { 173 } and royal Family; he did not say much about the King but when I spoke of the Prince royal ah! says he, “nôtre Jeune prince a beaucoup d'esprit.” As for the King he is neither remarkable for his wit nor for his understanding, and the people all over the City make no scruple to say it publicly.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-23

23d. Sunday.

This afternoon I went and paid a visit to the Baron de la Houze1 the French Minister here; he offer'd to send any letter I should write to my Father with his Dispatches to Mr. De Vergennes.2
1. Matthieu de Basquiat, Baron de la Houze, French minister plenipotentiary to Denmark, 1779–1792 (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, p. 112).
2. Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes, minister of foreign affairs during the American Revolution.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-24

24th. Mond.

This morning I went to pay a visit to the Baron de la Houze. When I return'd to the Hotel at about 12 o'clock I found the Count and Mr. Schiebe packing up, as the Captain has sent word that the wind is Good and that he intends to set sail this afternoon. (8. o'clock P.M.) We dined at about twelve o'clock and came on board soon after dinner. Since we are on board the wind has chang'd and is at present contrary but we hope it will become favourable in the night.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-25

25th.

The wind continued bad all day. In the afternoon the Count went on shore.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02-26

26th.

The Count came on board to take us on shore with him so we left our trunks on board and having told the Captain to let us know when the wind became favourable, we return'd on shore.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0002-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-02

Februarius. 1783.

11. Depart de Gottenbourg a 8. heures du matin. Nous arrivames á Copenhague le 15. à 8 heures du soir.1
{ 174 }
1. Times of departure and arrival vary slightly from the main entries (above).
JQA's return to The Hague from Copenhagen, sketchily presented in this and the following two entries in his Diary, was marked with numerous delays, which characterized his entire journey from St. Petersburg. Arriving in the Danish capital on 15 Feb., he decided to go to Kiel by boat to avoid bad roads and an expensive fare. But after he had waited for nearly three weeks for a good wind, the harbor froze up and he was obliged to go to Hamburg by land. Arriving there on or about 10 March, he stayed for nearly a month before traveling to Bremen, where he remained four days before continuing his journey to Amsterdam. During his stay in the two German cities, he studied the commercial life and concluded that Hamburg would “carry on hereafter a great deal of Trade with America.” JQA arrived in Amsterdam on 15 April and settled in The Hague at his father's residence, the Hôtel des Etats Unis, on 21 April (JQA to JA, 20 Feb., 1412 March; JQA to AA, 23 July, all in Adams Papers; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:ix–x).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0003-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-03

Martius. 1783.

5. Depart de Copenhague et l'10 arriveé à Hambourg.1
1. JA wrote to AA on 28 March, informing her that JQA had been impeded by “terrible Weather” on his journey from St. Petersburg and that “my Son has been another Source of Distress to me.” Receiving a letter from JQA dated 1412 March from Hamburg, JA was hopeful that his son would arrive at The Hague by the end of March, but it was another three weeks before JQA reached his destination (Book of Abigail and John, p. 344).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0004-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-04

Aprilis. 1783.

5. Depart de Hambourg arriveé à Breme [Bremen] le. 6. Nous y restames jusques au 12. À 3. heures de l'aprés midi que nous partimes pour Amsterdam. Nous voyageames nuit et jour jusques au 16. que nous y arrivames a 11. heures avant midi. J'y restai jusques au 20. Alors j'en partis et j'arrivai à la Hay le 21. à 9. heures du matin.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0005-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-05-20

Majus. 1783. 20me.

Diné à Rotterdam chés Mr. Van Berkel ancien bourguemaitre de la ville, et presentement ministre Plenipotentiaire de L. L. H. H. P. P.1 auprés du Congrés.2
1. JQA means L.H.P., Les Hautes Puissances, or Their High Mightinesses, the name given to the Dutch States General as a body (Guthrie, Geographical Grammar, p. 406).
2. JA was concerned about his son's course of studies, but owing to the treaty negotiations with Britain being carried forward in Paris, he was not in the Netherlands when JQA returned from St. Petersburg. JA allowed his son a choice of either returning to Leyden to study with his former tutor or staying at The Hague and continuing his studies under the direction of C. W. F. Dumas, a close friend whom JA later described as “A Walking Library, and so great a Master of Languages ancient and modern [which] is rarely seen.” JA also encouraged JQA to improve his penmanship and writing style and recom• { 175 } mended that he continue his study of mathematics, especially algebra. JQA decided to study with Dumas, in part because of the uncertainty of JA's stay in Europe. Within a month he was beginning to translate Suetonius' life of Caligula and the Greek testament; later he began to read the works of Plautus and Terence (JA to JQA, 18 Feb; JQA to JA, 2122 April, 12 May; Dumas to JA, 18 July, all in Adams Papers; Book of Abigail and John, p. 349).
For relaxation, JA suggested that JQA read some books, “along with your Severe Studies and laborious Exercises,” and recommended several volumes on morals. But for “amusement,” JQA turned to Virgil, reading a hundred verses of the Aeneid at a time with Dumas, who “explain[ed to] me every thing which regards the ancient rites; and ceremonies”; then he compared Dryden's translation with the original (JA to JQA, 19 May; JQA to JA, 24 May, both in Adams Papers). JQA studied with Dumas for three and a half months before leaving The Hague with JA. Besides the translation of Suetonius, which is probably the one in French in the Adams Papers (M/JQA/45, Microfilms, Reel No. 240), he copied and translated into English verse ten Eclogues of Virgil (M/JQA/43, Microfilms, Reel No. 238) and began a series of translations into French of Horace's Odes, Books I and II (M/JQA/42, Microfilms, Reel No. 237). The direction and stimulus provided by Dumas seem evident from JQA's later readings and translations done while living in France and England, discussed in notes for entries of 20 Oct. 1783, and 8 Aug. 1784 (below).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0005-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-05-23

23.

Diné à Schevening sur les dunes.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0005-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-05-24

24.

Partis pour Amsterdam, y arrivai le 25. à 6 heures du matin.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0005-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-05-27

Le 27.

J'en partis a 11. heures et J'arrivai á la Haye le même jour à dix heures du soir.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0006-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-06-03

Junius. 1783. 3me.

Je fus diner à Rotterdam avec Monsieur Baron qui s'en retourne à Paris.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0007-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-07-14

Julius. 1783. 14.

Je fus à Delft avec Monsr. Fitch1 et sa compagnie, qui partent pour L'Angleterre.
1. Most likely Eliphalet Fitch, a native Bostonian, reputedly very rich, who may have held a crown office in Jamaica, and whom JA described to JQA as a grandson of Dr. Thomas Boylston “and consequently your Relation” (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:134; JA to JQA, 12 June, LbC, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0007-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-07-22

22.

A 11 heures du soir mon Pere arriva de Paris.1
1. Absent from The Hague since late Oct. 1782, JA returned there on this day, and after two weeks of discussions with his Patriot friends at The Hague and merchants and bankers in Amsterdam, he departed for Paris with JQA. JA thought his stay in Europe would end shortly after negotiations with Great Britain were completed, and he wanted his son to come with him and serve as his secretary during the interim (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:141–142; Book of Abigail and John, p. 360–362).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0007-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-07-26

26.

Je partis de la Haye á 6 heures du matin avec mon Pere, arrivé a Amsterdam á 1. heure aprés midi.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0007-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-07-28

28.

Diné chés Mr. W. Willink.1
1. Wilhem Willink of Wilhem and Jan Willink, one of the three Amsterdam banking houses which raised the first Dutch loan for the United States in 1782 (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:125; 2:451).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0007-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-07-29

29.

Diné chés Mr. Ingraham.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0007-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-07-30

30.

Nous retournames à la Haye.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0008-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1783-08-06 - 1783-12-05

[TitlePage]

J.Q.A. Diary
Aug 6 1783 – Dec 5 1783.1
1. Titlepage of D/JQA/8, on the cover of a leather-bound 7¼″ × 4⅜″ writing book with the inscription in an unknown hand. The Diary book covers the period 629 Aug. (with no entries for 13–14, 17–19, and 24–26 Aug.) and 2022 Sept. 1783, only, taking up 34 of the book's 104 pages. These entries are printed with those remaining from D/JQA/7; but see entry for Januarius 1783, note 1 (post 31 Jan., above).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-06

August. 6th. 1783. Wednesday.

This morning, I set out from the Hague, in Company with my Father; at about half past 4. o'clock in the morning. At 7. we arrived at Rotterdam; passed the Maes [Meuse], and rode as far as Moerdyk, where we arrived at about 12. We were obliged to stay { 177 } till 4. o'clock, because the wind, and tide were both contrary. We arrived at about 11. o'clock at night at the last Post before Antwerp, and cannot go any further because the gates of the City are shut from 9. o'clock at night untill 4. in the morning. The Land from the Hague to Moerdyk is good; and is for the most part planted with wheat, oats, and horsebeans; but for the 5. last Leagues the Land is very bad and produces nothing at all.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-07

Aug. 7th. Thursday.

We were going this morning at about 3. We arrived at 7. at Antwerp. After breakfast we went to the cathedral Church, to see the Paintings. The most remarkable of them are.
1.
The descent from the Cross, regarded as the master Piece of Rubens. It is indeed most admirable: every Figure looks alive except the capital one and that equally accurately represents nature. On one side of the Picture is, another representing the annunciation, and on the other, is one representing the Purification. On the reverse is St. Christopher fording a river in the figure of an Hercules with the Child Jesus upon his back, and a Hermit holding a Lantern to Light him. Rubens has painted one of his wive's for the Virgin Mary, and his Daughter for Mary Magdalen.
2.
The Ascencion of the Virgin, Mary: which being placed over the Altar, and the Priests saying Mass, I could not get a good look at. It is also one of the best Paintings, of Rubens; according to the Connoisseurs.
3.
The Martyr of St. Sebastian who is tied to a tree and pierced with arrows, by an Italian painter named Cocci. It is a good Picture.
4.
The battle of the Angels by Francis Florus. This Picture is good, but is the most remarkable for an Anecdote upon it. The Painter had a Daughter, who was beloved by a Black smith called Quintus Mezzus who demanded her in Marriage, but he would not consent to his Daughter's marrying a Black Smith and refused him. Upon this, Mezzus set out for Rome and stay'd there 7. years, to learn the art of Painting. When he return'd, { 178 } Florus, was about, (and had nearly finish'd) this picture. Mezzus one day went into his Cabinet while he was out; and painted a bumble bee upon the thigh of one of the fallen Angels. When Florus return'd to his work, he was deceiv'd and attempted to knock off the bee. But when he saw his mistake and found that Mezzus had done it; he granted him his request, and gave him his daughter. There are a number of other Paintings in this Church, but none of them are extraordinary.
From thence we went to the Eglise de St. Ja[c]ques, which is only remarkable for the tomb of Rubens, and his Family. There is in it a Picture by Rubens: in which he has represented, his Grand-Father; his Father, himself, his two wives, his two Daughters, and his son.1 The Picture is a very fine one.
We went also to see several private Collections; Mr. Stevens's, Mr. van Lancker's, and Mr. Beckman's. There are a great number of very fine Picture's at all of them; but, there is one, at Mr. Beckman's representing Rembrandt's mother; painted by Rembrandt; which surpasses all description. The art of portrait Painting was perhaps, never carried to so great a Perfection as in this Picture. She is represented with an old bible in her Lap; with a paper in it, her Spectacles in one hand, and the other; upon her breast, reflecting upon what she is supposed to have just been reading. Every step you take the bible shows itself in a different position. It is nature itself.
At about 2. we left Antwerp, to continue our Journey, we rode as far as Halle, which is two Posts from Bruxelles on the Road to Paris. We arrived at about 9 o'clock in the evening.
1. Probably Virgin with Saints, painted ca. 1637 (Edward Dillon, Rubens, London, 1909, p. 211, but note also p. 68).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-08

Aug. 8th. Friday.

This morning we set out from Halle at about 3 o'clock, and rode without interruption untill we arrived at Cambray at about 2 1/2 afternoon. We dined at Cambray, and after dinner we went to the Cathedral Church, and saw the tomb of François de Salignac de la Mothe, Fenelon; Archbishop, of Cambray, and author of Telemachus.1 At 4. we left Cambray and rode till 10, when we arrived at Roye where we put up for the Night.
1. Fénelon, French prelate and author of Les aventures de Télémaque, fils d'Ulysse, first published in 1699; it was construed as a satire on Louis XIV and his policies and brought Fénelon into disfavor (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-09

Aug. 9th. Saturday

We Left Roye this morning about 5. o'clock and rode as far as Chantilly without Interruption. We dined at Chantilly, and I went to see the Gardens and Stables of the Prince de Condé1 to whom this Place belongs. The Stables are a fine Piece of Architecture, and every thing is in order. There are 240. horses in them, and each horse has his own manger; with his name over it. Inside of the building is this Inscription.
Louis Henri, de Bourbon.2
7 me. Prince de Condé
À fait Construire ces batimens,
Et ceux qui en dependent, commencés
en 1719, et achevés, en 1735.
The Gardens are Superb; there is a small river which runs down from above the Gardens, and furnishes all the jet d'eau's with water. There are in the Gardens several small, houses, which on the outside look like Peasants hut's, but are most elegantly furnish'd, and are beautiful inside. There is an equestrian Statue of the Connetable de Montmarenci3 in bronze, and a marble Statue of the grand Condé.4 We left Chantilly at about 4. o'clock P.M. and arrived at Paris at about 7. o'clock in the evening. The Land as I have already said is very good thro' Holland but is miserable from the entrance of the Emperor's Dominions to Antwerp, for the Space of 10 leagues, from Antwerp, to several Posts this side of Cambray; there is perhaps not better Land, nor more universally cultivated, in Europe. From thence to Paris, it is still good, but not extraordinary. The Road is as Follows.
From the Hague to Rotterdam. 3 Dutch, Hours5 which make about 12. English Miles.
From Rotterdam (after passing the Maes) to Moerdyk 6. Hours.
Passage of the Moerdyk about 3. English Miles.
From Moerdyk to —— 3 Hours.
From —— to —— 5.6
From —— to Antwerp. 5.
    Posts.7  
From Antwerp to   Mechlin   2.    
  Bruxelles.   2   1/2  
  Halle.   1   1/2.  
From Halle to   Braine le Comte   2.    
{ 180 } | view
  Castillan [Casteau?]   1   1/2  
  Carignan [Quaregnon]   1   1/2  
  Quievraing   1   1/2  
  Valenciennes8   1   1/2.  
  Bouchain   2.    
  Cambray   1   1/2  
  Bon-Avis [Bonavy?]   1   1/2  
  Fins   1   1/2  
  Peronne   2.    
  Marché le Pot   1   1/2  
  Fonches   1.    
  Roye   1.    
  Conchy les Pots   1   1/2  
  Cuvilly   1.    
  Gournay   1.    
  Le Bois de Liheu   1.    
  Chantilly   2.    
  Luzarches   1   1/2.  
  Ecouen   1   1/2.  
  Saint Denys   1.    
  Paris   1.   Post Royal9  
In Holland there are no establish'd Posts. If a Person wants horses, he must make a private agreement for them. In the Dominions of the Emperor you pay 3. schellings, (near 2. shillings sterling) for each horse per post and commonly 2. schellings to the Guide, and in France you pay 1. Livre 5. Sols. per post for each horse, and to the Postillions commonly 15. sols, altho' their due is no more than 5.
1. Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (1736–1818), later a strong supporter of the monarchy at the time of the French Revolution (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale;Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel).
2. Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon, afterward Prince de Condé (1692–1740), usually known as Monsieur le Duc, who served as French prime minister until 1726 (same).
3. Henri I, Duc de Montmorency (1534–1614), whose family intermarried with the Condés, was created constable of France by Henry IV in 1593 (same).
4. Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé(1621–1686), important 17th-century commander of the French army (same).
5. Uur, a Dutch league, equivalent to the distance traveled in an hour. Two such measurements were in use in Holland at this time, one, “20000 anciens pieds d'Amsterdam,” or 3.5 English miles, and the other, “20000 pieds de Rhin,” the more likely unit, equal to 3.9 English miles (Horace Doursther, Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, contenant des tables des monnaies de tous les pays, Brussels, 1840; repr., Amsterdam, 1965, p. 209–210).
6. In the margin: “Here you enter the Emperor's Dominions.”
{ 181 }
7. In the margin: “A Post is 6. English Miles.”
8. In the margin: “Just before you come to Valenciennes you enter into the Dominions of the King of France.”
9. In the margin:
Post Royal
“A l'entrée et a la sortie des lieux ou le Roi fait son sejour momentanément la premiere Poste se paye double: mais a compter seulement de l'heure Le minuit qui suit le jour ou le Roi est arrivé, et jusqu'à minuit aprés le jour qu'il est parti. (Ordonnance du 25. Juillet 1739.)
A l'entrée et a la sortie des Villes de Paris, de Versailles et Lyon, Même pendant l'absence du Roi, la premiere post se paye double. (Ord: des 8. Dec: 1738 et 28 Nov. 1756.)
Extracts from the Post Book.”

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-10

Aug. 10th. Sunday.

This morning, at about 10 o'clock, I accompanied my Father to Passy, to see Dr. Franklin whom I knew already, and Mr. Jay, the american Minister at Madrid, whom I had never seen before; they were at breakfast and had a great deal of Company. Mr. Jay and my Father took a walk in the Garden and had a Conversation upon politicks, which, is of no Necessity here.1 From thence we went to Auteuil; to see Mr. Barclay,2 the American ConsulGeneral in France, but found he was gone, and therefore we saw only Mr. Ridley.3 The House where they are is a very fine one; but, above all there is in it, one thing, which is very curious. It is a small octogonal room with a bath in the middle of it, and in every one of the eight corners of it is a Looking-glass. The cieling, is also made of a Looking-glass; so that a person can see himself in more than thirty different positions in it. The garden is a small and pretty one filled with fruit Trees; we took a walk in it. Mr. Ridley told me that Sammy Cooper Johonnot and Ben. Bache, two of my old schoolmates here had returned from Geneva, where they have been for some time, and that Sam Cooper is gone to Nantes.
1. JQA probably means, as is hinted in the following entry, that at this time political discussions were of no interest to him.
2. Thomas Barclay, a merchant from Philadelphia, American consul in France from 1781, and consul general there from 1783; he was also a partner in the firm of Barclay & Moylan at Lorient. Barclay also rented the Hôtel de Rouault at Auteuil, in which JA and JQA occupied an apartment, 22 Sept.–20 Oct., following the execution of the Definitive Treaty, and to which JA brought his family the following summer (entries for 22 Sept., 20 Oct., below; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:143–144, 171; JCC, 20:698; 24:3; Jefferson, Papers, 11:496; Howard C. Rice Jr., ed., The Adams Family in Auteuil, 1784–1785 . . ., MHS Picturebook, Boston, 1956).
3. Matthew Ridley, a Maryland merchant and agent for the state appointed to obtain a loan in Europe (Herbert E. Klingelhofer, “Matthew Ridley's Diary during the Peace Negotiations of 1782,” WMQ, 3d ser., 20:95–98 [Jan. 1963]).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-11

Aug. 11th. Monday.

This morning Mr. Hartley1 the British Minister for making Peace, came to pay a visit to my Father, but as he was out he desired to see me. I had some Conversation with him. He says he hopes the Peace will be soon signed. In the afternoon I went with my Father to Passy, and saw there Dr. Franklin and Mr. and Mrs. Jay. I also renewed my acquaintance with young Mr. Bache.
We went at the same time to see the Abbés Chalut and Arnauld2 two gentlemen of letters, with whom my Father has been familiarly acquainted ever since his first arrival in Europe. We found with them the Abbé de Mably,3 famous for being the author of a work entitled Le Droit public de l'Europe; and of another entitled principes des Negociations, and the Abbé le Monnier4who has given to the world an elegant French Translation of Terence's Comedies. As the general Turn of the Conversation was upon Politicks; there was nothing in it, necessary to be transcribed here.
1. David Hartley the younger (1732–1813), M.P. for Hull and opponent of the war with America, had been serving the Fox-North coalition since April as plenipotentiary to negotiate and sign the Definitive Treaty (DNB; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:303; 3:112–113).
2. The Abbés Chalut and Arnoux taught JA French and advised him on book purchases (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:317; 4:60).
3. Gabriel Bonnot, Abbé de Mably, French publicist, historian, and philosopher, with the Abbés Chalut and Arnoux, was a regular visitor to the Adamses. The two works to which JQA refers, Des principes des négociations, pour servir d'introduction au droit public de l'Europe, fondé sur les traités, The Hague, 1767, and Le droit public de l'Europe, fondé sur les traités conclus jusqu'en l'année 1740 . . ., Amsterdam, 1748, are among JA's books (Catalogue of JA's Library). For the significance of the JA-Mably friendship, see JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:315; 3:102, and the source cited there.
4. Guillaume Antoine Lemonnier's three-volume Comédies de Térence was published in Paris in 1770.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-12

Aug. 12th. Tuesday.

This morning my Father went to Versailles. At half past 12. I met the Abbé Arnaud at the Thuileries, and we walk'd together to Passy. I dined at the Abbé Chalut's there, in Company with the Abbé de Mably and some other Gentlemen. The Abbé has travelled thro' Poland, and talk'd a good deal about that Country. For the Climate he says that for the first fortnight in November it commonly snows there continually, and from that time untill the latter end of February, a continuation of very severe, colds. { 183 } He has seen Reaumur's Thermometer at the degree of 28 below.0. This is quite different from the weather at Petersburg. There, it snows every day more or less from the middle of November to the middle of January, and then commonly they have 3. weeks or a month of extreme colds. I have seen Réaumur's thermometer in Petersburg at 31. degrees below.0. He also said something upon the Constitution of Poland, upon the Slavery of the people, the Tyranny of the Nobles, and the humiliations the Kings of Poland are obliged to undergo, and yet he said the Ambition of every one of the nobles was to be King. As they might expect it, because the Kingdom was Elective, and that they seldom choose, a King out of the Family of the preceding one, he said that in Poland the nobility had the vanity of desiring to be King, as the nobility in France, had the vanity of wishing to be a Duke. He says also that they could not Live in Poland without the Jews. T'was they who carried on all the commerce. The Nobility were too proud to engage in Commerce, the Slaves could not; every thing that was done there in that way, was done by the Jews, As there were very few other foreigners, who would chuse to settle in that Country. In the evening as my Father return'd from Versailles to Paris, he stopp'd at the Abbés, and took me in his Carriage. Mr. Hartley came and paid a visit to my Father; but it was intirely Political.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-15

Aug. 15th. Friday.

This day I dined at Passy at Dr. Franklin's with a numerous Company. In the evening I went to the Comedy at the Bois de Boulogne. Beverlei1 and le Français a Londres2 were the plays represented. Beverlei is what the French call a Tragedie bourgeoise, as Barnwell in English.3 The Subject of it is, a Man addicted to gaming, who ruins himself by it, or rather is ruined by a villain who pretends to be his Friend; and at last puts an end to his Life by Poison. It was intended to set the passion of gaming in its worst Light but the execution has not answered its Purpose, for it seems to encourage, a still worse passion; I mean suicide. However that was not the author's intention. His design was very Laudable. Le Français a Londres is a Farce, calculated to show the difference of the French and English Characters and the author has carried both to a pleasing extravagance. I met at the Comedy, Mr. de Chaumont,4 whom I had not seen since I re• { 184 } turned to Paris. He asked me a great many Questions, about Sweeden, Russia, Denmark, and all the Countries thro' which I have been.
1. By Bernard Joseph Saurin, Paris, 1768 (Brenner, Bibliographical List).
2. By Louis de Boissy, first performed in Paris in 1727 (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
3. The London Merchant: Or, The History of George Barnwell, London, 1731, by George Lillo.
4. Jacques Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont, strong French supporter of American independence, who speculated in contracts supplying the Continental army and outfitting the navy. He also was landlord of the Hôtel de Valentinois, where Franklin maintained his residence rent-free from 1776 until his return to America in 1785 (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:298).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-16

Aug. 16th. Saturday.

Dined at Mr. Brantsen's;1 the Dutch Ambassadors, with a great deal of Company. In the evening I went to the French Comedy; the pieces represented were Rhadamiste et Zenobie a Tragedy by Crebillon2 and Le Français a Londres. The author of the Tragedy is regarded as one of the best dramatick poets of France. His Tragedies are all very deep, indeed, they are so much so, that several of them miscarried at their first Representation, on that account. The French in general are not Lovers of Tragedy, and it is but lately, that they can bear any, which finishes with the Death of the Hero. The Denouement of this piece is a King, who discovers he has killed his own Son without knowing him. Rhadamistus is sent to the King of Iberia, as Ambassador from Rome, to complain to him; for his arming his People, and to tell him they suspect him. In the midst of his discourse to the King he says.

Rome de tant d'apprets qui s'indigne et se lasse

N'a point accoutumé les Rois à tant d'audace.3

When the actor pronounced those verses, they rose an universal applause; which lasted for some minutes.
1. Gerard Brantsen, Dutch minister plenipotentiary to Paris, 1782–1787, who was appointed ambassador extraordinary plenipotentiary in 1782 to negotiate the terms of peace with Great Britain (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, p. 263; Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:665).
2. Rhadamiste et Zénobie, Paris, 1711, was the chief work of Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon (Brenner, Bibliographical List).
3. Act II, scene ii, lines 7–8 (Crébillon, Oeuvres. Nouvelle édition . . ., 3 vols., Paris, 1772, 2:31, in JA's library at MB).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-20

Aug. 20th. Wednesday.

Dined at Passy with the Abbé de Chalut.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-21

Aug. 21st. Thursday.

This day My Father had a great Company to dine with him.1
1. The occasion for the dinner party is not known.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-22

Aug. 22d. Friday.

This forenoon at 11 o'clock, I went, in Company with My Lord Ancram, Mr. Stewart1 and my father to see the Academy of the Abbe L'epée,2 who has undertaken to teach, people born deaf and dumb, not only to converse with one another very fluently, but also, to read and write, and he has succeeded entirely. It is astonishing to see how fast and how easily they make themselves understood, to one another, and still, more so to see them write, whatever he pleases, by the signs he makes them; there is not a word in the French Language which he has not found some way of expressing, and making them understand. He does it all gratis and receives whoever chooses to come to his Lessons. When the present Emperor of Germany3 visited Paris this was what pleased him the most in the whole City. He sent afterwards his Picture set in Diamonds to the Abbé, and accompanied it with a Letter written with his own hand; praising this humane institution.
I Dined at the Duke de la Vauguyon's the French Ambassador at the Hague, here by Congé4 at present. In the Evening I went to the French Comedy, where were represented Le Philosophe sans le savoir, and La Maison de Campagne;5 The first piece seems to be very Confused; all I could make of it was, that it was Calculated to show the foolishness and the wickedness of the Custom of Duelling: which have been shown many and many a Time; but always without effect and will be always so: as long as the laws which subsist about Duelling, have force in this Country. A Person here who fights a Duel is condemned to Death, and if any body is provoked and refuses to fight he is regarded as infamous, and if in the Army, he is broke and declared incapable of serving the King. This is exposing every one who is insulted by a scoundrel to the cruel alternative of infamy or Death.
{ 186 }
1. William Kerr (1763–1824), Earl of Ancram; Dugald Stewart, Scottish philosopher and professor at the University of Edinburgh (The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant by G[eorge] E[dward] C[okayne], ed. Vicary Gibbs and others, London, 1910–1959, 8:154–155; Benjamin Vaughan to JA, 8 Aug., Adams Papers; DNB).
2. Charles Michel, Abbé de L'Epée, celebrated French philanthropist (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
3. Joseph II.
4. On leave.
5. Michel Jean Sedaine, Le philosophe sans le savoir, Paris, 1766, and Florent Carton Dancourt, La maison de campagne, Paris, 1691 (Brenner, Bibliographical List; Cioranescu, Bibliographie du dix-septième siècle).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-23

Aug 23d. Saturday.

This morning I went and paid a visit to the Baron de la Houze the Minister of France at the Court of Denmark, who is here at present by Congé, and whom I had the honour of seeing at Copenhagen. He talked to me a great deal about America. He said he believed that France, England and Holland would carry on the greatest part of our Commerce; that the Nations of the North wanted a number of our Commodities, but had nothing but ready money (and very little of that) to give us in return. He said he believed that the population of America was equal to that of Sweeden and Denmark together; that he had made a Calculation, and that those two Kingdoms did not contain more than four millions of souls, that Denmark would never be more peopled, while the present Constitution lasted, for the whole Nation consisted of the Nobility and the Serfs: and that Nothing could discourage Population more than personal Slavery, that Sweeden it was true was not in that State; that the Peasantry were free, but that both the Population and the Finances of that Country had been exhausted, by the ruinous Wars of Charles the 12th. and their Consequences which were still felt in Sweeden, but that the Commerce of that Kingdom was increasing every day, and that it promised soon to be in a flourishing Condition, and in that Case, the Population would also increase. He then Spoke of the Duties which ships were obliged to pay for the passage of the Sound, he said it was an unjust tribute which all Nations were obliged to pay to Denmark, and it was the fault of the other Nations that suffered it. I asked him, how Denmark came by it, rather than Sweeden, the coasts of which are on the opposite Side. He said that all those coasts belonged formerly to Denmark when this imposition began, by some Dutch Ships having paid voluntarily a duty; and Denmark made herself a right of it, { 187 } and have obliged every ship that passes to pay the duty; and altho' the province of Scania which forms the Coast on the other Side, has been since ceded to Sweeden still Denmark has kept up that right; besides, he said, there was another reason, which was that on the Sweedish side there were several sand banks, and the water was not deep enough for large vessells to pass over, so that they were obliged to pass very near the Danish side. He said it brought the King a revenue of about 6 millions of livres per annum: and that the expences of the fortress &c. mounted to about two millions.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-24

24.

Comédie Italienne voyage de Rosine et Felix ou l'enfant trouvé.1
1. Pierre Antoine Augustin de Piis and Pierre Yves Barré, Les voyages de Rosine, Paris, 1783; Felix, ou l'enfant trouvé, Paris, 1777, by Michel Jean Sedaine, with music by Pierre Alexandre de Monsigny (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-25

25.

Comédie Italienne le bon ménage, et Blaise et Babet.1 Mr. T——r returned.2
1. Jean Pierre Claris de Florian, Le Bon ménage, ou, la suite des deux billets, Paris, 1783; Blaise et Babet, ou, la suite des trois fermiers, Paris, 1783, by Jacques Marie Boutet de Monvel, with music by Nicolas Dezède (Brenner, Bibliographical List; Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel).
2. John Thaxter had decided to visit London while JA was away from Paris in Holland and just shortly before his own return to the United States (John Thaxter to John Thaxter Sr., 28 July, MHi:Thaxter Papers; JQA to Samuel Cooper Johonnot, 25 Aug., CtY:Beinecke Library).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-27

Aug. 27th.

This forenoon I went to see the Pictures which are exposed to view in the Gallery of the Louvre; there are some good paintings there amongst a great number of indifferent ones. After dinner I went to see the experiment, of the flying globe. A Mr. Montgolfier1 of late has discovered that, if one fills a ball with inflammable air, much lighter than common air, the ball of itself will go up to an immense height of itself. This was the first publick experiment of it, at Paris. A Subscription was opened some time agone and filled at once for making a globe; it was of taffeta glued together with gum, and lined with parchment: filled with in• { 188 } flammable air: it was of a spherical form; and was 14 foot size in Diameter. It was placed in the Champ de Mars. At 5. o'clock 2. great guns fired from the Ecole Militaire, were the signal given for its going, it rose at once, for some time perpendicular, and then slanted. The weather, was unluckily very Cloudy, so that in less than 2. minutes it was out of sight: it went up very regularly and with a great swiftness. As soon as it was out of sight, 2. more cannon were fired from the Ecole Militaire to announce it. This discovery is a very important one, and if it succeeds it may become very useful to mankind.
1. The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne, had made the first successful unmanned balloon flight on 5 June 1783 (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-28

Aug. 28th. Thursday.

The Journal de Paris of this day, says a great deal about the flying globe. It speaks of it as follows.
“L'experience ingenieuse que M. M. de Montgolfier ont fait à Annonay interesse assés pour qu'on ne soit pas surpris de l'empressement qu'on a mis à la repeter. A peine la souscription qui devoit en faciliter les moyens fut elle ouverte par M. Faujas de Saint Fond1 et deux ou trois de ses amis, que le Public s'empressa de la remplir. Des Princes, des Ministres, les Academies, les Gens de Lettres, les Artistes envoyerent leur souscription; et l'ardeur generale prouva que si l'on présentait plus souvent aux Francois des experiences utiles ou brillantes, on leur trouverait le zele qu'on vante chéz leurs rivaux.”
“M. Faujas fut chargé par l'assemblée des premiers Souscripteurs de diriger l'operation. On doit rendre justice à l'activité, à l'intelligence, à la chaleur qu'il mit a repondre à leur confiance. Il imagina d'employer le taffetas enduit de gomme elastique et l'air inflammable. Le gaz et l'enveloppe dont s'etoient servi M. M. de Montgolfier n'etant pas connus, Mr. Faujas instruit que M. M. Robert, jeunes Mecaniciens du premier merite, possedaient le secret de dissoudre la gomme elastique, eut recours à leur talent, à leurs lumieres. Mr. Charles2 voulut bien se preter et contribuer aux diverses experiences qu'on fit chéz lui.
Jusqu'alors on n'avoit observé l'air inflammable que dans les pistolets de Volta, dans des bouteilles de gomme elastique, dans des bulles de savon; il etait à craindre qu'un grand volume de matiere aussi subtile ne donnat des resultats dangereux. Il parut { 189 } prudent de n'assembler le Public qu'aprés quelques essais: ils furent faits, et tranquiliserent.
Le vingt trois, la machine s'eleva jusqu'au dessus des toits. L'affluence du peuple indiqua quelle serait sa curiosité le jour de l'experience. On craignit que les barrieres du terrain de M. M. Perrier ne fussent trop foibles: cette sage consideration fit preferer le Champ de Mars. La nuit du 25 au 26. M. M. Robert et Mr. Charles ont poussé le zele jusqu'à se charger de porter et de veiller eux mêmes la machine.
L'operation indiquée a eu lieu hier a cinq heures précises. Une mêche allumée a donné le signal, et deux coups de canon ont annoncé au Public le moment de l'experience; Ils avoient aussi pour object d'avertir les Observateurs, placés a differentes stations. Aussitôt aprés le signal, le Globe s'est élevé, et au bout de quelques minutes il a disparu. Deux autres coups de canon ont annoncé ce dernier moment, Le nuage qui eclipsait le Globe s'est dissipé, on la vu de nouveau. Son petit volume apparent a fait juger qu'il etait à une hauteur considerable, et la circonstance du mauvais tems en aura sans doute rendu l'appreciation difficile. Des applaudissemens réitérés on êtê de nouvelles preuves de l'interet du Public. On prie les personnes qui trouveront cette machine d'en donner avis au Bureau de ce Journal et d'en constater l'etat autant qu'il sera possible.
Toute la gloire de cette decouverte appartient à M. M. de Montgolfier; cette experience n'a été faite, que pour la constater. Les Souscripteurs se croiront trop heureux si leur exemple excite a servir les Sciences et les Arts, en facilitant des épreuves trop couteuses pour être faites par de simple particuliers.
Des esprits paresseux fatiguent de cette question: A quoi tout cela mene 't'il? On prendra la liberté d'ajouter à ce qu'on leur a deja repondu, que le Sage ne presente les calculs de son imagination qu'aprés les avoir appuyés d'experiences qu'on n'a eu ni le tems ni la facilité de faire à l'aide du Globe aérostratique.”
The following verses were also in the Journal de Paris of this day.
Sur le Globe Ascendant.3
1. Barthélemy Faujas de Saint Fond, geologist and traveler (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
2.  Jacques Alexandre César Charles, physicist and aeronaut, who, with the Montgolfiers, tested a hydrogen-filled balloon at Champ de Mars on 2 Aug. and took part in manned experiments several months later (same).
3. There follows a 62-line poem, omitted here, by Paul Philippe Gudin de la Brenellierie, dramatist, essayist, and occasional poet (same).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0009-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-08-29

Aug 29th. Friday.1

The Journal de Paris of this day, speaks as follows of the flying globe.
“Nous venons d'apprendre que le Ballon, aprés avoir voyagé pendant trois quarts d'heure dans les regions de l'air et hors de la vue, est tombé à Gonesse, distant de Paris de quatres lieues; l'on y a reconnu une ouverture produite par l'explosion qui a dû se faire, lorsque ce Globe a atteint un air qui, lui opposant moins de resistance, a permis au gaz inflammable de réagir à son tour contre l'air atmosphérique. Cet accident ne seroit certainement pas arrivé, et l'on auroit eu le plaisir de jouir plus longtems de cette superbe experience et d'y appliquer les calculs, si l'on ne l'avait pas rempli d'une trop grande quantité de gaz. Plusieurs Savans Academiciens, et M. Faujas de S. Fond lui même etoient d'avis, avant l'operation de ne pas remplir le ballon en entier; mais une circonstance particuliere n'ayant pas permis à ces Messieurs dans l'enceinte, le ballon a été remplir sans combinaison et sans methode, et c'est ce qui a occasionné cet accident, qu'il serait injuste d'attribuer a M. Faujas de St. Fond, ni même à M. M. Robert. Lon doit dire aussi que le Public a été trés étonné de ce qu'on n'a pas admis dans cette même enceinte M. de Montgolfier que le voeu general y appellait, et que tout ce qu'il y a de plus illustre dans la Nation desiroit de voir.”
1. In D/JQA/7 for this day, JQA has written: “Opéra Alexandre aux Indes et la Rosiere ballet,” references to Étienne Morel de Chefdeville's Alexandre aux Indes, Paris, 1783, with music by Jean Nicholas Le Froid de Méreaux; and Maximilien Joseph Léopold Philippe Gardel, La rosière, Paris, 1783, which were performed that day at the Académie Royale de Music (Brenner, Bibliographical List; Journal de Paris, 29 Aug.).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-02

September. 2d. 1783.

Dined at Auteuil. French Comedy: le Joueur et le Retour imprévu.1
1. Jean François Regnard, Le joueur, Paris, 1697, and Le retour imprévu, Paris, 1700 (Brenner, Bibliographical List; Cioranescu, Bibliographic du dix-septième siècle).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-03

3.

Signature of the Definitive Treaty.1
1. Unable to make any appreciable progress with their negotiations since the signing of the Preliminary Treaty on 30 Nov. 1782, the British ministry and American commissioners finally accepted those preliminary articles, with some changes, { 191 } at Hartley's lodgings in the Hôtel d'York on this day (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:142; Richard B. Morris, The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence, N.Y., 1965, p. 461–465, 548, 552).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-04

4.

Dined at Mr. Hartley's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-07

7.

C. Ital: Blaise et Babet,1 a la Clochette.2
1. See entry for 25 Aug., note 1 (above).
2. La clochette, Paris, 1766, by Louis Anseaume, with music by Egide Romuald Duni (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-09

9.

Diné à Passi. C. Ital: Jeannot et Colin, l'heureuse Erreur et les Vendangeurs.1
1. Florian, Jeannot et Colin, Paris, 1780; Joseph Patrat, L'heureuse erreur, Paris, 1783; Pierre Antoine Augustin de Piis and Pierre Yves Barré, Les vendangeurs, ou, les deux baillis, Paris, 1780 (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-10

10.

Diné à Auteuil. Eclipse totale de la Lune.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-11

11.

C. Ital: Blaise et Babet1 et Isabelle et Gertrude.2
1. This was the third time JQA had seen this musical comedy in less than three weeks.
2. Isabelle et Gertrude, ou, les sylphes supposés, Paris, 1765, by Charles Simon Favart, with music by Adolphe Blaise (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-13

13.

C. Fr: Mercure galant et Partie de Chasse de Henri 4.1
1. Edme Boursault, Le mercure galant, ou, la comédie sans titre, Paris, 1679; Charles Collé, La partie de chasse de Henri IV, Paris, 1766 (Cioranescu, Bibliographie du dix-septième siècle; Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-14

14.

Fete de S: Cloud.1 Diné entre là et Auteuil. M: T——r parti.2
{ 192 }
1. An annual festival held on the grounds of the royal palace of St. Cloud (Journal de Paris, 4 Sept. 1785).
2. John Thaxter left for Philadelphia, carrying with him the Definitive Treaty with Great Britain, and the original Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the Netherlands, the latter signed at The Hague on 8 Oct. 1782 (JA to Benjamin Rush, and to the President of Congress [Elias Boudinot], both 14 Sept., LbC, Adams Papers; Hunter Miller, ed., Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America, 8 vols., Washington, 1931–1948, 2:59–90).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-16

16.

Varietés Amusantes Foire St. Laurent.1
1. An annual fair held from July to September (Jacques Antoine Dulaure, Histoire civile, physique et morale de Paris . . ., 10 vols., rev. and corr., Paris, 1825, 8:199–203; Almanach royal, 1783, p. 628).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-20

Saturday Septr. 20th.

The enthusiasm of the People of Paris for the flying Globes is very great, several Propositions have been made from Persons, who to enjoy the honour of having been the first Travellers through the air, are willing to go up in them and run ten risques to one of breaking their necks: one of the queerest propositions, is the following one taken from the Journal de Paris of Yesterday.
À Messieurs les Navigateurs Aérieus.
Je partage avec vous Messieurs, le désir de voyager dans les airs, et je crois devoir vous faire part de la premiere idée que m'a fait naitre l'elevation du Globe Aérostatique au Champ de Mars. Je desirerois en qualité d'Amateur des Beaux Arts que la grace de la machine fut jointe à la facilité des mouvemens, et à la sureté du voyageur; cela m'a fait croire que la forme la plus heureuse seroit celle du Cheval Pegasse, d'une grandeur beaucoup plus forte, sans doute que Nature.
Son corps servirait de recipient au gaz; sa tête, les crins en avant, feroit l'office de la proue; ses ailes modereraient l'elevation et determineroient la vitesse; sa queue seroit le gouvernail; et les quatre pieds, dans l'attitude d'un cheval qui galope, chargés dans leurs extrémités d'un corps pesant, proportionné au reste de la machine, serviroient de lest, et assuréroient au Cavalier Aérien une attitude constante. Tout seroit construit avec une legere carcasse de baleine recouverte d'un taffetas enduit de gomme élastique.
On dévine aisément la place d'une soupape qui s'ouvrant à la { 193 } volonté du Navigateur, laisseroit echapper promptement, par le rapprochement de ses genoux, une portion du gaz et tempereroit la legerete du Cheval dans le cas ou il voudroit s'emporter par de lá les nués.
Je joins ici un Croquis de mon idee
J'ai l'honneur d'être &c. περσηΪθ.1
Note des Redacteurs
Ayant reçu, de la part de l'Amateur, la planche gravée, nous avons cru faire plaisir à nos Souscripteurs, en eu faisant tirer le nombre d'exemplaires suffisant pour joindre à chaque feuille de ce Journal.”
This is nearly a Copy of the print which was with the Journal de Paris.2
As this discovery is a very important one, it is worth while to collect every good thing that has any Relation to it, the following are some verses upon the Subject, also printed in the Journal de Paris of yesterday.
Les Prodiges des Sciences et des Arts.3
Yesterday a ballon Aërostatique, was sent up from Versailles, the following is the account given of it in the Journal de Paris of this day.
“L'experience dont nous avons parlé dans nôtre feuille d'avant hier a été faite hier dans la premiere Cour du Chateau de Versailles, au milieu d'un concours prodigieux de Spectateurs. On tira une premiere boite à une heure aprés midi, pour annoncer le moment de l'introduction du gaz dans la Machine; une seconde boite indiqua celui ou elle fut remplie, sous les ordres de M de Montgolfier. Cette operation dura dix minutes ou environ. Une troisieme boite annonça l'instant ou l'on coupa les cordes qui la retenaient pour la livrer à elle même. Elle s'enleva aussitôt, et produisit sur tous les spectateurs une espece d'admiration par son volume imposant. On avoit attaché à la partie inferieure de ce Ballon, un panier d'osier, dans lequel etoient un mouton un canard et un coq, et au dessous, un barometre. L'ascension de cette machine paroit avoir été d'environ deux cent toises; le vent d'ouest l'a forcé à prendre un cours horisontal qui a dure vingt-sept secondes, aprés quoi elle a commence à decliner plus sensiblement, et a fini par tomber dans le bois de Vaucresson, au lieu appellé le Carrefour-Maréchal, distant d'une demi lieue du point de son depart. M. Pilatre de Rozier, y est arrivé le premier; il a trouvé le Ballon separé du panier ou { 194 } etoient les animaux par un amas de bois coupé. Le mouton mangeoit dans sa cage; le canard et le coq paroissoient n'avoir point souffert, et le baromêtre etoit renversé sans fracture.”
1. That is, descended from Perseus (Charles Du Fresne Du Canage, Glossarium ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimae Graecitatis..., Lyons, 1688, repr., Graz, 1958).
2. Pasted into D/JQA/8 on p. 30 is a pencil sketch, approximately 3″ × 4″, traced from the original printed one, of a winged horse and rider which appeared as an insert in the Journal de Paris. The original is laid in between p. 30 and 31.
3. Here follows a forty-line poem, omitted here, by Michel de Cubières (known as Cubières-Palmézeaux) (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-22

Monday Septr. 22th.

This morning (as my Father has been for some days very ill and the Country air being thought necessary for him) we removed from Paris to Auteuil at Mr. Barclay's.1 The flying Globes are still much in Vogue: they have advertised a small one of eight inches diameter, at 6 livres a piece without air and 8 livres with it, but it has been carried so far that several accidents have happened to persons who have attempted to make inflammable air, which is a dangerous operation, so that government have prohibited them.
1. Less than three weeks after the signing of the Definitive Treaty, the Adamses moved from Paris into the lodgings of Thomas Barclay at Auteuil so that JA might recover from a debilitating fever. They remained there until 6 Oct. (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:142–144; entry for 10 Aug., note 2, above).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-24

24.

Mme. Ridley accouchée.1
1. Ann Richardson, whom Matthew Ridley married in England in 1775, gave birth to a son, Lucius, on this day. They were also living in the house of the Comte de Rouault at Auteuil to which they had moved for the sake of Mrs. Ridley's health (Herbert E. Klingelhofer, “Matthew Ridley's Diary during the Peace Negotiations of 1782,” WMQ, 3d ser., 20:95 [Jan. 1963]; Matthew Ridley, Journals, 24 Sept. 1783, MHi:Matthew Ridley Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-26

26.

Diné chés M: Franklin.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0010-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-09-30

30.

Départ de M. Barclay.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-17

October. 17. 1783.

Diné chéz M: l'Abbé de Chalut.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-20

Monday October 20th. 1783.1

Left Auteuil, with my Father, for London,2 at about 9 o'clock in the morning; rode 9 ½ posts as far as St. Just and stopp'd for the night. We dined at Chantilly.
1. First entry in D/JQA/9, which covers the period 20 Oct.–6 Dec., but lacks entries for 27 Oct.; 5, 19, 22, 27–28 Nov.; and 3–4 Dec. This Diary booklet, measuring approximately 4½″ × 7¼″, consists of nine sheets of folded paper to create 36 pages, only 17 of which were eventually used by JQA. The booklet is accompanied by a thinner sheet of paper, folded over like the booklet, though somewhat shorter and wider, which is laid in at the end of diary entries for 1783. With some gaps, it contains entries for 8 Aug.–11 Sept. 1784.
2. While resting in Auteuil, JA gradually recovered from his fever, but was still “extremely emaciated and weak.” He was urged by his friends and doctor to travel to England and take the waters at Bath. By mid-October he had decided upon a stay there of six weeks. During all this time JQA kept up with some of his studies. He began translating Caesar's Commentaries (M/JQA/44, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 239), probably continued to translate some of Horace's Odes (M/JQA/42, same, Reel No. 237), a task begun under the tutelage of Dumas, and copied various pieces of English poetry from William Enfield's highly popular anthology and elocutionary book, The Speaker, or Miscellaneous Pieces, Selected from the Best English Writers . . ., London, 1774 (M/JQA/43, same, Reel No. 238). Most of his time, however, was probably spent as secretary to his father, who commented that JQA wrote in “a good hand very fast, and is very Steady, to his Pen and his Books” (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:142–144; Book of Abigail and John, p. 364).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-21

Tuesday. 21st.

Set away from St. Just at about 7 ½ o'clock; dined at Amiens; the Capital of the Province of Picardy: stopp'd at Abbeville; after having rode 11. posts.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-22

Wednesday 22d.

In our Carriage at 6 o'clock, went 9 posts before dinner. Dined at Boulogne. Arrived at Calais at about 7 ½ o'clock having rode 13. posts. Lodged at Monsr. Dessein's: Hotel d'Angleterre.1
1. Pierre Quillacq, or M. Dessein (or Dessin) as he was called, gained a great reputation from Laurence Sterne's allusions to him and his hotel in A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (AA2, Jour. and Corr., 1:8; A Sentimental Journey, ed. Gardner D. Stout, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1967, P. 87, 336–338).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1783-10-23 - 1783-10-24

Thursday 23d [–Friday. Octr. 24th.].

This morning at 10 o'clock we went on board the Packet Boat; for Dover. We got out of the harbour with a great deal of difficulty as the wind was quite Contrary, but as soon as we were out a Calm came on which lasted till about 11. o'clock at night. Some wind then arose which brought us near the Port of Dover: at about 2 in the morning; but the wind being very strong; we were obliged to go on board a Pilot Boat: which put us on shore at about 3: in the morning of Friday. Octr. 24th.
Stay'd all day at Dover; we went up on the top of one of the cliffs: they are extremely high: the weather was somewhat foggy, but upon a clear day; the view must be very extensive, out at sea; and the coasts of France (which are about 20 miles distant) must be very easily seen; and make a fine appearance. We saw upon this hill several sheep; much larger, than any I have ever seen in France, owing probably to the manner of keeping: the Land appears more covered with verdure, and richer than that of France; this, my father thinks, is entirely owing to the different cultivation, as the soil seems to be the same here as that on the other side.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-25

Saturday. Octr. 25.

We set away from Dover in a post chaise and pair; went through Canterbury; the chief see of all England. We were told there was a curious1 Cathedral there but had not time to go to see it. We dined at Rochester: a considerable city: 43 miles distant from Dover. We arrived at Dartford at about 4 ½ and stopp'd there for the Night.
1. JQA's probable connotation here is “interesting” or “noteworthy” (OED).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-26

Sunday Octr. 26th.

We came away from Dartford at about 8. o'clock; and arrived at London at about 11: the distance from Dover is. 72, miles: we took up Lodgings at Osborn's Adelphi Hotel John Street; in the Strand.1
1. Osborne's Hotel was in the Adelphi Buildings, extending from the Strand to the Thames, which were constructed in 1768 by the Adam brothers and used as dwellings and warehouses; John Street, off the Strand, was created by this development (Wheatley, London Past and Present; Walter Harrison, A New and Univer• { 197 } sal History, Description and Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, The Borough of Southwark, and Their Adjacent Parts . . ., London, 1775, p. 525 and illustration facing that page).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-28

Tuesday. 28th.

The forenoon we went to see the Monuments in Westminster Abbey: we saw a great Collection of tombs of Kings, Heroes, Statesmen, and Poets. There are some very ancient monuments: a number of figures in wax and the chairs in which the kings and Queens of England are crowned: they are said to be more than 1400. years old: we had not time to examine very attentively this building: and shall probably pay it another visit: At 6 o'clock. P.M. I went to the Drury Lane Thêatre, where was represented the Tragedy of Hamlet, with the Citozen.1 I must confess; I do not think they act Tragedy so well here as in Paris: the Tragedy was not acted, as I expected it would be: there is I think something like affectation; throughout the actors. They lay an emphasis upon almost every word; yet in some places they speak, both too low and too slow. For Instance, when the Ghost first appears to Hamlet he starts and cries out

“Angels and ministers of Grace defend us,” &c.

and speaks a speech of about 20 lines: which the actor is <above> full a quarter of an hour delivering; continually in the same situation; which makes the action of the stage languish a great deal. As for the small piece they play'd that, I think as well as they do in France, but if I judge by this one play they do not equal the French in Tragedy.
1. The Citizen, by Arthur Murphy, was published in 1763 (Biographia Dramatica).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-29

Wednesday 29th.

Took private lodgings; at Mr. Stockdale's,1 opposite Burlington House Piccadilly.
1. John Stockdale, London publisher and bookseller, became a long-time friend and correspondent of JA and later of JQA. He began shortly hereafter to publish works of American authors, including a reprint of John Almon's edition of JA's Novanglus letters, History of the Dispute with America . . ., in London, 1784 (DNB; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:149, 189, 313–314).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-30

Thursday 30th.

This forenoon I went with some Gentlemen and Ladies to dine out of town. We pass'd over Westminster Bridge and Black Friars, and went through Islington, over High gate hill, to Ham[p]ste[a]d; where we dined. The appearance of the Land on this [road?] is extremely rich, and at this time of year, the verdure is nearly as great, as it is in France in the Month of May. The Prospect is said to be the finest near London. It is very beautiful. We dined at the assembly house in Hamsted, and returned into Town by a different Road from that out of which we went.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0011-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-10-31

Friday Octr. 31st.

Dined at Mr. Vaughan's:1 in the evening we went to the Drury Lane Theatre, where Isabella, or the Fatal marriage and the Irish Widow,2 were represented. Mrs. Siddons;3 supposed to be the first Tragick performer in Europe, play'd the part of Isabella. A young Lady, in the next Box to where we were, was so much affected by it as to be near fainting and was carried out. I am told that every Night Mrs. Siddons performs; this happens, to some persons. I never heard of anything like it, in France: Whether this proves there is more Sensibility here, that the Tragedies are deeper, or that they are better performed, is a problem. Perhaps all those Reason's may be given.
1. Probably William or Benjamin Vaughan, sons of Samuel Vaughan, a London merchant, and Sarah, daughter of Benjamin Hallowell of Boston. The younger Vaughans were sympathetic to the American cause, and several later resettled in America; Benjamin, as secretary to Lord Shelburne, was instrumental in obtaining concessions for the American commissioners in 1782 (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:54; Early Recollections of Robert Hallowell Gardiner, 1782–1864, Hallowell, Maine, 1936, p. 118; entries for 6 Nov. 1783, 2 Oct. 1788, below).
2. David Garrick, Isabella; or, The Fatal Marriage, London, 1757; and The Irish Widow, London, 1772, also by Garrick (Biographia Dramatica).
3. Mrs. Sarah Siddons had made her triumphal return to the London stage the previous year in this role (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-01

Saturday November 1. 1783.

This morning I went with Mr. W. Vaughan to see the Paintings of Mr. Pine,1 and Mr. Copley, and Sir Joshua Reynolds. The Death of the Earl of Chatham, by Mr. Copley, is the most Remarkable of the Paintings We saw; it is very Beautiful. We went also to see Mrs. Wright's waxwork.2 Dined at Mr. Bingham's.3
{ 199 }
1. Robert Edge Pine was born in London and emigrated to Philadelphia in 1784 with the intention of executing an ambitious plan of American historical paintings and portraits of Revolutionary leaders (DNB).
2. Mrs. Patience Lovell Wright, the American wax modeler and Revolutionary spy for America, who moved to England in 1772 and opened a popular waxworks in London (DAB).
3. William Bingham, Philadelphia banker, land speculator, and later U.S. senator. Bingham had come to Europe, for business and pleasure, with his wife, Ann Willing, and remained there until 1786, seeing much of the Adamses at The Hague, Paris, and London. JQA found Bingham “Very ignorant, very vain and very empty” (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:149; entry for 18 April 1785, below).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-02

Sunday Novr. 2. 1783.

I went this forenoon to take a view of St. Paul's Church, which is the largest, and most magnificent Protestant church now standing and excepting St. Peter's at Rome the largest in the World. But we could not get into it, because on Sundays it is open only in Service time; and we were there between services, so we saw only the outside of it. It was built of a whitish stone, but the lower Parts of it are now of a browny, smoaky Colour, occasioned by the smoke of the City; they say this gives it a Venerable appearance; but for my Part I think it would look much better in its first Colour. Several gentlemen dined with us.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-03

Monday Novr. 3. 1783.

Went in the Evening to the theatre, Drury Lane where Measure for Measure, with the Apprentice1 were represented. Mrs. Siddons play'd the part of Isabella in measure for measure, because it had been said, she could not speak Shakespeare's lines; and that she could not play in Comedy; for the first part she prov'd the contrary; as she play'd extremely well, but the critics say she has not yet play'd in Comedy; as the Character of Isabella has nothing Comick in it; in this play; and the piece itself Notwithstanding it's ending well, being more a Tragedy than a Comedy.
1. By Arthur Murphy, London, 1756 (Biographia Dramatica).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-04

Tuesday Novr. 4th.

This forenoon we went with Messrs. Jay, Bingham, and W. Vaughan, to see the Holophusicon, or Sir Ashton Lever's1 Museum; there is an immense Collection, of all sorts of Natural History; But the most Compleat part is that of the birds, of { 200 } which he has between three and four thousand; they are extremely Curious; and worth more examination than we had time to give to them. But besides this he has a Room full of curiosities all collected in the Countries which were discovered in the last Voyage of Captn. Cook. There are a Number of their Idols made of Wood: others of feathers of bird: and also a kind of Robe which their Chiefs put on upon certain occasions, made of birds feathers, their cloths and their war instruments, and their fishhooks with the ropes. All these things are very curious, and for the most part, they are very ingeniously done, and show those People had arrived at a certain degree of Civilization. Their Ropes are made as well as any in Europe, and their fishhooks tho' of stone are very well made. From Sir Ashton Lever's we went to the British Museum: which is much more extensive, and Comprehends all sorts of Curiosities. 1. a Library of printed books. 2. a Library of Manuscript Books. 3. Antiquities. 4. Coins and Medals and 5. Natural History. For this Last article, Sir Ashton Lever's Collection is much more perfect: but among the others' there are some very curious things, particularly in the Manuscripts. We saw some original Letters of Henry the 8th. and the ensuing Kings and Queens of England to Charles the 1st. Letters also of Oliver Cromwell, and Pope's first Rough transcript of the Iliad. There are many more very Curious things in this Place, but we had not time to examine them attentively.
1. Sir Ashton Lever, English collector and naturalist, founded his museum of natural history, the Holophusikon, in Leicester Square in 1774 (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-06

Thursday Novr. 6th. 1783.

This day, being Term day,1 we went, with Mr. Jennings, and saw the procession of the Lawyers, and Judges to Westminster Hall; and we saw the four Courts; the Kings Bench, Common Pleas, Chancery, and Exchequer, all sitting. Dined at M: W. Vaughan's.
1. That is, the beginning of Michaelmas Term, one of four yearly sessions of English courts of law.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-07

Friday Novr. 7th.

In the forenoon I went with M: W. Vaughan; and saw the Pantheon;1 a place of public entertainment; it is only remarkable for { 201 } one Room which is very large and elegant. We went also to see the Cathedral of St Paul's; the largest Protestant Church, extant. It is very magnificent on the outside; but the inside is by no means extraordinary; there is one thing which they say is to be met with no where else. It is a gallery which is about 100 yards in circumference. If a Person whispers in it: what he says is as distinctly heared on the opposite side as if the person was near. It is called the whispering gallery: we went up to the top of the Church, from which we had a very fine view of the City. From thence went to the academy of arts in the Adelphi; to see a Series of Paintings, by a Mr. Barry; representing the Progress of Society, in six different Pictures.2
Dined at Mr. Copley's.
1. Originally a theater and public promenade, the Pantheon on Oxford Street was redesigned by James Wyatt and reopened in 1772; the renovated building was noted chiefly for its promenade in the rotunda (Wheatley, London Past and Present).
2. JQA has confused the Royal Academy of Arts, whose exhibition room was in the New Somerset House, up the Strand from the Adelphi Buildings, with the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, which was located at the Adelphi. James Barry's major work, the Progress of Society, which portrayed in six pictures illustrating the cultivation of “human faculties” in the civilization of mankind, was exhibited in the Great Room of the Society of Arts (Walter Harrison, A New and Universal History Description and Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, The Borough of Southwark and Their Adjacent Parts . . ., London, 1775, p. 525; Wheatley, London Past and Present, 3:272; The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole's Correspondence, ed. W. S. Lewis and others, New Haven, 1937– ,29:33; Ralph N. Wornum, ed., Lectures on Painting by the Royal Academicians, Barry, Opie and Fusel, London, 1848, p. 42–43).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-08

Saturday Novr. 8. 1783.

Went with Mr. West1 to see the Queen's Palace called Buckingham House; from its having been built by Villiers: Duke of Buckingham;2 in the first Chamber, are the famous Cartoons of Raphael; which were Painted on Paper to be taken on Tapestry; at Brussels; there are 7. of them; they represented several of the Acts of the apostles; the name of the Painter makes it unnecessary to say, in what manner they are executed. In another Room we saw a Number of Paintings of Vandyk, among which was a Picture of Charles the 1st. on horseback; a striking likeness and an admirable Picture. Another Room full of Pictures of Rubens —a Room decorated by Paintings of Mr. West: among which are, the death of General Wolfe, of the Chevalier Bayard; and of Epaminondas, Regulus coming out of the Senate, and Hannibal, swearing eternal enmity to the Romans.3 The Kings Library, in { 202 } which there are 90. folio volumes of Maps. His private model chamber—this is very curious. There are the models of all the ships in the Kings service, of all the dock yards, and fortifications: and an exact model of the fortress of Gibraltar. These are the Principal curiosities in this House; tho' there are a great many other things in it, worth seeing. Dined at Mr. Roger's.4
1. Benjamin West, the leading American-born neoclassical painter.
2. Buckingham House was built by John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham and of Normanby, not George Villiers, Second Duke of Buckingham. It was subsequently sold to George III in 1762 (Compton Mackenzie, The Queen's House, London, 1953, p. 10–12).
3. The West paintings, commissioned by George III, are listed in John Galt, The Life of Benjamin West, London, 1816–1820, repr., Gainesville, Fla., 1960, p. 207.
4. Daniel Denison Rogers, a Boston merchant, who was traveling in Europe with his wife “in Hopes of reestablishing her Health” (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:348; Samuel Cooper to JA, 22 July 1782, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-09

Sunday [9th.]

Dined at Dr. Jebbs.1
1. John Jebb, doctor of medicine, encyclopedic scholar, and a thoroughgoing supporter of America from the outset of the quarrel between England and her colonies. JA described him as a man “for whom I have the highest Esteem; as one of the best Citizens of the little Commonwealth of the just upon Earth” (Caroline Robbins, The Eighteenth-Century Commonwealthman ..., Cambridge, 1959, p. 370–372; JA to John Stockdale, 31 Jan. 1784, LbC, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-10

Monday Novr. 10th.

Went to the Covent Garden Theatre. King Henry VIII. and the Lord Mayor's day, or a flight to Lapland; with the Grand Procession. Lord Mayor's day.1
1. The day of the lord mayor of London's inauguration, held usually every 9 Nov., is marked with a pageant known as the Lord Mayor's Show. JQA saw Lord Mayor's Day; or, A Flight from Lapland, a speaking pantomime, originally produced in 1782, representing this show, with songs and dialogue added by John O'Keeffe. The “Grand Procession” was the afterpiece, advertised as “an Historical Procession of the Several Companies with their respective Pageants” (Biographia Dramatica; Hogan, ed., London Stage, 1660–1800).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-11

Tuesday Novr. 11th.

This day the Parliament met for the first Time; the Prince of Wales1 took his seat in the House of Peers, as duke of Cornwall, the King also made his most gracious speech from the Throne: All the Peers were in their Robes which are scarlet and white; the Kings, and the Prince of Wales's were of purple velvet.
{ 203 }
1. George Augustus Frederick (1762–1830), Prince Regent, 1811–1820, and afterward King George IV.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-12

Wednesday Novr. 12th. 1783.

Went to the Drury Lane Theatre; the pieces represented were, the West Indian and Fortunatus.1
1. The West Indian, London, 1771, by Richard Cumberland; Fortunatus, an unpublished pantomime, by Henry Woodward, originally produced in 1753 (Biographia Dramatica).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-13

Thursday Novr. 13th.

Dined at Mr. J. Johnson.1 In the evening we went to see the Transactions of the Royal Society; but unluckily we happened to come on a very barren Night: nothing was read, except a dry, unphilosophical account of the late Earthquake in Calabria:2 after which we went and supp'd with the Club at the London Coffee House.3
1. Joshua Johnson (1742–1802), Maryland merchant, who undertook various commissions for the congress and his native state during and after the Revolution, and eventually served as U.S. consul in London, 1790–1797. He was the father of Louisa Catherine, JQA's future wife, who was eight years old at this time. On JQA's first trip to Europe he had met Johnson in Nantes, where the Johnsons were then living (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:300).
2. “Account of the Earthquake in Calabria, March 28, 1783, In a Letter from Count Francesco Ippolito to Sir W[illiam] Hamilton. From the Italian,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London . . ., abridged edn., ed. Charles Hutton and others, 15 (1809):373, 383–386.
3. Styled by Franklin, “the Club of Honest Whigs,” it met fortnightly on Thursdays at the London Coffeehouse, Ludgate Hill. Its members were primarily dissenting clergymen and men of scientific interests, and it was frequented by visiting Americans (Verner W. Crane, “The Club of Honest Whigs: Friends of Science and Liberty,” WMQ, 3d ser., 23:210–233 [April 1966]).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-14

Friday Novr. 14th.

Dined with Mr. Grierson. In the evening; we went to see Hughes's Royal Circus, or exercises of equitation, which are not equal to those performed by Astley at Paris which I saw some time agone.1
1. Both Charles Hughes and Philip Astley were English equestrian performers who set up rival shows (Raymond Toole-Scott, Circus and Allied Arts: A World Bibliography, 1500–1970, 4 vols., Derby, England, 1958–1971, 4:95; DNB).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-15

Saturday Novr. 15th.

Dined at Mr. West's. In the evening I went to the Covent Garden Theatre, and saw Douglas, and the Poor Soldier:1 Mrs. { 204 } Crawford2 appeared in the Character of Lady Randolph in Douglas.
1. Douglas, London, 1757, by John Home; The Poor Soldier, a comic opera by John O'Keeffe, first produced on 4 Nov. (Biographia Dramatica; Hogan, ed., London Stage, 1660–1800).
2. That is, Mrs. Ann Spranger Barry, née Street, whose Lady Randolph in Douglas was regarded as one of her two greatest characterizations. At this time she was known by her stage name, Mrs. Crawford (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-16

Sunday Novr. 16th.

Dined at Mr. Hartley's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-17

Monday Novr. 17th.

Dined at Mr. W. Vaughan's: spent the evening at Mr. Fitch's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-18

Tuesday Novr. 18th.

Dined at Mr. Oswald's.1
1. Richard Oswald, the British peace commissioner who negotiated and signed the preliminary articles of peace with the United States on 30 Nov. 1782 (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:81–82).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-20

Thursday Novr. 20th.

Dined at Mr. Rogers's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-21

Friday Novr. 21st.

Dined with Mr. Fitch at the St. Albans Tavern.1
1. The Tavern, on St. Albans Street, Pall Mall, was renowned for political and fashionable dinners and meetings (Wheatley, London Past and Present, 1:12).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-23

Sunday. Novr. 23d.

Dined with Mr. Champion.1
1. Probably Richard Champion, a Bristol ceramist and close friend of American Commissioner Henry Laurens after his release from the Tower. In 1782 Burke had Champion appointed to government office, in which capacity he established contact with other Americans. In 1784 he anonymously published Considerations on the Present Situation of Great Britain and the United States of America . . ., urging free trade in American-West Indian commerce; a presentation copy is among JA's books at MB (Dixon Wecter, “An Unpublished Letter of George Washington,” S.C. Hist. and Geneal. Mag., 39:151–156 [Oct. 1938]; David Duncan Wallace, The Life of Henry Laurens . . ., N.Y., 1915, p. 390–391; Catalogue of JA's Library).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-24

Monday Novr. 24th.

Genl. Roberdeau, and his Son1 dined with us. In the Evening, we went with Mr. West to the Academy of Painting sculpture and Architecture:2 we first went into a Room where there was a naked man standing and about 25 or 30 students taking his figure, either in drawing, or in plaister: afterwards we went and heard a very good Lecture upon Anatomy: these Lectures are Read every monday evening. After the Lecture we went into a Room, where were a Number of Casts from the most Remarkable Antique Statues. Some of the finest of which were 1. Apollo Pythonem Jaculans, Apollo is represented as just having shot his arrow at the serpent Pytho: it is a very much admired Statue. 2dly. the Gladiator Repellens. This Piece is very famous and casts of it are very Common. 3dly. the Gladiator moriens, where he is represented as sitting down, to die after receiving the Wound. 4th. An Hercules: or rather a fragment of an Hercules for the Head and neck, both the arms, and both the legs are lost—what Remains is said to be very fine by Connoisseurs. 5th. a Venus de Medicis. This is so well known all over the world as needs nothing to be said of it. 6th. a Laocoon which is perhaps, the finest of them all. It is supposed to be about 2500 years old; and Virgil is said to have taken his beautiful description from it. (Aeneid Book 2. verse. 200, et seq:)3 The institution was made by the present king and, he made a present of Somerset House a very grand building to the Royal, and Antiquarian Societies4 and to the academy of Painting &c.
1. Daniel Roberdeau, Philadelphia merchant and member of the Continental Congress, 1777–1779, who spent 1783–1784 traveling in Europe with his eldest son, Isaac. The Roberdeau and Adams families remained close friends for three generations (Adams Family Correspondence, 2:352–353; CFA, Diary, 2:132, 133, 135; 4:130–131 and passim).
2. The Royal Academy of Arts.
3. Verses 201–227 (Virgil, Works, in Latin and English . . ., ed. Joseph Warton, 3d edn., 4 vols., London, 1778, 2:150–153, one of several editions JQA owned at this time, and now at MQA).
4. The Royal Society of London for the Advancement of Natural Science, chartered by Charles II in 1663 and given apartments in the new Somerset House in 1782, and the Society of Antiquaries of London, chartered by George II in 1751 and given apartments in 1781 (Wheatley, London Past and Present).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-25

Tuesday Novr. 25th.

Went to the Covent Garden Theatre, and saw the Castle of Andalusia, with the Devil upon two Sticks.1
{ 206 }
1. Castle of Andalusia, by John O'Keeffe, with music by Samuel Arnold, first performed in 1782; and Samuel Foote's highly successful comedy first produced in 1768 (Biographia Dramatica; Hogan, ed., London Stage, 1660–1800).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-26

Wednesday Novr. 26th.

Went again to the Covent Garden Theatre, and saw the Magic Picture with the Quaker.1
1. The Magic Picture, London, 1783, by Henry Bate Dudley; The Quaker, London, 1777, by Charles Dibdin (Biographia Dramatica; DNB).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0024

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-29

Saturday Novr. 29th.

In the morning at about 9 o'clock, set out for Richmond which is 10. miles from London, and said to be the most Beautiful Spot in England, and perhaps in Europe. It is upon a hill, which Commands a vast plain in which Plain the River Thames runs winding about for a great ways <in the midst> of the Meadows, which even at this Time are covered with verdure.1 Returned to Town to Dine.
1. The purpose of the excursion, JA later recalled, was to visit former Massachusetts governor Thomas Pownall and Pennsylvania proprietor Richard Penn (Diary and Autobiography, 3:151).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0012-0025

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-11-30

Sunday. Novr. 30th.

Dined at Mr. Bingham's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0013-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-12-01

Monday Decr. 1st. 1783.

This evening I went with Mr. West to the Academy of Painting &c. and had the same entertainment as that of which I spoke last Monday.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0013-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-12-02

Tuesday Decr. 2d.

This day my father dined out; in the evening I went to the Drury Lane Theatre, had the Beaux Stratagem with the Ladies Frolick.1
1. George Farquhar's The Beaux' Strategem, London, 1707; The Ladies' Frolick, London, 1770, by James Love, pseudonym for James Dance (Biographia Dramatica; Allardyce Nicoll, A History of English Drama, 1600–1900, 6 vols., Cambridge, Eng., 1952–1959, 2:322; 3:283).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0013-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-12-05

Friday Decr. 5th. 1783.

In the evening I went to the Covent Garden Theatre, and saw the Merchant of Venice, with Love a la Mode;1 a young Lady appeared for the first Time she play'd upon any Stage in the part of Portia.
1. Love à la Mode, London, 1793, by Charles Macklin, first produced in 1760 (Biographia Dramatica; Hogan, ed., London Stage, 1660–1800).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0005-0013-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1783-12-06

Saturday. Decr. 6th. 1783.

Dined at Mr. W. Vassal's1 at Clapham.
1. William Vassall, once a prominent Bostonian, now a loyalist refugee, whom JA later described as “one of my old friends and clients ... a man of letters and virtues, without one vice that I ever knew or suspected, except garrulity” (Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates, 9:349–359; JA, Works, 10:214–215).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-08

Sunday August 8th. [1784].1

Left London, travelled to Sittingbourne. 43. miles.
1. In the latter part of Dec. 1783, JA and JQA traveled from London to Bath via Oxford, but were unable to remain long at the famous spa because of the unsettling news that the Dutch loan which JA had obtained the previous summer had been overdrawn. Although JA's health had improved little during his short stay in England, he and JQA left London on 2 Jan. 1784 for Amsterdam in order to secure another loan. They arrived at The Hague ten days later, after a long, exhausting, and disagreeable journey across the channel and a difficult trip, partially by foot, across the Dutch islands of Goeree and Over Flackee and then to the mainland by iceboat (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:151–154; JQA to Peter Jay Munro, 13, 16 Jan. 1784, NNMus).
During winter and spring at The Hague, JQA was “wholly devoted to his studies” and giving JA “intire Satisfaction” with his work (Book of Abigail and John, p. 374). In these months JQA completed a 237-page English translation of the Aeneid (M/JQA/45, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 240), a 462-page French translation of Suetonius' Lives of the Twelve Caesars (M/JQA/44, same, Reel No. 239), and a 60-page French translation of Tacitus' Life of Gnaeus Julius Agricola (same).
JQA's studies were interrupted by his trip to London in May 1784. For some time AA had entertained the hope of eventually joining her husband in Europe, but it was not until the completion of the Definitive Treaty and the prospect of termination by congress of JA's commission in the near future that JA wrote and insisted that she and AA2 join him and JQA as soon as they were able to come. Believing that AA and AA2 would take passage on John Callahan's ship, scheduled to sail in April 1784, JA sent JQA to London in May to meet his mother and sister. JQA's trip served a double purpose, as JA also wanted him to visit the House of Commons and the law courts. But as the weeks went on with no sign of the Adams women, JA impatiently recalled his son, remarking that “you have had a Taste of the Eloquence of the Bar and of Parliament: but you will find Livy and Tacitus, more elegant, more profound and Sublime Instructors, as well as Quinctilian Cicero and Demosthenes” (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:156; Book of Abigail and John, p. 363–364; AA to JA, 3 Jan. 1784; Isaac Smith Sr. to JA, 13 March 1784; JQA to JA, 20 May, 1 June 1784; JA { 208 } to JQA, 28 May, 21 June 1784, all in Adams Papers).
In late July, a month after JQA's return to The Hague, he and his father received word that AA and AA2 had arrived in London and were staying at Osborn's Adelphi Hotel. On 30 July, JQA was in London, and within a little more than a week the Adamses were joined by JA (William Vans Murray to JQA, 23 July; JQA to JA, 30 July; JA to JQA, 1 Aug., Adams Papers). The whole family soon left for Paris and Auteuil, where JQA was to remain until the following May, when he returned to America. Throughout the remainder of 1784, JQA continued with his classical studies, making another English translation of Horace's Art of Poetry (M/JQA/45, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 240) and a 253-page English translation of Sallust's History of Catiline (M/JQA/27, same, Reel No. 222); possibly he continued his English translations of Tacitus (M/JQA/45, same, Reel No. 240), whose works he had begun earlier in the year. JQA's scattered and somewhat sketchy diary entries from this point until the end of the year, when he began a more complete day-by-day accounting of his activities, are supplemented in part by AA2's journal.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-09

[9th.]

Monday arrived at Dover and sailed for Calais.1
1. The trip from London to Paris is reported in fuller detail by AA2 (Jour. and Corr., 1:7–14).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-10

[10th.]

Tuesday 5. A. M. arrived at Calais, in the afternoon took Post, and went as far as Boulogne, 4. Posts.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-11

[11th.]

Wednesday went from Boulogne to Amiens.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-12

[12th.]

Thursday, from Amiens to Chantilly.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-13

[13th.]

Friday, visited the curiosities at Chantilly.1 Arrived at Paris.
1. The Adamses visited the seat of the Prince of Condé and saw his kennel, stables, theater, and gardens (same, p. 11–14).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-15

Sunday August 15th. 1784.

Dined at Mr. Barclay's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-16

Monday [16th.]

Dined at Mr. Hartleys.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-17

Tuesday [17th.]

Moved out to Auteuil.1
1. Over the course of the preceding four months, JA in correspondence with Thomas Barclay had made arrangements to rent the house in which he and JQA had obtained apartments shortly after the signing of the Definitive Treaty (entry for 10 Aug. 1783, note 12, above). The Hôtel de Rouault and the Adamses' life there are colorfully described by AA in Howard C. Rice Jr., ed., The Adams Family in Auteuil, 1784–1785 . . ., MHS Picturebook, Boston, 1956.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-18

Wednesday [18th.]

Coll. Humphreys1 arrived.
1. David Humphreys, a former aide-decamp to Washington, was appointed on 12 May secretary to the Commission (which included JA, Franklin, and Jefferson) to negotiate treaties of amity and commerce with foreign powers (DAB; JCC, 27:375). Humphreys later became known as one of the Hartford Wits.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-19

[19th.]

Thursday went into Paris shopping.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-21

Saturday. [21st].

Went to Paris. Gave Gregson a watch to repair. Am to have it again, Wednesday next.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-22

Sunday August 22d.

Mr. Jefferson and his Daughter,1 Coll: Humphreys, and Genl.2[] dined with us.
1. Martha Jefferson had only recently arrived with her father in Paris from America. She remained in France, attending school and studying French, until the end of Jefferson's diplomatic mission in 1789 (Edward T. James and others, eds., Notable American Women, 1607–1950: A Biographical Dictionary, 3 vols., Cambridge, 1971).
2. Left blank in MS. Probably Tadeusz Kosciuszko, who sailed from New York on 15 July and left Paris for Poland on 27 Aug. (AA2, Jour. and Corr., 1:16; Memorial Exhibition: Thaddeus Kosciuszko . . . Revealed in a Collection of Autograph Letters by Him . . . Being the Collection Formed by Dr. and Mrs. Alexander Kahanowicz, N.Y., [1927], introduction, p. 3, text, p. 14).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-24

[24th.]

Tuesday morning. Went to Paris.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-25

[25th.]

Wednesday dined at the Abbé de Chalut's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-26

Thursday [26th].

Went to Gregson's for Watches. He was not at home.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-27

[27th.]

Friday dined with the Abbés at Passi.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-28

Saturday[28th].

We had a large Company to dine with us.1
1. The company included the Abbés Arnoux, Chalut, and Mably, Benjamin Franklin, David Hartley, and John Paul Jones (AA2, Jour. and Corr., 1:17).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0001-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-08-30

[30th.]

Monday afternoon went into Paris. Subscribed for the Journal de Paris. Drank tea with Mrs. Valnais.1
1. Mrs. Joseph Dupas de Iden de Valnais, née Eunice Quincy (1760–1793), daughter of Henry Quincy (1727–1780) and distant cousin of JQA. Eunice married Valnais in 1781 while he served as French consul in Boston. He was recalled to France shortly thereafter (Descendants of Edmund Quincy, comp. Holly, p. 8; Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates, 14:667–670).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0002-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-09-01

Wednesday September 1st.

Dined at Dr. Franklin's.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0002-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-09-02

[2d.]

Thursday morning went into Paris.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0002-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-09-03

Friday [3d].

Mr. and Mrs. Mather,1 and Mrs. Hay2 dined with us. Went to the French Comedy and saw le mariage de Figaro.
1. Samuel Mather and his wife, Margarette (Gerrish) Mather; he was the son of the Rev. Samuel Mather. Young Samuel had been chief clerk of the Boston customs office until he fled to England with the loyalists, but he returned to Massachusetts after his father's death (Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates, 7:233).
2. Mrs. Katharine Hay, wife of Capt. John Hay and daughter of Daniel Farnham, a tory lawyer in Newburyport. She was a traveling companion of the Mathers { 211 } while in France (Thomas Aston Coffin to Mary Aston Coffin [Mrs. William Coffin], 21 March 1786, MHi:Thomas Aston Coffin Coll.; Samuel Jr. to Rev. Samuel Mather, 7 May 1785, MHi:Samuel Mather Coll.; Currier, Newburyport, 2:258–260).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0002-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-09-04

Saturday[4th].

Dined with Mr. Jefferson. Went to the Italian Comedy in the Evening; had la fausse magie, and Zemire et Azor.1
1. La fausse magie, Paris, 1775, by Jean François Marmontel, with music by André Ernest Modest Grétry. The pair also collaborated on Zémire et Azor, Paris, 1771 (Brenner, Bibliographical List; Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0002-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-09-05

[5th.]

Sunday dined at Mr. Grand's1 at Passy. Went after dinner to the Chateau de la Muette2 and saw the Dauphin.
1. Ferdinand Grand, the Paris banker of the American ministers, lived at La Chaise, Passy (MHS, Procs., 54 [1920]: 107–108).
2. The Château de la Muette, originally a hunting lodge in the Bois de Boulogne, was rebuilt by Louis XV, and Louis XVI often resided there (Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0002-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-09-06

[6th.]

Monday Mr. Tracy1 dined with us.
1. Nathaniel Tracy had come to France via Cowes with Jefferson and his daughter Martha aboard his vessel Ceres, which had sailed from Boston in early July. His purpose was to settle claims against his firm; his lack of success eventually contributed to his worsening financial plight (Jefferson, Papers, 7:363–364; Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates, 17:250).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0002-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-09-07

Tuesday[7th].

Dined at Mr. Tracy's and went in the evening to see la métromanie, and Crispin Rival de son Maitre,1 at the french Comedy.
1. Alexis Piron, La métromanie, ou, le poète, Paris, 1738 (Brenner, Bibliographical List). JQA had seen Le Sage's Crispin while living in St. Petersburg.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0002-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-09-10

[10th.]

Friday went into Paris in the afternoon.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0006-0002-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1784-09-11

Saturday[11th].

[Had] Company to dine with us.1
{ 212 }
1. Following this last entry in D/JQA/9 are the following notations:
Wednesday Octr. 13th. first made a fire in my Chamber.
Filled my J. S. Decr. 4th. took 3. p:
March 20. 1785. no fire.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0001-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1785-01-01 - 1786-06-30

[Titlepage]

Ephemeris
Volume. I.1
From January 1st. 1785. to June 30th. 1786

La Mol[l]esse est douce, et sa suite est cruelle.2

[signed] Voltaire.
1785.
1. Titlepage for D/JQA/10, covering the inclusive dates mentioned, with only occasional gaps. The top line on this and the following page are written in an earlier hand, presumably the date on which he purchased the blank book. The same inscription appears on the top of the titlepages of D/JQA/11 and 12, which are identical 380-page leather-bound books all measuring 4¼” × 6¾”.
2. Indolence is sweet and its consequence is bitter (Voltaire, Zäire, Act I, scene ii, [line 13], in Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, 72 vols., Kehl, Germany, 1784–1801, 2:43).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0002-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
DateRange: 1785-01-01 - 1786-06-30

[Dedication]

Vitanda est improba Syren, Desidia.1

1. Horace, Opera, London, 1744, p. 149 (inscribed “J.Q. Adams, Paris, March 15, 1785,” in MQA), Bk. II, Satire III, lines 14–15: “You must shun the wicked Siren Sloth [the quotation continues] or be content to drop whatever honour you have gained in nobler hours” (Horace, Satires, Epistles and Ars Poetica, transl. Fairclough, p. 153). These two lines appear on the second leaf, between the titlepage and first page of Diary entries.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-01

January 1st. 1785. Saturday.

Compliments to the Royal family at Versailles. My father carried twenty Guineas to distribute among the servants of the great folks, a tribute every minister is obliged to pay annually.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-04

4th.1

Paris. Varietés; at the palais Royal. Small Théatre, built in three weeks time. Le nouveau parvenu. Le palais du bon gout. L'lntendant Comédien malgré lui. Le mensonge excusable.2Volange,3 an excellent actor for the lowest kind of Comic-plays seven or eight parts in one piece with a wonderful facility. One or two other actors, good in their way. Yet I wonder how people of any delicacy, and especially Ladies can frequent this and the other small { 213 } { 214 } Théatres in Paris. The plays acted have seldom much wit, and almost universally are very indecent. I know not what this People would not run to; their taste seems to be entirely corrupted. The french Théatre is deserted, when those pieces, which do honour to the nation are represented, and these theatres are always crowded, though they present nothing but low buffoonery, and scrurrility. O tempora, O mores! Letters from America4 when we return'd. None for me.
1. JQA most likely intended to continue his Diary on 2 Jan., but “4th.” has been written over in its place. The fourth is probably the correct date (and hence, the entry following this is incorrect), as AA in letters she wrote between 3 and 7 Jan. makes several references to letters received on 4 Jan. (See letters by her cited in note 54, below.) On the other hand, AA2 has placed these events in her diary on 3 Jan. (Jour. and Corr., 1:39–40).
2. Le nouveau parvenue, Paris, 1782, Le palais du bon goût, n.p., n.d., but first produced in 1785, and Le mensonge excusable, Paris, 1783, all by Charles Jacob Guillemain; La fête de campagne, ou, l'intendant comédien malgré lui (title and subtitle are sometimes reversed), Paris, 1784, by Louis Dorvigny (Brenner, Bibliographical List).
3. Maurice François Rochet, called Volange (Lyonnet, Dict. des comédiens français).
4. These included at least four letters, all dated 6 Nov. 1784: Elizabeth Cranch to AA, Adams Papers (reply, 3[–4] Jan., in AA, Letters, ed. CFA, 1848, p. 222–226); Royall Tyler to JA, and to AA2 (letters not found, but referred to in AA to Tyler, [4 Jan.], Adams Papers); and Mary Smith Cranch to AA, Adams Papers (reply, 7 Jan., MWA).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-04

4th.

Old Mr. Grand, and Dr. Bancroft.1 In the evening Mr. Chaumont and Mr. Franklin.
1. Dr. Edward Bancroft, physician, scientist, and writer, Franklin's confidential associate, and double agent during the Revolution (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:71–72; Julian Boyd, “Silas Deane: Death by a Kindly Teacher of Treason?” WMQ, 3d ser., 16:176–182, 319–342, 515–550 [April, July, Oct. 1959]).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-07

7th.

Company to dine. The Abbés wrote a billet to excuse themselves.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-10

10th.

Varietés. Le faux talisman, La théatromanie; Oui ou non.1 Poor Stuff. A good deal of genteel Company.
1. Le faux talisman, ou, rira bien qui rira le dernier. Paris, 1782, by Charles Jacob Guillemain; La théâtromanie. Paris, 1783, by Pierre (Baron) de La Montagne; Oui ou non, Paris, 1780, by Louis Archambault Dorvigny (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-14

14th.

Paris. At the post; paid 235. livres for a parcel of packets. Walk'd in the Palais Royal. Large Company. Few Ladies.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-17

17th.

Paris. Italian Theatre. 1st. Representation of Alexis et Justine.1 Went before 5. o'clock. Could not find one place high nor low. Went to the Grands Danseurs du Roi,2 in a fiacre,3 for neither Servants nor carriage were to be found. Le trousseau d'Agnes. Le Qui-pro-quo de l'hotellerie.4Rope dancing. Sophie de Brabant, Pantomime. Just such another Théatre as the Varietés. Plays just calculated to please the mob. Rope dancing, is surprizing at first sight, and pleases. Placide. Le petit Diable et la jeune Anglaise,5 very good. Comedy of Errors all this evening. Lost Appleton, and the Ladies. We however all met at Mr. Jefferson's, where my father spent the Evening. Late before we got home.
1. Alexis et Justine, Paris, 1785, by Jacques Marie Boutet de Monvel, with music by Nicolas Dezède (Brenner, Bibliographical List).
2. A vaudeville troupe founded by Jean Baptiste Nicolet, which performed “au fronton de” Théâtre de Nicolet on the Boulevard du Temple. These outdoor performances or “parades” were used to draw a crowd, and this company, within the theater, performed comic opera from the repertoire of the Comédie Italienne. Louis XV gave the troupe its title of the Grands Danseurs du Roi in 1772. They performed the two pieces described in note 4 (Emile Campardon, Les spectacles de la foire, 2 vols., Paris, 1877, 1:384; 2:151–152; René Héron de Villefosse, Histoire de Paris, Paris, 1950, p. 225–226; Journal de Paris, 17 Jan.; Brenner, Bibliographical List).
3. A small French hackney coach.
4. Le trousseau d'Agnès, ou, la veuve à marier, an unpublished parade by Alexandre Louis Bertrand Robineau Beaunoir; Le quiproquo de l'hôtellerie, Paris, 1779, by Antoine François Quétant (Brenner, Bibliographical List).
5. Placide is probably a verse tragedy, London, 1786, by Père Joseph Romain Joly (same). Petit diable et la jeune anglaise has not been identified.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-18

18th.

Ambassador's day at Versailles, every Tuesday. Mr. A. went. Alexis et Justine, succeeded very well last night at the Italians. Words, Monvel, music, de Zede, celebrated authors. Dr. Jemm1 dined with us. A singular Character.
1. Possibly Guillaume Jaume, of Lyons, a friend of the Abbés Chalut and Arnoux, who advised Franklin and Col. Gabriel Johonnot on the education of their grandson and son, respectively (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 2:409; 4:64, 446).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-19

19th.

Paris. Mr. Appleton, and Mr. Parker,1 went for England. Saw Mr. Waring.2 Breakfasted at the Hôtel de Modene. Appleton and Parker set off in the diligence, at about 12 1/2.
1. John Parker Jr., a South Carolinian admitted to the Middle Temple in 1775 who later served in the Continental Congress (Edward Alfred Jones, American Members of the Inns of Court, London, 1924, p. 166; Biog. Dir. Cong.).
2. Possibly Dr. Thomas Waring, who was in Europe to complete his medical education (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 3:69, 4:100; Joseph I. Waring, The History of Medicine in South Carolina, 1670–1900, 2 vols., Columbia, S.C., 1964, 1:343).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-20

20th.

Mlle: Remaldi, appeared last night at the Italian Comedy, for the first time, in the part of Lyse, in le jugement de Midas,1 and succeeded very well.
1. By Thomas Hales, known as d'Hèle, Paris, 1778, with music by André Grétry (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-21

21st.

Paris. Dined at Mr. Jeffersons. Captn. Paul Jones1 told us the Marquis de la Fayette was arrived.2Vrais Principes de la Langue Française, Synonimes François de M: l'Abbe Girard.3Abdir, a new piece was announced for to day at the French Théatre, but is put off to next Wednesday.4 Mr. Blanchard cross'd from Dover to Calais in an air balloon, the 7th of the month, accompanied by Dr. Jefferies.5 They were obliged to throw over their cloathes to lighten their balloon. Mr. Blanchard met with a very flattering reception at Calais, and at Paris. He and his companion, have been applauded at the Théatres. The king has given him twelve thousand livres, and a pension of 1200 [livres] a year. All that has as yet been done relative to this discovery, is the work of the French. Montgolfier, Pilâtre de Rozier, and Blanchard will go down, hand in hand to Posterity.
1. Jones was in Paris as congressional agent to recover prize money due officers and men of three ships. Shortly after his arrival in Dec. 1783, Franklin augmented Jones' authority to include the prize money due to any American ship formerly under his command. Jones' negotiations with the French minister of Marine concluded in Oct. 1784, but payment was long delayed (Samuel Eliot Morison, John Paul Jones: A Sailor's Biography, Boston, 1959, p. 336–341).
2. Lafayette was returning from a short, sentimental, and successful tour of the United States begun the previous August (Gottschalk, Lafayette, 4:83–138).
3. Gabriel Girard, Synonymes françois . . . nouvelle édition . . . augmentée . . . de notes, par M. Beauzée, 2 vols., Paris, 1769, and his Les vrais principes de la langue françoise, 2 { 217 } vols., Paris, 1747. These are both in JA's library at MB. A copy of Synonymes françois, Amsterdam, 1766, with JQA's bookplate is at MQA; there are also three copies of Les vrais principes, two in JA's library, and another at MQA, but none bears JQA's bookplate.
4. Abdir, Paris, 1785, by Edme Louis Billardon de Sauvigny, was first produced the following Wednesday, 26 Jan., then reduced to three acts on 31 Jan., when JQA saw and described it (Brenner, Bibliographical List; Journal de Paris, 26 Jan.).
5. François Blanchard (usually called Jean Pierre), the French aeronaut, and John Jeffries, the Massachusetts-born loyalist and physician to the Adamses when they later lived in London. After an initial experimental flight together on 30 Nov., Blanchard and Jeffries made their historic crossing of the Channel on 7 Jan., landing in the Forest of Guines, near Calais (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale; Mary Beth Norton, “America's First Aeronaut: Dr. John Jeffries,” History Today, 18:722–729 [Oct. 1968]; AA to Mary Smith Cranch, 25–27 Feb. 1787, MWA).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-25

25th.

Mr. Jefferson, and Mr. Short.1 The Marquis de la Fayette is not arrived. Mrs. Barclay.
1. William Short, private secretary to Jefferson in Paris from 1785 to 1789 (George Green Shackelford, “William Short, Diplomat in Revolutionary France,” Amer. Philos. Soc., Procs., 102:596–612 [Dec. 1958]).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-26

26th.

Mr. A: Paris. A Gentleman brought a Letter from Mr. Jay, which came by the Marquis de la Fayette:1 who will arrive this evening at Versailles.
1. John Jay to JA, 13 Dec. 1784 (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-27

27th.

Company to dine Mr. d'Asp,1 and another Swedish gentleman. Mr. Setaro a Portuguese gentleman in the Evening. Mr. Williams2 spent the evening with us. Coll. Humphreys presented to Mr. A: a copy of his Poem address'd to the Armies of the United States.3 It appears very well written. The versification is in general noble, and easy. It is a recapitulation of some of the principal events that happened during the course of the late Revolution, and contains predictions concerning the future grandeur of the United States. May they be verified!4
1. Per Olof von Asp, secretary of the Swedish embassy at Paris (Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon; entry for 18 April, below).
2. Jonathan Williams Jr., who joined his great-uncle Benjamin Franklin in France in 1776 and served as U.S. commercial agent at Nantes (DAB).
3. “A Poem, Addressed to the Armies of the United States of America,” New Haven, 1780, repr. Paris and London, 1785 { 218 } (Dexter, Yale Graduates, 3:417–418). JA's presentation copy, presumably of the Paris edition (see AA2, Jour. and Corr., 1:45), has not been found.
4. A red exclamation mark here was probably added after 1 Feb., when JQA began to record dates in red ink.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-28

28th.

Paris in the Evening. French Theatre. Iphigenie en Aulide, of Racine, and l'Aveugle Clairvoyant.1 Though the tragedy is perhaps the best that is acted upon the Theatre, and though they had last night several of the best players, to act it, the House was not half full. Such is the present taste in this Kingdom. Brizards2 in Agamemnon is not I think so good as in some other parts: though it is a very disagreeable Character to support. De la Rive, in Archilles is excellent. Mlle. Saintval in Iphigenia, Mlle. Raucourt in Clytemnestra, and Mlle. Thenard3 in Eriphile, are good. Fleury4 in the small piece was, admirable. When we returned, found 3. Letters, for me. W. Warren. C. Storer. Mr. Dumas.5
1. Paris, 1674; and Paris, 1716, by Marc Antoine Legrand (Brenner, Bibliographical List).
2. Jean Baptiste Britard, called Brizard (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
3. Probably Jean Mauduit de La Rive or Larive; Marie Blanche Alziari de Roquefort, called Saint-val; Françoise Clairien, called Saucerotte, but more familiarly known as Raucourt; Marie Magdalaine Claudine Chevalier Perrin, called Thenard (same; Michaud, Biog. universelle;Lyonnet, Dict. des comédiens français).
4. Abraham Joseph Bénard, known as Fleury, the celebrated French comedian (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
5. Winslow Warren to JQA, 4 Jan.; C. W. F. Dumas to JQA, 21 Jan.; the third not found (both in Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-29

29th.

Paris afternoon, alone. Mr. Jeffersons. He looks much afflicted. The last letters, brought him news of the death of one of his daughters:1 he has a great deal of Sensibility. Bought books.2
1. Jefferson received the news of the death of Lucy Elizabeth (b. 1782), his second daughter by that name, in a letter from James Currie, 20 Nov. 1784, which was received on 26 Jan., carried by Lafayette (Jefferson, Papers, 6:186; 7:441, 538–539).
2. None has been positively identified.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-30

30th.

Mr. A. met Mr. Jefferson, at Paris, in the forenoon.
<31> The Marquis de la Fayette was here in the evening. He appears very well satisfied with his last voyage to America.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0003-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-01-31

31st.

Paris in the afternoon. French Theatre. Abdir, and le Roi de Cocagne.1 Abdir is a new piece. This was only the 2d. Representation: ’tis the history of young Asgill,2 brought upon the Stage, under feigned names. G. Britain is Nangés. Vazercan is General Washington. Abdir is Asgill. The King of Persia is the King of France, who at the end of the Piece sends an Ambassador to the new Republic, requesting the pardon of Abdir. The Author has not given so much interest I think to the piece, as the Subject is susceptible of; and it is something so new, that I don't know by what name to call it. It is not a Tragedy: for the Hero of the piece is a private person, who is known only by that even which was produced merely by chance. It is not a Comedy, for there is not a character in it, that has any thing comic in it, and the drift of the Piece, is entirely tragic. There are however a number of excellent, and very liberal sentiments. The compliments paid to the French king and nation, are not outrés. Much is said in praise of Liberty, and of the People that defended it. Even the British are treated in a very generous manner, as they always are upon the french Stages although the English upon their Theatres take every opportunity they can to ridicule and debase this Nation. Nolé3 in Abdir, and Madame Vestris4 in the mother, made as much of their parts as they could. Le Roi de Cocagne, is one of the most laughable, and most absurd pieces I ever saw; Dugazon,5 delivered the part of the King very well.
1. A musical comedy by Marc Antoine Legrand, Paris, 1719, with music by the actor Jean Baptiste Maurice Quinault (Brenner, Bibliographical List); for Abdir, see entry for 21 Jan., note 4 (above).
2. Charles Asgill, the British officer captured at Yorktown, who was selected for execution in retaliation for the hanging by American loyalists of Capt. Joshua Huddy of the New Jersey militia. His ultimate release came through the initiative of his mother, who sent an appeal for her son's life to Vergennes, who, in turn, laid the matter before Louis XVI and his queen. So moved were they by the plea, that they directed Vergennes to write to Washington, who sent the letter to the congress, which voted for Asgill's release (DNB).
3. Not identified.
4. Françoise Rose Gourgaud was known on stage by her married name (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
5. Jean Baptiste Henri Gourgaud (or Gourgault), called Dugazon, the brother of Mme. Vestris (Lyonnet, Dict. des comédiens français).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-03

3d.1

Paris. In the afternoon with Mr. A. went for the books arrived from London. Not to be found. Bought other books.2 Weather somewhat cold. The whole month of January very mild.
{ 220 }
1. JQA began this month with the date “Tuesday February 1st. 1785.,” but his first entry is on the third.
2. Neither set of books has been identified.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-04

4th.

Snowy, stormy weather all the morning, but clear in the afternoon. Mrs. and Miss A. went to Paris, and at length got, the long expected Books.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-05

5th.

Stormy Weather. Mr. A. went to Passy in the morning, and to the Marquis's afternoon. A Letter from Mr. Dana:1 a vessel arrived at L'Orient from Boston.
1. Dana to JA, 12 Dec. 1784 (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-06

6th.

Enter Miss A. in the evening, and cries out, “Callahan1 is arrived, and a bushel of Letters. One for you Sir from C. Storer:”2 and away she flew. Miss had a dozen at least: there were very few for any body else.3
1. Presumably Capt. John Callahan, Boston shipmaster; it was probably his vessel that JQA referred to in his previous entry (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:215–216).
2. Letter not found.
3. Among them probably was Mary (Smith) Cranch to AA, 6 Dec. 1784 (Adams Papers), as referred to in AA to Mary (Smith) Cranch, 20 Feb.–13 March 1785 (MWA). The letters to AA2 are presumably lost.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-07

7th.

Dined at Mr. Jefferson's. Masks in the [rue de] Fauxbourg St. Antoine and in the ruë St. Honoré.1 With reason, are the Parisians called by all the rest of the Nation badauds2 de Paris, for nothing can be conceived more stupid, than this Carnaval amusement. An hundred people perhaps run about the streets in masks, and there are ten thousand people without masks looking upon them: it is said however that this diversion is going much out of fashion; and that the Police, are obliged to hire a vast number of People, to set the example: two thirds of the Masks, are paid, say they. Thus does this government take every measure imaginable, to keep the eyes of the People shut, upon their own situation: and they really do it very effectually.
{ 221 }
1. A pre-Lenten carnival culminating in a masked ball that evening (AA2, Jour. and Corr., 1:46–47).
2. Idle, frivolous persons.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-08

8th.

Coll. Humphreys. In the afternoon, went through Passy, to Paris. Mr. Jefferson's. Saw the Masks again, a vast number more to day than yesterday. Shrove Tuesday last day of the Carnaval. French Comedy. But could get no places. A rare thing.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-11

11th.

Paris Afternoon. Coll. Humphreys and Mr. Short, went with us to see Astley's equestrian exercises which, may be seen once or twice with pleasure, but which are tiresome, to one who has seen them as often as I have. Astley exhibits from October till february in Paris, and the rest of the year in London. His Amphitheatre here, is generally very full: he might make a very large fortune, but spends as much as he gains. Ce qui vient par la flute, s'en retourne par le tambour say the french. This evening a contest arose between two persons about a place; one of them appeared to be a Gentleman, and was well drest. The other look'd like an upper Servant: he was there to keep three places which had been taken beforehand. The Gentleman wanted to place a Lady he had with him, in one of the Places, and after a few words had passed, he called for the Officer that was to <keep the Peace> maintain order who immediately decided that the Gentleman was in the right: this is always the case, in France, and I believe that had the other Person, been a Chevalier de St. Louis, or a person of distinction, the Officer would have decided the matter very differently. In England they fall into the other extreme, and the Populace commit the most outrageous disorders, unpunish'd. Of the two evils, the french I think is the most supportable; you are only exposed to humiliation, whereas in England, your life is really not out of danger. Mr. Jefferson informed us that he has learnt by a Letter from New-York dated Jany. 5 that Congress are sitting in that City.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-12

12th.

Mr. A. Dined in Paris at the Duke of Dorset's.1 Very cold weather: as much so, I think, as any, we have had this Season.
{ 222 }
1. John Frederick Sackville, third Duke of Dorset, the English ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary at Paris, 1783–1789 (DNB).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-14

14th.

Dined at Dr. Franklin's with a great deal of Company, among the rest Dr. Jeffries who lately cross'd with Mr. Blanchard, from Dover to Calais. He is a small man: has not an agreeable address, but seems to be very sensible: he related his voyage: in which his intrepidity had well nigh been fatal to him: the balloon descended he says, ¾ of a mile in 2. minutes: he and Mr. Blanchard were both of them obliged to throw almost all their cloaths in the water. At one time they were not more than 20 yards above the surface. Mr. B——g——m1 who decides upon all subjects in a more positive manner than I think he would if he was versed well in any, said it was impossible for a balloon to remain steady in one place; because said he, there is nothing to resist it: Messrs. Roberts in the account they gave of their last voyage in the air say that at one time for five minutes their balloon did not stir forward: they saw the shadow of it upon the ground, and were therefore sure of what they advanced: this was alledged but Mr. B——g——m said M: M: Roberts were fools: this was the shortest way by which he could prove the truth of his assertion.
1. That is, William Bingham, Philadelphia banker and land speculator, whom JQA met in London.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-15

15th.

Paris, afternoon. Carried Mr. A's Letter to the Abbé de Mably,1 requesting him to write a moral, and political Catechism. The Abbés de Chalût and Arnoux read it. Went to Messieurs le Couteulx,2 for money, and was bad to come tomorrow. Bought the abridgement of Wolff's course of Mathématics in french.3
1. Letter not found, but see Mably's reply, 25 Feb. (Adams Papers).
2. Le Couteulx & Cie., Paris merchant bankers (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:61, 151).
3. JQA's “abridged” version has not been found, but JA's library contains a copy of Christian Wolff's Cours de mathématique, contenant toutes les parties de cette science... Traduit en François, & augmenté, ed. Charles Antoine Jombert, 3 vols., Paris, 1757.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-16

16th.

Paris, afternoon. Returned to Messrs: le Couteulx, for Mr. Gs1 business and finished it. Mr. Jefferson's. A man of universal learning and very pleasing manners. Memorandum: borrowed 2 vols. of the Tableau de Paris.2
1. Either Ferdinand or Georges Grand, Paris bankers.
2. [Louis Sebastien Mercier], Tableau de Paris. Nouvelle édition corrigée & augmentée. Jefferson had only the first six of twelve volumes, which were published in Amsterdam in 1782–1783 (E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, 5 vols., Washington, 1952–1959, 4:122–123; entry for 11 March, below).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-19

19th.

Dined at the Swedish Ambassadors:1 the Company was not very numerous: a number of Sweeds, one, who lately came from America: the Ambassador said to me: mon dieu que Mlle. vôtre soeur est jolie! j'ai vu peu d'aussi jolies femmes qu'elle: he thought doubtless, that I should tell her what he said: he is a very agreeable man. The Gentleman lately from America, professes to be charmed with the Country: especially with NewPort in Rhode Island: he admired the Ladies very much. We had a very elegant dinner, served entirely in silver, but it was not so splendid, as I have seen at the same table: the generality of the foreign Ambassadors here live in a great degree of magnificence: the Sweedish Ambassador pays nine thousand livres a year for his house without an article of furtinure in it. Mr. Brantzen, one of the Dutch Ambassadors gives for his house, all furnished eighteen thousand livres per an: and I have heard him boast of his having it very cheap. Count d'Aranda, the Spanish Ambassador gives twenty eight thousand livres every year for his house: every thing else must be in proportion; the same Count d'Aranda has sixty persons in his service, and spends doubtless more than ten thousand pound sterling annually. No Ambassador at this Court spends less, I am persuaded, than 6,000 sterling.
1. Erik Magnus, Baron Staël-Holstein, minister plenipotentiary and ambassador extraordinary to France, 1783–1796, 1798–1799 (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, p. 408).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-21

21st.

All dined at the Marquis de la Fayette. There was a considerable company, mostly composed of Americans. We saw two of the Marquis's children; he has three; but the other is out at nurse at Versailles. His son is called George Washington: about 4 years old, a very pretty child: the Legislature of the State of Connecticut have lately made his father and him, citizens of that State. The Marquis's youngest daughter is named Virginia. Madame is a very agreeable woman, and has a pleasing countenance: She is extremely fond of her husband and children, which is a most uncommon circumstance: especially as when they were married, neither of them was more than 12 years old: She told my father that Mrs. Jay, did not like the french Ladies. “Ni moi, non plus.” And that if Monsr. le Marquis goes to America again, she will go with him.1 The Marquis brought with him from America, a young Gentleman, of the age of about 14: his name is Colwel2 and his father was barbarously murdered by the British, during the War in New Jersey.
1. Anastasie Louise Pauline de Lafayette, later Comtesse de Latour-Maubourg; George(s) Washington de Lafayette, godson of Washington, and later a soldier and politician; Marie Antoinette Virginie de Lafayette, later Marquise de Lasteyrie; Marie Adrienne Françoise de Noailles de Lafayette, wife of the Marquis (Lafayette in the Age of the American Revolution: Selected Letters and Papers, 1776–1790, ed. Stanley J. Idzerda and others, Ithaca, N.Y., 1977– , I:xliv-xlv, 477–478; Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
2. John Edwards Caldwell, son of Rev. James Caldwell of Elizabethtown, N.J., whom Lafayette had educated in a French boarding school. Caldwell later returned to the United States, where he was a philanthropist in New York city and a founder of the American Bible Society (Louis Gottschalk, Lafayette, 4:142, 161–162; Nicholas Murray, “A Memoir of the Rev. James Caldwell, of Elizabethtown,” N.J. Hist. Soc., Procs., 1st ser., 3:88 [May 1848]).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-22

22d.

My father went to Versailles. Mr. Short went with him to be presented at Court. Variable Weather: much Snow in the morning, fair weather at noon, and Stormy again, in the Evening. The Duke of Dorset said to my father, while they were passing from one chamber to another “what nonsensical business all this noisy parade is!” My father said it was curious that a person like him, who had from his Childhood been brought up to it, should speak in that manner of it: “I have always hated it,” replied the Duke, “and I have avoided it whenever I possibly could.” Thus { 226 } it is almost universally. People who pass all their lives in Pomp and Parade, are as much averse to it, as any body; and yet they do not abolish it; and nothing is more difficult than laying aside established customs, though every body agrees, that they are absurd.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-24

24th.

Paris in the morning. Mr. Williams and Mr. Franklin went with us. They breakfasted at M: de St. Olympe's.1 I went to Gogué et Née de la Rochelle, booksellers Quai des Augustins. Bought Rollin's histoire Romaine, and Mr. Necker's book.2 Mr. Jefferson was not at home: nor any body at his House. Mr. Franklin3 has taken lessons of animal magnetism, he laugh'd at it much; yet said it was a very useful discovery.
1. A French West Indian with business interests in Martinique and North America (AA2, Jour. and Corr., 1:50–51; Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 3:168; 4:110, 116).
2. Charles Rollin, L' Histoire romaine, depuis la fondation de Rome jusqu'à la bataille d'Actium . . ., 7 vols., Paris, 1738–1741. JQA's set mentioned here may be one of two different sixteen-volume editions at MQA, both of which bear his bookplate, and one of which also carries his autograph. Of the several works of Jacques Necker, French financier and statesman, in the Adams libraries, the only contemporary publication bearing JQA's bookplate is De l'administration des finances de la France, 3 vols., [Paris], 1784.
3. William Temple Franklin, the natural son of Benjamin Franklin's natural son William, had served as his grandfather's secretary since 1776. Temple was a member of the Paris Société de L'Harmonie, a group founded by the followers of Frederick Anthony Mesmer. Mesmer, a Vienna-trained physician, claimed to have discovered the property of animal magnetism, a fluid conducted by a kind of occult force in himself which contained curative powers. Owing in large part to Mesmer's great success in Paris, Louis XVI appointed Benjamin Franklin in March 1784 a member of a royal commission to examine the subject of animal magnetism, which was denounced in their report that summer. Franklin doubted its existence, and the cures claimed for it strengthened his belief in mankind's credulity (Franklin, Papers, 1:lxii; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:356; 3:102–103, 169; Claude-Anne Lopez and Eugenia W. Herbert, The Private Franklin, N.Y., 1975, p. 255–258).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-25

25th.

Paris. At the Opera. Panurge dans l'lsle des Lanternes;1 a new Opera. 12th time. Words, which are very indifferent M: Morel: music, which is exquisite M: Gretri. I dont know how it happens, but the more this gentleman composes, the better his music is, I think. The dancing was also admirable, Gardel,2 and Vestris,3 perhaps the two best dancers in the world, performed together; and strove to surpass one another. Mesdemoiselles Saunier, Langlois and Zacharie, were much applauded. Such { 227 } magnificent Scenery, such rich dresses, such delicious music, vocal and instrumental, and such inimitable dancing, combined together, appear rather an effect of enchantment than of art: I never yet saw an Opera, with so much Pleasure. The words are very bad.
1. A comedy by Étienne Morel de Chédeville (sometimes Chefdeville), Paris, 1785, with music by André Grétry; it was performed at the Académie Royal de Musique (Brenner, Bibliographical List;Journal de Paris, 25 Feb.).
2. Probably Pierre Gabriel Gardel, “le jeune,” French dancer and choreographer and brother of Maximilien Joseph Léopold Gardel (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale;Journal de Paris, 1 March 1783).
3. Probably Marie Auguste Vestris, son of the Italian dancer Gaetano Apollino Baldassare Vestri, called Vestris (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-26

26th.

M: de St: Olympe: Mr. Franklin and Mr. Williams dined with us. The first is a west Indian; who is going in a short time to America: Mr. Franklin has been so long in France, that he is more a Frenchman than an American: I doubt whether he will enjoy himself perfectly if he returns to America.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-27

27th.

Mr. Pickman1 brought a Letter2 from Mr. Tracey. Cold weather.
1. Benjamin Pickman, son of the Salem merchant of the same name. The father disapproved of the course of pre-Revolutionary Massachusetts politics and left America for England in 1775. The son was making a tour of France and returned to Boston via London with his father in the spring. Later he studied law, spending some time in Theophilus Parsons' law office with JQA; but like his father, he entered commerce (George Francis Dow, The Diary and letters of Benjamin Pickman . . . and Genealogy of the Pickman Family, Newport, R.I., 1928, p. 27–28, 146; Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates, 14:489–492; entry for 23 Feb. 1788, below).
2. Letter not found.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0004-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-28

28th.

Paris. Bought of Froullé bookseller quai des Augustins Crevier's Histoire des Empereurs Romains.1 Spent half an hour with Mr. Blakely: he goes for London next monday. Mr. Pickman was not at home, nor Mr. Waring, nor any body at Mr. Jefferson's; I waited there an hour for them to return; but in vain. I passed an hour with the abbés de Chalût and Arnoux: Abbé de Mably was with them. This gentleman is very famous in the litterary world: he has written a great deal; upon the subject of { 228 } morals and politics, and of late four letters containing Observations upon the Constitutions of America,2 which he addressed to my father.
1. This may be the twelve-volume, Paris, 1749–1755, edition of Jean Baptiste Louis Crevier's Histoire des empereurs romains, depuis Auguste jusqu'a Constantin at MQA, which bears JQA's bookplate.
2. Observations sur le gouvernment et les loix des Etats-Unis d'Amérique, Amsterdam, 1784; transl. Remarks Concerning the Government and Laws of the United States of America: In Four Letters, Addressed to Mr. Adams, London, 1784. Copies of both are in JA's library at MB.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-01

Tuesday March 1st. 1785.

Coldest weather we have had this year. Reaumur's thermometer at 8 degrees below the freezing point. Abbé de Chalût told me last evening, that neither he nor his brother, (and they are both turned of seventy,) remember ever to have experienced so cold weather in the beginning of March.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-02

2d.

Paris afternoon. La Servante Maitresse,1 and, the 20th. Representation of Richard Coeur de Lion, an Opera, at the Italian Comedy. The words are of Sèdaine and the Music of Gretri. It is a delightful Piece, and the music like all the rest of Mr. Gretri's compositions is admirable. We were early, but could get only very bad places; I never saw any Théatre more crowded, and a vast number of persons could get no Places at all. Philippe play'd Richard, and Clairval Blondel: this is a charming Character, and was very well acted. Mlle. Rosalie in Blondel's guide, was interesting, as also Mlle. Colomb, in the Countess of Flanders. The First Piece, is a translation of the Serva padrona, of the famous Pergolezzi, but it is a very bad one. The music, is perhaps some of the best ever composed, but the piece has no effect upon the Théatre. There are in this Piece only two speaking Characters and one mute personage.
1. By Pierre Baurans, Paris, 1754, with music by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (Brenner, Bibliographical List).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0003

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-02-04

4th.

Letters from America as late as January 1st.1 by the way of England: One from Mr. Jay at New York, of Jany 14th2 to the Ministers, informing them of his having accepted the place of Minister for foreign affairs.
{ 229 }
{ 230 }
1. These included: Cotton Tufts to JA, 1 Jan., not found; Tristram Dalton to JA, 21 Dec. 1784 (Adams Papers); and probably Francis Dana to JA, 12 Dec. 1784 (same).
2. “Jany. 14th” was written over a date in December (day illegible), which accounts for the inconsistency with the first clause in this entry. The letter is printed in Jefferson, Papers, 7:606.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0004

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-05

5th.

Company to dine. Mr. Bleakly took charge of some Letters for London, one for Mr. Elworthy.1 He goes on Monday. Mr. Pickman sets out for London too, in the Course of the next week. I dined with him last June at London, on board Captn. Callahan's ship. He belongs to Salem, and is a very agreeable young Gentleman. Mr. Waring thinks of going to America in May, about the time I shall: Indeed it is not improbable that we shall go together: though he wishes to go from London, first. Mrs. Bingham came in the evening, and spent an hour with the Ladies. She looks very unwell: has had the tooth ache, violently for almost ten days. She is going to Switzerland, and to Italy next summer. Mr. B. made a very large fortune during the War by privateering, and since the Peace, came to Europe to enjoy it.
1. JA to James Elworthy, 5 March (LbC, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0005

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-07

7th.

Dined at the Marquis de la Fayettes. The Chevalier de la Luzerne1 dined there has been in the Country for some Months past. M: de Camaran a young french gentleman who went to America with the Marquis the last time was asked by Mrs. B. what part of America he liked best. He did not know from what part she was, and answered Boston. “I never was there” said Mrs. B. The Gentleman was embarass'd when he found she was a Philadelphian; but she added j'aime beaucoup mieux l'Europe que l'Amerique. Mrs. B. is handsome, about 20 years of age, and her husband is supposed to be, and lives as if he was, very rich; so it is not very astonishing that she prefers Europe to her own Country.
1. Anne César, Chevalier de La Luzerne, the masterful French minister to the United States, 1779–1784, described by Bemis as having “exercised a more complete ascendency over the Government of the United States than any foreign envoy since his time.” JA and JQA had first become acquainted with La Luzerne on their return from France in 1779. On board La SensibleJQA taught English to the French minister, who was impressed with young Adams' mastery of the language (Samuel Flagg Bemis, The Diplomacy of the American Revolution, N.Y., 1935, p. 102–103; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:385).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0006

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-09

9th.

Paris. Mr. Williamos1 went with us to see the Gallery of Pictures belonging to the Duke de Chartres in the Palais Royal. It is one of the finest Collections in Europe. There are a great number of Pictures by the first Masters of the Art. More of Raphael, than in any Collection I ever saw. The cieling is painted in Fresco by Antony Coypel.2 The paintings are very fine, and it is a pity they will be destroyed as the building will soon be demolished in order to continue those, they are now erecting.3 Among the numerous admirable paintings in this gallery I distinguished particularly the few following. Our Saviour dead, with four women round him by Raphael.4 The Swiss said to us, “c'est le tableau le plus precieux qu'il y ait dans l'univers.” The virgin Mary is represented in a swoon. The expression of grief in the other faces is such as one cannot conceive without seeing the painting. Inexpressible distress is seen in all. Yet the character of each is different; it is impossible to see it without being deeply affected. The colouring is still extremely fresh, though the picture is two hundred years old. A Saint John5 placed above the other. It is only St. John with his Gospel before him; but it is a Master Piece. A child Jesus receiving cherries from St. Joseph, by Raphael also which is admirable. The history of Constantine in a course of painting by Jules Romano and Raphaël. A Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen, by Raphael. A judgment of Paris by Rubens. This is the only remarkable painting of that Master in the Collection. Among the Portraits, a burgermaster of Amsterdam by Rembrandt is admirable. As indeed are almost all the pictures there. There are however some so bad, that I was astonished to find them there, and some that are absurd and ridiculous. There is one where St. Joseph is at work as a Carpenter; our saviour as a child is holding a line, and the virgin Mary, devoutly sewing a shirt. In another she is washing linen, Christ is taking it as she washes it, gives it to Joseph, who hands it up to a parcel of angels: and they hang it upon the branches of a tree to dry. I am not a sufficient connoisseur in Pictures to decide whether they were good, but I know that the Ideas are groveling, despicable, and impious. There are several allegories, such as Mars and Venus tied together by Cupid. Mars is Henry the fourth, and Venus Gabrielle d'Estrées; but allegories are not the thing in Painting. Upon the whole I don't know of any Collection of Pictures I have ever seen that gave me so much Pleasure. There are { 232 } in this gallery a number of models of the different trades. The Shops of the artists in each trade are compleat, and all are made at the rate of an inch per foot. The Duke de Chartres intended to have the whole Encyclopedia, thus in miniature, but his buildings in the Palais Royal have been so amazingly expensive, and he pays so high an interest for the money he borrows, that he wanted money I suppose to continue the models, he has already the joiner, Carpenter, Apothecary, Chimist, Anatomist and a number of others. It were to be wished he had completed the Collection.
We afterwards went to see Mademoiselle Bertin's magazin de modes. She is the Queens milliner, and the first millener in Europe. Mademoiselle Bertin is the most celebrated person in the Kingdom: the heroes that have acquired so much naval glory must all strike their flaggs before Mlle. Bertin. Their reputation lasted perhaps a month in Paris. Hers has lasted years and will last years still if she lives. She keeps her Equipage, and makes I suppose 100,000 livres a year. She has at least twenty women working in her magazine at a time. She is at this time occupied in making dresses for an Infanta of Spain aged 10 years who is to be married in a short time to a Prince of Portugal aged 12. Three hundred thousand livres have already been advanced to Mlle. Bertin. But as this sum, which is only 12000 guineas is so small a trifle, she is left at her own Discretion: and that discretion is such that she will probably go to four times the sum that has been advanced. We saw a petticoat there, which at a moderate evaluation, I suppose amounts to about a thousand guineas, and all the rest is in Proportion. All this is very pretty; but some morose, surly fellow might say, where does all this money come from. “Ay, there's the rub.” We must be contented with admiring the magnificence of the Robes and go no further. I dined at Dr. Franklin's. M: de St. Olympe was there; and M: Dusaulx a Member of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres; who has published a translation of Juvenal, of which he spoke with sufficient complaisance.
1. Charles Williamos, an intimate of the Jefferson-Adams circle in Paris in 1784–1785, who was described by AA after his death as “this curious adventurer, who possesst Benevolence, without conduct, and learning without sense.” Swiss by birth, he served with British forces in America in the late 1750s and traveled widely there, becoming an expert on Indian affairs and a correspondent with British cabinet officers. Jefferson severed relations with him in July after learning that he was quite likely a spy for the British or at least in their pay. “He tarried in { 233 } Paris,” AA later wrote to JQA, “untill he could not leave it, for debt; and he had borrowd of every American there; untill he could get no further credit” (Jefferson, Papers, 8:269–273; AA to JQA, 16 Feb. 1786, Adams Papers).
2. Antoine Coypel, painter for the Duc d'Orleans, who was placed in charge of the interior decoration of the Palais Royal (Bénézit, Dict, des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs).
3. The Palais Royal was of course not demolished.
4. This painting may be a copy of The Entombment. The original was painted in 1507 and is now at the Galleria Borghese in Rome (Luitpold Dussler, Raphael: A Critical Catalogue of His Pictures, Wall-Paintings and Tapestries, London, 1971, p. 23–24).
5. Possibly Raphael's Saint Jean au desert (Casimir Stryienski, La galerie du Régent Philippe Duc D'Orleans, Paris, 1913, p. 158–159), but JQA's descriptions are usually too vague to identify particular paintings.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0007

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-11

11th.

Paris afternoon. Got of Froullé Brindley's Virgil.1 Went to see Mr. Pickman, at the Hotel de york. He intends setting away for London, next Monday. Spent the evening with Mr. Jefferson whom I love to be with, because he is a man of very extensive learning, and pleasing manners. Memorandum took the 4 last volumes of The tableau de Paris. Mr. Williamos, with Mr. and Mrs. Rooker,2 were at Auteuil in the morning.
1. Opera, London, Brindley edn., 1744, and inscribed with JQA's name (MQA).
2. Mr. and Mrs. John Rucker, who became intimate with the Adamses when they moved to London later in the year. Rucker was a partner in Robert Morris' New York commercial house. In 1787 he got into difficulties which caused him to leave England under a cloud and required JA to journey to Holland at two days' notice to sign bonds for a new loan so that the interest on the Dutch loan could be paid (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 3:210; AA2 to JQA, 10 June–16 July 1787, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0008

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-12

12th.

Paris afternoon with Mrs. A. upon some business for Mrs. Hay, who is at Beaugency. Mr. Graff au magazin de dentelles Rue des deux portes St. Sauveur. Beaumarchais the author of the too famous Comedy la folle journée ou le mariage de Figaro was taken up the other day, immediately after supper, and carried to St. Lazare where he is imprisoned. I ask'd of somebody what reasons were given for the measure. That is the beauty of the french government, said the gentleman; to lock up a Man without saying why nor wherefore. It is supposed that it was because Beaumarchais wrote a song upon a mandement1 of the Archbishop of Paris, which warned his People, not to go to see the Comedy, and not to buy the edition of Voltaire that Beaumarchais is printing, or because in a Letter which he printed some days since in the { 234 } Journal de Paris, he boasted of having surmonté tigres et Lions pour faire jouer sa piece. By tigers and Lions he meant the king and his ministers who were very averse to Figaro's being acted: but the Queen who favoures it extremely prevailed, and the success the piece had is wonderful. It has run through 74. representations, and unless this event occasions its being stopp'd, it will probably be played a number more times. However that may be, Beaumarchais is not in an agreeable situation now. It is not an easy thing to get out of those prisons.

............“facilis descensus Averni

......

Sed revocare gradum, superasque evadere ad auras.

Hoc opus, hic labor est.”2

His friends it is said, are not sorry that he is taken up; but are very much offended at his being put into St. Lazare, where none but low fellows are sent: had he been conducted to the Bastille, they would have been quite silent.3
1. A bishop's letter or mandate.
2. “. . . easy is the descent to Avernus . . . but to recall thy steps and pass out to the upper air, this is the task, this the toil!” from Virgil's Aeneid, Bk. VI, lines 126, 128–129 (Virgil, transl. H. Ruston Fairclough, 2 vols., N.Y., 1930, 1:514–515). Despite some errors in copying, JQA doubtless used the Brindley edition (p. 177), which he had purchased the day before.
3.  JQA's account of Beaumarchais' outspoken attack is essentially correct. On reading Le mariage de Figaro, Louis XVI determined never to allow it to be played, but was forced by court pressure and by the persuasion of his wife, Marie Antoinette, to allow a private performance in Sept. 1783. This was followed a year later with a public production, which proved an instant success, especially effective in its assault upon the ancien régime and the censorship of the press. Beaumarchais' replies to his critics at this time offended a prince of the blood, who asked Louis to arrest him. Finally, after public outrage, the French playwright was released from St. Lazare on 15 March (Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel; entry for 15 March, below). On 16 April JQA bought a copy of Beaumarchais' play (n.p., 1785), which is now in the JQA pamphlet collection at MBAt.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0009

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-14

14th.

Walk'd into Paris in the morning. Hôtel de York Rue Jacob. Mr. Pickman set away for England by the Diligence, at noon. Found Mr. Boling at the Hotel de York. He arrived in Paris only three or four days ago. Mr. West of Philadelphia, arrived from London, at the Hôtel; before Mr. Pickman went away: he said he had a letter from Mr. Jackson, for my father.1 I went with Mr. Boling, to the hotel de Bretagne, and saw Mr. Waring, who thinks of { 235 } going to England, in the Course of next week. Returned to Auteuil on foot. The walk was too long. The distance from the village to the place de Louis 15. is more than 3 miles and I did not walk less than 2. about the City. A Large Company to dine with us. Mr. Brantsen, the Dutch Ambassador extraordinary, the Chevalier de la Luzerne, Marquis and Marquise de la Fayette, Mr. and Mrs. Rooker, Miss Ramsay, Mr. and Mrs. Bingham, and Coll. Humphreys, Mr. Williamos, &c. Mr. and Mrs. Rooker lately arrived in Paris and propose staying here about a fort'night. They came in a very dull time for, the Theatres were shut up last Sunday, for Three weeks, as they are yearly. The only public amusements open during that time are at the foire St. Germain, and three concerts a week at the Chateau des Tuileries.
1. See entry for 16 March, note 1 (below).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0010

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-15

15th.

Paris in the afternoon, with Mr. A. Got of Froullé, the Horace and Ovid of Brindleys edition.1 While I was in the Shop, we heard a little bell in the Street; immediately every body in the shop, but myself, fell on their knees, and began to mutter prayers and cross themselves. It was a priest, carrying le bon dieu, to a dying man. This is one of the most revered ceremony of the Romish Religion. Whenever this bell rings, (which is to inform People, that god is passing by) every man woman and child fall upon their knees and remain so till it has passd quite by. Every carriage that meets it, even the kings, is obliged to stop; and the persons in it bend the knee: formerly they were obliged to get out of the carriage and kneel in the street: but this is no longer customary. The Priest that performs this ceremony is called porte-dieu. (The word is to revolting for me to translate it.)
Louis 15 revenant du palais de la justice, ou il venait d'exercer un acte d'autorité envers le parlement de Paris, rencontra au bas du Pont Neuf le viatique de la paroisse Saint Germain l'Auxerrois. Tout son cortège royal s'arrêta; il descendit précipitamment de son carrosse, se mit à genoux dans les boues, et le prêtre sortant de dessous son dais, jadis rouge, lui donna la bénédiction. Le peuple émerveillé de cet acte pieux, oublia l'acte d'autorité qui lui déplaisait, et se mit à crier vive le roi! Et tout le long du jour il répéta: il s'est mis a genoux dan les boues!
{ 236 }
Le porte-dieu à qui cette bonne chance arriva, eut une pension de la cour.
Tableau de Paris vol: 4: ch: 28. title porte-dieu
Went to see Messrs. les abbés. Abbé Arnoux told me that Beaumarchais was set at Liberty. I imagine he will be pretty humble, after this lesson. We spent all the evening with Mr. Jefferson.
1. Horace, Opera, London, 1744; Ovid, Opera, 5 vols., London, 1745; both are inscribed “J.Q. Adams, Paris, March 15, 1785” (Catalogue of JQA's Books).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0011

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-16

16th.

Mr. West, came out, and brought to Mr. Adams, two letters from Mr. Jackson.1
1. Jonathan Jackson to JA, 25 Feb. (Adams Papers); the other letter has not been found and is not mentioned in JA's reply of 18 March (LbC, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0012

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-17

17th.

Dined at Dr. Franklin's with a considerable large Company. Mr. Brillon,1 an old french gentleman very gay and talkative. Young Mr. Chaumont2 who goes to America by the April packet from l'Orient. Mr. Boling, a descendent of an Indian Queen, of somewhat a dark complexion, and his manners, are not perfectly pleasing to the Ladies. Mr. Norris, an American Quaker, turned Catholic. His turns of mind seems rather melancholic, and while Mr. B. gave himself up to unbounded laughter at the wit of our old french guest, Mr. N. did not relax one feature of his face: he hardly spoke a word the whole time. Mr. Dalrymple, Secretary to Mr. Crawford the British Commissary, for making a Treaty of Commerce with France. The Treaty of Commerce, is said to be just as far advanced as it was, when Mr. C. left England, which was about 9 months ago. In the meantime Mr. C. is determined to be of some service to his Country and has been employing his time in forming a project, to pay off the national debt of G. Britain which he proposes to accomplish by borrowing more money. He pretends that his scheme will suit as well for America as for England; and in that he is very right. This project has nothing in common with my dining at Dr. Franklin's, but the anecdote is so curious that I cannot help taking notice of it, here. But it must be known that Mr. C. is a great partisan for Mesmer, who he says, { 237 } has, mended his health very materially. I think however, that a few grains of hellebore, would be of still more use to him. Mr. and Mrs. Bingham, and Commodore Jones, Coll. Humphreys', and Mr. Williamos, and several other gentlemen dined at the Doctor's. The old gentleman, is perfectly well, except the Stone, which prevents him from riding in a Coach, and even from walking; he says he is determined to return to America this Spring. The motion of a Vessel, would not, he thinks, be painful to him.
1. M. de Jouy Brillion, receiver-general of trusts of Parlement, who lived at Passy and was a friend of Franklin (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 5:42; JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:46–47).
2. Jacques Le Ray de Chaumont, also known as James Le Ray, was the son of Jacques Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont, the commissary of the American fleet and landlord of Franklin at Passy. Young Chaumont was about to begin a tour of America; he returned in 1790 representing European land speculation interests in northern New York, where he lived for the next forty years (Franklin B. Hough, American Biographical Notes . . ., Albany, 1875, p. 254; JA to John Hancock, 14 April, LbC, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0013

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-18

18th.

Paris afternoon. Went to see Mr. and Mrs. Rooker and Mr. West, but neither were at home. Walk'd an hour in the Palais Royal: met Mr. Waring there: he tells me that Beaumarchais has written to the king, to complain for his having been sent to St. Lazare. I got of Froullé, the Juvenal with Monsr. Dusaulx's translation.1
1. Satires de Juvénal, traduites par M. Dusaulx, Paris, 1770 (MQA).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0014

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-20

20th.

My father went to Versailles in the morning to see the Count de Vergennes, upon the subject of a Treaty between the U. States, and the Powers of Barbary. The Emperor of Morocco has taken an American vessel belonging to Mr. Fitz Simmons of Philadelphia.1 He has made the Master and the crew prisoners; but has not suffered them to be made slaves. He has ordered his People not to take any more untill Congress may send a Consul to him: and he offers to treat with us, upon the same footing that he does with all the Powers of Europe. This matter gives the American Commissioners, a great deal of trouble at present. Mr. West, Mr. Norris, Mr. Waring and Mr. Boling dined with us. I promised Mr. West to introduce him to the Marquis de la { 238 } Fayette, someday this week. Mr. Boling sets off for London tomorrow. The Foire St. Germain2 closed last evening.
1. For this incident and its significance for relations between the United States and Mediterranean powers, see JA, Diary and Autobiography, 3:173–174 and references there.
2. A Paris fair devoted more to amusements than to business and trade, which began on 3 Feb. and ended on the Saturday before Palm Sunday; its popularity destroyed by the Galeries du Palais Royal, it closed in 1786 (Jacques Antoine Dulaure, Histoire civile, physique et moral de Paris, 10 vols., Paris, 1825, 8:197–199).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0015

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-23

23d.

Paris. Hotel de york, rue Jacob: for Mr. West. I went with him and presented him to the Marquis de la Fayette, and afterwards to Mr. Jefferson. Walk'd after that, in the Palais Royal. This place furnishes a vast fund of entertainment to an observer. It is the most frequented walk in Paris. At every hour of the day, and of the night too, you will never fail of finding company there, and it is very curious to see the different dresses and appearances of the People you find there. Dined at the hotel de York with Mr. Rooker. In the afternoon the Ladies went to Auteuil, and I went with Mr. West, to the Theâtre des Varietés, to see le sieur Pinetti1professeur de Physique, Mathématiques, &c. perform his Experiences. Le sieur Pinetti, is a very great quack, and his Experiences, are nothing but a parcel of jugglers tricks, which every mountebank of a fair, performs as well for 12 sols, as he does for 6. livres. He had not much Company this evening; I suppose on account of the promenade de Longchamps, which began this day.
1. Doubtless, the conjurer Giuseppe Pinetti de Willedal, author of Amusemens physiques, et différentes expériences divertissantes, composées & exécutées, tant à Paris que dans les diverses cours de l'Europe, Paris, 1784.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0016

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-24

24th.

Mr. Adams and the Ladies went to the church of St. Sulpice, and afterwards to Longchamps. This day the king washes the feet of 12 poor children in imitation of our Saviour's washing those of the apostles. The kings brothers serve those children at dinner, and they have some peculiar privileges; such as being pardoned twice for crimes for which any other persons would be hang'd &c. Some of the great noblemen, follow the example of the king; and the archbishop of Paris performs the same ceremony at the Church of Nôtre Dame.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0017

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-25

25th.

Good Friday. Went in the afternoon to Longchamps. This is the last Day. Every year; the wednesday, thursday, and friday, of the week preceding Esther, which is called Semaine Sainte, there is a kind of procession in the Bois de Boulogne, and it is called Longchamps. There are perhaps each of those Days a thousand carriages, that come out of Paris to go round one of the Roads in the wood one after the other. There are two rows of carriages, one goes up and the other down so that the People in every carriage, can see all the others. Every body that has got a splendid carriage, a fine set of horses, or an elegant Mistress, send them out on these days to make a show at longchamps. As all the Théatres, and the greatest part of the public amusements, are shut all this week, the concourse is always very considerable for those, that cannot go there to be seen, go to see, and as it commonly happens upon the like occasions, there are always twenty to see for one there is to be seen. It is very genteel, for there are always there some of the first people in the kingdom. The hours are from five to seven, by which time very few carriages remain there; for they all go off together, so that one quarter of an hour before the place is entirely deserted, the concourse is the greatest. The origin of this curious custom, was this. There is a convent of women called Longchamps, somewhere near the Bois de Boulogne, where formerly, there was some very fine music, performed on these days, which drew a vast number of Persons out from Paris to hear it: but one year there was an uncommon concourse, and some disorders happened, which induced the Archbishop of Paris, to forbid this music on these days, but the Public, who had commonly taken a ride round part of the wood after hearing the music, continued taking the latter part of the amusement, when they were deprived of the first, and the custom has been kept up, to this day.
After it was over we went and drank tea with Dr. Franklin. Saw Mr. Dalrymple there. The weather is very cold and disagreeable yet.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0018

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-26

26th.

Paris afternoon. Froullé, books upon astronomy. Went to see Mr. West and Mr. Waring but neither was at home. Messieurs Van den Yver bankers Ruë Royale, Butte St. Roch.1 Spent part of { 240 } the evening with the abbés. While I was there a Gentleman came in, who was a great partisan, for animal magnetism, that he very strenuously defended. Speaking of Dr. Franklin, he said j'aime beaucoup M: Franklin, c'est un homme de beaucoup d'esprit et de génie; je suis seulement faché pour lui, qu'il ait signé ce rapport des Commissaires. He spoke this with so much naïveté that I could not help smiling. When he went away the abbés told me he was a man, worth 50,000 livres a year, of an exceeding benevolent disposition, and that he does a great deal of good: a sensible man, but very firmly persuaded of the reality of animal magnetism. Mesmer the pretended discoverer, has certainly as yet, behaved like a mountebank, and yet he has persuaded a great number of People, and some persons of great Sense and learning, that he has made an important discovery. An extraordinary System, a great deal of mystery, and the art of making People, pay a hundred louis d'ors for a secret which no body receives, have persuaded almost half this kingdom, that Mesmer really has the secret that he pretends to have.
1. Van den Yver Frères was the Paris agent for W. and J. Willink, Amsterdam bankers. On this day JA drew an order of 4,800 livres on the firm for JQA (Diary and Autobiography, 3:172).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0019

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-27

27th.

Sunday. Mr. Adams dined with Mr. de St. Olympe's and spent the evening at Mr. Jefferson's. At about seven o'clock in the evening the Queen, was delivered of a Son, who is Monseigneur le Due de Normandie:1 this is one of the most important events that can happen in this kingdom; and every Frenchman has been expecting it, as if the fate of his life depended upon it. One would think that after having a Dauphin they would be easy, and quiet, but say they, the Dauphin is young and may die; and tho' the king has two brothers one of whom has several children, yet the Capital point is that the crown should pass down eternally from father to Son: insomuch that they would prefer being governed by a fool or a tyrant, that should be the Son of his predecessor, than by a sensible and good prince, who should only be a brother. The Canons announced to us the birth of the Prince. The Queen was taken ill only an hour before her delivery, a Circumstance which must have been very agreeable to her, for a few minutes before she is delivered, the doors of her apartment are always { 241 } opened, and every body that pleases is admitted, to see the child come into the world, and if there had been time enough, all Paris would have gone pour voir accoucher la Reine. The name of the young Duke of Normandy, is not yet known.
1. Louis Charles de France (1785–1795), later Louis XVII (Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0020

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-28

28th.

Snow in the morning sufficient to cover the ground. Dined at the Marquis de la Fayette's. When I arrived there the Marquis was not returned from Versailles, where he went last evening immediately upon hearing of the Queen's delivery, but could not get there soon enough to be present at the Christening. He told me a curious Circumstance. The Queen was so large, that it was suspected she might have twins, and Mr. de Calonne, the controuler general had prepared two blue ribbands, in case two Princes should be born, for the kings children must be decorated with those badges, immediately after they come into the world. The Count1 and Chevalier de la Luzerne dined with us. After dinner I went with Mr. West to see Mr. and Mrs. Rucker, and afterwards we took a walk together in the Palais Royal. It is curious to hear the sagacious reflections and remarks upon the event of yesterday, made by the badauds: and it is pleasing to see how joyful how contented they look. All take the title given to the Prince, as a doubtless presage, of his future Conquests, and are firmly perswaded that it was expressly given him, that England may be a second time subdued by a Duke of Normandy: if they dared, they would mention another point, in which, the pretended, conqueror may resemble the real one.2 The Palais Royal, the Spanish Ambassador's hotel, the Hôtel des Invalides, the Ecole militaire, and several other buildings were illuminated in the evening.
1. César Henri, Comte de La Luzerne, administrator and brother of the Chevalier de La Luzerne (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
2. Common speculation was that the young duc might be a bastard like William the Conqueror, his predecessor to the title. From 1783 to 1787 there was a liaison between Marie Antoinette and Count Axel de Fersen, colonel commandant of the Royal Swedish Regiment in the French army. While rumors abounded, there is no hard evidence that the Duc de Normandie was Fersen's son (Philippe Huisman and Marguerite Jallut, Marie Antoinette, London, 1971, p. 156–157).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0021

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-29

29th.

Dr. Franklin's early in the morning. Coll. Humphreys breakfasted with us, and went with Mr. Adams to Versailles, where they were presented for the first time, to the new born Prince, who received them in bed: there were half a dozen ladies in the chamber. There were three beds joining each other, and in the middle one laid M: le Duc. Probably that in the night one of the Ladies sleep in each of the other beds to prevent Monseigneur from falling out. The king was exceedingly gay, and happy, and his brothers appeared so too.

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0022

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-30

30th.

Mr. Adams dined at the Spanish Ambassador's, Count d'Aranda, an old man 70 years of age, who married, last year a young woman of 20. Peace be with him!

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0005-0023

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-03-31

31st.

Madame de la Fayette sent a Card1 to offer us places for the Te Deum, which is to be sung tomorrow at Nôtre Dame, when the king is to be present. Mr. Adams dined at Count Sarsfield's.2
1. Not found.
2. A social and intellectual friend of the Americans in Paris, Guy Claude, Comte de Sarsfield, was a French military officer of Irish extraction, who lived in Paris and traveled frequently between the Netherlands, London, and Paris, where he was often in JA's company (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:381).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0006-0001

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-04-01

Friday April 1st. 1785.

The Marchioness appointed two o'clock for us to be at her Hôtel. We dined at half after twelve, and were in the Rue de Bourbon at two, but it was too early. Mrs. Rucker, Mr. Jefferson, Coll. Humphreys, Mr. Williamos, Mr. West, went all with us. At about half past three we went from the Marquis's hôtel and by the time we got to the Pont Royal, both sides of the quay were so amazingly crowded with People, that there was but just space sufficient for the carriages to pass along: and had there not been guards placed on both sides at a distance not greater than ten yards from one another, there would have been no passage at all for coaches. For as it was, the troops had the utmost difficulty to restrain the mob: we pass'd along, on the Quai des Augustins till we came to the Pont Neuf, went over part of that, turn'd down { 243 } onto the Isle de Nôtre Dame; and then proceeded on in a direct line to the Church. We were placed in a gallery that commanded the choir, and were in as good a place as any in the Church, which we owed to the Politeness of Mme. de la Fayette. In the middle of the choir below us were several rows of benches, upon which the kings train sat when he came, while he and his two brothers were before all the benches, and directly opposite the altar. When we arrived we found the Parliament setting in the Choir on the right side, in scarlet and black Robes; the Chambre des Comptes were seated in the same manner on the left Sides, in black and white Robes. The Foreign Ambassadors were in an enclosure at the right of the alter, and between them and the parliament, was a small throne upon which the archbishop of Paris officiated. Soon after we got there the bishops arrived two by two. There were about twenty five of them. They had black Robes on, with a white muslin skirt which descended from the waste, down two thirds of the way to the ground; and a purple kind of a mantle over their shoulders. The Archbishop of Paris had a mitre upon his head. When the king came, he went out to the Door of the Church to receive him: and as soon as his Majesty had got to his place and fallen upon his knees, they began to sing the Te Deum, which lasted about half an hour, and in which we heard some exceeding fine music. The voices were admirable. The Archbishop of Paris sung for about a Couple of Minutes, near the end, that it might be said, he had sung the Te Deum. His voice seems to be much broken. As soon as the singing was over the king and the Court immediately went away.
What a charming sight: an absolute king of one of the most powerful Empires on earth, and perhaps a thousand of the first personages in that Empire, adoring the divinity who created them, and acknowledging that he can in a moment reduce them to the Dust from which they sprung. Could we suppose their Devotion real and sincere, no other proof would be necessary to demonstrate the falsity of the supposition that religion is going to decay. But oh! if the hearts of all those persons, could have been sounded, and everything that was lurking there while the exterior appeared offering up prayers to god, could be produced to light; I fear the rigid moralist, would have a confirmation of his fears. The reflection of the Chevalier de Gouvion1 shew he was of this opinion. I don't know said he, whether all this will be very acceptable to God almighty: but very few persons came here for { 244 } him. I was however vastly pleased with the Ceremony; and should have been so, if it was only, that it gave me an opportunity to see so numerous an assembly of men, of the first rank in the kingdom. The king and all the court were dress'd in cloaths vastly rich but in no peculiar form.
After the Ceremony was finished, we had to wait a long time for our Carriages and could not at last get them all; so that we were obliged to go away, five in one Charriot. We returned to the Hôtel de la Fayette, and drank tea with Madam. A number of Houses, were considerably illuminated, but nothing to be compared to what there was six years ago, when the kings first child was born, although it was only a Princess. We returned home at about nine, and were more than half an hour getting over the Pont Neuf, such was the crowd of Carriages: in the passage of the Cours la Reine, we saw a number of fellows, throwing up the sand, to see if there were no 12 sols pieces remaining for upon these occasions, when the Mob cry out vive le Roi, he throws out of his Coach handfuls of small pieces of money, and is thereby the cause of many a squabble, and some broken heads, though the Police is so attentive that few such misfortunes happen.
The title of Duke of Normandy, has not been borne, by any person, for more than three hundred years, untill the birth of the young Prince.
1. Doubtless, Jean Baptiste de Gouvion, a military engineer who served in the Continental Army; after Yorktown, he resumed his military career in France (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale; Lasseray, Les français sous les treize étoiles, 1:234–237).

Docno: ADMS-03-01-02-0007-0006-0002

Author: Adams, John Quincy
Date: 1785-04-03

3d.

Mrs. and Miss Adams, went into Paris in the evening: and went with young Mr. Franklin and Mrs. Hewson1 to the Concert Spiritual.2
1. Mary (Polly) Hewson, daughter of Benjamin Franklin's London landlady, Margaret Stevenson. In 1770 she married Dr. William Hewson, who became a respected London physician and anatomist, but he wounded himself during a dissection in 1774 and subsequently died. Shortly thereafter, Frank