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Browsing: Papers of John Adams, Volume 6


Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0088

Author: Lovell, James
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-15

From James Lovell

(10)1

[salute] My dear Sir

I find it impossible to write to you at this Time so fully as I wish being greatly overplied with business from the neglect of others. I cannot however consent that Dispatches for France should go off without a line in Testimony of my personal attachment to you and in proof of remembrance of my promises; which kind of proof I have given 9 Times before since you left Boston.
Ever, more uneasy when Negociation was talked of than when fresh Troops were destined against us, I am not quite at ease now, though a powerful Alliance is formed in our favour with which the States are much pleased. I cannot be free from concern least the insidious arts of Britain should prevail to induce us to neglect the Opportunity which is now offered to exterminate the Curses that yet remain on this continent nested in three Capitals.2 I fear a temporary Cessation of Hostilities would ruin our best Prospects; when a month of vigorous Exertions would free us from the Enemy altogether. The same time spent in Negociation under a suspension of Hostilities would familiarize the persons of our Foes to us, and give them the advantage of reviving our former feeling Attachments to Britain and to sow Discord and Division in places where the Government is yet wanting a consistency to render it proof against the Attack of an artful and designing Adversary. We owe Britain neither Love nor Money; but they owe us a vast Reparation. I have spoken here, without seing, at present, the least opening for a Negociation; but I felt haunted by the simple Idea of such a thing.
A Sort of half-pay Establishment is made for the Officers and a grant of 80 Dollars for the Men who shall continue to the End of the War, in Addition to former Encouragement. The Officers Provision will be either Life redeemable at six years purchase or else for 6 years only absolute. The Soldiers 80 Dollars outright.3
Genl. Gates attended a Council in his Way to Peek's Kill, and the plan of Opperations was settled with great Harmony and Unanimity.4 This is a good Opening, may the Close be answerable!
Our little Navy is sadly destroyed, but we have every natural Advantage for repairing our Losses. If it was not for the Justice { 122 } of our Cause, no one could unravel the Mystery of the Manner in which we have so well supported ourselves against the most formidable naval power in Europe. We have even made her afraid.
As the Dispatch5 goes from the Eastward you will get News of your lovely family. The Independance was lost on Ocracock bar6 but we got the Dispatches the same Night that Folgiers came to hand. I send you a few papers of a different kind from those sent to the other Gentlemen;7 and am most affectionately Your humb Servt,
[signed] JL
RC (Adams Papers); docketed: “Mr Lovel to me 15 May 1778.”
1. On this date Lovell began numbering his letters to JA, this being the 10th sent since JA left America; but it was a short-lived practice, for he numbered only this letter and that of 16 May (below).
2. The three provincial capitals occupied at this time were Philadelphia, New York, and Newport.
3. Lovell here gives an inaccurate account of the resolutions adopted on 15 May (JCC, 11:502–503), an indication that this letter was written before they were approved. For the correct provisions and Lovell's comments on the propriety of such resolutions, see his letter to JA of 16 May (below).
4. For the “Council” and Lovell's further comments on it, see his letter of 16 May, note 8 (below).
5. Probably the schooner Dispatch, which, in accordance with the Marine Committee's orders of 5 May, sailed from Boston in June with copies of the ratified Franco-American treaties as well as letters from AA to JA and JQA of 10 June (Adams Family Correspondence, 3:39, note 1; see also the Navy Board for the Eastern Department to the Commissioners, 8 June, note 1, below).
6. The Continental sloop Independence, Capt. John Young, was wrecked on 24 April as it attempted to enter Ocracoke Inlet, N.C. (Dict. Amer. Fighting Ships, 3:424).
7. Enclosures not found.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0089

Author: Vergennes, Charles Gravier, Comte de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-15

Vergennes to the Commissioners

Versailles, 15 May 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:100–101. This letter and its supporting enclosure, a copy of a letter from La Tuilliere, consul at Madeira, to Sartine dated 15 Feb., were translated by Adams in his Autobiography (for the French texts see Lb/JA/6, Microfilms, Reel No. 94). Vergennes protested the illegal seizure of “a French Snow or Brigantine ... in Sight of the City of Madeira,” by the privateer Lion, Capt. Benjamin Warren (“John” Warren in the letter and enclosure, but see Allen, Mass. Privateers, p. 206), and called for the punishment that Warren deserved.
On 19 May, in a letter to the president of the congress, the Commissioners referred the protest to that body's deliberation and, in another letter of the same date, informed Vergennes of their action (both in Diary and Autobiography, 4:103). No record of the ultimate disposition of this matter has been found.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0090

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Date: 1778-05-16

The Commissioners to Sartine

[salute] Sir

Messrs. Basmarine, Raimbeaux and Co.2 having represented to Us, that they have applied to Government for a Frigate, to be employed in Defence of their Commerce to and from America, and in making Reprisals for the Losses they have lately Sustained by our Enemies. We the Commissioners of the united States of North America, hereby request, that Such a Frigate may be granted them: and in that Case, We are ready to give a Commission and Letter of Marque to Such Frigate, upon Messrs. Basmarine & Cos. giving Bond to Us, for the regular Behaviour of Such Frigate according to the Laws of Nations, and the Usage of the united States.

[salute] We have the Honour to be, with great Respect, your Excellencys most &c.

[signed] signed F. L. and A.
1. Date supplied from Sartine's reply of 3 June (below).
2. Récule de Basmarin et Raimbeaux was a leading mercantile firm at Bordeaux and heavily involved in the American trade. JA had dined with the two partners at Bordeaux on 2 April (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:294, note 1; 4:36).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0091

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Author: Lee, Arthur
Recipient: Vergennes, Charles Gravier, Comte de
Date: 1778-05-16

The Commissioners to Vergennes

[salute] Sir

We had this Morning the Honour of receiving your Excellency's Letter of the 13. Instant relative to the Boston Frigate.
We beg leave to assure your Excellency that the Frigate called the Boston, now at Bourdeaux, is a Ship of War belonging to the 13 United States of North America, built and maintained at their Expence, by the Honourable Congress.
We therefore, humbly presume that his Majestys royal Determination on the Representation of the Farmers General, will be according to the Usage of Nations in such Cases, and your Excellency may be assured that Captain Tucker will conform to that Determination with the utmost Respect.1

[salute] We have the honour to be Your Excellency's most obedient & most humble Servants

[signed] B Franklin
[signed] Arthur Lee
[signed] John Adams
{ 124 }
1. Vergennes replied on 17 May (Dft, Arch. Aff. Etr., Paris, Corr. Pol., E.U., vol. 3), stating that the King had decided that the Boston “éprouveroit le même traitement qui est d'usage a l'egard de ceux detoutes les autres puissances” (would receive the same treatment ordinarily given to those of all other nations) and that the Farmers General would be informed of the decision.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0092

Author: Lovell, James
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-16

From James Lovell

(11)

[salute] Dear Sir

As I hinted to you in my letter of yesterday, which goes by a different Vessel from what bears this, Half-pay for 7 years, if they live so long, is granted to the Officers who serve the War out. It was also resolved to give 80 Dollars to the Men in addition to their Land.1
The Commissioners at the Courts of Tuscany Vienna and Berlin are to have plenipotentiary Commissions and not to be restricted to 12 years Treaties of Amity and Commerce.2 They could only propose and treat but not conclude. And I hope they will not be allowed to make Alliances. Great Caution indeed is to be used in that point. There is but one Power besides France that could tempt me, unless Minheer should incline.3
I presume our Army will now immediately be reformed the Battalions consolidated and the useless Officers dismissed. He, as your Namesake says, will soon put Things to rights,4 having been obliged to coax almost instead of order in times past. Our Soldiers deserve all praise for their perseverance in hunger and nakedness but the Gemmen have taken improper times to move their schemes of Pension and, will you believe it, Nobility. Some, in a big House, think that there is no Objection to Titles when not hereditary. Does it not look well——Lord chief Justice of Delaware.5
It is reported that Mr. S. A. is coming forward.6 I assure you we who are here have had consummate drudgery day and night ever since you left us in November. Mr. D is a very good man indeed. I wish he would consent to tarry, but his Estate is continually destroyed by his Friends who are keeping his Enemies in order. I mean the Guards over Burgoynes troops.7 I hope Mr. Deane will come over. I mean I hope he will not throw himself out of use by resenting an Act of Congress founded on Necessity. I think he is peculiarly calculated for Holland if we have a Com• { 125 } mission there.8 Howe is not gone from his Command. It is reported that the Enemy are embarking their heavy Baggage. This if fact is no proof of their quitting. It may be a prudent preparative to coming out against us: a few days will make something certain. The Council which Gates attended in his way to Peeks-kill was finished with great unanimity of Sentiment, and much Cordiality between the great men tho the latter was not expected from some foolish bickerings which had been raised out of Conways Indiscretion, whose Resignation has been accepted.9
I wish you happiness and I think you have the fund for it whether you are now in Paris or a Prisoner in England. Give my Love to your Son and tell him it is Matris Ergo,10 that he may try his talent at the Phrases which teazed me in my Infancy.
I hope soon to have from you Sic Canibus Catulos similes,11 by way of Confession, and some Substitute, more adapted to my Experience than the Cupressi of Tityrus, to mark your Sublimities. Be cautious, however, that you do not hint that you have seen any Thing superior to Philadelphia; unless you are willing instantaneously to forfeit the great Portion you hold of Mrs. Clymars good Opinion.
Genl. R—— has been from home several Weeks: he has purchased into an Estate about one hundred miles off, near to water Carriage, where is an exceeding rich Lead mine Capable of supplying the Army, and of repaying him in half a year or less.12 Your affectionate humb servt,
[signed] JL
RC (Adams Papers); docketed: “Mr Lovell May 16. 1778.”
1. On 15 May the congress passed resolutions granting allowances to those officers and men who would serve until the end of the war, the officers being obliged to take an oath of allegiance. The debate was long and controversial, beginning with the introduction of proposals on 5 Jan. and continuing through their revision and reintroduction on 26 March to their final passage. Lovell voted against the resolutions because he feared the establishment of the military as a privileged class. Widespread concern about special treatment for the military anticipated later attacks on the Society of the Cincinnati when it was established in 1783 (JCC, 11:502–503; 10:15–21, 285–286; Louis Clinton Hatch, The Administration of the American Revolutionary Army, N.Y., 1904,p. 79–84; Edmund C. Burnett, The Continental Congress, N.Y., 1941, p. 311–316; Wallace Evan Davies, “The Society of the Cincinnati in New England, 1783–1800,” WMQ, 3d ser., 5:3–25 [Jan. 1948]).
2. Ralph Izard, Commissioner to Tuscany, and William Lee, Commissioner to Berlin and Vienna, were appointed on 7 and 9 May 1777 respectively (JCC, 7: 334, 343) On 28 May the congress adopted significantly strengthened commissions, adding the words “and conclude” to the Commissioners' powers “to communicate” and “treat” and promising, “in good faith, to ratify whatever our said commissioner shall transact in the premises” (JCC, 8:519–521; 11:505, 546–547, 559, 563).
Alterations in the commissioners' in• { 126 } structions were ordered on 16 May, presented to the congress and tabled on the 28th, and considered on 1 and 2 June (JCC, 8:519–521; 11:505, 546–547. 559, 563). Because no further mention of new instructions occurs after 2 June and no copy of them has been found, it seems probable that none was adopted, the congress having decided to continue those of 1777. The Commissioners were, therefore, still bound by the twelve-year limitation on the length of commercial treaties based on principles in the treaty plan of 1776 (vol. 4:260–302). Lovell's apprehension about the negotiation of military alliances, probably shared by JA, proved to be needless because the missions of Izard and Lee were fruitless.
3. The first reference is almost certainly to Spain; the second is obviously to the Netherlands.
4. Presumably a reference by Samuel Adams to George Washington and the proposed plan to reorganize the Continental Army. On 10 Jan. the congress had ordered a committee to meet with Washington and devise a plan to reduce the number of battalions in the army. On 18 May such a plan was introduced and on the 27th adopted (JCC, 10:40; 11:507, 538–543).
5. No explanation of Lovell's statements in the final three sentences of this paragraph has been found.
6. Samuel Adams had, with JA, taken a leave of absence on 7 Nov. 1777 and was about to return to the congress. He took his seat on 21 May (JCC, 9:880; 11:517).
7. Francis Dana was unhappy about having to live on the congressional salary and the destruction being inflicted on his property in Cambridge by the soldiers stationed at Fort No. 2, which was partially on his land (Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates, 15:206).
8. James Lovell to Benjamin Franklin, 15 May (Burnett, ed., Letters of Members, 3:242), contains a more explicit statement of Lovell's views on Deane's recall.
9. Lovell is doubtless referring to the Council of War held at Valley Forge on 8 May (Washington, Writings, ed. Fitzpatrick, 11:363–366). That there could be “Cordiality between the great men,” would be surprizing to Lovell in view of Brig. Gen. Thomas Conway's sharp attack on Washington in a letter to Gates that gave rise to unfounded rumors of a cabal. Largely because of the furor attending this incident, Conway resigned on 28 April (DAB; JCC, 10:399; see also Benjamin Rush to JA, 13 Oct. 1777, note 1, above).
10. Because of a mother.
11. These words are from a speech by Tityrus in Virgil, Eclogues, 1:19–25. There the entire sentence reads “Sic canibus catulos similis, sic matribus haedos noram, sic parvis componere magna solebam” (Thus I knew that puppies are like to dogs, goats are like to their mothers; thus I was accustomed to compare large things to small). Later in the paragraph Lovell refers to the cypress trees of Tityrus— “Cupressi of Tityrus”—and is apparently alluding to Tityrus' statement, in the same speech, that the small town was to imperial Rome as the shrub is to the cypress. By his two allusions Lovell evidently means that he sees himself as the lesser of the two men and therefore hopes for something greater from JA than what he has received, something heroic or epic.
12. Brig. Gen. Daniel Roberdeau, because of need for bullets, established in 1778 a lead mine in western Pennsylvania at his own expense and built Fort Roberdeau to protect it (DAB).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0093

Author: Vernon, William Jr.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-16

From William Vernon Jr.

[salute] Sir

I had the honour of writing you a letter on the tenth of April, in which I informed you of my determination to reside in this place, and prayed that you would forward me recommendations to the house of Messrs. Feyers freres, which is one of the first character in this City.
{ 127 }
Being sensible that the business in which you must be involv'd leaves you few leisure moments, I was determined to wait with patience for your answer; but I hope you will pardon the impertinance of a second letter urging the same request, when I assure you that the disagreeableness of my present situation forc'd the pen into my hand against my inclination. Of this situation, sir, you will be a Judge, when you consider that I came to this City without a recommendation to any Person in it with an intention of entering into the Counting-house of some principal Merchant; this has been and still is impossible for me to effect with credit without letters; these sir I can solely expect from you who art the only Person of much consequence in France who has any knowledge of me or my connections; I therefore entreat you to spend a few of your first leisure minutes in writing a few lines for me.1 I have the honour to be with the greatest respect your most obedient most humble Servant.
[signed] William Vernon junr.
1. No reply to this letter has been found, but see JA's letter to Vernon of 12 May (calendared above), which was an answer to the letter of 10 April.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0094

Author: Continental Congress, Commerce Committee
Author: Ellery, William
Author: Hutson, Richard
Author: Adams, Thomas
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-16

The Commerce Committee to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

This will be accompanied with a Contract entered into between John Baptist Lazarus Theveneau De Francy Agent of Mr. Peter Augustine Caron De Beaumarchais representative of the House of Rodrigue Hortalez & Co. and the Committee of Commerce.1 You will observe that their Accounts are to be fairly stated and what is justly due paid. For as on the One hand Congress would be unwilling to evidence a disregard for, and contemptuous refusal of the Spontaneous freindship of his most Christian Majesty; so on the other they are unwilling to put into the private Packets what was gratuitously designed for Public benefit. You will be pleased to have thier Accounts liquidated and direct in the liquidation thereof that particular care be taken to distinguish the property of the Crown of France from the Private property of Hortalez and company and transmit to us the accounts so stated and distinguished. This will also be accompanied by an Invoice of Articles to be imported from France and resolves of Congress relative thereto.2 You will appoint if { 128 } you judge proper an Agent or Agents to Inspect the quality of such Goods as you may apply for to the House of Roderigue Hortalez & Co. before they are shipped to prevent any imposition.
The Obstructions of the Bays and Harbours to the southward by British men of war, hath prevented our shipping Tobacco as we intended. We have ordered several Vessels lately to South Carolina for Rice and have directed the Continental Agent in that state to consign them to your address. So soon as we can venture to send out Tobacco with any probability of Success we shall certainly do it.
This goes by a dispatch Vessel under the direction of the Committee of foreign Affairs. Five Others are employed in the same business, which you will load with such Articles as you may have ready to transmit to us.
We congratulate with you on the treaties entered into with his most Christian Majesty and are with the greatest respect, Gentn. Your very hble servts
[signed] William Ellery
[signed] Richd. Hutson
[signed] Thos. Adams
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed in an unknown hand: “Letter from Committee May 16. 1778” designated a “Copy,” probably one of several sent by the Committee to the Commissioners.
1. This contract with Roderigue Hortalez & Cie., a fictitious firm established by Beaumarchais to funnel clandestine French aid to the United States, was approved by the congress on 7 April and announced as executed on the 16th (JCC, 10:316–318, 356; for de Francy's credentials impowering him to negotiate a contract, see 10:320–321).
The first paragraph of this letter was copied directly into the Commissioners' letter to Vergennes of 10 Sept. (JA, Works, 7:29–31). It requested his intervention and advice in order to establish what portion of the supplies sent to America were the gift of the French government, for which no payment was due, and what portion was obtained under contract to Roderigue Hortalez & Cie., and was to be paid for with shipments of American produce to France. In a letter of 10 Sept. to Beaumarchais (LbC, Adams Papers) the Commissioners demanded that he present a full accounting for all supplies contracted for by the United States from Roderigue Hortalez & Cie.
2. That is, the resolutions passed on 16 May which prompted this letter (JCC, 11:505).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0095

Author: Jones, John Paul
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-16

John Paul Jones to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

As there is an appearance that the Sales of the Rangers prizes will be greatly protracted thro' the claims of the Admiralty here—I have been under the necessity of drawing on you this day a { 129 } Bill at five days sight in favor of Monsieur Bersolle for Twenty four thousand Livers—which I mean to distribute among the brave Officers and Men to whom I owe my late Success. It is but reasonable that they should be furnished with the means of procuring little comforts and necessaries of Life for themselves—— and the intrests of the Service as well as the claims of Humanity and Justice plead in behalf of their Wives and helpless Families who are now unprovided in America, and will naturally expect a Supply of Cloathing &ca. by the Drake.1
You may expect a circumstantial Account of every transaction respecting the Ranger in a day or two—Meantime my unsettled situation must be my Apology.2
It may not be amiss to add that upon recollection I do not conceive that France has any power to give up American prisoners while they remain on board of American Ships and are not suffered to come ashore.3 I have the honor to be with much Esteem and Respect, Gentlemen Your very Obliged very Obedient very humble Servant
[signed] John Paul Jones
Dupl (ViU: Lee Papers); docketed in two unknown hands: “J.P. Jones to Amn. Comes. France. 16 May 1778” and “1778.” Designated a “(Copy)”; see descriptive note for Jones' letter of 9 May (above).
1. The Commissioners' consideration of Jones' financial dealings with Bersolle in regard to the Ranger and its prizes had begun with their letter to Bersolle of 3 May (calendared above) and would later result in sharp exchanges with Jones (see the Commissioners to Jones, 25 May, calendared; and Jones' letters of 27 May and 3 June, all below). The issue was not resolved until 4 Nov., when the Commissioners, in a letter to J. D. Schweighauser and after having finally seen Bersolle's accounts, indicated what portions they would honor (LbC, Adams Papers).
2. See Jones to the Commissioners, 27 May (below).
3. A reference to Jones' letter of 9 May (above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0096

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Grand, Ferdinand
Date: 1778-05-17

The Commissioners to Ferdinand Grand

[salute] Sir

It is our desire that you accept no Bills nor pay any money out of the funds which are or may be in your hands to the credit of us three jointly without our joint order. As it has been the practice to address Letters upon the business of the Commission to Mr. Deane we desire that you will send to us all the Letters you receive so directed, and not give them to any private person. We have the honor to be &c.
Dft in Arthur Lee's hand (PPAmP: Franklin Papers).
{ 130 }
1. This letter was never sent. In a memorandum in his fragmentary journal for the period 25 May to 4 July (MH-H: Lee Papers), Arthur Lee explained that:
“Soon after Mr. Adams arrived, Mr. L. proposed that they should join in a letter to Mr. Grand the Banker forbidding him to pay any of the public money but to their joint order; to which Dr. F. would not agree saying he did not know but Mr. L. might starve him, that Mr. L. kept all the Spanish funds to himself. Upon his disagreeing the measure was dropt.”
Franklin's reference to the “spanish money” is a reflection of his sensitivity about his position vis-à-vis Arthur Lee in regard to Spain, to which both men held commissions. For a more detailed description of this conflict, see the Commissioners to J. D. Schweighauser, 10 June (calendared below).
Franklin also explained his reasons for not signing the order to Grand in a draft letter to Arthur Lee of the same date (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 3:510; Franklin, Writings, ed. Smyth, 7:154–155). There he stated that he knew of no problems caused by orders by the separate Commissioners, declined to depend on Lee for his “Subsistence,” and would not agree to have all letters to Silas Deane delivered to the Commissioners for what would be essentially a “Gratification of private Curiosity.”

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0097

Author: Lee, Arthur
Recipient: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-17

Arthur Lee to Benjamin Franklin and John Adams

[salute] Gentlemen

Being too much indisposd to come to Passi this morning, and thinking the subjects of the enclosd Letters of pressing importance; I have sent you what I think shoud be written. You will make such Alterations as you think proper.1 But if the subordinate Servants of the public continue to obey or not obey our Orders as they please—to act as they will, without taking our orders—to involve us in debt at their pleasure—and give us no account of the expenditure of large Sums of public money committed to them—we may expect the worst consequences both to the public and ourselves. I have the honor to be with the greatest esteem Gentlemen yr. most Obedt. Servt.
[signed] Arthur Lee
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honble B. Franklin & J. Adams”; docketed in an unknown hand: “A Lee Esqr Challiet 7th. May 1778.”
1. Although it cannot be stated with certainty, these “Letters” were probably drafts of letters dated 16 May to Thomas Simpson (DLC: Franklin Papers) and 17 May to Ferdinand Grand (above) and John Paul Jones. For the Commissioners' letter to Jones, see 25 May (calendared below).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0098

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: American State Officials
Date: 1778-05-18

Benjamin Franklin and John Adams to American State Officials

Paris, 18 May 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:102; ordered printed by the congress as a broadside (illustration facing p. 99). This letter was signed by Adams and Franklin because, according to Arthur Lee in his Letterbook (PCC, No. 102, IV, f. 7), “this Intelligence { 131 } was sent to the Commissioners from M. de Sartine by M. de Chaumont who came accompanied by Dr. Bancroft and the two Commissioners at Passi having signed the above Letters they were sent away without communicating them to Mr. Lee who was signing the Bills for borrowing money in Holland. Mr. Adams informed him of it [thursday].” The two Commissioners requested that French naval commanders be notified of the impending departure of eleven British warships for North America.
Although the Commissioners' information concerning the imminent departure of Vice Adm. John Byron's fleet was accurate, the warning was premature. Contrary winds and indecision caused by uncertainty about the destination of Comte d'Estaing's fleet, which had left Toulon on 13 April, delayed Byron's sailing until 9 June. Even then, Byron's arrival in American waters was delayed by the severe storms encountered on his passage, which scattered the fleet. The first vessel arrived at New York on 30 July, and Byron himself, at the end of September (Piers Mackesy, The War for America, 1775–1783, Cambridge, 1964, p. 196–202, 212; Mahan, Navies in the War of Amer. Independence, P.58–59).
The Commissioners were apparently unaware of the delay until they received “advices from London” dated 5 June, which erroneously reported that Byron's squadron, which had sailed from Portsmouth on 20 May, had put into Plymouth and been ordered not to proceed to America. Actually, the ships from Portsmouth were only a reinforcement for Byron's fleet, which was based at Plymouth. Nevertheless, on 10 June, the day after Byron had sailed, the Commissioners incorporated the new information into a circular letter directed to “any Captain bound to America” (Diary and Autobiography, 4:135; Mackesy, War for America, p. 200–201). For later intelligence on British naval operations, see letters to the Commissioners from Francis Coffyn of 18 and 19 June (both below).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0099-0001

Author: Alagnac
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-18

From Alagnac

Le Docteur Franklin, Monsieur, a qui j'ay eu l'honneur D'ecrire1 pour Savoir Des nouvelles D'un jeune homme nommé le chevalier De Pontgibaut,2 embarqué Sur le navire l'arc en ciel, partit De Nantes Depuis le Il 8bre 1777, avec plusieurs lettres De recommendation pour Mrs De Con Wai et De la Fayette, Dans l'esperance D'etre employé Dans vos troupes Des Colonies unies De l'amerique; m'a mendé qu'il n'en avait point entendu parler permettes moi monsieur De m'Addresser a vous Comme Arrivant nouvellement De Ce pays la, peut etre auries vous { 132 } quelque Connaisance Du Sort De le chevalier, ou Du navire L'arc en ciel et vous m'obligeries infiniment Si vous avies la bonté De m'instruire De la Destinie De l'un ou De l'autre. Le jeune homme plein D'ame et D'ardeur jaloux D'acquerir de la gloire pour une aussi bonne Cause, est fort cher a Sa famille et Son Silence Depuis Son Depart donne a Son pere Comte De Chalier Viellard repectable agé De 77 ans la plus grande inquietude, ne Serais ce pas abuser De votre Complaisance monsieur, que De vous prier D'alleger Son Tourment en Daignant vous informer ce qu'est Devenu le jeune homme supose que vous n'en ayes pas la moindre Connaissance oserais esperer Cette grace De vous monsieur et Celle De Croire que I have the honour to be With a great respect Sir your Most obedient humble Servant
[signed] D'alagnac
Mr. la Combe negotiant de Ce pays Ci qui a voyage tres longtems Dans vous Colonies et qui Se propose D'y retourner a bien voulu Se charger de vous remettre ma lettre en main proper c'est un garcon qui merite votre protection.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0099-0002

Author: Alagnac
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-18

Alagnac to John Adams: A Translation

Dr. Franklin, sir, to whom I had the honor to write1 for information about a young man, Chevalier de Pontgibaut,2 who left Nantes on 11 October 1777 on board the Arc en Ciel with letters of recommendation to Messrs. Conway and Lafayette in the hope of being employed with the troops of the United Colonies of America; has replied that he knows nothing on the matter. Permit me then to turn to you, sir, as you have newly arrived from that country and might have some information on the whereabouts of the Chevalier or the Arc en Ciel and you would greatly oblige me if you would have the goodness to inform me as to the fate of the one or the other. This young man, filled with ardor and eager to achieve glory in the service of such a worthy cause, is very dear to his family and his silence, since his departure, deeply worries his father, Comte de Chalier, a venerable old man of 77. Would it be too much of an imposition on you, sir, to ask you to ease his anxiety by condescending to discover what has become of this young man on the supposition that you have no information at hand. I dare hope for a favorable response to my request, sir, and I have the honor to be with a great respect, sir, your most obedient and humble servant
[signed] D'alagnac
Mr. La Combe, a merchant in this province, who has traveled extensively in your colonies and who is about to return there, kindly agreed to hand deliver this letter to you. He is a man worthy of your patronage.
{ 133 }
1. Alagnac [Alagnan] to Franklin, 11 April (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:394).
2. Charles-Albert de Moré Chaliers, comte de Pontgibaud, became Lafayette's aide de camp. Imprisoned at age 16 for being of “a fierce and violent character, and refusing to do any kind of work,” he escaped in 1777 and set out for America on the Arc de Ciel to avoid recapture. Arriving at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, the Arc de Ciel encountered the British nayal vessel his and went aground. Pontgibaud then made his way to Valley Forge and Lafayette, who, after confirming his story, appointed the Comte to his staff (A French Volunteer of the War of Independence, ed. and transl. Robert B. Douglas, Paris, 1897, p. v–vii, 1–42). In his account Pontgibaud does not mention any letters of recommendation to Conway or Lafayette but does refer to “M. d'A––––,” possibly Alagnac, who acted as a mediator between father and son. No reply by JA to Alagnac's letter has been found.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0100

Author: Dupont de Lens
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-18

From Dupont de Lens

[salute] My lord

Under the auspices of my friend Mr. Recules de Basmarin I take the Liberty of addressing myself to you; to make a tender of my Services to you, desiring you to appoint me to the place of Consul, or Commissary of your nation in this port.
The perfect Knowledge I have in every thing Concerning the maritime Commerce, my having the advantage of Writing and Speaking English most as fluently as French, and my being recommended by Mr. Recules de Basmarin make me hope, My lord, that you Will be So good as to grant me the favor I have the honor to Sollicit from your excellency.
The Situation of our Harbour, open to all Sorts of Winds, defended by forts and respectable batteries, being advantageously Situated, most opposite the mouth of the Thames, Which one may reach in less than Six hours, Will often be Very useful for the Shelter of any armed Ships of your nation, or any other that Should happen to be in this latitude: besides it might happen that the Captains Should undergo Some delay in their operations, Which Would Consequently be of prejudice to them, if they had no body to Whom they Could or Should be obliged to address themselves at their arrival.
By honouring me With So respectable an employement as that of representing a Nation that has just given to every nation an example of the love of its Country and freedom, Supported by the heroism of Virtue and Courage. I desire you to be persuaded, My Lord, that I will give all my Cares and attentions, and Shall use the most Scrupulous exactness in performing With honor all the operations, even the most Secret one's, either for the inward { 134 } or outward part of the Kingdom, intrusted to me and in giving every assistance necessary to the Ships that Will Come in this port for their business or Want.1 I am With respect My Lord Your Excellency's Most obedient and humble servant
[signed] Dupont de Lens
1. Apparently no action was taken on this letter. The Franklin Papers, however, include two letters bearing the conjectural date of 1778, one from Dupont de Lens that duplicates this letter and another from him and Lebrun requesting appointment as consuls at Calais and Dieppe, respectively (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:561).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0101

Author: Stenger, Christian
Author: Straughan, William
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-18

Christian Stenger and William Straughan to the Commissioners

The Humble Petition of Christian Stenger and William Stragham Showed that Your Petitioners with thyre Propertyes, by this Unnaturall Ware have fallen Captives to the Ranger Continentel Ship of Ware, Comanded by Captn. John Paul Jones Esqr.—first Comander of the Brigg Dolphin, beloning to Water ford, Sunck with her Cargo Flaxseed of[f] Cape Clare Aprill 14t. Latter Comander of the Lord Chatham from London to Dublin where She belonged. Taken in the Ireish Channell Aprill 17t. and now at Brest.1
Showed that Your Humble Petitioners have a havy Charge in Ireland first 11 and Latter 8 Children, all Intirely Depending on ower Industery and if adding to Ower Misfortune by a long Continuance of Captivity will Prove Ower Totall Distruction, and the Cause of the Innosent at home Seeking thyre bread from Doar to doar.
Being asured of Your Exsemplary Humanity, we bouldly take this method to knock at the Doar of Mercy for ower Deliverance, which when optained will Shurely be a Great Charrity bestowed on these at home who are not Yet able to Earn thyre Bread.
We however are not Intirely Distitude of Som Glimmering Hopes of Deliverance from Captn. Jones, who Since ower Captivity has given us at Cartentimes Som Ovasif Promisse of Deliverance, In returne for ower knowlege when on the Coast of Ireland which we Liberally have Contributed for the Safity of the Ranger, for the Testimony of which Apale to Captn. Jones { 135 } himself and Principall officers, but not in the least infringing on thyre knowlege of which the Rangers Cruse is a Sofitiand Profe of thyre Conduct.
We asurantly Flatter owerselves that Your bounty full goodness to the Distresed will out Shine the Admirallity of England, who not withstanding when Petitioned by Samuel Chandler now onboard the Ranger, found admittance and Sett at Liberty. If this Trough Gods assistance Should Com before Your Honour, Then are asured of Ower Liberty. Give us leave to point out the Clarest way to ower Familys, Suffer us to be put onboard of a Dutch Ship of which there is Severall now at Brest, if thy are Even bound to Som Treading portes in France or Spain whare we are Shure to meet with frinds the Merchants to whome we are known. If this Should find Exceptance in Your presance which hope will be the Cace and Som, we with the Innosent at home are bound to pray, and remain to Yours Honours Most afectiond. Humble Servants.
[signed] Christn. Stenger
[signed] Wm. Straughan
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To the Honorable Benjamin Franklin, Silas Dean & Arthur Lee Esqrs., American Commissioners at the Court of Paris”; docketed: “Stenger & Strahans Application 18th May 1778”; in another hand: “Representation of Officers on board the Ranger”; postmarked: “BREST.”
1. For John Paul Jones' account of the sinking of the Dolphin and capture of the Lord Chatham, see his letter to the Commissioners of 27 May (below). There is no indication that the Commissioners took any action on this or two other petitions, containing essentially the same information and both docketed by JA. The first was from the same two men and dated by JA “June 1778”; the second, from Straughan only, was undated, but probably written in 1778, possibly later in June or July (both PPAmP: Franklin Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0102

Author: Williams, Jonathan
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-18

Jonathan Williams to the Commissioners

My last informed your Excellencies of my Arrival at this place from Morlaix and my Motives in coming hither.1
Capt. Jones has received a Letter from Mr. Schweighauser who in consequence of one from William Lee Esqr. claims the Disposal of the Prizes sent into this port by the Ranger, informs Capt. Jones that he has the Management of the public Business, and that I pretend to what he alone has authority for.2
As I wish to be clearly understood in every part of my Conduct, I take the Liberty to assure you that I came hither with a { 136 } View, not of obtaining a Consignment, but of assisting Capt. Jones in his Affairs, and consequently of serving the Public; I therefore have not attempted to alter the Channel, the commercial part of the Business had taken.
The former prize the Lord Chatham being sent into the Intendant the Sale of it will probably [be] made by the Admiralty, if not, it will fall into the Hands of Mr. Bersoll by whom the Ranger was furnished before her Departure, and to whom Capt. Jones has applied for his present Wants, it being necessary, on Account of the great Detail of them that the Business should be transacted by a Resident here; the other being empty is employed as a prison Ship.3 The Drake is fitting to convey the prisoners to America. I have given every assistance in my power to put the affairs in a regular Train for a speedy and compleat Supply.
Your Excellencies thus see that my Motives are very different from what Mr. Schweighauser supposes, and so far from having any Disposition of entering into a Dispute about pecuniary advantages, it is my Intention to quit Brest the Moment I find my presence useless to the Public; but as much as I wish to avoid Dispute I must endeavour also to avoid an Imputation of neglect of Duty, and if I had acted otherwise than I have done I should have felt myself liable to it.
Capt. Jones's great object is to secure near 200 prisoners which he keeps on board his prison Brig, so as to obtain an equal number of our unhappy Countrymen now suffering in Captivity. If this can be effected here it will not be necessary to send the Drake to America, and in this Case, I beg leave to observe that this Ship can take a great part of the Stores I have at Nantes, perhaps almost all. As she belongs wholly to the Captors it will be necessary to buy her of them, or freight her to America either of which could be perhaps more reasonably done than of any other persons. As you shall please to decide, I will in obedience act.
I shall go from this in a Day or two taking Nantes in my Way to collect my papers intend to proceed to Paris. This need not prevent the loading of the Drake should you so determine. I have the honour to be very Respectfully, Your Excellencys most obedt & most humle Servant
[signed] Jona Williams
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Mr Williams May 18. 1778 ans. 25.”
{ 137 }
1. See Williams' letter of 11 May (calendared above).
2. John Daniel Schweighauser, a leading merchant at Nantes, had been appointed the American agent at Nantes and the other parts of Brittany, including Brest, Morlaix, etc., by William Lee in a letter of 21 March (PCC, No. 90, f. 495–496). For JA's appraisal of Schweighauser, see Diary and Autobiography, 4:52. Schweighauser wrote to John Paul Jones on 12 and 31 May, to which Jones replied on 4 June (PCC, No. 168).
3. Probably the brigantine Patience (Morison, John Paul Jones, p. 160, 166–167).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0103

Author: Laurens, Henry
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-19

From Henry Laurens

[salute] Dear Sir

Will you permit me to congratulate with you upon the favorable appearances in our American concerns and particularly upon your safe arrival at Paris, and further to request you will forward in the best manner the times will afford, the two inclosed Letters, one to Ralph Izard Esquire and the other to my daughter in Law in London the latter if War is kindled between France and England must take a circuitous route by Holland or Flanders and under particular protection.1 Command me at any time to do ten times as much in return and be assured of my chearful obedience.
You are so fully informed of the State of affairs in this quarter by the Committee of foreign correspondence it would be committing waste upon time to repeat. We have this Instant an account of the Enemy's movements from Philadelphia under clouds of mancevre and stratagem, time will shew whether they mean to attack Gen. Washington or to penetrate Jersey and cross over to New York. Our Commander in Chief is also in motion and if they don't face him he will be on their Skirts.

[salute] I wish you every degree of happiness & am with great Respect Dear sir Your Obedient hum' servt

[signed] Henry Laurens
1. The letter to Izard may have concerned his affairs in South Carolina that Laurens had undertaken to oversee while Izard was absent in Europe. Mrs. John Laurens (Martha Manning), sister-in-law of Benjamin Vaughn, remained in England until 1781. In the spring of that year she set out for France to join her husband, who had been appointed an American minister, but died before reaching him (Wallace, Laurens, p. 45, 464–469; DAB).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0104-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-19

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Ma derniere, en forme de Journal, commencoit par le 7e. et finissoit par le 15e de ce mois. Vous y aurez vu ma marche, pas à pas; et qu'elle a abouti au vrai terme qu'il falloit, savoir, à faire connoître ici, d'une maniere non équivoque, et authentique, les dispositions amicales des Etats-Unis envers cette République, et à préparer ainsi les voies pour un heureux rapprochement, sans mettre l'Ambassadeur Anglois endroit d'importuner et inquiéter l'Etat par des clameurs. La maniere dont Mr. le G——P——s'est conduit dans cette affaire, est, je le répete, des plus adroite; et nous la regardons, le G——F——, notre Ami d' Amsterdam, et moi, comme une preuve démonstrative de la sincérité avec laquelle il entre dans nos vues. Je tiens de notre Ami, que Vendredi passé il a fait remettre une Copie traduite de votre Lettre1 à chaque Membre des Etats de la Province, sous main, comme on dit ici par opposition à la maniere ordinaire notoire (c'est àdire, aux Etats en corps). Le lendemain, Samedi, au Dejeuner qu'il y avoit à la Cour, Mr. l'Ambassadeur de France, Mr. l'Envoye Plenipotentiaire d'Espagne, Made, la Comtesse d'Herreria son Epouse, et quelques autres, firent groupe à part, pour observer la contenance de l'Ambassadeur d'Angleterre quand il entra: ils le virent passer devant le G——P——, non seulement sans lui faire aucune civilité, mais en le regardant d'un air refrogné et furieux. Cela a bien diverti le groupe. Ce Ministre, pour avoir vieilli dans les affaires, ne se possede guere: il ne pense pas qu'en montrant ainsi sa mauvaise humeur, il nous donne lui-même le témoignage le plus fort de la vérité des sentimens du G——P——à notre égard.
Au reste, notre Ami m'a dit, que le G——P——, NB en conséquence de ces paroles, Messieurs, de votre Lettre à lui “of which (Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and the U.S.) we shall speedily send your Excellency a Copy, to be comunicated if you think proper to their High-Mightinesses,”2 s'attend à recevoir cette Piece de votre part. Il faudra done, s'il vous plait, m'envoyer cette Copie dans une Lettre à moi, que je puisse montrer, et oú vous m'ordonnerez de remettre la Copie du Traité à son Excellence Mr. le G ——P——, aprés en avoir tiré une autre Copiepour Venvoyer aussi à la Régence d'Amsterdam.3 Il n'est pas besoin d'écrire pour cela une seconde Lettre au G——P——: il faut, premierement, qu'il en ait répondu une, de politesse, à la votre, et { 139 } lui laisser son temps pour cela. Dans tout cela je ménagerai ce qui est dû à votre dignité, Messieurs, avec le méme Scrupule que le fond de l'affaire. J'ai parlé de tout cela au G——F——, qui l'approuve. Ce dernier a vu avec beaucoup de satisfaction le paragraphe qui le regarde dans la Lettre de Mr. Franklin du 30e4
Je suis, en attendant prompte réponse quant a l'article cidessus, et en son temps de bonnes et grandes nouvelles, dont je ferai bon usage, avec le respect et le fidele attachement que vous me connoissez, Messieurs, Votre tres humble & tres obéissant serviteur
[signed] D
L'imprimé ci-joint, est fait sur le canevas que Mr. A. Lee m'a envoye il y a quelque temps.5 Le meme est sous presse en francois, et je vous l'enverrai, Messieurs, incessamment. Cette piece est lachée a dessein, précisément dans cette circonstance.
Je viens de chez notre Ami d'amsterdam. Il m'a assuré que la Lettre au G——P——, actuellement entre les mains de tous les membres des Etats de cette Province, fait un tres bon effet, et que ces Messieurs en sont fort contents. Il approuve aussi tres fort la maniere dont je vous marque de m'envoyer la copie du Traité.
Le Comte de Weldern, Envoyé de cette Republique a Londres, par Lettre du 12e. May, a écrit pour la 2e. fois la nouvelle arrivée a Londres d'un Corps de fourageurs de l'Armée de Howe, coupe et enveloppe par notre armee, comme aussi que les affaires des Anglois sont en Amerique dans un tres facheux etat. Tous nos amis ici me demandent, si vous ne me marquez done rien de tout cela, puis que ce sont des nouvelles qu'il importe aux Anglois seulement de cacher, mais a nous de publier. Je reponds a cela, que vous ne me marquez, Messieurs, que les nouvelles que vous recevez authentiquement.
Les papiers Anglois nous apprennent la mort de Lord Chatham, et l'arrivee du Genl. Burgoyne.
Le g——F—— vient de m'apprendre la rentree à Brest du Ranger, qui a repandu tant de terreur en Irlande et au Nord de l'Angleterre, avec la Chaloupe armee le Dragon, qu'il a pris.6

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0104-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-19

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

My last, in the form of a diary, began with the 7th and ended on the 15th of this month. You will there have seen my progress, step by step, toward the proper conclusion; that is, to make known here, in a gen• { 140 } uine and unequivocal way, the friendly disposition of the United States toward this Republic and thus prepare the way for a successful rapprochement without placing the British ambassador in a position to annoy and harass the State through his protests. The conduct of the Grand Pensionary in this affair is, I repeat, most clever and we, the Grand Facteur, our friend from Amsterdam, and I, consider it tangible proof of the sincerity with which he shares our views. I have it from our friend that last Friday he gave a translation of your letter1 to each member of the Provincial States underhand, as they say here, rather than openly as is the usual fashion (that is, to the States in session). The following day, Saturday, at the luncheon held at the Court, a group composed of the French ambassador, the Spanish minister plenipotentiary and his wife Countess d'Herreria, and some others, stood to the side to observe the bearing of the British ambassador as he entered. They saw him pass before the Grand Pensionary, whom he regarded in a sullen, angry manner, without the least sign of courtesy. The group was greatly amused. This minister, although he has grown old in this business, has little composure. He does not realize that by showing his ill humor he thereby gives us the strongest evidence of the sincerity of the Grand Pensionary's sentiments toward us.
Moreover, our friend has told me that the Grand Pensionary, N.B. as a result of the words in your letter to him: “of which (Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and the U.S.) we shall speedily send your Excellency a copy to be communicated if you think proper to their HighMightinesses,”2 expects to receive this document from you. It will be necessary, therefore, if you please, for you to inclose a copy in a letter to me, that I can display, in which you will order me to give a copy of the Treaty to his Excellency, the Grand Pensionary, after having made another copy to be sent to the Regency of Amsterdam.3 It is not necessary to write a second letter to the Grand Pensionary, rather he must first send you a polite response to yours and must be given time for that. In all this, gentlemen, I will take care of that which is due your dignity with the same diligence given to the substance of the matter. I have spoken of all this to the Grand Facteur who approves of it. He has seen, with much satisfaction, the paragraph concerning him in Mr. Franklin's letter of the 30th.4
While awaiting a prompt reply to the above request and, in good time, the wonderful news of which I will make good use, I am with respect and loyal attachment, as you know, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] D
The enclosed pamphlet is modeled after that sent me by Mr. A. Lee some time ago.5 The same, in French, is in the press, and I will send it to you shortly. This piece is, by design, released precisely in these circumstances.
I come from our friend from Amsterdam who has assured me that the letter to the Grand Pensionary, now in the hands of all the members of { 141 } the Provincial States, produces a very good effect and that these gentlemen are very satisfied with it. He also strongly approves of my way of asking you to send me a copy of the treaty.
Count Walderen, envoy of this Republic to London, in a letter of 12 May, has written for the second time of the news reaching London concerning a corps of Howe's cavalry being caught and surrounded by our army and the poor state of British affairs in America. All our friends here ask if you inform me of any of this since it is news that only the British would want concealed, while we would wish it publicized. My reply is that you notify me only of news received by you that is proved authentic.
The British papers inform us of Lord Chatham's death and the arrival of General Burgoyne.
The Grand Facteur has just told me of the return to Brest of the Ranger, which has spread so much terror in Ireland and Northern England, with its prize the armed chaloupe the Dragon.6
RC (MH-H: Lee Papers)
1. That is, on 15 May the Grand Pensionary distributed copies of the Commissioners' letter to him of 28 April (see Dumas to the Commissioners, 7 May; and the Commissioners to Pieter van Bleiswyck, 28 April, both above).
2. A direct quotation from the Commissioners' letter to van Bleiswyck of 28 April (above).
3. No letter instructing Dumas has been found. It may have been enclosed with a copy of the treaty in a letter of 2 June, apparently not extant, that reached Dumas on the 10th (see Dumas to the Commissioners, 11 June, below).
4. Not found (see the Commissioners to van Bleiswyck, 28 April, note 1, above).
5. This pamphlet, in Dutch and modeled after Lee's “Memorial for Holland,” has not been found. According to Lee, his “Memorial” was written in 1777 but not sent because of his journey to Spain in February of that year. On 31 March it was finally sent to Dumas, who reportedly made some additions, which Lee praised in a letter to Dumas on 4 June (R. H. Lee, Arthur Lee, 1:138, 141–142; a copy of the “Memorial” is printed on p. 138–141; see also PCC, No. 83,1, f. 173–176).
6. That is, the twenty-gun British sloop of war Drake.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0105

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Fleury, François Louis Teissèdre de
Date: 1778-05-20

To Fleury

Passy, 20 May 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:104. In his reply to Fleury's letter of 26 April (above), Adams noted the excellent reputation of François Louis Teissèdre de Fleury, then serving with the Continental Army, and congratulated Fleury and his wife “upon the honor of having such a Son.” He then stated, to remove any uneasiness, that the younger Fleury's “Pay and Appointments” should be adequate for his subsistence.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0106

Author: Vernon, William Sr.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-20

From William Vernon Sr.

[salute] Dear sir

The preceeding is Copy of my last, via Bilboa.1 I have noted, that we have run out the Warren Capt. Hopkins from Providence, he happily escaped the vigilance of the Enemy, received the Fire of Two Ships in the River, as he passed them without any meterial damage, several ships follow'd him out from Newport and pursued a day or Two, he out saild them. He was ordered to Boston immediately, the severity of the weather and being badly Man'd, obliged him to run as far to the southward as the Latt:24d.o, upon his Passage he Captured the ship Neptune Capt. Smallwood from Whitehaven, bound to New York, with salt and dry Goods, great part of which he took on board his ship. The Ship with the Salt, was retaken within Six hours sail of Boston; also a Snow from St. Eustatia going to Ireland Loaded with Flax-seed and Fustick which Arrived safe at Bedford, this Vessil was cover'd with fictitious Dutch Papers. The Warren anchored safe in Boston Harbour after being at Sea five Weeks.2 We next dispatched the Columbus, with only Twenty five Men on board, leaving all her stores, except just sufficient to run her to New London, she was drove on shore at Point-Judith, by two or Three Frigates, the same Night, the next day the Enemy sat her on fire under cover of their Ships, who were annoy'd by a few Troops from the shore, with Three feild Peices, Killed them fourteen Men and wouned Twenty. I think they Paid a high price for the Hull of an old Ship, as our people strip't her Sails Rigging &c.3 The 30th. of April we sent down the Providence Capt. Whipple, having on board about 170 Men, who was ordered to the first Port in France he cou'd make, to be under the direction of the Commissioners, where we hope she is safe Arrived,4 no dispatches was sent by this Ship, as she was to pass a dangerous passage; however in a brisk Wind and dark Night she got out safe, receiveing a heavy fire from the Lark, which was the uppermost ship, who's Fire she returned with Spirit and good effect, Kill'd a number and Wounded many Men, much disabled the Ship; the lower-most Ship by this alarm, was prepared to receive the Providence, who was obliged to pass her very near, gave her their Fire, that was returned with good success, but we have not yet heard the particulars, as they ever endeavour to conceal their Losses.
{ 143 }
You find how injudiciouly our Ships have been confined in Providence River at a vast expence, when they might have been employed to good purposes. The Ship Virginia is Captured in Chesapeake bay, perhaps imprudently. The Randolph Capt. Biddle was lately blown up to windward of Barbadoes, in an engagement with the Yarmouth a 64 Gun Ship, every Soul perished except four; this is an unfortunate stroke of Providence, which we must submit too without repineing, yet we cannot but regret the loss of so brave an officer and Crew. The loss of the Alfred on her passage home from France we lament, not so much for the Ship, as the gallant and worthy Capt. Henman, Officers and Crews being in the hands of a Cruel Enemy, and the shameful cowardly manner in not being supported by the Rawleigh Capt. Thompson, who saw him engaged with an 18 Gun Sloop of Warr, whom he had obliged to sheer off, and a 20 Gun ship bearing down upon her within Two Mile, which Two ship he maintain'd the conflict with upwards of a hour, while Capt. Thompson lay within Two or Three Mile a spectator to the Capture; soon as the Alfred struck her Colours, the Enemy gave Chase to the Rawleigh who flee'd with all the Sail she cou'd croud, lightening his Ship by throwing over board, Provisions Cables &c. &c., and had certainly parted with his Guns, had not some Passengers interposed; I am verily sorry to say thus much respecting this matter, but they are truths too notorious to pass over in silence. A report prevails that the Enemy have burn't our Galleys and shiping upon the Delaware that were above the City; its not said the Two Frigates that was sunk are distroyed.5 Are we not Dear sir compensated in those Losses by the glorious Treaties of Alliance of Amity and Commerce which were executed the 6th. of Febry. last at Paris and unanimously ratified by Congress the 4th. Instant, I think sir they are magnanimous founded in our Independency equality and reciprocity; upon which I most sincerely congratulate you and our oppressed Country.6
Inclosed is a Letter for my son, which please do me the favor to forward him. Not having heard of your Arrival, am at a Loss where to direct to him. Yet I am perfectly happy in his being under your patronage, and cannot doubt of his being Place'd in such a situation that he may in Time, be qualified to serve his Friends and Country with reputation, provided he is prudent and assiduous, your Friendly advice and notice, I am perswaded he will have in proportion to his merits, I cannot ask more, I { 144 } wou'd not even wish to perplex a Friend with the care and trouble of an unworthy son, all I cou'd possibly hope or desire in such case, wou'd be his interposition in saving unnecessary expence and squandering of Money to no good effect. I pray sir you will give me your sentiments freely upon the behaviour and whole Character of my son, which will be esteemed as the greatest favor. Please to make my most respectful compliments acceptable to your Hon'ble Colleges, and believe me truely Your most Obedient Humble servt
Dupl (Adams Papers); RC not found. The Dupl was included in Vernon's letter of 26 May (below, see descriptive note).
1. That is, a triplicate (RC not found) of Vernon's letter of 9 March (above) was included in his letter of 26 May (below).
2. In escaping down the Providence River, the 32-gun frigate Warren, commanded by John Burroughs Hopkins, had one man wounded, lost its mizzen yard, and sustained damage to its main yard and hull. It arrived in Boston on 23 March (Allen, Naval Hist. of the Amer. Revolution, 1:26; William Vernon to the Navy Board, 25 March, “Vernon Naval Papers,” p. 229–230; Boston Gazette, 30 March).
3. Originally built in 1774 as the Sally, the 24-gun armed ship Columbus, commanded by Hoysted Hacker, attempted its escape on the night of 27 March (Dict. Amer. Fighting Ships, 2:150; Allen, Naval Hist. of the Amer. Revolution, 1:220).
4. The Providence, a 28–gun frigate commanded by Abraham Whipple, arrived at Paimboeuf, France, on 30 May (Dict. Amer. Fighting Ships, 5:397). Whipple informed the Commissioners of his arrival in a letter to Benjamin Franklin of 31 May (PPAmP: Franklin Papers), to which the Commissioners replied on 6 June (calendared below). The Navy Board for the Eastern Department sent, under a covering letter of 9 April (PPAmP: Franklin Papers), newspapers to that date.
5. Vernon's account of the loss of the frigates Virginia, Capt. James Nicholson; Randolph, Capt. Nicholas Biddle; Alfred, Capt. Elisha Hinman; and the Washington and Effingham, both uncompleted and burned by the British in early May, is substantially correct. So too is his description of the conduct of Capt. Thomas Thompson of the Raleigh, who was later court martialed and dismissed from the navy (Samuel Tucker to JA, 9 May, note 3, above; Allen, Naval Hist. of the Amer. Revolution, 1:296–299,301–304,310–311; compare Vernon's account here with that by William Ellery in his letter to Vernon of 25 April, “Vernon Naval Papers,” p. 237–239; see also letters to the Commissioners from Samuel Tucker and William Bingham of 27 and 29 May, respectively, both below).
6. This praise of the Franco-American treaties is taken almost verbatim from William Ellery's letter to Vernon of 6 May (“Vernon Naval Papers,” p. 241).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0107

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Samuel
Date: 1778-05-21

To Samuel Adams

Passy, 21 May 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:106–108. Adams commented on, among other things, the probability of a European war, the movements of the French and British fleets, and the possibility of wider European support for the Revolution. He then discussed the large amounts of money expended on supplies and the Commissioners' expenses. Regarding the latter, Adams proposed that to lower expenses and increase efficiency, the three Commissioners be { 145 } reduced to one, the other two to be sent elsewhere or recalled. He recommended, in particular, separation of the office of minister from that of commercial agent. Samuel Adams replied on 25 Oct. (Adams Papers).
John Adams' letter, together with those of 24 May to the Commerce Committee (probably not sent) and of 25 May from the Commissioners to John Bondfield, John Paul Jones, J. D. Schweighauser, and Jonathan Williams, each drafted by Adams (all calendared below), firmly defined, as he saw it, his role as a Commissioner. He would strive to bring order to the Commissioners' affairs, particularly in regard to finances and the often conflicting demands of those claiming to act as American commercial agents.
The letters and JA's comments on them in his Autobiography indicate his frustration, belief in the need for immediate action, and recognition that his position would be controversial. Adams wrote to Samuel Adams out of the belief that “our whole System was wrong and that ruin to our Affairs abroad and great danger and confusion in those at home, must be the Consequence of it” (Diary and Autobiography, 4:106).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0108

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Massachusetts General Court
Date: 1778-05-22

Benjamin Franklin and John Adams to the Massachusetts General Court

Passy, 22 May 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:110. Citing the usual practice under the law of nations of allowing six months after the commencement of hostilities for subjects of both sides to remove their property, Adams and Franklin requested that, if possible, the General Court return to Joseph Parker of London property seized by Massachusetts in the spring of 1775.
Whether recipient's copy or draft, the letter (MiU-C: Presidents Collection) was begun by Adams and finished by Franklin. It has a statement to that effect at the bottom of the second page by Parker, who was to transmit the letter to the General Court (see Diary and Autobiography, illustration facing 4:131).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0109-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-22

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Les Etats d'Hollande se sont séparés aujourdhui; et chacun part demain pour sa Ville. Je viens de souhaiter un bon Voyage à notre Ami. Il a vu le G—P—, qui lui a témoigné être fort embarrassé entre le desir qu'il a, Messieurs, de répondre d'abord à votre Lettre, d'une maniere qui vous fasse connoître combien il est sensible à votre politesse, et s'en trouve flatté, avec son { 146 } espérance, que le temps viendra où il pourra entretenir ouvertement une telle correspondance et liaison,—et la gêne, que lui impose sa Place, de ne pouvoir, dans une réponse par ecrit, Vous donner, avant d'y être autorisé par l'Etat, les Titres qui sont dûs à Votre dignité. Il a donc prié notre Ami, de m'engager à aller un de ces jours chez lui, comme de moi-même, et comme pour lui demander S'il avoit quelque réponse à me remettre. Son intention est de me faire alors une réponse verbale, arm de vous la faire parvenir de sa part. J'ai dit à notre Ami, que comme je vous avois écrit,1 Messieurs, par le dernier ordinaire, pour m'envoyer la Copie du Traité que vous aviez promise au G—P—, et à laquelle il S'attend selon votre Lettre, je croyois devoir attendre que j'eusse reçu cette Copie, parce qu'alors je pourrois me présenter tout naturellement et nécessairement au G—P—, sans affecter de lui demander réponse. Notre Ami a trouvé cela fort bon. J'avois d'ailleurs une autre raison pour ne pas me presser d'y aller: e'est qu'avant tout je consulterai làdessus un Oracle plus sûr que celui de Calchas.2 Du reste notre Ami m'a assuré, que le G—P— est très fort d'accord avec la Ville d'Amsterdam, et par conséquent tres bien intentionné pour ménager avec elle le rapprochement des deux Républiques.
Notre Ami m'a priéinstamment de lui procurer de votre part, Messieurs, des nouvelles authentiques de delà, et NB sur-tout, de la réception qu'aurontfaite les Etats-Unis aux Commissaires Britanniques envoyés pour traiter avec eux. Je lui ai dit, qu'il pouvoit d'avance être sûr qu'ils n'y feront rien qui vaille, à moins qu'ils ne fussent chargés d'accéder sans réserve au Traité entre la France et les Etats-Unis. Il m'a répliqué qu'il le croyoit comme moi; mais qu'il lui falloit le fait authentiqué; et que l'usage qu'il en fera sera important, et produira un grand bien.
Il m'a dit aussi, que la Province d'Hollande s'est refusée tout net à la délibération, dans l'Assemblée des Etats-Généraux, pour l'augmentation des troupes, et que la Ville d'Amsterdam en particulier, s'est déclarée absolument contre cette augmentation, sur-tout, tant que le cas existera où une telle augmentation pourroit impliquer, directement ou indirectement, l'état dans la querelle de l'Angleterre avec la France; que les autres Provinces n'ont pas laissé, par complaisance pour quelqu'un qui en a beaucoup trop pour Sir J—Y—, de convenir qu'on dresseroit et proposeroit un plan d'augmentation; mais que cette convention ne produira rien de réel, malgré les mouvemens que se donne Sir { 147 } J. Y. pour faire accroire le contraire ici et chez lui. Effectivement, sans la Hollande, et surt-out sans Amsterdam, les autres Provinces ne peuvent rien en ceci: elles ne paient toutes Six ensemble que le tiers de la dépense generate, et Amsterdam seule paie les 2/3 des 2/3 restants.
Voici, Messieurs, en François, le même piece que j'eus l'honneur de vous envoyer l'ordinaire dernier en Hollandois.3 Vous comprendrez, en la lisant, qu'elle est lâchée à propos.
Ma lettre ne pourra partir que Mardi prochain. Mais j'ai cru devoir l'écrire d'abord en sortant de chez notre Ami, pendant que j'ai la Mémoire fraiche de son entretien. Il part fort gai et content de ce qui s'est passé pendant cette Assemblée.
Voici la traduction d'une Lettre Allemande, que je viens de recevoir. Je ne trouve rien de croyable dans le paragraphe premier, que, peut-être, le rappel des Officiers volontaires; mais la France, si le fait est vrai, peut avoir de tout autres raisons pour cela, que celles que l'Ecrivain s'imagine.4
J'ai montré ce qui précede au g—F— samedi passé, qui, sur le point de faire un voyage, en a fait prendre copie pour son usage par un de ses commis. Je ne pourrai le consulter qu'à son retour, à la fin de cette semaine.
Mr. l'Ambassadeur de France est absent depuis quelques jours. Il est allé à Amsterdam &c, pour tenir compagnie à Made, la Duchesse de Chartres et a Made. la Princesse de Lamballe,5 qui sont venues faire un tour en Hollande. Il m'a lu d'une Lettre, qu'il avoit reçue Vendredi passé, que Mr. Sym. Deane, qui avoit porté le Traité au Congrès, en est revenu le 11e. de ce mois à Brest; et que la nouvelle étoit arrivée en France, que Quebec étoit au pouvoir des Etats-Unis.6 J'attends, Messieurs, que vous me donniez, ces nouvelles vous-mêmes, afin que je puisse les communiquer à notre Ami, et au G—P—: ce qui présentement est essentiel.
J'ai le bonheur d'avoir ici Mr. Sam. W. Stockton,7 et de lui rendre quelques petits services. Il partira demain pour Leide, Amsterdam et l'Allemagne. Il a laissé à mes soins la Lettre ci jointe.

[salute] Je suis avec le plus sincere respect, Messieurs Votre très humble & très obéissant serviteur

[signed] D

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0109-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-22

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

The Dutch States General ended their session today, and each member will be leaving for his town tomorrow. I have just come from wishing our friend a good trip. He saw the Grand Pensionary, who told him that he was torn between his desire, on the one hand, to answer your letter in a way that would demonstrate how much he appreciates your courtesy in these dealings and is flattered with the hope that the time will come when he will be able to correspond openly with you; and, on the other hand, the constraint that his position puts him in of being unable to give you in writing, before the state authorizes him to do so, the titles due your station. He therefore asked our friend to have me visit him one day as if, on my own behalf, I was asking him if he had an answer to give me. He intends to give me a verbal reply that I could then transmit to you as coming from him. I told our friend that, since in my last letter1 I had asked you to send me the copy of the treaty that you had promised the Grand Pensionary in your letter to him and which he is expecting, I thought that I should wait until I received that copy because then I could approach the Grand Pensionary naturally and out of necessity without having to resort to the pretext of asking him for an answer. Our friend approved. I had another reason for not rushing over. I want first to consult an oracle more reliable than that of Calchas.2 Moreover, our friend has assured me that the Grand Pensionary is very much in accord with the town of Amsterdam and thus fully intends to arrange with it the rapprochement of the two republics.
Our friend has pressed me to provide him with accurate intelligence from you, and N.B. particularly on the reception given by the United States to the British Commissioners sent to negotiate with them. I have told him that he could rest assured that they would be totally ineffectual unless they had been instructed to accede, without reservations, to the treaty between France and the United States. He replied that he believed as I did, but that he needed the fact authenticated, and that the use he would make of it would be both important and productive of much good.
In addition, he told me that, in the assembly of the States General, the Province of Holland categorically refused to discuss the troop increase, and that the town of Amsterdam, in particular, declared itself to be absolutely against such an increase, especially so long as a situation remained in which such an increase might involve the state, directly or indirectly, in the quarrel between Great Britain and France. Nevertheless, the other provinces, to accommodate someone who is far too compliant with Sir Joseph Yorke, have agreed to draft and propose a plan for an increase. Nothing substantial, however, will come out of it despite Sir Joseph Yorke's attempts to have the contrary believed here and in his own country. Indeed, without Holland, and { 149 } particularly without Amsterdam, the other provinces can do nothing in the matter since all six together pay only a third of the total budget, Amsterdam alone paying ⅔ of the remaining ⅔.
You will find enclosed, in French, the document that I had the honor to send you in my last letter in Dutch.3 You will see, in reading it, that it has been released at the appropriate time.
My letter cannot go before next Tuesday, but I thought it best to write it as soon as I left our friend, while the interview was still fresh in my mind. He departed in good-spirits, satisfied with what took place during this assembly.
Here is the translation of a German letter I have just received. I find nothing believable in its first paragraph except, perhaps, the recall of the volunteer officers. If that is true, France may have had reasons for doing so that are quite different from those imagined by the writer.4
I showed what precedes to the Grand Facteur last Saturday, and, as he was about to depart on a trip, he had a copy made for his own use. I will not be able to consult with him until he returns at the end of the week.
The French ambassador has been away for a few days. He has gone to Amsterdam, &c., to accompany the Duchess of Chartres and the Princess of Lamballe,5 who have come for a tour of Holland. He read me an excerpt from a letter he received last Friday that said that Mr. Simeon Deane, who carried the treaty to congress, had returned on the 11th of this month to Brest and that news had reached France that Quebec was now under the control of the United States.6 I am waiting for this news from you so that I can communicate it to our friend and to the Grand Pensionary, an essential step at this time.
I have the pleasure of Mr. Sam. W. Stockton's7 presence here and am rendering him some small services. He will be leaving tomorrow for Leyden, Amsterdam, and Germany. He left the enclosed letter with me.

[salute] I am, with the most sincere respect, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] D
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Dumas 22 May 1778"; with enclosure.
1. That of 19 May (above).
2. Calchas was a Greek soothsayer noted for his prophecies during the Trojan War. As usual when considering a new course of action, Dumas wished to consult with La Vauguyon.
3. Arthur Lee's “Memorial for Holland,” printed under the title of Avis aux Hollandois (Dumas to the Commissioners, 2 June, below).
4. The letter, dated 15 May from Berlin, and omitted here, reported on the continuing conflict between Prussia and Austria over succession to the Bavarian throne. In the first paragraph the writer noted that the French volunteers had been ordered to withdraw and ascribed it to an alteration of French policy in favor of Austria, which, if true, would be contrary to French interests. The remainder of the { 150 } letter commented on the general military situation in Germany.
5. Louise Marie Adélaide de Bourbon-Penthièvre, duchesse de Chartres and later Orléans (1753–1821), and her sister-in-law, Marie Théresè de Savoie-Carignan, princesse de Lamballe (1748–1792), were important figures at the French court, the latter being superintendent of the Royal Household and a sometime favorite of Marie Antoinette (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
6. Obviously erroneous information.
7. Samuel Witham Stockton (1752–1795) served as William Lee's secretary (Benjamin Rush, Letters, 1:604).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0110

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Continental Congress, Commerce Committee
Date: 1778-05-24

To the Commerce Committee

Passy, 24 May 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:111–112. John Adams described the confusion that resulted from the multiplicity of commercial agents, often operating from the same ports, each claiming his authority from a different source. Adams recommended that order be imposed by designating a person in each of the principal ports as the sole American agent. He also suggested that appointment of one or more consuls by the congress might be appropriate. Realizing that his effort to bring order to the Commissioners' finances was controversial, Adams noted that its “Consequence has been, so many Refusals of Demands and Requests, that I expect much Discontent will arise from it, and many Clamours.” See also JA to Samuel Adams, 21 May (calendared above).
JA may have had second thoughts about this letter. The lack of a formal closing, the presence of what is apparently the only extant copy in Lb/JA/5, the absence of the notation “sent” on the Letterbook copy, as well as the general tone of this letter make it unlikely that it was sent.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0111

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Bondfield, John
Date: 1778-05-25

The Commissioners to John Bondfield

Passy, 25 May 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:116. Replying to Bondfield's letters of 12 (above) and 17 May (not found), the Commissioners' letter, drafted by Adams, commended Bondfield for his efforts to keep them informed and asked him to send an account of his disbursements and to send future accounts monthly so that the Commissioners could avoid running into debt.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0112

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Jones, John Paul
Date: 1778-05-25

The Commissioners to John Paul Jones

Passy, 25 May 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:112–114. Responding to Jones' letters of 9 and 16 May (both above), the Commissioners' letter, drafted by Adams, congratulated him on his arrival at Brest, requested an account of his voyage, and advised him of { 151 } their preference that his prisoners be exchanged in Europe rather than sent to America in the Drake. The Commissioners expressed regret that Jones had not sent them a detailed account of his cruise and the prizes taken and requested a copy of a congressional resolve on the disposal of prizes. The Commissioners then gave Jones several reasons for refusing his draft in favor of Bersolle. Finally, taking a paragraph from Arthur Lee's unsent letter to Jones of 17 May (DLC: Franklin Papers), they noted that Lt. Thomas Simpson would have to be sent to America because of the impossibility of convening a court martial in France and questioned Jones' judgment in ordering Simpson's arrest because of the “troublesome” consequences of such an act in a foreign country.
Unknown to Adams and Lee, this letter may have initiated a correspondence between Jones and Benjamin Franklin. In his first letter, dated 27 May and answered by Jones on 1 June, Franklin sought to mitigate the effect of the Commissioners' letter of the 25th and ended with the statement that “it will always be a pleasure to me to contribute what may lie in my power towards your advancement and that of the brave officers and men under your command” (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:599; Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:433). Later letters of 1 and 10 June offered Jones a post that he had unsuccessfully sought during an earlier visit to Paris in January, the command of the Indien, a frigate built for the United States at Amsterdam and then transferred to France because of problems with Dutch neutrality. With the offer of a new command came an invitation to visit Paris to consult on the matter, a request that Jones agreed to in a letter to Franklin of 6 June (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:599–600; Morison, John Paul Jones, p. 120–124, 174; Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:436).
Franklin, in his letters of 1 and 10 June, made it clear that Adams and Lee were and would remain ignorant of the proposed new command in order to preserve secrecy, a situation that significantly affected the later correspondence and activities of the three Commissioners in regard to Jones (see, in particular, the Commissioners to Jones, 16 June, calendared; Arthur Lee to JA, 5 July, and note 1, both below). Although the need to preserve security was certainly a consideration, the withholding of information from Adams and Lee can also be seen as an indication of Franklin's dominant position within the Commission and, possibly, his desire to cut off from the substantive work of the Commission two members that he believed to be a part of a faction arrayed against him. These interpretations help explain a passage in Adams' Autobiography. There he declared that with the letter here under review and some others written at the same time, all of which he was doubtful that Franklin would sign, “the Die was cast.” Rumors became rife that “Mr. Adams had joined with Mr. Lee against Dr. Franklin” (Diary and Autobiography, 4:116–117).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0113

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Schweighauser, John Daniel
Date: 1778-05-25

The Commissioners to J. D. Schweighauser

Passy, 25 May 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:115. Drafted by Adams, this letter, through enclosed extracts from letters of 25 May to John Paul Jones (calendared above) and Jonathan Williams (calendared below), informed Schweighauser that he was the authorized American agent at Brest. The Commissioners directed him to send monthly accounts and to inform them of unusual proposed expenses so that they would not run into debt.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0114

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Williams, Jonathan
Date: 1778-05-25

The Commissioners to Jonathan Williams

Passy, 25 May 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:114–115. Replying to Williams' letters of 11 and 18 May (both above), this letter, drafted by Adams, advised Williams that he had no power to act at Brest in regard either to prizes or to American commerce. J. D. Schweighauser was the American agent in that port, having received his powers from the congress through his appointment by William Lee. The Commissioners, therefore, revoked Williams' powers in order to save money and prevent confusion and delay. He was immediately to deliver all stores and merchandise in his possession to Schweighauser and send his accounts to the Commissioners.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0115

Author: Simpson, Thomas
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-25

Thomas Simpson to the Commissioners

[salute] May it please your Honours

I addressed you on the 8th. of this Instant on a very disagreeable affair, not recieving any answer, or order from your Honours, I concluded my letter had miscarried, or your attentions were required on greater objects, and therefore was determined to rest a while, until you might be at leisure, to think on the matter, I had wrote you of.1 But the treatment I have since recieved from Captn. Jones constrains me to be again troublesome, which, when I relate it, hope will Apologize with your Honours, for my excuse. On Wednesday the 20th Instant between the hours of nine and ten in the forenoon, Captn. Jones came on board the Drake, with a French Officer, and without previous notice ordered me to go with that Officer on board the Admiral (I must make a digression to inform you, that this was the first time he gave me an opportunity, to speak to him since my parting with him on board the Ranger, the 25th. of April in the evening, which preceded the day, he sent his written instructions to me { 154 } by his boat on board the Drake,) I told him, I was sensible that I was under Arrest, and that I was entirely innocent of his charge again me, that I shou'd have given him that satisfaction before, if he had given me opportunity, that I had attended to his order of Arrest, and kept to my confinement, Observed to him, that I had nothing to do with the French Admiral, that he cou'd not possibly be any way connected with our dispute. He answered that he would have no Altercation, and desired the Officer to take me away, I accordingly obeyed; but If I was surprized at being sent on board the Admiral's Ship, what can you think Gentlemen, my astonishment and distress must be, to find after I was in the boat, that the Admiral's ship he told me of, was an Old prison ship that lies in the Port of Brest, which is called the Admiral, kept by an Officer and a guard of Soldiers, to put disorderly persons of every denomination, as a punishment. I was confined [there] that day, and the night following, not a person that I knew suffered to speak to me, Mr. Benjamin Hill, a Gentleman, that was with me in the Drake, came to bring my bed, but was not admitted to speak.
Thursday morning the 21st. Another French Officer came on board the Prison ship about 9 o'the clock, and told me I must go with him to the Pontaniou. I was then a little cheered, thinking Captain Jones was about to treat me like a Gentleman, but to my great disappointment and Affliction, when arriving at the Pontaniou, I found it to be the common Goal, where I was ordered to be locked up in one of the rooms, and no person of my accquaintance to be suffered to see me. The Goaler has been so kind as to carry a letter for me to Comte D'orvilliers, I addressed myself to him, as Captn. Jones told me it was the Comte's orders that I shou'd be treated in the manner heretofore related, the Comte told the Goaler, that he had given Captn. Jones liberty (on his application) to put me in the prison, that he had nothing to do with our dispute, the Goaler asked the Comte; who was to provide for me his answer was Captn. Jones, which he has not yet done, unless it be ill treatment. I have wrote another letter to the Intendant, he is now out of town, but the Commissary has this day told the Goaler, that I may write to your Honours, which I instantly embrace, it being the fifth day of my confinement.
May it please your Honours such actions are cruel, and oppressive, very unbecoming an American Officer, very unbecoming those people, who are Struggling in one of the most glorious { 155 } causes that mankind ever undertook. I offered Captn. Jones if he wou'd consent to my taking any room on shore, I wou'd confine myself as close, as he pleased, or desired him to confine me to my apartment in the Ranger, which is the proper place for my confinement, If people will be so rigorous. No, that favor, even if it was one, was denied. No Officer was ever treated in such a manner in the British navy, and I am sensible there is no Officer (God forbid there shou'd,) but Captn. Jones in the American Navy, wou'd treat his Lieutenant in such a manner, for nothing but an imaginary fault. I appeal to all the Officers of the Ranger and by their account of my behaviour, am willing to Stand or fall.
Gentlemen pray let my situation plead for me with you, for your friendly interposition, let me be order'd to America. I'll go any way that you please, and deliver myself at the first place I arrive, where there are Gentlemen to try me, let Captn. Jones send his charge written. I can have none but written evidence and defence. I am innocent, I fear no trial, if that cannot be, may I beg to be removed to Bourdeaux, on board the Boston, here are passages often enough, or Mr. Williams your Agent can send me from Nantes to America. I shou'd not be thus troublesome; but my unhappiness is great, confined in a foreign prison, no shadow of a Trial, or release, I can be of no service to my country, but on the contrary, my treatment when known, which soon must be, will be a discouragement, and deter every one from entering to serve in the Navy. I beg your honours pardon, and hope you'll excuse this long incorrect State of the matter, have inclosed a Copy of the letter I before wrote you, with a Copy of Cn. Jones Instructions, a copy of his order for my Arrest, and declaration of Mr. Hills, with the people, that were on board the Drake; by which your Honours may be accquainted with matters of fact.2 I shou'd be glad to have those people sworn, but my situation will not admit of it.
I cannot conclude without, again, in the most earnest manner, Supplicating your assistance, knowing no other persons in this country to whom I can Apply for redress, my case is still more distressing as I cannot speak the French language, and no American admitted to come to see me in the Prison. I humbly beg a line or two in answer by return of the Post. And am Your honours most Obedient and very humble Servant.
[signed] Thom Simpson
{ 156 }
I neglected to observe to your Honours, that Captn. Jones never made a Signal to speak withe me at the time of our parting, which if he found, there was a misunderstanding of his verbal order he ought to have done.
If your Honours will Oblige me with answer—I beg it as a favour You'll direct the Letter agreeable to the Underwritten.
A Monsieur Monsieur Chevalier Consierge De La prison Royal De Pontaniou a Brest
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Lt. Simpsons Letters. May 25 1778.”
1. Although a letter in answer to Simpson's of 8 May had been drafted on the 16th, it was not sent. The Commissioners did not reply until 3 June (calendared below).
2. For Jones' instructions, see Simpson's letter to the Commissioners of 8 May, note 1 (above). Two copies of Jones' arrest order of 7 May are in the Franklin Papers (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 4:259). One is almost certainly the copy enclosed in this letter, and it is likely that the other was included with Simpson's letter of 8 May, despite the absence of any mention there of such an enclosure. The declaration by “Mr. Hills,” Midshipman Benjamin Hill, and the other members of the Ranger's crew who had been aboard the Drake with Simpson was dated 16 May (PPAmP: Franklin Papers). It contained, with some additional details, the same information as was in Simpson's letter of the 8th.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0116

Author: Vernon, William Sr.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-26

From William Vernon Sr.

[salute] Dear sir

The Two foregoing Letters are Copys,1 thinking it necessary to transmit at least Three Copys these precarious Times, which I shall think no trouble in transcribing, if a single line thereof gives you the least satisfaction. The building the 74 Gun Ships are order'd to be stoped for the present, I suppose it to be in consequence I [of?] what You requested me to write Mr. Ellery upon the subject.2 Nothing New in the Naval department since my last.
The Enemy from Newport made an excursion upon the Main Yesterday morning, they Landed about 700 Men at Warren at Day light, under the command of Col. Cambell they burn't a number of boats that was collected there the last Winter, sat Fire to the Baptist Meeting House which with three or four other buildings were consumed, the Militia collecting to the number of 120 they retreated towards Bristol made a stand, two or three Mile from that Town, while a number Rob'd and plundered the { 157 } Inhabitants destroy'd furniture &c. &c, sat Fire to the Episcopal Church and 22 of the best dwelling houses in the Town, retreated hastily down to the Ferry landing, opposite to Rhode Island, where a Frigate an Arm'd Brigantine and several Cutter was ready to receive them on board under cover of their Guns which constantly Fir'd upon our People who pursued and harassed them in their retreat and embarkation, altho' not a fourth part of their number. Col. Barton (who took Prescot) was Wounded with one private we made three Prisoners, and its very probabil Kill'd some and Wounded many, as much blood appeared upon the Hill where they made a stand and several were seen to fall. Thus ended this burning thieveing Expedition in six hours from their Landing after retreating 8 Mile and stealing Twenty respectabe Inhabitants out of their beds, whom they took away, we suppose to Starve and Murder on board their Prison ships, as they have done with some Thousands before.3 I forgot to tell you Ten days past they sent a party into the Eastward sound and Rob'd the Elizabeth Islands of 1500 sheep and 100 Cattle, burn't some buildings &c. they did not Land at the Vineyard, return'd to Newport with their booty.
We are impatient to hear of your safe Arrival. I am most respectfully, Dr. sir your obedt. Hble servt
[signed] Wm Vernon
RC (Adams Papers) The address portion of this letter has been lost and a portion of the surviving MS cut off, leaving only a fragmentary docket entry: “M[r. Vernon's Letter 26 May 1778] ans. [27 July 1778].” The RC begins in the middle of page 3 and continues to the middle of page 4, being preceded by a Tripl of a letter dated 9 March and a Dupl of a letter dated 20 May (both above).
1. See descriptive note.
2. What JA directed Vernon to tell William Ellery is unknown, but it apparently had an immediate effect. On 20 Nov. 1776 the congress had authorized the construction of three 74–gun ships of the line but only one was ever begun, the America, at Portsmouth, N.H. It was that ship whose construction was stopped, a decision made by the Marine Committee in response to letters from Vernon and William Whipple received in early March 1778. In commenting on the two letters, Ellery stated that the action was taken because “these huge ships are too costly and unwieldy.” Congress ratified the decision on 29 May, ordering at the same time that the ship be altered to carry 56 gun's. Three years later, following a decision by the congress on 23 June 1781, construction was resumed and the America was completed as a 74–gun ship of the line. It never, however, saw service in the Continental Navy, being instead presented to France on 3 Sept. 1782 as a replacement for the Magnifique, which had gone aground in Boston Harbor (JCC, 6:970; 11:555; 20:692; 23:543; Dict. Amer. Fighting Ships, 4:567–568; William Ellery to William Vernon, 16 March, “Vernon Naval Papers,” p. 221–224).
3. For a British account of this raid, see Rivington's Royal Gazette, 10 June 1778. See also W. H. Munro, History of Bristol, R.I., The Story of the Mount Hope Lands, Providence, 1880, p. 209–218.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0117

Author: Tucker, Samuel
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-27

From Samuel Tucker

[salute] Sir

I am ready for Sea and waiting for a wind after a teadious fatigueing Jobb. I heartily Congratulate you with the News of Capt. Jones takeing the Drake and make no doubt but any of us Could Compleat Such an Undertaking Was our People Unanimous but Sir their has bein a Consparicy Carred on board the Boston this three weeks Past betwen the English att Bourdeaux and my men to take the Ship to England but I Luckly Discoverd the Plot. I have Sent Mr. Livingston to town with the Evedence against them to Secure the Villians one by the Name of Wire another by the name of Watts and Mr. Munrow Who Deserted the Ship. This I done by advice of the majestrates and military offercers of this Place on Catching the Raskel with his Last Message to my People to know their minds. Those Deserters who had Run before had agreed by Perswations of the English Villians att Town to Come on board and ask my Pardon for transgresing with Pison Conceald about them and opeum. The Rascles where to Broach a Cask of water for forty Who were to be Concernd Pison the offercers by their Victles and to assasanate me by the way of a Sentenal Who was to be well Rewarded for his Vallour but thanks to god I am Seldom or Ever off my gaurd in war time Even in a family where well acquainted.
Prehaps Sir when the matter is finishd Mr. Bondefield1 will give you a Just account as my time will not Premit me to Stay my tarry has bein Long in Bourdeaux and I was almost ashamd to Write but I Cannot Boast of being well mand but my Ship is Extraordinary well fited att great Expence but hope nevertheless to pay my Country for all the Expence I Shall be att. Sir I have Received your trunk of Mr. Bondfield and hope to Deliver it with Pleasure and your Leter to Mr. Smith2 in Boston Where I hope to See your Honnour and Mast. Jack in the Course of two years but Soonner Sir you Cannot be Expected.
My Complements Sir to Mast. Jack and Mast. Jesse3 that I am Very well. Hopeing these may be Presented your Honnour and them in Like Situation. My Number of men on board is 182 men and Boys amongst which is 40 Seamen. Some of the before mentioned that I Shall take Very good Care off. Sir Your most Obedt. Humble Servt
[signed] Saml Tucker
Sir I have Just heard the Confirmation of Capt. Bidle being Sunk by the Seaford of 64 guns by Runing alongside her in the { 159 } Night fired a broad Side into the Seaford taking her to be an Endiaman in the transport Service. The Seaford Returnd below and aloft blew up the Raindolph and all perrishd but two men one of which was Seen in Martinaco by a Gentleman in this Port Who Declares he had the account from that Seaman formaly of the Raindolph.4
I am Sir heartily Sorry for So fine a man—and Valliant Crew and my Contrys Loss.
RC (Adams Papers); docketed: “Captn. Tucker. May 27. 1778”; in another hand: “Capt Tucker Blay May 27. 78.”
1. See Bondfield to the Commissioners, 6 June (below). Tucker wrote to the Commissioners on 28 May (Adams Papers), giving them essentially the same information contained in this letter, adding only that he had lost several crew members who had died of “Pluricy fever.” For additional information on the conspiracy, see Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, Captain Samuel Tucker, Salem, 1976, p. 48–49; “Journal of William Jennison,” in Charles R. Smith, Marines in the Revolution, Washington, 1975, p. 349. Although the unrest among members of Tucker's crew subsided so as to permit him to embark on his planned cruise, it resurfaced when the Boston put into Port Louis on 2 July (see James Moylan to the Commissioners, 8 July, note 2 and references there, below).
2. This letter, presumably to Isaac Smith Sr., has not been found. For the trunk put on board the Boston, see John Bondfield to JA, 28 April, note 1 (above).
3. That is, JQA and Jesse Deane.
4. Tucker's description of the destruction of the Randolph differs from other accounts but may have some substance. The Randolph, apparently after some initial confusion over the identity of its opponent, fought the 64–gun Yarmouth, which reported picking up four survivors of the explosion (Allen, Naval Hist. of the Amer. Revolution, 1:296–298; see also the accounts in William Vernon Sr. to JA, 20 May, above; William Bingham to the Commissioners, 29 May, below). That Tucker's account came from two survivors on Martinique is questionable in view of William Bingham's letter of 29 May from that island, which makes no mention of the two men. However, since the Yarmouth would not have taken the rescued men to Martinique, there could have been two additional survivors unknown to it and, perhaps, even to Bingham. Moreover, although it was more usual for Indiamen, because of their size and rows of painted gunports, to be mistaken for ships of the line, to reverse the mistake does not seem improbable.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0118

Author: Jones, John Paul
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-27

John Paul Jones to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

I have now to fulfil the promise made in my last1 by giving you an Account of my late Expedition. I sailed from Brest the 10th of April. My Plan was extensive: I therefore did not at the beginning wish to incumber myself with Prisoners. On the 14th I took a Brigantine between Scilly and Cape Clear bound from Ostend with a Cargo of Flax-seed for Ireland; sunk her and proceeded into St. Georges Channell. On the 16th I took the Ship Lord Chatham bound from London for Dublin, with a Cargo consist• { 160 } ing of Porter and a variety of Merchandize; and almost within sight of her Port: this Ship I manned and Ordered for Brest.
Towards the Evening of the day following the Weather had a promising appearance and the Wind being favorable I stood over from the Isle of Man with an intention to make a descent at Whitehaven: at Ten I was off the Harbour with a party of Volunteers, and had every thing in readiness to land, but before Eleven the Wind greatly increased, and shifted so as to blow directly upon the shore; the Sea encreased of course and it became impossible to effect a landing: this Obliged me to carry all possible sail so as to clear the Land and to await a more favorable Opportunity.
On the 18th in Glenluce Bay on the South Coast of Scotland I met with a Revenue Wherry; it being the common practice of these Vessels to board Merchant Ships, the Ranger then having no external appearance of War, it was expected that this rover would have come alongside: I was however mistaken, for tho the Men were at their Quarters yet this Vessel outsailed the Ranger and got clear in spite of a severe Cannonade.
The next Morning off the Mull of Galloway I found myself so near a Scotch coasting Schooner loaded with Barley that I could not avoid sinking her. Understanding that there was Ten or Twelve sail of Merchant Ships, besides a Tender Brigantine with a number of Impressed Men on board, at Anchor in Loughryan in Scotland I thought this an Enterprize worth my attention but the Wind, which at the first would have served equally well to sail in or out of the Lough, shifted in a hard Squall so as to blow almost directly in with an appearance of bad Weather; I was therefore obliged to abandon my Project.
Seeing a Cutter off the Lee Bow steering for the Clyde I gave chace in hopes of cutting her off; but finding my endeavours ineffectual I pursued no further than the Rock of Elza. In the Morning I fell in with a Sloop from Dublin which I sunk to prevent Intelligence.
The next day the 21st being near Carrickfergus a Fishing boat came off which I detained: I saw a Ship at Anchor in the Road which I was informed by the Fishermen was the British Ship of War Drake of 20 Guns. I determined to Attack her in the Night: my Plan was to overlay her Cable and to fall upon her Bow so as to have all her decks open and exposed to our Musquetry &ca. at the same time it was my intention to have secured the Enemy by { 161 } Graplings so that had they cut their Cables they would not thereby have attained an Advantage. The Wind was high, and unfortunately the Anchor was not let go so soon as the Order was given; so that the Ranger was brought up on the Enemies quarter at the distance of half a Cables length. We had made no Warlike appearance, of course had given no Alarm; this determined me to cut immediately, which might appear as if the Cable had parted; and at the same time enable me, after making a Tack out of the Lough, to return with the same Prospect of advantage which I had at the first: I was however prevented from returning; as I with difficulty weathered the Light house on the Lee side of the Lough, and as the Gale increased. The Weather now became so very Stormy and severe and the Sea ran so high that I was obliged to take Shelter under the South Shore of Scotland.
The 22d introduced fair Weather; tho the Three Kingdoms as far as the Eye could reach were covered with Snow. I now resolved once more to attempt Whitehaven: but the Wind became very light so that the Ship could not, in proper time, approach so near as I had intended. At Midnight I left the Ship with two Boats and 31 Volunteers: When we reached the outer Peir the day began to dawn; I would not however abandon my Enterprize, but dispatched One boat under the direction of Mr. Hill and Lieutenant Wallingsford with the necessary combustables to set fire to the Shipping on the North side of the Harbour; while I went with the other party to attempt the South side. I was successful in scaling the Walls and Spiking up all the Cannon on the first Fort; finding the Sentinals shut up in the Guard house they were secured without being hurted; having fixed Sentinals, I now took with me one Man only (Mr. Green) and spiked up all the Cannon on the Southern Fort, distant from the other a Quarter of a Mile.
On my return from this Business I naturally expected to see the Fire of the Ships on the North side as well as to find my own party with every thing in readiness to set Fire to the Shipping on the South. Instead of this I found the Boat under the direction of Mr. Hill and Lt. Wallingsford returned, and the party in some confusion, their Light having burnt out at the instant when it became necessary. By the strangest Fatallity my own Party were in the same situation, the Candles being all burnt out: The day too came on apace yet I would by no means retreat while any hopes of Success remained. Having again placed Sentinals a light was { 162 } obtained at a House disjoined from the Town; and Fire was kindled in the Steerage of a large Ship which was surrounded by at least an Hundred and Fifty others, chiefly from Two to Four hundred Tons burthen, and laying side by side aground, unsurrounded by the Water.
There was besides from Seventy to an Hundred large Ships in the North Arm of the Harbour aground clear of the Water and divided from the rest only by a stone peir of a Ships height. I should have kindled Fires in other places if the time had permitted. As it did not, our care was to prevent the one kindled from being easily extinguished: after some search a Barrell of Tar was found and powered into the Flames, which now asscended from all the Hatch ways. The Inhabitants began to appear in Thousands and Individuals ran hastily towards us. I stood between them and the Ship on Fire with a pistol in my hand and ordered them to retire which they did with precipitation. The Flames had already caught the Rigging and began to ascend the Main Mast. The Sun was a full Hours march above the Horizon; and as Sleep no longer ruled the World, it was time to retire: we embarked without Opposition; having released a number of Prisoners as our Boats could not carry them. After all my People had embarked I stood upon the Peir for a considerable space yet no person advanced. I saw all the Emeninces round the Town covered with the amazed Inhabitants.
When we had rowed to a considerable distance from the shore the English began to run in vast numbers to their Forts. Their disappointment may easily be imagined when they found I suppose at least Thirty heavy Cannon (the Instruments of their Vengeance) rendered useless. At length however they began to Fire. Having as I apprehend either brought down Ships Guns or used One or two Cannon which lay on the Beach at the foot of the Walls dismounted and which had not been spiked. They Fired with no direction and the Shot falling short of the Boats, instead of doing us any dammage afforded some diversion; which my People could not help shewing by discharging their Pistols &ca: in return of the Salute.
Had it been possible to have landed a few hours sooner my Success would have been complete: not a single Ship out of more than Two hundred could possibly have escaped; and all the World would not have been able to save the Town. What was done however is sufficient to shew, that not all their boasted { 163 } Navy can protect their own Coasts—and that the Scenes of distress which they have occasioned in America may soon be brought home to their own doors. One of my People was missing and must, I fear, have fallen into the Enemies hands after our departure. I was pleased that in this Business we neither Killed nor Wounded. I brought off Three Prisoners as a sample.
We now stood over for the Scotch shore and I Landed at noon on St. Marys Isle with one Boat only and a very small party. The Motives which induced me to land there are explained in the within Copy of a Letter which I have written to the Countess of Selkirk.2
On the Morning of the 24th I was again off Carrickfergus; and would have gone in had I not seen the Drake preparing to come out. It was very moderate and the Drakes boat was sent out to reconnoitre the Ranger—as the Boat advanced I kep't the Ships stern directly towards her and tho' they had a Spy Glass in the Boat, they came on within Hail, and alongside. When the Officer came on the Quarter deck he was greatly surprised to find himself a Prisoner! altho' an Express had arrived from Whitehaven theNight before. I now understood, what I had before imagined, that the Drake came out in consequence of this Information, with Volunteers against the Ranger. The Officer told me also that they had taken up the Rangers Anchor. The Drake was attended by Five small Vessels full of People; who were led by motives of curiosity to see an Engagement. But when they discovered the Drakes boat at the Ranger's stern they wisely put back. Alarm smokes now appeared in great abundance extending along both sides of the Channel. The Tide was unfavorable so that the Drake worked out but slowly; this obliged me to run down several times and to lay with Courses up and Main Top-Sail to the Mast. At length the Drake weathered the Point; and having led her out to about mid-channell, I Suffered her to come within hail: the Drake hoisted English Colours and at the same instant the American Stars were displayed on board the Ranger. I expected that Preface had been now at an end; but the Enemy soon after hailed, demanding what Ship it was? I directed the Master to answer the American Continental Ship Ranger—that we waited for them and desired they would come on. The Sun was now little more than an Hour from setting, it was therefore time to begin. The Drake being astern of the Ranger I ordered the Helm up and gave her the first broadside, the Action was warm, { 164 } close, and obstinate; it lasted an Hour and five minutes when the Enemy called for Quarters—her Fore and Main Topsail yards being both cut away and down on the Cap. The Fore top Gallant yard and Mizen Gaff both hanging up and down along the Mast. The 2d Ensign which they had hoisted shot away and hanging over the Quarter Gallery in the Water. The Jib shot away and hanging into the Water—her Sails and Rigging entirely cut to peices. Her Masts and Yards all wounded and her Hull also very much Galled.
I lost only Lieutenant Wallingsford and one Seaman (John Dougal) killed, and Six Wounded; among whom are the Gunner (Mr. Falls) and Mr. Powers3 a Midshipman, who lost his Arm. One of the wounded (Nathaniel Wills) is since dead—the rest will recover.
The loss of the Enemy in killed and Wounded was far greater. All the Prisoners allow that they came out with a number not less than an Hundred and Sixty Men; and many of them Affirm that they amounted to an Hundred and Ninety. The Medium may perhaps be the most exact Account, and by that it will appear that they lost in Killed and Wounded 42 Men.
The Captain and Lieutenant were among the Wounded—the former, having received a Musquet Ball in the Head the Minute before they called for Quarters, lived and was sensible for some time after my People boarded the Prize. The Lieutenant survived two days. They were Buryed with the Honors due to their Rank and with the Respect due to their Memory.
The Night and almost the whole day after the Action being moderate greatly faciliated the refitting of both Ships. A large Brigantine ran so near the Drake in the Afternoon that I was Obliged to bring her too, she belonged to Whitehaven and was bound for Norway. I had thoughts of returning by the South Channel but the Wind shifting I determined to pass by the North and round the West Coast of Ireland. This brought me once more off Belfast Lough on the Evening of the day after the Engagement.
It was now time to release the honest Fishermen whom I took up here on the 21st. And as the poor fellows had lost their Boat, she having sunk in the late stormy Weather, I was happy in having it in my Power to give them the necessary Sum to purchase every thing new which they had lost. I gave them also a good Boat to transport themselves ashore and sent with them { 165 } Two infirm Men on whom I bestowed the last Guinea in my Possession to defray their travelling Expences to their proper home at Dublin. They took with them One of the Drakes Sails which would sufficiently explain what had happened to the Volunteers. The grateful Fishermen were in Raptures and expressed their Joy in three Huzzas as they passed the Rangers Quarter.
I again met with contrary Winds in the Mouth of the North Channel but nothing remarkable happened till on the Morning of the 5th Current. Ushant then bearing SEBE distance 15 Leagues, when seeing a Sail to leeward steering for the Channel, the Wind being favorable for Brest and the distance triffling I resolved to give chace. Having the Drake in Tow, I informed them of my intention and Ordered them to cast off. They cut the Hawser. The Ranger in the Chace went lasking4 between the NNE and NNW.—it lasted an Hour and Ten minutes, when the chace was hailed and proved a Swede. I immediately hauled by the Wind to the Southward. After cutting the Hawser the Drake went from the Wind for some time, then hawled close by the Wind steering from SSE to SSW as the Wind permitted; so that when the Ranger spoke the Chace the Drake was scarce perceptable. In the course of the day many large Ships appeared steering into the Channel, but the extraordinary Evolutions of the Drake made it impossible for me to avail myself of these favorable circumstances. Towards Noon it became very Squally and the Wind backed from the SW to the West. The Ranger had come up with the Drake and was nearly abrest of her, tho' considerably, to leeward when the Wind shifted. The Drake was however kept by the Wind; tho' as I afterward understood, they knew the Ranger and saw the Signal which she had hoisted. After various Evolutions and Signals in the Night, I gave chase to a sail which appeared bearing SSW the next Morning at a great distance. The chase discovered no intention to speak with the Ranger; she was however at length brought too and proved to be the Drake. I immediately put Lieutenant Simpson under Suspension and Arrest for disobedience of my Orders dated the 26th Ultimo Copy whereof is here inclosed.5 On the 8th both Ships Anchored safe in this Road, the Ranger having been Absent only 28 days.6 Could I suppose that my letters of 9th and 16th Current (the first advising you of my Arrival and giving reference to the Events of my Expidition—the last advising you of my Draft in favor of Monsr. Bersole for Twenty four thousand Livers and as• { 166 } signing reasons for that demand) had not made due appearance I would hereafter as I do now inclose Copies. Three posts have already arrived here from Paris since Comte D'Orvilliers shewed me the Answer which he received from the Minister to the letter which inclosed mine to you—yet you remain Silent. Monsr. Bersole has this moment informed me of the Fate of my Bill the more extraordinary as I have not yet made use of your Letter of 10th Jany. last whereby I then seemd entitled to call for half the Amount of my late draft, and I did not expect to be thought extravagant when on the 16th I doubled that demand. Could this indignity be kept secret I should disregard it. But tho' it is already public in Brest and in the Fleet as it affects only my private Credit I will not complain. I cannot however be silent when I find the Public Credit under the same disgrace. I conceive that this might have been prevented. To make me completely wretched Mr. Bersole has told me that he now stops his hand not only of the necessary Articles to refit the Ship but also of the daily Provision. I know not where to find tomorrows dinner for the great number of Mouths which depend on me for Food. Are then the Continental Ships of War to depend on the Sale of their Prizes for a daily Dinner for their Men? “Publish it not in Gath.”7 My Officers as well as Men want Cloathes to cover their Nakedness and the Prizes are precluded from being sold before further Orders arrive from the Minister. I will ask you Gentlemen if I have deserved all this? Whoever calls himself an American Agent ought to be present here.
I am unwilling to think that you have intentionally involved me in this sad delema at a time when I ought to expect some enjoyment, therefore I have as formerly the honor to be with due Esteem and Respect Gentlemen Your very Obliged very Obedient very humble Servant
[signed] Jno. P. Jones
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “C. Jones May 27. 1778.”
1. That of 16 May (above). For a lengthy account of Jones' voyage and its effect on British morale, together with identifications of the ships and men mentioned by Jones, see Morison, John Paul Jones, p. 129–163.
2. A copy of Jones' letter of 8 May to Lady Selkirk, perhaps that enclosed in this letter, is in the Adams Papers and is docketed by JA: “J. P. Jones to Lady Selkirk. 8. May 1778”; in another hand: “Copy of a Letter from Capt Jones to Lady Selkrig May 8. 78.” For a printed copy of the letter to Lady Selkirk together with the Earl of Selkirk's reply to Jones that was never received, see Morison, John Paul Jones, p. 148–150, 151–154.
3. See Pierce Powers to the Commissioners, 22 June (below).
4. That is, sailing neither by nor with the wind (OED).
5. Enclosure not found, but for Jones' { 167 } instructions to Simpson of 26 April, see Lt. Simpson's letter to the Commissioners of 8 May, note 1 (above). For another account of the events leading to Simpson's arrest, see Elijah Hall and others to the Commissioners, 30 May (below).
6. The present letter was drafted in two parts (PCC, No. 168, I, f. 79–90, 91–92). The first ends at this point, while the second repeats the initial sequence of the recipient's copy, preceded by the word “(Introduction)”; then comes the remainder of the letter designated as the “(Conclusion).”
7. See 2 Samuel, 1:20 or Micah, 1:10.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0119

Author: Continental Congress, Commerce Committee
Author: Ellery, William
Author: Hutson, Richard
Author: Adams, Thomas
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-28

The Commerce Committee to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentn

You will receive this by Thomas Read Esqr who was Captain of the Frigate Washington but is now Commander of the Armed Brigantine Baltimore. This Brigantine was intended for A dispatch Vessel, but now hath A Cargo on board of Forty Nine hhds. of Tobacco which was all she coud take in and accomodate her men. We have addressed her to John Danl. Schweighauser Merchant in Nantes, and have directed him to dispose of the net proceeds of her Cargo, and also a balance which he hath in his hands belonging to these States according to your Order. We have order'd Captain Read to wait for and pursue your directions, and have desired Mr. Schweighauser to Ship such Goods on board the Baltimore, belonging to these States, as Captain Read can receive consistantly with your directions.
We have the pleasure to inform you that the Frigate Dean Captain Nicholson, the Queen of France Captain Green and the Henrietta Captain Brown are safely arrived at Boston and our Agent there in A Letter of the 13th May advises us that “they had another valuable Arrival from France Yesterday” which we hope is the Duke de Choiseuil.1 We are with the greatest Respect, Your most obed hble servants
[signed] William Ellery
[signed] Richd. Hutson
[signed] Thos. Adams
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) addressed: “The Honorable The Ambassadors of the United States of America at Paris”; designated, perhaps to identify it as a 2d copy: “B.”; docketed: “Comtee. of Commerce May 28. 1778 ansd. July 29”; and later, also by JA, immediately below the docket entry: “came by the Saratoga Captn. Read.” The last entry is clearly erroneous, perhaps the result of the passage of time. JA apparently mistook this letter for one of those that had been brought by the brigantine Saratoga, Capt. Murray, that reached Nantes on 3 July (William MacCreery to JA, 4 July, below). The Baltimore arrived at Nantes on or about 22 July; see the Commissioners' letter to J. D. Schweighauser of 27 July (LbC, Adams Papers).
{ 168 }
1. The frigate Deane arrived at Boston on 13 May after first stopping at Portsmouth, N.H. (Independent Chronicle, 14 May). The Queen of France probably arrived in Boston during the first week of May (Marine Committee to John Green, 19 June, in Charles Oscar Paullin, ed., Outletters of the Continental Marine Committee and Board of Admiralty, 2 vols., N.Y., 1914, 1:262). The “Henrietta Captain Brown” may have been the Henrietta Brown that sailed from St. Nazaire on or about 3 March (Deane Papers, 2:390). The “valuable Arrival” has not been identified.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0120

Author: Bingham, William
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-29

William Bingham to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble Gentn

I have done myself the Honor of writing Several Letters to Congress upon the Subject of Remittances, for Debts I have contracted in this place on public Account; in Some of which I requested Liberty to draw upon you Gentlemen for the Amount, as being the most Sure and eligible Plan of procuring Payment.1 I have not as yet received any Answers to my Letters, but expect them with great Impatience.
Should they not arrive, and Remittances fail me, I Shall be under the Necessity of drawing upon you for the Sum of Livs. 100,000 Tournois, to preserve my Credit, and enable me to pay due honor to the Engagements I have entered into, on the Public Account.
Nothing but the most pressing Demand for this Sum, and the fullest Assurance of my Drafts being punctually honoured, could induce me to take this Liberty, without having first obtained yours and Congress's Permission. But I am fully confident that it cannot be the Intention of Congress that their Agents Should be reduced to Difficulties, or their Credit Suffer, by a failure in their Payments.
The Congress is indebted to me a much larger Sum, and Should I receive Remittances from America in Produce, I Should find the greatest Difficulty in disposing of it, for mercantile operations are almost Suspended here, from the Appearance of an approaching War.
Besides, Several French Vessels have lately been taken, and carried into English Ports, for no other Reason than their having American Produce on board, which has made the Owners of Vessels very cautious of receiving it on Freight untill War is openly declared.
It gives me Pain to impart to you the disagreeable News of the Loss of the Randolph and Alfred Frigates. The Circumstances { 169 } that attended the Capture of the Alfred, greatly aggravate the Misfortune. She fell a Sacrifice to the Cowardice of Capt. Thompson Commander of the Raleigh, who declined giving her any assistance, during her Engagement with the Ceres and Ariadne Sloops of War, the one of 18 and the other of 22 Guns. I have transmitted to Congress a full and circumstantial Account of this unfortunate Event, and I hope the base and infamous Conduct of Capt. Thompson will meet with a proper and condign Punishment.
The Stroke of Misfortune that befel the Randolph proceeded from a very different Cause, from an intemperate and indiscreet Courage. Capt. Biddle had the Confidence to attack the Yarmouth a 64 Gun Ship and was Sunk in the Engagement. Out of 305 Persons of which the Crew consisted, but four were Saved.
A Captain of a Vessel that was taken and carried into Domenica informs me that the Day before he Sailed from Boston Mr. Deane arrived there from France.2 There is no late News of any Consequence from the Armies. I have the honor to be with great Respect Gentn. Your obedt. hble servt
[signed] Wm Bingham
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) docketed: “Wm. Bingham St Pierre May 29 78.”
1. See Committee for Foreign Affairs to the Commissioners, 16 April (above).
2. That is, Simeon Deane.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0121

Author: Trumbull, Jonathan
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-29

Jonathan Trumbull to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

This will be handed to you by Capt. Robert Niles (Commander of the Schooner Spy own'd by this State) and has in Charge Dispatches from the Honorable Continental Congress which I was desir'd to forward Imediately to you, hope he may have a Good Passage, and Arive Safe.1 The Article of Lead is much wanted in this State and would desire that you would putt as much on Board, the Spy as Capt. Niles shall Judge Suffecient to take on Board, to putt her in Trim for Sailing and Supply him with Cash Suffecient for his Disbursments during his Stay in France, and One hundred and Twenty Four pounds Lawfull Money, which I have Agreed to advance for Capt. Niles and his Mate, also as much more as will pay Each of his Seamen One Months pay, the Amount must Refer you to Capt. Niles.2 I am, with great Esteem and Consideration Gentlemen Your most Obedient most hble Servant
[signed] Jonth; Trumbull
{ 170 }
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) addressed: “The Honorable Commissioners of the United States of America at Paris. Per Packet Capt Robt Niles. Commander.”; franked: “On Public Service Jonth; Trumbull”; docketed in an unknown hand: “Jon. Trumbull to Commrs. 29 May 1778. by Capt Niles (who came in 22. Days).”
1. The Marine Committee, in a letter of 5 May, had requested Trumbull to prepare the Spy “to carry dispatches to France.” These were the ratified copies of the Franco-American treaties received by Trumbull in a letter from the Committee for Foreign Affairs dated 19 May (Charles Oscar Paullin, ed., Outletters of the Continental Marine Committee and Board of Admiralty, 2 vols., N.Y., 1914, 1:235; MHS, Colls., 7th ser., 2 [1902]:234; see also Foreign Affairs Committee to [Jesse] Brown, in Burnett, ed., Letters of Members, 3:258–259, and note 3). On the morning of 3 July the Spy reached Brest, and the first set of the ratifications to arrive in France was immediately sent to Paris, where it was received on the 8 th (Thomas Simpson to the Commissioners, 3 July, below; JA to James Lovell, 9 July, calendared below).
JA, who informed Arthur Lee of the newly arrived ratifications in a letter of [8 July] (MH-H: Lee Papers), apparently added one of the sets that arrived later to his personal files, for the Adams Papers contain ratified copies of the treaties signed and sealed by President Henry Laurens.
2. For the Commissioners' response to Trumbull's requests regarding the Spy, see their letters of J. D. Schweighauser and Trumbull (both below||, that to Schweighauser quoted in note 1 there||). On its return voyage the Spy was captured by a Jersey privateer (Robert Niles to Benjamin Franklin, 27 Oct., Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:522).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0122

Author: Hall, Elijah
Author: Cullown, David
Author: Green, Ezra
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05-30

Elijah Hall and Others to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

The Petition and Remonstrance of Us the Subscribers Officers of the american continental Ship of War Ranger humbly sheweth—
That our Friend and Brother Officer Lt. Thos. Simpson; was on the 24th of April last sent on board Our Prize the Sloop of War Drake, to take the Command; with this Order among others, to keep within a Cable's length (or thereabout) on Our starboard Quarter. On the 4th. of May Instant took the Drake in Tow, on the Morning of the 5th. our Commander gave Orders to ware [wear] Ship and give chace to a Vessel which we saw to Leward. The Master haling the Drake inform'd them, that we should ware Ship, and gave Orders to cast off the Harser and make sail; but unfortunately for Mr. Simpson he, with his Officers, and Men, misunderstood the Orders; and as there was no Signal given for waring Ship (which till then had been the constant Practice) concluded they were to keep their Course; which the[y] did accordingly.
This Gentlemen is the suppos'd Offence for which Mr. Simpson was arrested and confined, first on Board the Drake; then in { 171 } a guard Ship, in the port of Brest; and for a Week past in a common dirty Goal; without any provision made for his comfort or Support, except what the humane Goaler has been pleas'd to afford Him; and till this Day debarr'd the Liberty of seeing any One, to whom He might make known his wants; he has even been deny'd Pen and Ink.
Such Treatment Gentlemen we are bound to say (in justice to the Injured, to Ourselves, and country) is what we think not only new, and unheard of; but very unjustifiable Arbitrary and Inhumane; it gives general uneasiness on board, both among Officers and Men; and must if allow'd of persisted in greatly injure the Cause of Liberty; and perhaps totally defeat Us in the important pursuit in which we are engaged.
Mr. Simpson ever maintain'd an unspotted Character behaving in such a manner as to command the Respect and Esteem of all who had the happiness of his Acquaintance and since He has been in the Service; has conducted himself in every respect as became an Officer and a Gentleman.
We join with Mr. Simpson in earnestly requesting that He may be brought to a speedy Trial; if it can't be done here, pray He may be sent to America as soon as may be; and in the mean Time beg your Honors would take His case into Consideration, and give such advice respecting Him as your prudence shall direct. We are with due Respect Gentn. Your most Obedt. & very huml. Servts.
[signed] Elijah Hall Lieutt.
[signed] David Cullown Master
[signed] Ezra Green Surgeon
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) docketed: “Officers Petn for Lt. Simpson. 30 May 1778.”

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0123

Author: Lovell, James
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-05

From James Lovell

[salute] My dear Sir

In aid to your scrutiny after the real robber of the Commissioners Dispatches, I send what I think a good Confirmation of Folgiers honesty. By comparing the Governor's2 letter with Folgier's Examination you will find the Governor led into a mistake about the number of Seals broken, by Folgiers forgetting that the outside Cover of the whole had anything more than “Dispatches” wrote on it. He told us differently 2 days after we had { 172 } sent an Express to Nth. Carolina. I am glad he did forget it at first as it strengthens eventually the nature of the Evidence.
You must not wonder that I make so much of this matter. It is of the highest Importance to you to be guarded against Bosom-Traitors yourself and to tear them from your Colleagues. I must add that no one here thinks Folgier's Employment by them a discreet Choice, tho he does not appear to be the Arch Traitor. Affectionately your Friend
[signed] James Lovell
May 25th. 1777 The Commissioners refer to Letters of March 14 and Apr. 9th. which have never reached Us, nor any Letter since May 25th.3
RC (Adams Papers) addressed: “To The Honble John Adams Esqr. Paris”; docketed: “Mr. Lovell”; in another hand: “25 May 1777”; by JA: “This date is a Mistake. It Shd. have been 1778.”
1. This letter was very likely written in May 1778, between the 16th and the 28th. In his letter to Lovell of 26 July (below), JA acknowledged this letter and another of the 16th, while on the 28th the congress voted to pay Folger the balance of his account (JCC, 11:544–545).
2. Neither the express sent to Gov. Caswell nor his reply has been found, but see James Lovell to JA, 13 Jan., note 5 and references there (above).
3. That is, in their letter to the Committee for Foreign Affairs of 25 May 1777, the Commissioners had referred to the two letters mentioned by Lovell. On the RC the two dates have been underlined and in the margin is the notation: “not come to hand March 1778 J. Lovell” (PCC, No. 85).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0124-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-02

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

J'ai l'honneur de vous confirmer mes trois dernieres Lettres, savoir celle en forme de Journal, du 7 au 15e May; une autre du 19e; et la derniere du 22 au 26e May.
Mr. l'Ambassadeur de France est de retour en bonne santé.
Le g—— F—— est d'avis que je n'accepte point, entant que réponse à votre Lettre,1 celle que le G—— P—— voudra peut-être me faire de bouche quand je le verrai. Mais il s'attend, ainsi que moi, que vous m'envoyiez au plutôt la Copie du Traité, en conséquence de mes deux dernieres Lettres, afin que je puisse la présenter au G—— P——, ainsi qu'à la Régence d'Amsterdam, et que le G—— P—— ait le temps, avant que les Etats se rassemblent, de faire circuler cette Piece parmi les Membres, comme il a fait de la Lettre. Les Etats se rassembleront le Ier Juillet; ainsi il n'y a point de temps à perdre. Le g—— F—— a lu I'avis aux Hollandois, l'a trouvé bien, et a envoyé un des Exemplaires que je lui ai donnés à la Maison.
{ 173 }
Vous verrez, Messieurs, par la Traduction ci-jointe,2 dont le g—— F—— a fait prendre copie, que la danse va enfin commencer en Allemagne. Laissons-les faire: il n'y a point de mal à cela pour nous. L'ennemi seul y perd le reste de ses ressources.3
Lorsque Mesdes. la Duchesse de Chartres et Princesse de Lamballe arriverent de France à Rotterdam, elles se firent conduire à l'Auberge un peu avant leur suite, en négligé. Il y avoit dans la Salle une Tabagie d'Hollandois, qui les prirent pour des Actrices qu'on attendoit: ils poserent pourtant leurs pipes, parégard pour le Sexe: mais l'un d'eux leur demanda, quels étoient leurs rôles dans la troupe? Nous jouons quelquefois les grands rôles, dit Made, la Duchesse. Ces Princesses ont été entre autres à Gouda, voir faire des Pipes, et en ont emporté une grande boete pleine, de toute grandeur et figure, depuis la mesure de Brobdignac jusqu'à celle de Liliput. A Utrecht le nommé van Mollem avoit mis sa plus belle Robe de Chambre de Chits,4 pour leur montrer sa fameuse fabrique de soies: ce fut pour les Princesses l'homme de Porcelaine.
On vient de me régaler du vers suivant, pour être mis au bas du portrait de Mr. Franklin,

Eripuit calo fulmen, sceptrumque tyrannise.5

Je trouve ce vers admirable, sublime, préférable à tout ce que j'ai vu là-dessus, seul digne enfin de la place pour laquelle il est fait.
Je suis avec toute la vénération & le respect imaginable, Messieurs, Votre tres humble & tres obéissant serviteur
[signed] C. Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0124-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-02

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

I have the honor to confirm my last three letters, namely that of 7 to 15 May in the form of a journal, another of the 19th, and the last of 22 to 26 May.
The French ambassador returned in good health.
The Grand Facteur is of the opinion that I should not accept, as a reply to your letter,1 what the Grand Pensionary will perhaps tell me verbally when we meet. But he expects, as do I, that you, in response to my last two letters and as soon as possible, will send me a copy of the treaty which I will then present to the Grand Pensionary and the Regency of Amsterdam so that the former may have time, before the States reassemble, to circulate this document, as he did the letter, among its members. The States will reconvene on 1 July, so there is no { 174 } time to lose. The Grand Facteur read the Avis aux Hollandois, found it good, and sent the copy I gave him to his House.
You will see by the enclosed translation,2 copied out by the Grand Facteur, that the dance is finally about to begin in Germany. Let them do it; it will do us no harm, the only result being the loss by the enemy of some of its remaining resources.3
When the Duchess of Chartres and the Princess of Lamballe arrived from France at Rotterdam they, dressed informally and without waiting for their attendants, asked to be taken to the Inn. In the smoking-room some Dutchmen took them for the actresses that were expected in town. They put away their pipes in deference to their sex, but one asked them what roles they played in the troupe. We sometimes play the leading roles, replied the Duchess. The princesses visited, among other places, Gouda, where they watched the making of pipes and brought back a boxful in all shapes and sizes, from Brobdignag to Lilliput. At Utrecht, van Mollem, attired in his sumptuous dressing gown made of chite4 in order to show them his famous silk factory, was, for the princesses, the porcelain man.
I have just been offered the following verse to be placed at the bottom of Mr. Franklin's portrait:

Eripuit calo fulmen, sceptrumque tyrannise.5

I find the line to be both admirable and sublime, preferable to any that I have seen and the only line worthy of its intended location. I am, with all the reverence and respect imaginable, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] C. Dumas
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) docketed: “Dumas 2. June 1778.”
1. That is, the Commissioners' letter of 28 April to Pieter van Bleiswyck (above).
2. The enclosure, dated 26 May at Berlin, described the preparations and readiness for war of the Prussian and Austrian armies. In the writer's opinion, any chance for peace had vanished. The enclosure (MH-H: Lee Papers) became separated from the present letter, probably as it passed among the Commissioners.
3. The “enemy” is presumably Great Britain, which, should war break out in Germany, would lose her reservoir of foreign troops.
4. That is, cloth imprinted by wood blocks in durable colors and imported from India (Emile Littré, ed., Dictionnaire de la langue française ..., 4 vols. and suppl., Paris, 1881–1884).
5. He snatched the lightning from heaven and the scepter from tyrants. Dumas' source for this famous and widely quoted inscription attributed to Turgot is unknown, nor can the portrait under which it was to appear be determined with any certainty, for it accompanies many representations of Franklin, even a “vase de nuit” given by Louis XVI to Comtesse Diane de Polignac in recognition of her ostentatious adoration of Franklin (Charles Coleman Sellers, Benjamin Franklin in Portraiture, New Haven, 1962, p. 108). For an interesting essay on Turgot and the attribution of this quotation to him, see “Benjamin Franklin and John Slidell at Paris,” in Works of Charles Sumner, 15 vols., Boston, 1870–1883, 8:1–38.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0125

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Bondfield, John
Date: 1778-06-03

To John Bondfield

Passy, 3 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:126. Adams acknowledged Bondfield's letter of 26 May (not found), enclosing an account for expenses of JA's party in Bordeaux and the trip to Paris, and approved one for goods shipped to AA.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0126

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Jones, John Paul
Date: 1778-06-03

The Commissioners to John Paul Jones

Passy, 3 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:123–124. The Commissioners, as a result of letters from Lt. Thomas Simpson and appeals by others on his behalf, determined that Jones' treatment of Simpson was too harsh and desired that Simpson be allowed to give his parole and return to America, there to be tried by a court martial. The Commissioners also requested that Andrew Fallon, taken prisoner when Jones captured and then scuttled the brigantine Dolphin on 14 April, be permitted to give his parole.
Fallon, bound to Esher, Holland, “to embrace a religious life,” gave his parole on 11 June (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 4:263,490; Morison, John Paul Jones, p. 135).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0127

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Date: 1778-06-03

The Commissioners to Sartine

Passy, 3 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:125–126. Protesting duties charged on goods purchased for the Boston at Bordeaux, listed in an accompanying account, on the grounds that as a ship of war it was not liable for them, the Commissioners desired Sartine to take corrective action. They also requested that the prizes put in the hands of the commandant at Brest by John Paul Jones be turned over to J. D. Schweighauser because of the heavy charges to be paid on their sale owing to their having been placed improperly in the commandant's charge. Finally, if it was not thought improper,, the Commissioners wished to issue a letter of marque to a vessel outfitted at Dunkirk.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0128

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Simpson, Thomas
Date: 1778-06-03

The Commissioners to Thomas Simpson

Passy, 3 June 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:124. This letter informed Simpson that the Commissioners had ordered John Paul Jones to grant a parole so that he could go to Nantes in order to take the first opportunity to sail for America.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0129

Author: Hall, Elijah
Recipient: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-03

Elijah Hall to Benjamin Franklin and John Adams

[salute] Gentlemen

I request your Honours Favour in behalf of the Officers and Men, that you would point out some Method to bring the Prizes to sail, which we took on the late Cruize, as we are much in want of Cloathing and other Necessaries which we cannot do without. Many of Us have Wives and Children now suffering in America, the Time for which most of the People engag'd being now almost expired, and no prospect of going Home to relieve their distressed Families, as there was annex'd to their names the following sentence—and while absent from the eastern States which they declare to Capt. Jones that they know nothing of at signing, and of which they think he means to take an advantage; this and many other Deceptions they Charge Capt. Jones with; of which, I think it my Duty to inform you; He promised them half their Wages in France, which he has not done. Mr. Simpson is put in a common Goal for a supposed Breach of Orders who always supported the best of Characters from His Youth up. I humbly beg You would remove Him to some place suitable to a Gentleman of his Rank till there is an Opportunity to send Him home for Trial, which is his earnest desire, that so he may have justice done Him. All the People are dissatisfied with Capt. Jones, which is the sole Cause of the Disorder on board the Ship, which He charges His Officers with, that they have not kept good Order nor Discipline. I never knew of any disorderly Action till they found they were deceived and unfairly dealt with; they are well disciplined and will Load and Fire Cannon as fast as any Men in Europe. The late action is a proof of it, although Capt. Jones gives them no honour, for it is reported about Brest that Capt. Jones said he was oblig'd to drive His Officers and Men to Quarters; which is scandalous to the last degree. I will venture to say that no Officers or Men were ever more willing for engaging than those of the Ranger, or ever behaved better; not a Man or Boy ever flinch'd from his Quarters to my knowledge during the action. Capt. Jones's mode of Government is so far from that of Ours that no American of Spirit can ever serve with cheerfulness under Him. I beg your Honours would remove Me from under his Command Where I can do honour to myself and service to My Country. If this cannot be done must beg leave of your Honours to resign although I had much rather serve my bleeding { 177 } Country.1 I have done every thing in my Power to keep peace and Harmony amongst the People; since we arriv'd here they are determined not to go out from this Port with Capt. Jones unless they are to go to America. We passed by many merchant Ships the last Cruize and left them unmolested; we went to get Honour and not Gain—we might as well have sent ten sail of Vessels into this Port as we did those that have arrived (had they not been retaken). We have been seven Months from America and not two of them at Sea, the most of Our time spent in Cutting our Masts and yards and altering Sails, to little or no purpose. Mr. Bursole has deny'd us all Supplies we can get no Beef but from the Kings Slaughter House and what we get is very Bad; we have three Hundred People to Feed. I hope Your Honours will take it into Consideration and adopt such measures as you shall see fit. I have the honour to be Gentn. your humble Servant
[signed] Elijah Hall
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) addressed: “The Honourable The Commissioners for the United States of America At Paris au soins de Mr. grand Banquier Rue mort-marthe”; docketed: “Elijah Halls Letter from on Board the Ranger June 3. 1778.” The “3” was interlined and in another hand. Although addressed to “The Commissioners,” the caption for this letter is derived from Hall's notation at the bottom of the last page of text: “The Honourable Messrs. Franklin & Adams.”
1. There is no evidence that the Commissioners acted on Hall's request. He was, however, soon free from Jones' command, for when the Ranger later sailed for America under the command of Thomas Simpson, Hall served as her first lieutenant. By 1782 Jones and Hall had become reconciled (John Henry Sherburne, Life and Character of the Chevalier John Paul Jones, Washington, 1825, p. 363–364; Augustus C. Buell, Paul Jones, 2 vols., N.Y., 1902, 2:79–80).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0130

Author: Jones, John Paul
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-03

John Paul Jones to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

Your letter of the 25th Ultimo I received by Yesterdays post: I frankly ask your pardon for the undue liberty which I took the 16th Ultimo when I ventured to sign a draft upon you for the purpose of supplying the people under my Command with necessary Cloathing &ca.—and I promise you never to be guilty of the like Offence again.
I hope you do not however mean to impute to me a desire to receive “Presents of the public Money”1 —or even to touch a Dollar of it for any private purpose of my own ? On the contrary I need not now assert that I stepped forth at the beginning from { 178 } Nobler motives? My Accounts before I left America testify that I am more than Fifteen hundred pounds in Advance for the Public Service exclusive of any concern with the Ranger. And as for Wages I never received any.
Had I not previously determined to keep the Prisoners here they would have been sent away in the Drake long before now: My embarrassed Situation will in the Eye of Candor Appologize for my not sending you a more early information of the particulars of my Cruise and of the Prizes which I have made.
On my passage from America I took two Brigantines both from Malaga for England. The one Arrived safe at Nantes and being sold by Messrs. Morris and Williams the Captors part thereof was paid to them. The other Arrived at Bourdeaux and was, I understand, sold by Mr. I. H. Delap who, tho' he had my Orders to remit the Captors part immediately into the hands of Mr. Williams of Nantes, yet he still retains it in his own hands.2 On my late Expedition Three prizes were Sunk. The Ship Lord Chatham was sent here to remain under the care of the Intendant, she now remains in the port locked and Nailed up under a Guard; the Ship of War Drake with her Stores on board and the Brigantine Patience in Ballast are with the Ranger at Anchor in the Road. Monsr. de Sartine can inform you that the Sale of the prizes are precluded until he sends further Orders here.3 Had it been otherwise I cannot see how you could suppose that I had created Agents to dispose of the public property and yet if I had done this perhaps my public wants would Justify me.
The Rules whereby Congress hath been pleased to Command me to regulate my Conduct in the Navy authorize me to Issue my Warrant to the Agent &ca. and I humbly conceive that it is his province to furnish you with an Estimate of the Amount of the Expence. If you wish for an Estimate from me, unacquainted as I am with prices, besides the delay, it may be very far from exact.
When you determined to change the Continental Agent I could wish you had sent that information in a Letter to meet me here on my Arrival, as I had advised you of my intention to return to Brest—all disagreeable Altercation might then have been avoided. My Situation is not now mended by your last. The Gentleman you mention being at Nantes and no person appearing in his behalf at Brest.
{ 179 }
A space of Sixteen Months is now elapsed since Congress thought of me so as to put under my Command Seven times my present Force, leaving me at full Liberty how and where to apply it—and if I am not now Capable of supporting the Internal Government of a single Sloop of War—I wish that some person more deserving had my place and that I were in America to answer for my Misconduct. I have “well considered”4 and yet shall persist in Justifying the Steps which I have taken and to which you allude.
I am happy in having it in my power to furnish you with the inclosed Resolution of Congress respecting the Capture of the Enemies Ships of War5 agreeable to your desire. And if you are in possession of any Resolution of Congress which will Authorize me to send Lieutenant Simpson—to America &ca. I should be Obliged to you for a Copy of it.
I thank you with all my Heart for your Congratulation which I am extremely sorry that I have not better merited. I have the Honor to be Gentlemen Your very Obliged very Obedient very humble Servant
[signed] Jno P Jones
RC (PPAmP:Franklin Papers); docketed: “C. Jones. June 3. 1778 inclosing a Resolve of Congress relative to the Division of Prizes.”
1. In their letter of 25 May (calendared above) the Commissioners stated that “we have no Authority to make presents of the public Money, to Officers or Men, however gallant or deserving, for the purpose of providing their Families with Cloathing, or for any other.”
2. The prize sold by the Delaps was the subject of a letter from Jones to the Commissioners of 10 June in which they were requested to order the Delaps to conform to Jones' original instructions regarding the captor's share of the proceeds from the sale. On 24 June the Commissioners, enclosing a copy of Jones' letter of the 10th, wrote to the Delaps requesting an account of the prize so that the proceeds could be distributed. The letter to the Delaps and its enclosure are printed in JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:142; the recipient's copy of the Jones letter is in PPAmP: Franklin Papers. The Commissioners' letter of the 24th was apparently effective. On 16 July, Jonathan Williams wrote to the Commissioners (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) announcing that he had received a remittance from the Delaps and enclosing a letter (not found) that he had written to the crew of the Ranger on the matter.
3. See Sartine to the Commissioners, 20 June (below).
4. In their letter of 25 May (calendared above), the Commissioners, in reference to Jones' arrest and imprisonment of Thomas Simpson, had stated that “as the Consequences of an Arrest in foreign Countries, are thus extremely troublesome, they should be well considered before they are made.”
5. Enclosure not found, but it was the resolution of 30 Oct. 1776 in which the congress awarded the full value of any enemy warship captured by a Continental vessel to the officers and men of that vessel (JCC, 6:913)

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0131-0001

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-03

Sartine to the Commissioners

J'ai recû, Messieurs, La Lettre que vous m'avez fait l'honneur de m'écrire Le 16 du Mois passé pour demander qu'il soit accordé une fregate du Roi aux frères Basmarin Raimbeaux et Cie. pour etre emploié a proteger Le Commerce qu'ils font a l'Amerique et en même terns user de Represailles pour Les Pertes que Les Anglois Leur ont fait essuyer en dernier Lieu. Je voudrois qu'il me fut possible de me preter a ce que vous paroisser desirer; Mais sa Majesté a desiré que quant a Present il ne feroit detaché aucun de ses Batimens du service qu'ils remplissent, pour etre accordés a des Particuliers. J'ai l'honneur d'etre &c.
[signed] De Sartine

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0131-0002

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-03

Sartine to the Commissioners: A Translation

I received the letter that you did me the honor to write the 16th of last month, asking that one of His Majesty's frigates be given to Basmarin, Raimbeaux & Cie. to protect their commerce with America and also for use in retaliatory action for the losses the British have caused them of late. I wish that it was possible for me to be agreeable to your request, but His Majesty wishes, for the time being, not to relieve any of his vessels from service to grant them to private persons. I have the honor to be &c
[signed] De Sartine
MS (DLC: Franklin Papers); a copy, probably by Arthur Lee.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0132

Author: Ranger, crew of
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-03

Ranger Crew Members to the Commissioners

To the honourable the Commissioners of the United States of North America, the Petition of the Jovial Tars Now on board the Continental Sloop of war Ranger, most humbley Sheweth,
That your Petitioners regard and love For their Countrey, and dutey to there ancient fore Fathers, have most of them left there wives, and Familey Cruized the wide Atalantick, in the most dangerous places, greatley Damadgeing and distressing, our enemys, and all the Satisfaction and recompence we receive for our Labour, are, Vain and Flattering promisses, likewise arbitrary Proceedings, which Causes a general murmer and uneasiness among all on Board. They therefore think it there Duty to make application to your honours for releive, From there pressent Greiveances.
{ 181 } { 182 }
That the greates number of them entered in the Service particulraly upon Mr. Simpsons our first Leiutenants account knowing him to be a Gentelman of honour, Worthey and capeable of his Officeships, and who is now confined inocentley, as we think in a Lousey Dirtey french Goal.
That they that entered for a Cruize, or a Twelve month Expected to be discharged at the expireation of that time, But Capn. Jones, since there entry and without there Concent, has ordered an uncertain term of time to be wrote Against there names, rendering them subservient to him during his absence from the eastern States, which we think Arbitrary and unconstitutional, and must when heard of in America be a hindrance and a preventment For aney Seamen to enter into the Service, or Depending upon the honours of Commanders, Like ours.
There is a number of Prizes brought into this port, but no Satissaction, or account for them, unless Your honours, will take it into Consideration, in those Material affairs, and to See Justice done by the captors. On our first arrival in France we brought in tow [two] prizes2 one of which fetchd not half the first cost, and the other deliverd to Mr. Delap of Bourdeaux of which can get no Account, or Satisfaction for.
We have been Lying in different ports in France since the first of December last and onley made one Cruize, and that to perfection had we our rights, But we can expect no more when we see our, Faithfull, true and Fatherley Officer our first Leiutenant used so abruptley, and we beleive and what wee have Seen without a Cause, thus have we been Deluded from our Freinds, Famileys by ungratefull and False Promises and deceitfull Advertisements, we have fought and Taken, Ships Sunk and Destroyd them and all the conslation we can send to our distressed and perhaps Famishing wives and Children, is, that there prizes is in the Hands of him, who has Deceived us, from the Begining.
We humbley pray you be pleased to take our Case into consideration and render us some veiw and Satisfaction Of what we have gone thro with and to Send us home and not For us to Let our poor wives, and Famileys Suffer with Dispair,3 and we in dutey bound will ever pray.
[signed] Ebenezer Watson
[signed] William Young
[signed] Saml. Odiorne
[signed] Samuell Lock
[signed] John Garoin
[signed] Daniel Sargent
[signed] Robert Moore
[signed] John Roberts
{ 183 }
[signed] William Allen
[signed] Simon Staple
[signed] John Colbath
[signed] John Bettenham
[signed] Daniel Jacobs
[signed] Robert Poor
[signed] Edmund Boyenton
[signed] Peter Sontgerath
[signed] Oliver Crommett
[signed] William English
[signed] Joseph Rackyeft
[signed] Mark Staples
[signed] William Jones
[signed] John Parsons
[signed] Amos Kenneston
[signed] Eprahm Grant
[signed] Thomas Low
[signed] Obadiah Donell
[signed] Charles Ward
[signed] William Finnel
[signed] Nicholas Caverly
[signed] Daniel Sargant
[signed] Andrew Anderson
[signed] Joseph La Plant
[signed] John Monson
[signed] William Pirkins
[signed] Francies Andros
[signed] Charles Balls
[signed] James Smith
[signed] Gabriel Gautier
[signed] James Rickor
[signed] James Laighton
[signed] William Shores
[signed] Sam'l Ball
[signed] Edward Shapleigh
[signed] John Brown
[signed] Benjamin Racklett
[signed] Reuben Ricker
[signed] Charles Framton
[signed] Thomas Staples
[signed] Darby Dayley
[signed] Caleb Emery
[signed] Daniel Jackson
[signed] John Walker
[signed] Daniel Nelson
[signed] Daniel Sherburne
[signed] Davis Woodde
[signed] Willam Gerrith
[signed] Amos Abbot
[signed] Charles Gaudraw
[signed] Thomas Adams
[signed] Scipio Africanus
[signed] Theophilus Simpson
[signed] Joseph Mathieu
[signed] Willim Stacy
[signed] Joseph Afrin
[signed] James Robarts
[signed] Samuel Holbrook
[signed] John Casey
[signed] Cato Calite
[signed] Joseph Fernald
[signed] Thomas Becke
[signed] Abraham Knight
[signed] Reuben Hanscom
[signed] Solomen Hutchings
[signed] John W. Grohmarney
[signed] William Dahuere
[signed] John Doelan
[signed] Stephon Dickson
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Petition from the Rangers Men June 1778.”
1. The petition may have been sent with Hall's letter of 3 June (above), for it lacks any separate address, and specific grievances mentioned by the crew members parallel those in Hall's letter.
Sometime later the Commissioners received a second petition (PPAmP: Franklin Papers), dated 15 June and signed by 28 members of the crew, that stated essentially the same grievances, particularly in { 184 } regard to the conditions of enlistment. It too was docketed by JA: “Petition from the Rangers Men.”
2. These were the brigantines Mary and George, bound for England from Malaga (Morison, John Paul Jones, p. 114–115).
3. In fairness to Jones, it should be noted that on 25 May the Commissioners had refused to honor a bill that he had drawn on them for 24,000 livres, the money intended in part for distribution to the Ranger's officers and men for the support of their families (see Jones to the Commissioners, 16 May, and the Commissioners to Jones, 25 May, calendared, both above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0133

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Bondfield, John
Date: 1778-06-04

The Commissioners to John Bondfield

Passy, 4 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:127. Replying to letters (not found) from Bondfield of 26 and 30 May, the first enclosing accounts for the purchase of supplies for the Boston, and the second reporting on the conspiracy against the Boston and enclosing an affidavit on the episode, the Commissioners approved Bondfield's purchases, noting that the price of beef seemed too high, and expressed their hope that the Boston would soon sail and thus reduce expenses. The Commissioners further reported that the affidavit had been sent to the Ministry, expressed their concern, and declared that every effort should be made to punish those involved.
See also, Samuel Tucker to JA, 27 May (above); and Bondfield to the Commissioners, 6 June (below).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0134

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: North, Frederick, Lord
DateRange: 1778-06-04 - 1778-06-06

The Commissioners to Lord North

Passy, 4 or 6 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:127–128; not sent. The Commissioners appealed “for an immediate Exchange of Prisoners in Europe.” They protested the treatment of American prisoners “in a manner unexampled, in the practice of civilized Nations” and promised retaliation if such treatment continued.
Although the letter bears no date, in the Autobiography it immediately follows a letter to Vergennes dated 4 June and is introduced by a statement, “on the same day We wrote to Lord North.” However, in the Letterbook from which Adams derived the text (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 92), the letter follows a series of items dated 4 June and immediately precedes a number of letters dated 6 June. Additional doubt is cast on a 4 June date by the placement of an Arthur Lee copy of the letter (misdated 6 May) between a letter dated 5 June and one of the 6th (PCC, No. 102, IV, f. 11).
Adams' Letterbook copy provides no indication that the letter was sent, but notations on a draft in DLC: Franklin Papers and on Arthur Lee's copy indicate specifically that it was not. An explanation may be that direct correspondence with Lord North became unnecessary. A letter of 5 June from David Hartley to Benjamin Franklin gave the Commissioners an apparently firm proposal for an exchange of prison• { 185 } ers (see the Commissioners to John Paul Jones, 10 June, calendared below).
The text of Adams' Letterbook copy incorporated the additions and deletions made during the drafting process. This is particularly true of the final paragraph, which in the draft, with deletions indicated, read: “Most earnestly we beseech your Lordship, no longer to sacrifice the essential interests of Humanity to Claims of Sovereignty, <the vainess of which the Issue of our most solemn Appeal to Heaven has sufficiently proved. It is a fatal Mistake by which you seem to have been mislead to think —that when you trampled upon Humanity you triumphed over us.> which your Experience must by this time have convinc'd you <are become impracticable> are not to be maintained.”

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0135

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Schweighauser, John Daniel
Date: 1778-06-06

The Commissioners to J. D. Schweighauser

Passy, 6 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:129. The Commissioners, in reply to Schweighauser's letter of 1 June (not found), directed him to provide, frugally, whatever repairs and supplies were needed by the Providence, newly arrived at Paimboeuf near Nantes, and promised to obtain information on how French customs regulations would affect his efforts on behalf of the frigate.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0136

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Whipple, Abraham
Date: 1778-06-06

The Commissioners to Abraham Whipple

Passy, 6 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:128–129. The Commissioners congratulated Whipple on his escape from the British blockade of Rhode Island, voyage to France, and arrival with the frigate Providence at Paimboeuf, all of which had been recounted in his letter to Benjamin Franklin of 31 May (PPAmP: Franklin Papers). He was also informed that J. D. Schweighauser at Nantes would assist him in obtaining whatever supplies and repairs were needed.
On the previous day two letters, the one advising Whipple to come to Brest, and the other requesting Samuel Tucker, after a three or four weeks' cruise, to come to Brest for further directions, had been drafted, probably by Arthur Lee, but not sent (PCC, No. 102, IV, f. 10–11).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0137

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-06

John Bondfield to the Commissioners

[salute] Honorable Sirs

I am not favord with any of your Commands since the 18th Ultimo. All the advertizements1 containd therein are at Sea and some of them far advancd on their Passage.
{ 186 }
I had the honor to write you the 12. 16. 26 and 30th2 Ultimo per post which I suppose got duely to hand,3 to the last I shall be confirmd next Post as the honor paid to my drafts will be notified me by the Holders.
Since Cap. Tuckers departure from hence I have been obliged to discharge on the Ships Account Sundry debts not brought in before the closing of them. I transmitted and Cash sent him down of which Anext is the detail.4 I expect some other small Accounts will appear that I dont yet know of. I shall discharge what may appear due to the inclosed Account and draw for the same as occation serves.
The affair of the Conspiracy has been examin'd by the proper officers appointed by the Intendant. There dont appear sufficient ground to detain the Parties Accused it is probable tho denied peremptory that conversation had pass'd to the effect laid against them but that any steps taken in consequence cannot be proved, the Intendant paid every attention so attrocious an act Merritted and would most certainly have given every Satisfaction could the Act have been brought home. I have the Honor to be Honble Sirs Your most Obedient Humble Servant
[signed] John Bondfield
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honble. Benj Franklin Arthur Lee & John Adams Esqrs. Commissioners of Congress at Paris”; docketed: “Mr. Bondfield 6 June 1778. inclosing some remaing Accts. of the Boston.”
1. No letter to Bondfield of 18 May has been found, but the advertisements were probably copies of the circular letter by JA and Benjamin Franklin reporting that a British fleet had sailed.
2. Letters for the last three mentioned dates not found.
3. In the remainder of this sentence Bondfield is apparently saying that he expects to be informed by the next post as to whether the drafts mentioned in his letter of 30 May will be honored by their holders.
4. That is, Bondfield sent cash to Samuel Tucker and has “anext” a detailed account of the transaction to this letter. This enclosure has not been found.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0138

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-06

Sartine to the Commissioners

Marly, 6 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:129–130 (JA's English translation); for the French text, see JA, Works, 7:15–16. Sartine here injected himself into the Commissioners' dealings with Bersolle and John Paul Jones. The Minister of Marine called on the Commissioners, “for the conservation of your Credit,” to reconsider their refusal to honor Jones' bill drawn on Bersolle and to pay for the supplies sent to Jones from the royal magazines. Sartine also requested reimbursement for purchasers of goods stolen by Jones' crew { 187 } from one of his prizes, the Lord Chatham, and later recovered. Finally, he recommended that the Commissioners determine whether Jones' imprisonment of Thomas Simpson had been proper.
Adams believed that Sartine's intervention was unwarranted, reflecting the general effort to circumvent the orders of the Commissioners and the congress in order to “throw the American Business and Profits into the hands of the Tools of the Minister and his Understrappers” (Diary and Autobiography, 4:130).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0139

Author: Warren, James
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-07

From James Warren

[salute] My Dear Sir

We are yet in A State of Uncertainty whether you are Arrived in France or England, and Consequently whether you are now Acting As An Embassador or suffering as Prisoner. All we know is that the last Ship from France brings no Account of you tho' you had been out 7 weeks when she left Rochfort. The Enemy have Circulated a Report that the Boston was taken, and mention the Name of the Ship that Captured her.1 But I don't Incline to give Credit to it, and think there are reasons to doubt it. As I think myself Interested in the Event, I am Anxious to hear of your safe Arrival.
Nothing for several weeks has got in from any part of Europe tho' the winds have been remarkably favourable. Our Curiosity is therefore wrought up to A high Key, to hear what is passing in Europe, whether there be A declaration of War between France and England and whether any other Powers have Acknowledged our Independence, and Concluded a Treaty with us. Thus stand matters with regard to foreign News.
With regard to domestic News, I am Informed by my Friends at Congress that our Army is very respectable both with regard to Numbers and discipline. The Baron d Stubun has performed wonders in regulateing the discipline of the Army. They are well Cloathed, and well provided with Provisions, Arms, and Ammunition, and Congress have determined that the Officers who serve to the End of the war shall receive half pay for 7 Years, and the Soldiers have 80 dollars, which has given satisfaction to the first, and Contentment to the last, and prevented both resignations, and desertions but no operations of Consequence have yet taken place. The Enemy have made one or two Excursions which the Papers we shall send you will give an Account of, but were by our last Accounts Immured in Philadelphia, and { 188 } prepareing to leave it.2 Where they will next go is a Subject of Conjecture. Some think they will leave the Continent, Others that North River, Connecticut or this State is their Object.
No Material Alteration in our Currency, it is rather better. Goods of all kinds are much more plenty. Some are Cheaper but they dont yet fall in proportion to the demand for money which is become very Considerable, and I think must in time have its Effect. The produce of the Country is yet Extravagantly deare and is the principle Cause of keeping down the value of our Currency. The Countrymen have so long had the Advantage of high prices that they dont feel the want of money so much as the Merchants, and Tradesmen. Connecticut as well as some Other States have passed a regulateing Act which Operates much as ours did. They are Nevertheless Obstinate in Adhereing to it, and have sent down a Committee to Induce our Court to come into the Measure this Session many Members I hear are fond of it. It stands at present suspended for an Answer to A Letter wrote Congress.3
The Court met here and frighted with the Appearance of danger of the Small Pox, after Election adjourned to Watertown, where they now are. The Papers will Announce to you that I am no longer A Member of the General Court. My Town did not Chose me, and the Court did not Compliment me with An Election at the Board, so that were I dismissed from the Navy Board I should be truly A private Man, and an Independent Farmer, and should be as Contented and satisfied with my situation as ever you saw one, for really I am Tired of public Life, tho' I was determined never to desert the Colours I helped to hoist. If you Enquire how all this came to pass I must tell you it is oweing to various Causes. The people feel themselves Uneasy and dont know the reason. They have therefore shifted their Members more generally than ever. I scorned to make or suffer any Influence in my favour. The Tories and the Influence from Boston, and some other places had their full play, which are the reasons I am not in the House. The greater part of the C[ouncil] from Envy, and other reasons never loved me and the Complextion of the House, Consisting of Members (the most Influential of them) whose politicks are very different from Mine, and who are of the moderate Class which you know I never belonged to may Account for my not being Elected. But above all the partiality of my Friends which has rendered me Obnoxious to a Certain great { 189 } Man,4 and his numerous party by holding me up to view in Competition with him. The Policy therefore has been to get me out of sight, and prevent my being an Obstacle to his Glory, and Ambition.
The returns are not yet made from the several Towns of their Approbation or disapprobation of the Form of Goverment sent to them. But I beleive it is pretty Clear that the Majority have decided against it in much less time than the Convention took to decide in its favour. The Town of Boston (whose wise Observations you will see in the Papers) and the County of Essex have had A great Share, and Influence in this determination for you must know it has become very popular to find fault with the doings of the General Court or Convention, by those who can't mend them, and A little Clamour much more A great one may easily damn any measure good or Bad.5
The Great Man Tarried here till after Election, and then went off with the Pomp and retinue of an Eastern Prince.6 I was not in the List of his Attendants and was not Solicitous enough to Officiously Offer my service, and to receive that Honour. I suppose the Sin is Unpardonable. I must suffer the Consequences of his frowns, and be Content to be ranked Among those who never Adulate and flatter.
Your Friend Adams is at Congress. Gerry and Dana propose to return when Mr. Hancock and Doctr. Holton7 who is your Successor Arrive.
This is the third Letter I have wrote you since your departure.8 I hope the others as well as this will reach you. This is to go by a packet that Carries public Letters for you and the Other Commissioners or rather Embassadors, the Captain of which is to deliver them to you in Person so that the danger of the Seas Excepted the Opportunity is fine. I have Accordingly Informed your Lady of it, and Expect her Letters in Tomorrow which I presume will Inform you that the Family are well.9 My Love to Master John, and beleive me to be with Great Sincerity Your Assured Friend & Humbl. Servt.
[signed] J Warren
1. The source of this report, allegedly printed in a New York paper, has not been found. It was, however, apparently widespread and was noted by AA in letters to John Thaxter||(including note 4)||, James Warren, JA||(10, 18, and 30 June)||, and James Lovell between 21 May and 30 June (Adams Family Correspondence, 3:24 and note 4;34, 35, 41, 51).
2. The last large body of British troops left Philadelphia for New York city on the morning of 18 June, crossing the Delaware River into New Jersey (John W. Jackson, { 190 } With the British Army in Philadelphia, 1777–1778, San Rafael, Calif., 1979, p. 263).
3. On 27 April the Massachusetts Council, noting its objections to a “regulating” or price control bill, had written to the congress in the hope of deterring it from pressing for the passage of such a law (PCC, No. 65,1). The letter reflected Massachusetts' unhappy experience in attempting to enforce controls. Pressure on the state to renew price control arose from a congressional resolution (see Henry Marchant to JA, 22 Dec. 1777, note 2, above). The letter of 27 April was read before the congress on 21 May, perhaps with some effect, for on 4 June the congress resolved that the states should “repeal or suspend” their laws “limiting, regulating, or restraining the Price of any Article, Manufacture or Commodity” (JCC, 11:517, 569).
4. That is, John Hancock.
5. The Massachusetts towns turned down the Constitution of 1778 by a margin of approximately 5 to 1. For Boston's “objections” see the Independent Chronicle of 4 June. For the comments of other towns on the proposed constitution, together with the “Essex Result,” see Oscar and Mary Handlin, eds., The Popular Sources of Political Authority: Documents on the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, Cambridge, 1966. See also William Gordon's four letters in opposition to the constitution printed in the Continental Journal of 2, 9, 16, and 23 April, and the Independent Chronicle of 2,9, 16, and 30 April.
6. John Hancock left Boston on 3 June, escorted by “a detachment of American Light Dragoons” and “attended by a number of respectable Gentlemen from this town [Boston] to Watertown, where an elegant entertainment was provided” (Continental Journal, 4 June). See also AA's comment on “Our Great Man” and his delay in returning to the Continental Congress in her letter of 21 May to John Thaxter (Adams Family Correspondence, 3:26).
7. Dr. Samuel Holten had been elected to replace JA on 10 Feb. and officially took his seat in the congress on 22 June, but may have been present as early as the 20th (JCC, 11:629 and note 3; Burnett, ed., Letters of Members, 3:iv).
8. This is the first extant letter from Warren since JA's departure for Europe in February, the others probably having been lost at sea.
9. See Warren's letter to AA of 2 June and her letters to JA and JQA of 10 June (Adams Family Correspondence, 3:31, 35–36, 37–39).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0140

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Genet, Edmé Jacques
Date: 1778-06-08

To Edmé Jacques Genet

I do myself, the Honour to transmit you a Small Bundle of Newspapers, for your Perusal, out of which you will Select any Thing that you think proper for Publication, in your very valuable Collection of Affairs D'Angleterre et L'Amerique.1
Looking over the Remembrancer, for the Year 1775,1 found to my Surprize, having never seen this Remembrancer before, two Letters from a Gentleman in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, to his Friend in London, one dated Feb. 10 1775 and the other Jany 21. 1775. They are found in Pages 10.11 and 12 of the Remembrancer for that Year.2
These Letters were written by me, and as I kept no Copies of them and never heard of their Publication, I had wholly forgotten them, but finding them in this Work, I recollect them very well.
{ 191 }
If you think them worth inserting in your Collection [ . . . ][Ameri?]cans acted with Frankness,[ . . . ] broke out, and, with the Utmost faithfullness a [ . . . ] informed our Friends in England, what their Ministers were about and what would be the certain Consequence of their Temerity. The Letters you will see were written in great Haste and without the least Reserve. The History of the Events of War, from the Date of these Letters to this Day, has been no more nor less than a Completion of the Prophecies contained in them.
In Page 24 and onwards to the End of Page 32, and again from Page 45. to Page 54 you will find an History of the Dispute with America; from its origin in 1754, to the Present Time.3
This is a brief Abstract of a series of Letters which were also written by me, in the Winter of the Year 1775, the Tendency of all which was to shew, the Ruinous Tendency of the Measures of the British Administration, to convince the Nation of the Necessity of changing their System, and if they did not, but persisted in it and attempted to carry it into Execution by Force of Arms, it would infallibly end in the total Loss of their Collonies.
[ . . . ][that?] Time, or not, they have since had some Cause to consider. But they will not consider, and they will probably persist in the indulgence of their Passions, untill they shall be reduced to Weakness and Distress enough. France has no Reason to regrett this, for She will gain, by every Degree of Wealth and Power that Britain throws away, in this Contention, especially in that particular Branch which has been her Pride and Glory, Commerce, and the Dominion of the sea.
This Publication, is a full Confutation of all the Calumnies against Us, both in Parliament and Newspapers, that We concealed our Designs of Independency, and professed to have no such Designs.
In this Publication and in many others, as well as in Multitudes of private Letters, they were frankly told that however distant the People then were from Wishing Independency, yet if they once commenced Hostilities against Us, it would be impossible to restrain the Americans from cutting asunder forever, the Ligaments, which bound the two Countries together. [ . . . ]. If you should think of doing it, [ . . . ] be glad to see it before it is printed as there are many [inac]curacies in the Print, which ought to be corrected.

[salute] I have the Honour to be, with the Utmost Gratitude for the { 192 } Pains you have taken, in communicating our Affairs to the World, sir your most Obedient humble servant

[signed] John Adams
RC (PWacD: Feinstone Coll., on deposit PPAmP); the top of each page has been damaged by fire, with the loss of the dateline and portions of several sentences.
1. Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique was an irregular, clandestine publication of the French Foreign Ministry that was ostensibly published in Antwerp (Anvers) but actually printed in Paris from early 1776 through late 1779. Its editor was Edmé Jacques Genet, director of the Foreign Ministry's translators bureau and father of Edmond Charles, controversial minister to the United States from the French Republic in 1793 (for a sketch of the two Genets as well as a short survey of Affaires, see JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:354–355; see also Gilbert Chinard's brief examination of Affaires and its place in French policy in Newberry Library Bulletin, 2d ser., 8:225–236 [March 1952]).
Seventeen volumes of Affaires were published, divided into 2 series: “Journal” and “Lettres.” It should be noted, however, that as numbered internally there are only 15 volumes, both series having separate volumes numbered 11 and 12. The “Journal” was intended as an account of the progress of the Revolution from 1776, but with some earlier material, and appeared in 82 cahiers (actually 79 because of a misnumbering that omitted Nos. 45, 46, and 47) and made up parts of vols. 1–6 and all of vol. 8 and its separate volumes numbered 11 and 12. The “Lettres,” supposedly from a Dutch banker in London to a friend in Antwerp containing the latest news from England together with current letters from America, appeared in 61 cahiers and made up the remaining parts of vols. 1–6 and all of vols. 9, 10, and 13–15, plus its separate volumes numbered 11 and 12.
Because of the difficulty in determining, particularly in regard to the “Journal,” the point at which one cahier ends and another begins, citations of each series of Affaires will take the following form: for “Journal,” reference will be made to volume and page number; for “Lettres,” volume, cahier, and page number will be indicated. In all cases the guide will be Paul Leicester Ford's collation of Affaires in PMHB, 13:222–226 (July 1889).
2. The two “Letters,” for which JA gives the correct page numbers, were printed in John Almon's Remembrancer or Impartial Repository of Public Events (London, 1775; see also vol. 2:214–216, 391–393). Despite JA's interest in having them reprinted and Genet's apparent agreement expressed in his letter to JA of 8 June (below), the two “Letters” never appeared in Affaires.
3. This piece, for which JA gives the correct page numbers and title as it appeared in Almon's Remembrancer, was composed of extracts from Novanglus, Nos. II–VI, and never appeared in Affaires (see also vol. 2:233–306).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0141

Author: Genet, Edmé Jacques
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-08

From Edmé Jacques Genet

[salute] Honour'd Sir

The News papers you So kindly transmit me will be carefully perus'd and will afford, I dare say, many interesting articles to my publication which has no other aim than paying to your Country the justice that is due to enlighten'd courage. I had noted in the remembrancer the letters you mention the 1st. of which begins with these words You have no doubt.1 To be Sure { 193 } they'll please excessively my readers being So prophetical, and impress'd with genuine love for your former metropolis. The other papers giving an account of the origin of war I had also destin'd to publication. I am very oblig'd to you Sir, for the Kind leave you grant me of giving them to light with your Sanction: and I won't fail to lay them all under your Eyes when ready for the press.
I am Sorry you was at the trouble to send me a messenger on purpose. For the future, any parcel you may have occasion to transmit me, may be Sent to the post office, as I pay no postage.

[salute] I am with the truest respect Hond. Sir Your most humble and obedient Servant

[signed] Genet
RC (Adams Papers); quotation footnoted by CFA on the first page: “for 1777. p 203” (see note 1, below).
1. Genet gives here the opening words of the first of two letters “To a Friend in London” mentioned by JA. CFA, not having access to JA's letter of [ante 8 June] and thus being unaware that JA had written the two letters “To a Friend in London,” apparently searched the Remembrancer and concluded that Genet was referring to a letter on p. 203 of the volume for 1777 entitled “Copy of a letter from an English Gentleman at Paris, dated July 28, 1777.” That letter, beginning with the words “You will, no doubt, have heard,” was largely devoted to an account of the activities of the privateer General Mifflin and its exchange of salutes at Brest.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0142

Author: Lovell, James
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-08

From James Lovell

[salute] Dear Sir

I fear I omitted to send the Resolve of May 5th. with 3 past Packets. I shall be vexed if it does not reach you with the Ratifications as, on the Timing of it depends much of its Propriety. I was strangely betrayed by its having been dated the 4th. in a mistaken Alteration, when A.B.C. were sent Eastward.1
By Letters Yesterday from Mr. Beaumarchais I find Mr. Deane is probably on this Continent so that we may know the exact State of our Account with Mr. Hortales.2 The present Cargo in the fier Roderigue is to be sold outright for Cash or Produce, Congress having the first Offer [if?] it belongs to Mr. Beaumarchais not to Hortales & Co. I hope there is no mystery in this, for I really approve of the Thing. I am glad it does not belong to the Continent: but I wish to know whether any of those Vessels lately taken belong to Mr. B. and whether this would not have belonged to H had it been lost. This may be an amusing Speculation for you.
{ 194 }
Mr. D's Recall I find is attributed very much to Plots of A.L. You know this to be unjust, and that Facts are as in my Letter to Dr. Franklin.3
All Things speak the Enemy's departure from Philadelphia. Intending to pass across the Jersies to Staten Island they found the Militia to a Man ready to waylay them and that some Continentals were detached. They have therefore given an Air of Peace to their Motions, and asking for an immediate Exchange of Prisoners “because they are going away.” They are levelling their Works, as we repeatedly hear tho the cautious General has not yet told us the latter part but he was surprized that they “still” remained on the 1st. They meant however to celebrate the 4th. there,—the birthday of their foolish King.
Mr. S.A. has come forward, and Things go on very well here except that we want many Lessons on Finance. Give them to us,—with a little Practicability, if you please, wrought into your nicest Systems. Affectionately,
[signed] JL
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “Honble John Adams Esqr. One of the Commissioners &c, Paris”; docketed: “Mr Lovell ans. Sept. 25. 1778”; in another hand: “June 8 1778.” An LbC of JA's answer (Microfilms, Reel No. 93) is dated 26 Sept.
1. That is, Lovell feared that the resolution deleting Articles 11 and 12 of the Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce (JCC, 11:459–460) had not been included when the Committee for Foreign Affairs sent copies—“A. B. C.”— of the Franco-American treaties to the Commissioners. Lovell's fears were groundless: the resolution of 5 May had been received, and France had agreed to delete the two articles.
2. These letters may have been those from Beaumarchais & Co. of 23 March and from Mr. Chevallie, supercargo of the ship Fier Roderigue, of 28 May that were read before the congress on 8 June (JCC, 11:576). Silas Deane did not arrive in America until 9 July (Deane Papers, 2:468–469).
3. Lovell to Franklin, 15 May (Burnett, ed., Letters of Members, 3:242).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0143

Author: Warren, James
Author: Deshon, John
Author: Navy Board in Boston
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-08

The Navy Board for the Eastern Department to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

Agreeable to the directions of the Honorable Marine Committee, We have provided the Scooner Dispatch, Corbin Barns Master, for the purpose of Conveying to you some Packetts of Great Importance; which are to be forwarded to you through the Council of this State.1 We have therefore only to wish them Safe to { 195 } your hands, and to desire that your Orders may be given to furnish the Captain, with such Supplies as may be necessary to provide for his return, and to defrey his Expences there, Among which by Contract is a months pay, to be Advanced to himself and Crew, and a Gratification to him of One hundred—dollars, in lieu of primage,2 he would have been intitled to on a Merchant Voyage. We presume the Council will give you the American Intelligences. We shall only Transmit you by this Oppertunity the Gazzettes published here Since our last3 and beg leave to Subscribe ourselves with the Greatest respect Your most Obedt: humble Servts.
[signed] J Warren
[signed] J. Deshon
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honble: The Commissioners of the United States of America Paris”; docketed: “Navy Board June 8 1778 ans. July 29.”
1. In accordance with orders dated 5 May from the Marine Committee, the Navy Board prepared the Dispatch for sea so that it might carry additional copies of the ratified Franco-American treaties to France (Charles Oscar Paullin, ed., Outletters of the Continental Marine Committee and Board of Admiralty, 2 vols., N.Y., 1914, 1:234). The Committee for Foreign Affairs, under a letter dated [15?] May (R. H. Lee, Letters, ed. Ballagh, 1:407), sent the packets containing the treaties to the Massachusetts Council, which in turn sent them on to the Commissioners under a covering letter dated 9 June (PPAmP: Franklin Papers).
2. The allowance made by the shipper to the master and crew for the loading and care of the cargo.
3. Presumably that of 9 April (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:393).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0144-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-09

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Ma derniere étoit du 2 de ce mois. Vous verrez par les deux traductions ci-jointes à quoi en sont les affaires en Allemagne, et que l'on peut s'attendre, d'un ordinaire à l'autre, à apprendre que les hostilités ont commencé en Allemagne.1
Il paroît ici, depuis quelques jours, une brochure remplie de déclamations, mal cousues ensemble, contre l'Angleterre, sous le titre Le voeu de toutes les nations, et l'intérêt de toutes les Puissances, dans l'abaissement et l'humiliation de la Gr. Br.2 Il y a une Epitre dédicatoire à la tête, qui s'adresse à Mr. Franklin. Le g—F— a voulu savoir ce que j'en pensois: j'ai répondu, Si desint vires, tamen est laudanda voluntas.3 C'étoit justement ce qu'il en pensoit aussi. Au reste, je ne vous parle, Messieurs, de cette production, que parce que, toute mal bâtie qu'elle est, elle trouve { 196 } beaucoup d'acheteurs et de Lecteurs ici à La Haie parmi les gens du premier rang.
Je languis, Messieurs, de recevoir ce que je vous ai demandé.4 Le g—F—, et notre Ami, et le G—— P—— aussi, S'y attendent comme moi. Il seroit bon de ne pas laisser trop de vuide à présent sur la Scene.
Au reste la démarche qui a été faite a déjà produit un grand bien, d'un côté en fortifiant et augmentant les bonnes dispositions des bien intentionnés; de l'autre en décourageant toujours plus les malintentionnés, en diminuant leurs ressources, et leur espoir de pouvoir engager la republique à quelque démarche qui favorise leurs vues. Il y a 3 à 4 mois qu'ils ne m'auroient pas laissé faire impunément ce que j'ai fait dernierement.
Ce que vous venez de lire, Messieurs, étoit écrit, lorsque la Lettre dont Mr. A. Lee m'a favorisé en date du 4e. Juin, m'est parvenue.5 L'approbation qu'il a bien voulu donner aux additions que j'ai faites à la derniere piece, m'a causé une satisfaction aussi pure et aussi vraie, qu'est le zele qui me les a dictées, sur la connoissance que j'ai des gens à qui elle s'adresse. Continuons seulement, comme nous avons Si bien commencé, à lier une bonne et forte partie ici; et tout ira bien. Le Lion Belgique est déjà moins, qu'il ne l'a été, entre les dents et grifes du Lion Britannique: on en a déjà bien limé et rogné à ce dernier: le temps viendra où on lui arrachera tout-à-fait la proie qu'il croyoit tenir.
Je suis avec le dévouement le plus respectueux, Messieurs, Votre très humble & très obeissant serviteur.
[signed] D

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0144-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-09

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

My last was dated the 2d of this month. You will see by the two enclosed translations what the state of affairs in Germany is and that one may expect, any day, to hear that hostilities have begun.1
In the last few days a pamphlet, badly assembled and filled with declamations against Great Britain, has appeared under the title of Le voeu de toutes les nations, et l 'intérét de toutes les Puissances, dans l'abaissement et l'humiliation de la Grande Bretagne.2 It begins with a dedicatory letter addressed to Mr. Franklin. The Grand Facteur asked what I thought of it and I replied si desint vires, tamen est laudanda voluntas,3 which was exactly what he also thought. I only mention this publication because, despite being awkwardly put together, it has found here at The Hague many buyers and readers among people of the first rank.
I languish, gentlemen, in the expectation of receiving that which I requested from you,4 as do also the Grand Facteur, our friend, and the { 197 } Grand Pensionary. It would be wise not to leave too much of a void [vuide] here at present.
The démarche taken so far has already produced a good effect, on the one hand, in strengthening and increasing the good dispositions of the well-intentioned, and, on the other hand, in discouraging even more the ill-intentioned by diminishing their resources and their hope of engaging the Republic in some démarche favorable to their views. Three or four months ago they would not have permitted me, with impunity, to do what I have done of late.
What you have just read, gentlemen, was written before Mr. A. Lee's letter of 4 June reached me.5 The approbation he kindly gave to the additions that I made to the recent piece, based as they were on the knowledge I have of the people to whom it is addressed, gave me a satisfaction as pure and sincere as the zeal that dictated them. Let us continue what we have already so well begun—to recruit a good, strong party here—and all will be well. Already the Belgian lion has begun to slip from the teeth and claws, now considerably filed and clipped, of the British lion, and the time will come when the prey he thought was in his grasp will be torn from him. I am, with the utmost devotion and respect, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant.
[signed] D
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “à Leurs Excellences Messieurs les Plenipotentiaires de l'Amérique septentrionale à Paris.”; docketed: “Dumas 9. June 1778.”
1. The two translations were of letters from Berlin and Hamburg dated 29 May and 2 June. They reported that war was imminent, contrasted the excellent condition and preparation of the Prussian army with the poor state of the Austrian, and noted the regret with which the French volunteers left the Prussian forces.
2. This pamphlet has not been found.
3. If strength be lacking, nevertheless the willingness ought to be praised.
4. That is, Dumas was awaiting the copy of the Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce that he had requested in his letter to the Commissioners of 19 May (above, and note 4).
5. Arthur Lee wrote in regard to Dumas' publication of Lee's “Memorial for Holland,” the “dernier piece” referred to by Dumas below. See Dumas to the Commissioners, 19 May, note 6 (above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0145

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Jones, John Paul
Date: 1778-06-10

The Commissioners to John Paul Jones

Passy, 10 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:135. The Commissioners requested a list of Jones' prisoners for a possible exchange and noted the arrival of Jones' account of his differences with the Ranger's crew, about which he would soon receive their opinion.
The request for a list of Jones' prisoners, together with a similar demand to Abraham Whipple on 23 June (Diary and Autobiography, 4:140), stemmed from David Hartley's letter to Benjamin Franklin of 5 June announcing a prisoner exchange and requesting a list of those held by the Americans (Edward E. Hale and Edward E. Hale Jr., Franklin in { 198 } France, 2 vols., Boston, 1887–1888, 1:203). Franklin, in a reply of 16 June on behalf of the Commissioners, promised to procure the lists and suggested procedures to be followed (same, 1:203–204). Adams copied Franklin's reply into his Letterbook and later included it, with some alterations, in his Autobiography, where Adams mistakenly gives himself and Lee as cosigners (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 92; Diary and Autobiography, 4:138–139; compare JA's two versions with Arthur Lee's copy in PCC, No. 102, IV).
It is, however, unlikely that Jones received the present letter. On or about 10 June, the date on which he paroled Thomas Simpson, Jones left Brest for Passy, arriving there on or about the 18th (Simpson to the Commissioners, 3 July, below; Jones to James Gooch, 18 June; and to Rev. Father John, 18 June, both in ViU: Lee Papers).
Jones' report of troubles with his crew was contained in those portions of his letter to Franklin of 1 June (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:433), shown to JA and Arthur Lee, and to which Franklin replied on the 10th, giving there additional information on the proposed prisoner exchange (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:610).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0146

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Schweighauser, John Daniel
Date: 1778-06-10

The Commissioners to J. D. Schweighauser

Passy, 10 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:134–135. The Commissioners, responding to Schweighauser's letter of 4 June (not found), commended him for refusing to pay 1,200 livres to William Morris, possibly an escaped prisoner (Deane Papers, 2:258), and reminded him that no disbursements could be made without the Commissioners' orders. Schweighauser was directed to act with Capt. Whipple in the disposal of a prize and to evaluate the Flammand, a ship offered by John Joseph Monthieu for a voyage to America. Finally, in a postscript, he was ordered to pay John Paul Jones' expenses to and from Paris.
This postscript, written in a darker ink than the text, was appended to the wrong letter in Adams' Letterbook (Microfilms, Reel No. 92), for neither he nor Lee knew on 10 June that Franklin had invited Jones to Passy, and Jones did not arrive there until after the 16th (see Commissioners to Jones, 25 May, calendared above; 16 June, calendared below). It was probably intended to be part of the Commissioners' letter to Schweighauser of 23 June (calendared below).
The following paragraph was deleted in JA's Letterbook: “The Fusees from Berlin, the Druggs from Marseilles, and the Remittances from London being Subjects which We in our Capacity of Commissioners at this Court have nothing to do with, our Mr. Arthur Lee will write you in particular concerning them.” Arthur Lee notes in his Letterbook (PCC, No. 102, IV, f. 13) that “this paragraph being in the Letter drawn by Mr. Adams, Dr. Franklin refused to sign it, because he said it would be acknowledging Mr. Lee's right to manage the affairs of Spain. The Letter was detained a day to erase this paragraph.”
{ 199 } | view
Franklin's objection was presumably twofold. He probably saw the paragraph as implying that Arthur Lee was responsible for everything not explicitly stated in the Commissioners' instructions and commission to the French Court. Franklin may also have believed that it indicated a change in his status vis-à-vis Arthur Lee in regard to Spain. Both men had been commissioned to the Spanish Court: Franklin on 2 Jan. 1777 and Lee on 5 June 1777 (JCC, 8:521–523, note). Franklin did not act under his commission, but Lee went to Spain in 1777 in an unsuccessful effort to gain Spanish recognition. If Lee was seen as responsible for transactions not directly related to the French Court, it might be inferred that he had superseded Franklin in dealings with Spain. This would have been unacceptable to Franklin even had he been on good terms with Lee. In the absence of such a relationship it was presumably intolerable.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0147

Author: Continental Congress, Marine Committee
Author: Lee, Richard Henry
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-10

Marine Committee to the Commissioners

[salute] Honorable Gentn

There is wanted for A fifty Six Gun Ship now building at Portsmouth in the State of New Hampshire, Twenty eight 24 pounders Cannon and Twenty eight 18 Pounders which We request you will order to be shipped for that Port or the Port of Boston by the first Opportunity.1 Should the Continental Frigates Boston and Providence be in France when this gets to hand they may take in those Cannon and in that case you will please to ship an equal number of each Size Sufficient to Ballast Said Frigates, as we shall have Occasion for more than will be wanted for the 56 Gun ship. We request your attention to this business and are Honorable Gentn with great respect Your very Obedt. servants,
[signed] Richard Henry Lee. C.M.
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honorable the Commissioners of the United States of North America at Paris”; docketed: “Letter Marine Comtee. June 10 1778. for 28. 24 Pounders and 28 18s.”; in an unknown hand: “Order for Cannon”; calculations, perhaps by JA:
3000     1680  
56     24  
18000     6720  
15000     3360  
168000     40320.  
The first calculation may be the weight of 56 twenty-four-pounders; the second may be the total weight of the ammunition for them at 30 twenty-four-pound-shot per gun.
1. These cannon were for the ship of the line America. In a letter of 19 Aug. the Commissioners ordered John Bondfield to procure the needed cannon (LbC, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 92). Bondfield reported his progress in letters to the Commissioners dated 29 Aug. (below) and 12 Sept. (PPAmP: Franklin Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0148-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-11

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Hier matin je reçus de Sir G——Gd. le paquet contenant la respectée vôtre du 2e. Juin.1 En conséquence je me transportai d'abord chez le g—— F——. Il étoit hors de ville pour tout le jour, dont j'employai le reste à tirer d'abord une Copie du Traité, pour les cas où je pourrois dans la suite des évenemens en avoir besoin pour le service auquel j'ai l'honneur d'être employé. Ce matin le g—— F—— m'a avoué, que l'endroit de votre Lettre, Messieurs, où vous me référez à sa direction, l'embarrassoit un peu. Je lui ai offert d'attendre qu'il eût écrit à Sa Maison; mais sans rien répondre à cela, il m'a dit, qu'en sa qualité de g—— F——,2et authentiquement, il ne pouvoit point me diriger à cet égard, c'est-àdire, ni me conseiller la démarche, ni m'en empêcher (voilà la réponse d'Office): mais que, comme particulier, il croyoit que les inconvéniens de ne pas la faire seraient beaucoup plus grands, que ceux qu'il pourroit peut-être y avoir de la faire; qu'entre autres, après avoir fait espérer cette Copie, qui étoit attendue en conséquence avec beaucoup d'empressement et d'intérêt, il y auroit de la mauvaise grace debiaiser, et paroître se rétracter; et qu'ainsi il me conseilloit de l'aller remettre à sa destination (Voilà la vraie intention): que je devois seulement dire au G—— P——, que j'avois ordre de lui remettre la Traité pour son information, afin que, dans le temps qu'il le jugeroit à propos, il pût en faire son rapport aux Etats de la Provinces &c.; mais qu'en même temps, par juste égard pour la C—— de F——, qui n'avoit pas encore jugé à propos de faire imprimer et publier ce Traité, j'avois à le prier de n'en distribuer ni laisser prendre à personne des copies.
Je lui ai demandé S'il étoit à propos d'en envoyer aussi une Copie à notre Ami pour la Régence de sa Ville, et d'avertir de cela le G—— P——? Il m'a répondu Assurément, mais avec la même réquisition de ne point en faire prendre copie. Je suis donc occupé actuellement à tirer une 2me. Copie, pour l'envoyer à notre Ami.
Ce Soir, à 8/12; h, le g—— F—— vient de me faire dire, de lui aller parler encore demain, avant d'aller chez le G—— P——.
J'ai eu ce matin une conférence avec le g—— F——, dont voici le resultat. Il y a 2 ou 3 articles où les nôtres sont favorisés par préférence à d'autres: il peut être convenable, il peut aussi ne l'être pas, qu'on en soit instruit ici présentement; convenable, parce qu'ils pourroient servir d'appas ici, pour détacher les gens { 201 } de——,3 et les faire entrer dans nos vues; non convenable, parce que cela pourroit exciter l'idée à ces gens de hazarder certaines demandes, que nous ne savons pas si la Maison jugeroit à propos d'accorder, selon les circonstances. Ces réflexions, et l'ordre exprès que vous me donnez, Messieurs, to take the advice of——, as to the propriety of delivering it at present, nous ont fait convenir, que j'attendrai qu'on ait écrit et reçu réponse:4 Si elle est pour l'affirmative, je passerai outre avec plus de sûreté, et vous rendrai compte en son temps du suivi; si non, nous avons déjà concerté une Lettre ostensible, que vous pourrez m'écrire pour commenter ces paroles de votre Lettre du 28 Avril au G—— P—— of which we shall speedily sendYEa copy, to be communicated if you think proper to, &c. En attendant, le g—— F—— m'a demandé le T—, pour en faire prendre une copie pour son usage; et j'acheverai la Copie destinée pour notre Ami, afin que tout Soit prêt en cas de besoin: et dans l'intervalle la Copie originate, ainsi que les deux de ma main, resteront sous la Clef, afin de ne faire leur effet que quand il sera jugé à propos.
Il y a déjà quelque temps, Messieurs, comme vous avez pu vous en appercevoir, que j'ai gardé le silence sur les dépêches des Ministres de ce pays dans l'étranger; c'est que la personne dont j'ai eu occasion de les tenir pendant quelque temps est absente, et que les mouvemens que je puis prudemment me donner, pour trouver quelque intriguant nécessiteux qui me les procure régulierement, ne m'ont pas encore réussi.5
On dit que S. J. Y. a fait quelque démarche pour tâter le pouls à cet Etat au sujet de l'inquiétude que donnent à son Maître les dispositions formidables qu'il voit faire sur les côtes opposées aux siennes. Je n'ai pu encore découvrir ce qui en est, parce qu'avec la belle saison tous ceux que je connois sont absents. Ce que je sais bien, c'est que les uns ne voudront, et les autres ne pourront rien faire pour lui. Il éprouvera que

Donec eris felix, multos numerabis Amicos:

Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris.6

Je viens de voir la belle et forte Résolution de l'honorable Congrés, au sujet du Conciliatory-Bill, et des Commissaires qui le suivent.7 J'ai interrompu ma Lettre pour vite porter cette mâle Piece au g—— P——, qui a bien ri de mon Empressement, quand il en a su le sujet. Il dit que je ne cherche que plaie et bosse: cela est vrai; mais il en est bien aise aussi dans le sens qu'il l'entend. { 202 } Je lui prête régulierement ces feuilles; et si je ne les lui envoie pas dès leur reception, il me les fait demander.
Je suis bien respectueusement, Messieurs, Votre très humble & très obeisant serviteur
[signed] D

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0148-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-11

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

Yesterday morning I received, from Sir George Grand, the packet containing your letter of 2 June1 and decided that I should go first to the Grand Facteur. He, however, was to be out of town all day so I used the time to make a copy of the treaty in case I needed one in future dealings connected to the Mission with which I have the honor charged. This morning, gentlemen, the Grand Facteur confessed to me that he was somewhat embarrassed by the portion of your letter putting me under his direction. I suggested that he wait until he had written to his House but, without responding to that, he said to me that, genuinely, in his capacity as Grand Facteur,2 he could not direct me in this regard; that is, he could neither advise me on nor prevent my démarche (that is the official answer). In his private capacity, however, he believed that the difficulties that might result from not making the demarche would be much greater than those that might result from going through with it. Among other things, it would show poor taste to be evasive and appear to go back on one's word after having fostered the hope of receiving this copy which, as a result, is awaited with much anticipation and interest. He thus advised me to carry it to its intended conclusion (there is the true plan), telling the Grand Pensionary only that I received the order to give him the treaty for his information so that, when he deemed it appropriate, he might report on it to the States of the Provinces &c. Nevertheless, at the same time, from a due regard for the Court of France, which has not yet deemed it appropriate to print and publish the treaty, I should request him not to distribute or give copies to anyone.
I asked him if it was appropriate to send a copy to our friend, for the regency of his city, and to inform the Grand Pensionary about it? He replied, certainly, but with the same request that it not be copied. I am now busy, therefore, making a second copy for our friend.
This evening, at 8:30, the Grand Facteur asked me to confer with him tomorrow before going to see the Grand Pensionary.
These are the results of my conference this morning with the Grand Facteur. In the treaty are two or three articles that clearly favor us at the expense of others, and it may or may not be proper to disclose this fact here. It may be appropriate because it could act as a bait in order to detach the people from—,3 and make them share our views; but inappropriate because it could encourage them to hazard certain requests that we do not know if the House, depending on the circum• { 203 } stances, would judge proper to grant. These thoughts and the express order you gave me to take the advice of —, as to the propriety of delivering it at present, have led us to conclude that I should await an answer from you.4 If it is affirmative, I will carry on with a greater sense of security and give you in due time an account of what ensues. If it is negative, however, we have already composed an ostensible letter that you would send me commenting on these remarks in your letter of 28 April to the Grand Pensionary: of which we shall speedily send your Excellency a copy, to be communicated if you think proper to, &c. In the meantime, the Grand Facteur has asked me for the treaty in order to have a copy made for his own use, and I will finish the copy intended for our friend so that everything will be ready when needed. For the time being, the original and the two copies made by me will remain under lock and key so as to produce their effect when and only when judged appropriate.
For a while now I have not mentioned the dispatches from this country's ministers abroad. This is because the person from whom I have had occasion to obtain them is away for some time and the efforts that I can prudently make to find some needy intriguer who might procure them for me on a regular basis have been so far unsuccessful.5
Rumor has it that Sir Joseph Yorke has taken some démarche to check the pulse of this state because of the concern felt by his master regarding the formidable measures taken on the opposite coasts. I have not yet been able to discover the truth of the matter because, with the summer weather, everyone I know is away. What I do know is that some will not want to and others will be unable to do anything for him. He will realize that:

Donec eris felix, multos numerabis Amicos:

Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris.6

I have just seen the honorable congress' glorious and powerful resolution concerning the Conciliatory Bill and the Commissioners following it.7 I interrupted my letter to take this manly document to the Grand Pensionary who, when he learned of its content, laughed at my eagerness and remarked that I always go to such great lengths. This is true, but it is also true that he is satisfied with the trouble I take. I lend him these accounts regularly, and, if I do not send them to him as soon as they arrive, he asks for them. I am very respectfully, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] D
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “A Leurs Excellences Messieurs les Plenipotentiaires des Etats-Unis de l'Amerique Paris.”; docketed: “Dumas 11. June 1778.”
1. Not found, the letter contained the copy of the Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce that Dumas had been so anxiously awaiting.
2. That is, La Vauguyon in his role as French ambassador.
3. Presumably from Great Britain or the pro-British party.
{ 204 }
4. The passage quoted by Dumas is apparently from the Commissioners' letter of 2 June, noted above. His deletion of a word or words may be due to the Commissioners' use of the words “the French Ambassador,” or some other phrase that Dumas believed to be too explicit. Dumas' letter of 27 June (below) indicates that the Commissioners' reply to his request for advice was probably to proceed.
5. By the time that he wrote to the Commissioners on 16 June, Dumas had apparently solved this problem. See note 1 to his letter (below).
6. While you prosper you will have plenty of friends; but when your sky is cloudy, you will be left to yourself.
7. The committee report adopted by the congress on 22 April (JCC, 10:374–380), which, translated into French, was printed in the supplement to the Gazette de Leyde for 16 June.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0149

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-13

John Bondfield to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble. Sirs

I took the liberty to draw on your honors as the most assured means to obtain a certainty of my letters in course getting to your hands.1 I am much obliged for the punctual honor you have paid to my drafts. I have to ask your excuse for not more particularly explaining the cause of the price of fresh Beef. The Pound of that article at Bordeaux is forty Ounces, during Lent which reignd all the time the ship consumed fresh Provision, One Butcher Farms the supplies for the Town, pays very heavy for the exclusive privaledge which of course falls on the consumer. That as well as every other article I took due attention to obtain on the lowest terms and that by the most surest of means paying Cash for every Article in this as in every other circumstance that may be committed to my care of a strickt adherence to my duty permit me to assure you. The Frigate put to Sea the 7th Instant in Company with two french Frigates and several Merchant Men Bound for the United States. They were met off Isl Dieu2 by a vessel arrived two days past. I am with due Respect your honors Most Obedient Humble Servant
[signed] John Bondfield
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honble. Benj Franklin Arthur Lee, John Adams. Esqrs Commissioners from Congress at Paris”; docketed: “<Schweighauser. 13. June.> Mr Bondfield”; in another hand: “13. June 78.”
1. Bondfield's meaning in this sentence is not wholly clear, but he wrote a second letter of this date (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) acknowledging the Commissioners' letter of 25 May (calendared above), commenting on the passage of letters between Paris and Bordeaux, and promising to keep the Commissioners informed of his activities.
2. The Ile d'Yeu, misspelled here and in Samuel Tucker's logbook (MH-H). The vessel may have been the brig Virginia, Capt. Jones, mentioned in the Boston's log. Tucker stated that he sailed on 6 June in company with “twenty Sale of Ships, Brits, &c, a French Frigate and Sloop of { 205 } War.” A letter to the Commissioners from James Moylan of 12 June (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) stated that the Boston was then watering at the He de Groix, located just off the entrance to the harbor at Lorient, and would sail on the following day with the French frigate L'Oiseau.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0150

Author: Archer, Henry Waldegrave
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-14

H. Archer to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

I presume to trouble you with the communication of my design to enter into the army, and becoming a citizen of the united States. Though a native of England, I feel myself quite attached to America, and firmly persuaded that I shall carry thither dispositions entirely consonant to its welfare, and that my affection to her will not be the less in being only a Son by adoption. From infancy, I considered myself a member of the British Empire at large, including the Colonies of North America. Warped by no blind partiality, or local attachment, while their union with the Parent State subsisted, I wished equally for the happiness of the whole. Upon their division my predilection is strong for that part, where the free principles of the ancient constitution are likely to be most vigorous and lasting. Upon the first rise of the dissentions between them, dissentions, that reflect as much honor on the one as infamy on the other side; from my own observations of things, confirmed by the opinions, and conversation of those I most esteemed, I decided, that the opposition of the Americans was sanctified by justice, as well as recommended by good policy; in the progress I admired the wisdom with which this opposition was conducted, applauded the firmness with which it was supported, and rejoiced at the success with which it has been attended. Ambitious of military fame, and of military distinction, it was not consistent with my Notions to engage in the Army of the King of Great Britain; where the former of these, was not to be acquired at all, as even Valour in the support of Tyranny, and Injustice is reproachful, nor the latter, but by interest, and the too frequent <exercise> Sacrifice of virtuous principles. An immediate entrance into his Service would have obliged me to war against my conscience, and against those, whom I ardently wish to prevail. Nor is it by any means eligible for me to defer entering into the British Service till the War with America is ended, for besides the loss of time, and delay of preferment, there are more powerful discouragements. I have too much reason to believe that the Military pro• { 206 } fession, even hereafter, will not be very honorable in Great Britain. From the degeneracy of the People, the corruption of their Representatives, and the wickedness of those in power, the Army may probably become, before a distant period the devoted instruments of despotic sway, and like the disgraceful Pretorian Bands ready to sell their services to such as would supply their debaucheries with the most profusion, and such as were most ready to favor their rapaciousness and violence. On the contrary, in the service of the united States, I shall during the present contest, bear arms in a cause my conscience approves, and which reflects honor on its humble supporters, and where there is reason to believe, that should my services be required in future, it will be on the side of justice, liberty, and Glory, and where in short the disciplined Soldier, and the free Citizen are not incompatible.
I cannot indeed boast of being much qualified to make my services welcome, or important, but this I can promise, that the small qualification I do possess, or may acquire shall be exerted on every occasion to the utmost. I have been some time at the Royal Academy at Chelsea, endeavouring to attain a knowledge of military affairs. As soon as I was of age, I left it, and disposed of as much of my property as amounted to about five hundred pounds. With what I have left of that, I wish to take the quickest opportunity of getting to America, and entering into one of the Regiments of Horse. I shall be glad to serve first as a Volunteer at my own expence with a view of giving such proofs of my zeal and unfeigned attachment to America as may entitle me to some notice. You may perhaps be inclined to think there was no occasion to trouble you with my design. I was induced to do it, by these, among other reasons, Your approbation and Patronage would be extremely satisfactory and encouraging; and as I must necessarily have passed thro' Paris, I was desirous of paying my respects to you, who deservedly possess so high a trust from the united States, which if I had failed to do, it might there, suggest a suspicion that I was afraid you might have known or discovered something to my disadvantage. At the same time, I was in hopes you would be kind enough to give me your advice and assistance about the most expeditious method of arriving in America. I propose doing myself the honor of waiting on you next Tuesday in company with Monsr. le Baron de Ridberg, till which I postpone mentioning other particulars. I have the honor to be with the { 207 } greatest and most unfeigned Esteem, Gentlemen, Your very hble & obt. Sert.
[signed] H. Archer1
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To Their Excellencies B. Franklin A. Lee J. Adams Ministers Plenipotentiary of the united States. Passy.”; docketed in an unknown hand: “Archer.”
1. Probably Henry Waldegrave Archer, who was appointed cornet of light dragoons on 1 Jan. 1779 and ended the war as a captain, thus attaining his goal of serving in the American army (Heitman, Register Continental Army, p. 73). On 4 Aug. 1779 Archer wrote to the congress giving his thanks for the honor, a brevet appointment as captain, bestowed him on 26 July following the American victory at the Battle of Stony Point, news of which he carried to the congress (PCC, No. 78, 1, f. 291; JCC, 14:890; see also Ward, War of the Revolution, 2:906, note 18). When Archer left France for America he carried letters from JA to Samuel Adams of 21 May; to Isaac Smith Sr. of 17 June (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:106–108, 139–140); and to AA of 16 June (Adams Family Correspondence, 3:44, and note 2). In a letter to JA and Benjamin Franklin (PHi: Franklin MSS) that was undated, but almost certainly done shortly after 16 June, Archer thanked the two men for their assistance and particularly for their “recommendatory letters.”

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0151

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Date: 1778-06-15

The Commissioners to Sartine

Passy, 15 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:135–137. The Commissioners, in answer to Sartine's letter of 6 June, indicated their reasons for refusing the drafts drawn on them by Bersolle, and, by implication and tone, their displeasure at Sartine's interference in the Commission's affairs. The Commissioners further noted that it was highly irregular for merchants or naval captains to make drafts without prior approval and that the continuance of such practices would deprive the Commissioners of control over expenses and might ultimately result in their bankruptcy. The Commissioners declared their willingness to pay for goods supplied to John Paul Jones from the royal magazines, agreed that restitution should be made for goods stolen from the Lord Chatham by Jones' crew, and reported their decision to send Lt. Simpson to America for trial. In addition, the Commissioners requested that the sale of the Lord Chatham and other prizes be expedited so as to provide funds for the Commissioners to defray the cost of keeping ships in port and for the captors to purchase necessities. Finally, the Commissioners acquiesced in the naming of Botsen, about whom they knew little, for possible employment by the French as a pilot on the American coast.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0152

Author: Sayre, Stephen
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-15

From Stephen Sayre

[salute] Sir

As my information is only from the public papers, I am left in uncertainty whether I am writing to Mr. John, or Mr. Samuel { 208 } Adams. Some Letters have pass'd between the latter Gentleman and myself, on the subject of American Controversy. As I ask only for a short reply, on a matter of simple justice; I trust I shall not be disappointed, tho I am ignorant as to which of those great Characters I write.1
You cannot be a stranger to the circumstance of my having attended Mr. Lee to Berlin, at the public expence. I thought it somewhat hard, to be told at Berlin, which was done in clear and express terms, that I should be no longer consider'd in that service, or expect the least support from the Commissioners, whether I return'd to Paris with Mr. Lee, or not—at the same time I don't say they acted unjustly.
As a private Gentleman, having no expectation given me that the most humiliating attendance at Paris could give me any Employment, I chose to remain at Berlin, where I could live more at ease and at less expence. Having wrote to my friends in Congress from Paris, by all the Ships sent by the Commissioners from the month of April 1777, to September or October—I waited with impatience for Answers. Think then, how great must be my astonishment, to learn, that tho' the Commissioners had many Letters sent to their care for me, they have neither sent them, or given me any reasons why they with'old them. Surely this is a ground of complaint, and a conduct that sets all conjecture at difiance.
I am willing to suppose some strange accidents may have concur'd to disappoint me. I could wish, that urgent national business were an Apology for neglecting an individual, tho' intitled to some decent attention, from the highest Characters. I have a right to some reply, as a private man—my whole public conduct makes it a matter of indispensable justice.
Of you, Dear Sir, I request the high favour, to learn the Cause, and to state it to me with candour. If you suffer any arguments to dissuade you from a reply, which [I?] may expect from your own feelings, you will thereby condemn me before I am heard.
Let me add one word of congratulation on the glory acquired by the United States of America, and that I am with great esteem and respect your [ . . . ][obe]dient & very humble Servant
[signed] Stephen Sayre
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To the honorable—Adams Esqr Member of the American Congress now at Paris”; docketed: “Mr. Stephen Sayres Letter. 15. June 1778 from Copenhagen.”; in an unknown hand: { 209 } “Stephen Sayre Amsterdam”; passage in an unknown hand and apparently done considerably later than the other entries: “tous les françois aiment M. franklin ils admirent ses talents ils respectent ses vertus tous les americains partagent ces sentiments avec M. franklin.” The reference in the second docketing to “Amsterdam” is unclear because Sayre was apparently not in that city until mid–1779 (Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates, 14:212).
1. Stephen Sayre, Princeton B.A. and Harvard M.A., had at various times been a merchant, London banker, pamphleteer, and Sheriff of London. In 1775 he had been imprisoned in the Tower of London on charges of high treason, against which he had been successfully defended by Arthur Lee, and was the self-described chief founder of the Society of Supporters of the Bill of Rights (same, 14:204–211). In this last capacity he had written to JA on 15 Oct. 1773 to notify him of his election to membership in the Society (vol. 1:353–354)
The present letter, apparently not acted on by either JA or the Commissioners, shows Sayre in another role: freelance diplomat. It reflects the split that had developed between him and Arthur Lee when he served as Lee's secretary during the ill-fated Berlin mission in 1777 to secure recognition for the United States. When the mission failed and Lee returned to Paris, Sayre claimed without authorization to be an official American agent in Berlin. Apparently this pose was maintained during the time Sayre spent in Copenhagen and Stockholm, from Dec. 1777 through early 1779, attempting to promote, according to his later statements, a league of armed neutrals. By mid–1779 the Commissioners, particularly Franklin, had disavowed his activities and referred him to the congress for the compensation he sought (Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates, 14:210–212; DAB).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0153

Author: Whipple, Abraham
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-15

Abraham Whipple to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

Had the honour of Recieving your Letter1 per Capt. Jones, beg leave to mention there are no Orders relative to my Prisoners, which should be glad to Recieve. Am Repairing my Masts and will make the Old Ones serve, New Ones being very expensive. Shall be as frugal as possible. Capt. Jones acquaints me you have some Cloathing and Arms for the United States it is in my Power to Carry considerable, if I know timely the Quantity and Largeness of Bales; that I may stow the Ship Accordingly. The Ship will be graved and in readiness to take in in twelve Days. My Midshipmen are Arrived having made their escape to St. Maloes. The Prize Brigantine is safe at the Isle of Rea.2 I have Ordered her round here, and shall deliver her to Charge of Mr. Schweighaser on Arrival at Nantes. Have the Honour to be Your most Obedt. very Humble Servt.
[signed] Abraham Whipple
NB My Masts are now on shore a Repairing with all possible Expedition.
{ 210 }
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Captn. Ab. Whipples Letter. Paimbeuf 15 June 1778.”
1. That of 6 June (calendared above).
2. Presumably the He de Ré, located off La Rochelle in the Bay of Biscay southeast of Paimboeuf. The brigantine captured by the Providence had been recaptured by the British and was in turn recaptured by a French vessel (Allen, Naval Hist. of the Amer. Revolution, 1:356). The returned midshipmen may have been members of the prize crew put aboard the brigantine by Whipple, who had managed to escape from the British ship that made the initial recapture.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0154

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Jones, John Paul
Date: 1778-06-16

The Commissioners to John Paul Jones

Passy, 16 June 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:137–138. Jones was ordered to prepare for a voyage to America on which he would harass the British as much as possible, specific mention being made of the vulnerability of the Newfoundland fishery and the transports passing back and forth between England and America. The Commissioners also directed Jones to carry, but not to await, whatever dispatches might reach him from the Commissioners or the French government and to put on board whatever cargo he could, so long as it did not impair the fighting and sailing qualities of the Ranger.
These orders could not have reached Jones at Brest, for he had already left that place and must have been nearing Paris (Jones to the Commissioners, 3 June, note 2, above). They are curious in view of the correspondence that had passed between Jones and Franklin. The text, together with Arthur Lee's surprise at Jones' arrival (to JA, 5 July, below), indicates that the Commissioners, on the 16th at least, believed that Jones would remain at Brest and thus be able to leave for America immediately (see also Commissioners to Jones, 22 Aug. [1st], below).This is another indication that JA and Arthur Lee were acting without full information and that an effort was being made to conceal Franklin's dealings with Jones. Lee's letter of 5 July indicates that Jones received his orders after his arrival, perhaps on 23 June, the date on which very similar instructions were sent to Capt. Abraham Whipple of the Providence (Diary and Autobiography, 4:140–141).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0155-0001

Author: Fleury, François Louis Teissèdre de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-16

From Fleury

[salute] Monsieur

Je suis trop reconnoissant des bontés dont vous mavés honnoré1 pour ne pas vous exprimer a cet egard tous les sentiments que je vous dois. Receves done monsieur l'homage dun pere sensible que vous venes de tranquiliser, et qui se glorifie davoir un fils au service dune nation dont vous donnés la plus haute idee. Je ne metonne point monsieur quil cherche a si distinguer, si { 211 } touts ceux qui l'habitent j pensent comme vous. Le bonheur dobtenir lextime des gens tells que vous est faite pour donner de lemulation. Je suis enchanté que mon fils ait eu lavantage de fixer desja votre attention par la renommée quil tache de sacquerir. Il seroit tres heureux pour lui que son zele vous inspirat le desir de le connoitre. Sil apprenoit jamais la complaisance dont vous maves comblé. Je ne doute pas quil ne fait tres empressé de vous en temoigner sa sensiblité. Oseray je vous prier monsieur de maccorder toujour la meme grace dont vous venes de me combler. Je vous aurois une obligation infinie de minstruire de ce qui sera relatif a mon fils. Pardonnés mon importunité, mais je suis pere je nay que cet enfant. Il servoit au regiment de rouergue il j etoit extimé et cheri de ses chefs et de ses camarades. Une noble ardeur la fait passer aux insurgens j'ay cedé a sa resolution glorieuse, mais vous sentes que ce sacrifice de ma part fait gemir la nature. Jen seray cependant monsieur de domagé si mon fils se rend utile a votre nation et si je suis asses heureux pour vous inspirer asses dinterest pour que vous daignes me randre dans loccassion le service que jose implorer de votre generosité. Crojes monsieur que tout ce qui mappartien ainsi que moy serons toujour empressés de meriter cette grace par les sentiments distingués et respectaux avec les quels je suis, Monsieur Votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur,
[signed] De fleury
Vous mobligeries bien sensiblement monsieur si lorsque vous ecrires a lamerique vous voulies bien me faire le plaisir de demander des nouvelles de mon fils et lui permettre de metre une de ses letters pour moy dans celles que vous recevres, ne doutant pas qu'il ne men ait ecrit pleusieurs que je nay pas recues, jen ignore la cause.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0155-0002

Author: Fleury, François Louis Teissèdre de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-16

Fleury to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I am too grateful for the aid you accorded me1 not to express, in this regard, all the sentiments due you. Accept therefore, sir, the homage of a sensitive father whom you have just reassured and who is honored to have a son in the service of a nation of which you give the highest idea. It does not surprise me that he should wish to distinguish himself there if its inhabitants are all like you. Success in earning the esteem of people such as yourself can only foster emulation. I am delighted that my son has already had the good fortune to draw your attention by the reputation that he sought to achieve. He would be most fortunate if his zeal inspired in you a desire to make his acquaintance. If made { 212 } aware of your generosity he will show you, I do not doubt, his appreciation with eagerness. Dare I ask you to continue the aid with which you have honored me thus far? I would be eternally grateful if you could inform me of matters pertaining to my son. Forgive my importunity, but I am a father who has this only child. He was serving in the Rouergue regiment, where he earned the esteem and affection of his officers and comrades. A noble spirit spurred him to join the insurgents, and I yielded to his glorious resolve, but I am sure that you understand that nature laments my sacrifice. Yet, I would feel greatly repaid if my son makes himself useful to your country, and if I am fortunate enough to awaken sufficient interest in you to help me in this matter out of your kind generosity. Be assured, sir, that I and all that belongs to me will always strive to deserve this blessing with the same respect and faithfulness with which I am, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant,
[signed] De Fleury
I would be greatly obliged if, when you write to America, you would be kind enough to ask for news of my son and permit him to send his letters to me with those received by you, for I know that he has written several which, inexplicably, never reached me.
RC (Adams Papers); docketed: “Mr. De Fleuri 16 June 1778”; in an unknown hand: “Monsr le Fleury St Hipolite 16 June 1778.”
1. See Fleury's letter to JA of 26 April (above) and JA's reply of 20 May (calendared above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0156

Author: Bingham, William
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-16

William Bingham to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble Gentn

It is a long time Since I have had the honor of receiving any of your Commands, and am the more surprized at it, as a Packet Boat has arrived with Dispatches for the General,1 informing him of a Treaty of Alliance and Commerce being concluded on betwixt the Court of Versailles and the United states of America.
Should this Treaty cause any material Change in the political or commercial System of Affairs; Should it stipulate any new Advantages for the French Commerce; or Should it entitle our Trade to a more free and full Indulgence in their Ports, and a more open Protection from their Flag; Should it determine any new Line of Conduct with regard to Foreign Powers, or the reciprocal Services to be expected of each other; Should any common object employ the Attention of the contracting Parties, which requires their acting in Concert, I humbly think that I should be made acquainted with its Contents, that I might act in { 213 } Conformity thereto, and as far as my Small Influence will reach, cooperate accordingly.
As Agent for the United States of America in the West Indies, every Circumstance that regards the Country that I represent, and that forms a Subject of Controversy, immediately falls under my Notice and Attention;—but how shall I govern myself with any Degree of Prudence or Precision, or according to the Terms that the Treaty prescribes, when I am entirely ignorant of what it contains.
I have taken the liberty of laying these Thoughts before you Gentlemen, from the Impulse of a Motive which you cannot but think commendable from a Sincere desire of obtaining Such Information as is essentially necessary to the Discharge of my Trust with Reputation to myself, and Credit to my Employers. I have the honor to be with unfeigned Respect Honbl. Gentn. Your most obedt. & very hble Servant
[signed] Wm Bingham
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “William Bingham”; in another hand: “June 16. 78.”
1. Comte d'Argout, the governor of Martinique (Naval Docs. Amer. Rev., 7:288).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0157

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-16

John Bondfield to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble. Sirs

I had the Honor to write you the 13.13 and 14th Instant.1 Mr. Emery receiv'd letters from Capt. Cunningham at Corrunha advising their Arrival at that Port from Cadiz having made four Prizes in the Passage.2 We have it reported the Boston fell in with two privateers, one of eighteen Guns she took, the other got off.3 I cannot trace it so as give implicite faith.
The Jersey Privateers stil continue upon the Coast of Spain they have taken a vessel belonging to Bayenne having Tobacco on board from the Cape and a small schooner with eighty hhds from Edenten.
Letters from Lisbon mention the arrival of a Vessel at that Port from the Western Islands that fell in with the Fleet under Comte D'Estaing near to Tercera4 the 23 May.
Captain de Siau is come down, A suitable vessel is purchased to mount 24 nine pounders two hundred and forty men and a small tender is on the stocks which together are to be compleatly equipt and at Sea by the 20th July. I am with due respect Your honors Most Obedient H Servant
[signed] John Bondfield
{ 214 }
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honble Benj. Franklin. Arthur Lee John Adams Esqr. Commissioners from Congress at Paris”; docketed: “Mr. Bondfield 16 June 1778.”
1. Neither the second letter of the 13th nor that of the 14th has been printed here. For the former, see the first letter of the 13th (note 1, above); for the latter, see Joy Castle to the Commissioners, 22 June (note 2, below).
2. John Emery, a Bilbao merchant, in writing to Arthur Lee from Bordeaux on 10 June (MH-H: Lee Papers), had referred to a letter from La Coruña of 18 May reporting the capture of four prizes by Gustavus Conyngham and the Revenge. Although four prizes were mentioned, only three, all captured on 4 May (the brigs Maria, Dispatch, and Siren), can be identified as likely to have been mentioned in a letter of 18 May (Cruises of Conyngham, ed. Neeser, table facing p. 152).
3. Punctuation for this sentence editorially supplied. The report was erroneous; no mention of such an encounter appears in Samuel Tucker's log for the Boston (MH-H).
4. That is, Terceira, an island in the central Azores.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0158-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-16

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Le feuillet ci-joint a èté écrit à diverses reprises en allant et venant hier et aujourd'hui.1 J'en ai donné connoissance aussi à Mr. Lee à Vienne; excepté de ce que vous verrez renfermé dans des crochets.2
Le g—— F—— ne m'a pas encore rendu le Traité, qu'il m'avoit demandé pour le faire copier. Il le gardera peut-être, jusqu'à-ce que la permission de le remettre à sa destination soit arrivée. Je lui ai demandé S'il l'avoit fait copier; il m'a dit pas encore: ainsi j'attendrai qu'il m'en reparle lui-même.
Je suis avec beaucoup de respect, Messieurs, Votre très humble & très obéissant serviteur
[signed] D
Je sai que le g—— F—— a écrit aujourd'hui à sa Maison, sur ce qui concerne l'Article ci joint de la Gazette d'ici d'hier.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0158-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-16

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

The enclosed sheet was written piecemeal yesterday and while coming and going today.1 A copy, omitting what is in brackets, has been sent to Mr. Lee in Vienna.2
The treaty, which the Grand Facteur asked to copy, has not yet been returned to me. He may plan to keep it until permission to send it on to its true destination arrives. I asked him if he had had it copied; he told me not yet. I shall, therefore, wait for him to mention it again.
I am, with the utmost respect, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] D
{ 215 }
I know it for a fact that the Grand Facteur wrote to his House today concerning the enclosed article that appeared here yesterday in the Gazette.
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) addressed: “A Leurs Excellences Messieurs les Plenipotentiaires des Etats-Unis de l'Amerique à Paris.”; docketed: “Dumas 16 June 1778.”
1. The enclosure (MH-H: Lee Papers) includes an extract from an article that appeared in the Gazette de la Haie of 15 June, a partial text of a dispatch from Count Degenfeld, the Dutch representative at Vienna, and brief comments on dispatches from the Dutch representatives at Hamburg and London. Of particular importance was the extract, whose author claimed authority not only to deny that William Lee, under the auspices of the French ambassador, had been received by the Austrian Court, but also to declare that the Austrian Emperor would receive Lee neither in public nor in private. The article conflicted with Degenfeld's dispatch of 27 May, received at The Hague on 9 June, which described William Lee's arrival in Vienna and his presentation by the French ambassador to the Chancellor, Prince Kaunitz, and all the foreign ministers.
At first Dumas believed that the article could have been the work of either the Austrian or the British ambassador at The Hague because it seemed to be an effort to counteract the effect of Degenfeld's dispatch. After some investigation, however, Dumas was able to report, in a note immediately following the extract, that the son of the Gazette de la Haie's publisher had told him that the article had been furnished by Sir Joseph Yorke, who was unconcerned whether his role was known or not. Dumas stated that he and the French ambassador had resolved to force the publisher to explain in his next issue that the article was not authorized by anyone connected with the Austrian Court. This, he believed, would indicate the real author to all interested parties.
2. That is, Dumas sent William Lee the extract from the Gazette de la Haie, his identification of Yorke as its author, and the portion of Degenfeld's dispatch relating to Lee's reception in Vienna; but not the portion of Dumas' note dealing with the action decided upon with the French ambassador, the part of Degenfeld's dispatch dealing with the impending Austro- Prussian war, or Dumas' comments on the Hamburg and London dispatches. No letter to Lee containing this information has been found.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0159

Author: Bradford, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-17

From John Bradford

[salute] Sir

After a tedious Suspension, our fears being greatly Alarm'd at your not being Arriv'd after forty eight days sailing hence, A General Joy was diffus'd through this town last Evening, by reading a London paper taken in a prize which arriv'd at Salem, and sent by Express to the Council, Announcing Your Arrival at Paris, at Doctor Franklins house on a Certain day; on which Event I most heartily Congratulate you and my Country.1 As you will be furnished with our News papers by the Navy board, I omit troubling you on the Subject of News, you will find by them, that our privateers have been Successful, while our Continental Cruizers are all in port and the Officers employ'd in holding Courts Martial.
{ 216 }
I have the pleasure to Acquaint you that your Lady and family, with your Connections in town are Well. I wish You a long Series of uninterrupted health and tranquility and am Dear Sir, Your Most Obedient humble servt.
[signed] J. Bradford2
1. The account of JA's arrival appeared in the Boston Independent Chronicle of 18 June. For further information, see Isaac Smith Sr. to AA, 17 June (Adams Family Correspondence, 3:45, and note).
2. Bradford was the Continental agent at Boston (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:vii).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0160

Author: Coffyn, Francis
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-18

Francis Coffyn to the Commissioners

[salute] Hond. Gentlemen

I take the liberty to crave your referrence to the letter I had the honnur of writing to you the 8 instant1 to the contents of which I am Still waiting with anxiety the favour of your answer. I received last night only under a blank cover your letter dated 10th instant address'd to any Captain bound to America2 the contents of which shall be carefully communicated and recommended to two Captains which are now fitting out their vessells in this harbour for Said destination, that they may inform those whom it may concern on their arrival at any port of the Continent. Interim I think it proper to advise you that the first will sail in about 8 or 10 days and the last will not be able to proceed before the 5th. of next month. As they intend to go north about Scotland, and I imagine the American Coast will be pretty clear of Cruizers against the time they may reach it, it is to be hoped they will get there Safe; if your opinion should coincide with mine, and you Should think proper to convey by the same channell any interesting news you may receive relating the dispositions of the fleets on the other Side, you may rely on my particular care and attention to your orders in this as well as in every other respect.
The intelligence received by last post from London and by the Smugglars respecting these fleets, were So contradictory, that I did not think it prudent to communicate it to you; Some letters mention'd that both Squadrons were Sail'd from Portsmouth and Plymouth, and others advised that they was Still detain'd by contrary winds the 9th instant but that the Ships were then riding at Single anchor, the last account was confirm'd by a person who left London last Sunday.3
{ 217 }
Whereas on account of our vicinity with England, it often happens that we have the news here, Sooner then they can reach the place of your abode, if I should hear any of importance in which confidence may be placed, before the departure of the above mention'd two vessells, I will if you approve of it, transmit the intelligence by the Same channell.
The Captains of three vessells two of which arrived here yesterday and one this morning, report that on monday last, they met off Portland close to the shore, a fleet of about 45. Sail, Steering westward, that some of the ships which appear'd to be large men of warr, fired guns, and that the Salute was return'd from the Shore.
One of the American Seamen which I mention'd in my last was gone off in a Smuggling vessell, is return'd, and he Seems to repent that he had taken that step without acquainting me off it, he is desirous of going on board of any continental ship of warr or privateer, he is a stout able Seaman, he was onboard the Fox frigate when She was retaken.
Three other Americans which have been out on a whaling voyage in the South Seas, arrived here yesterday. They are also desirous of serving their Country, and therefor claim your protection. I humbly give it as my opinion that it is necessary to provide for these people, for if they are not immediately employ'd, I am afraid they will return to England where they are sure of meeting encouragement because the British Gouvernment is taking every step to Establish that fishery in England, and in order to Suceed therein, offer great advantages to all Seamen who are Expert in it, if once it takes root there, it may be hurtfull to America, as this fishery has hitherto been a considerable branch of Trade in the New England provinces. I therefor take the liberty to request you would favour me with your orders respecting the above mention'd four men, and if contrary to my opinion your intention is that they shift for themselves, I beg you would inform me of it, as the first has not a Shilling left, and the three last have hardly money enough to maintain them till I can receive your answer.
James Beams being now nearly recover'd of the wound he received onboard the Lexington, I have agreed with a Captain of the Brigantine la Boulonnoise bound to Brest to allow him L. 72 for his passage and provisions on the voyage, which I shall pay tomorrow and the moment I'll receive your orders to settle with { 218 } the two surgeons, I shall remit you this mans bill. With great respect I have the honnor to subscribe myself Hond Gentlemen, Your most obedient and most devoted humble Servant
[signed] Frans. Coffyn
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Francis Coffyn's Letter June 18. ans. 26. 1778.”
1. Not found.
2. See Benjamin Franklin and JA to American State Officials, 18 May (calendared above).
3. For further information on the sailing of the fleet, as well as James Beams, who is mentioned in the last paragraph, see Coffyn's letter of 19 June (below).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0161-0001

Author: Dubourg, Jacques Barbeu
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-18

Dubourg to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Persone ne reconnoit plus volontiers et ne rend plus de justice que moi a la profondeur de votre sagesse et a la superiorité de vos lumieres. Sans cela je vous avoue que je serois etonné que vous ayez refusé et refusiez de faire courir sur les Anglois avec votre pavilion tous ceux qui en ont le courage et la bonne volonté, qui en prennent tous les fraix et tous les risques sur eux, et qui se regardant ipso facto, comme Americains, se soumettent a toutes les loix de votre marine, concernant le partage même des prises faites sous votre pavilion. Il est vrai que comme des promesses vagues a cet egard ne suffisent pas, il y auroit des precautions a prendre pour que ceux qui les feroient ne pussent se dispenser de les tenir; et que cela ne pourroit meme etre fait solidement sans l'aveu du gouvernement dans les ports duquel se font les armamens, et ou se feroient egalement les plus part des retours. Mais je pense que tout cela ne seroit point difficile a applanir, et l'objet paroit assez important pour en valoir la peine. Je ne doute pas que l'on ne pût esperer du ier. coup de filet un benefice tres considerable; sans compter que pour se garanter des recidives, la Cour de Londres seroit obligée de prendre des precautions extraordinaires et tres dispendieuses, ou de restraindre beaucoup son commerce du Levant,1 qui est une de ses branches les plus lucratives; mais en attendant on leur auroit porté de grands coups, et on tourneroit contre eux tous les fonds qu'on leur auroit enlevés. Le principal <auteur> promoteur de cette entreprise est un ancient associé d'un certain Marquis Roux de Corse qui a fait beaucoup parler de lui par l'audace qu'il eut au commencement de la derniere guerre de la declarer a 1'Angle• { 219 } terre en son propre et privé nom. Quant au Capitaine qui doit monter le ier. chebec, je pense que vous n'avez point de doute sur sa resolution et son intrepidité. Je ne crois pas qu'il y ait homme au monde plus propre à electriser une troupe de braves gens. J'ai l'honneur d'etre avec un respectueux devouement, Messieurs, Votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur
[signed] Dubourg2

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0161-0002

Author: Dubourg, Jacques Barbeu
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-18

Dubourg to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

No one would more readily concede or pay more tribute to the depth of your wisdom and the superiority of your intelligence than I. Otherwise, I must confess, I would be astonished by your past and present refusal to send against the British, under your flag, all those with the courage and incentive to do so; men who would taken upon themselves all the expenses and risks and, considering themselves ipso facto Americans, would submit to all the laws of your navy concerning even the division of prizes taken under your flag. It is true, since vague promises are insufficient, that necessary precautions would have to be taken to insure that those making them are held to their obligations and that this plan could not be firmly carried through without the permission of the government in the ports where the outfitting is to be done and where the ships will return. I believe, however, that this would not be a difficult point to settle and certainly the goal is worth the trouble. Doubtless one could not expect substantial gains from the first effort, not to mention that, in order to protect itself against repetitions, the Court of London would be forced to take extraordinary and expensive precautions or else greatly limit one of the most lucrative branches of its trade, that with the Levant.1 In the meantime, we would have dealt them powerful blows and could, in turn, use against them the funds we would have taken. The chief <author> promoter of this enterprize is an old associate of a certain Marquis Roux of Corsica who was much talked about at the beginning of the last war for his boldness in declaring war against Britain in his own name and private capacity. As to the captain who is to command the first xebec, I think that you have no doubts about his determination and intrepidity. I do not believe that there is a better man in the world to inspire a crew of brave men. I have the honor to be, with respect and devotion, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Dubourg2
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Dr Dubourg 18 June 1778.”
1. Dubourg's mention here of the Levant and his later reference to Marquis Roux of Corsica and a xebec indicate that he probably contemplated mounting an attack on British shipping in the Mediterranean. No response to this proposal has been found.
2. Jacques Barbeu Dubourg was Franklin's friend and editor. For references to him by JA, see Diary and Autobiography; and for a lengthy sketch, see Benjamin Rush, Letters, 1:77, note and references there.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0162

Author: Coffyn, Francis
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-19

Francis Coffyn to the Commissioners

[salute] Hond. Gentlemen

I had the honnor of writing to you yesterday referring to my letter of 8 instant which I beg leave to confirm. This cheafly Serves to inform you that Capn. Pilartry, (or some such name) of the Brig la Marie Françoise of Quimper which arrived here last night, reports that he met on the 15th instant off Portland a fleet of 21 ships of the line and 5 or 6. frigats bound to the westward but had then the wind contrary: Said Captain tol'd me that he was nigh enough to distinguish the Ships and that he was Sure they were men of warr; their number Strengthens my Idea that it is Admiral Keppels Squadron that sail'd from St. Helens, which by the last accounts was riding at Single anchor. I imagine the letters Expected by this evenings post from London, will illucidate this matter, and likewise confirm the report which is this day spread here that Lord Byron's squadron sail'd from Plymouth the 10th. instant1 as there is sufficient time left to clear up these various reports before the Sailing of the first vessell bound to America, as mention'd in my yesterdays letter, and as I may receive your answer thereto, I shall wait your approbation before I transmit the Intelligence by Said vessell. Interim I am Sorry to be under the necessity to inform you Gentlemen, that when I sent James Beams this morning to the navy office to pass revew, Mr. Danglemont the Commissary refused to grant him leave to go passenger to Brest on board the brig la Boulonnoise so that I am under the necessity of waiting till an other opportunity offers, which you may rely I shall not let slip. I Suppose that the reason on which the Commissary grounds his refusal, is because said vessell belongs to his majesty and that he will avoid an American Should be found on board in case She should be Examined in the channell by an English Cruizer. I have the honnor to remain very respectfully Hond. Gentlemen, Your most obedient & most devoted Humble Servant
[signed] Frans Coffyn
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To The Honble. Dr. Bn. Franklin, Arthur Lee & John Adams Esqrs. at Passy” docketed: “Mr Francis Coffyn June 19. ans. 26. 1778.”
1. Coffyn's information concerning the departure of the British squadrons was quite accurate. Adm. Augustus Keppel, with twenty-one ships of the line and several frigates, had sailed on 12 June with orders to patrol off Brest and prevent a juncture of the Brest and Toulon divisions of the French fleet. On 17 June one of Keppel's frigates, the Arethusa, met the French frigate Belle-Poule in the first Anglo-French naval battle of the war. Vice Adm. John Byron, bound for New York, { 221 } had sailed on 9 June with thirteen ships of the line (Mahan, Navies in the War of Amer. Independence, p. 59, 61–62; see also Dull, French Navy and Amer. Independence, p. 112–120).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0163-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-19

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Nulla dies sine linea.1 J'ai eu l'honneur de vous communiquer l'ordinaire passé l'article insidieux que Sir J. Y. avoit fait placer dans la Gazette de Lahaie, et la dépêche du Cte. de D——d. Le 16 j'envoyai à Leide ce que vous trouverez ci-joint.2 Le 17e le Gazettier d'ici, par ordre de Mr. le Baron de Reischach Envoyé de la Cour de Vienne, chanta en réchignant la palinodie suivante. “Nous sommes requis de très bonne part de publier, que 1'article, dans notre No. 71, concernant le Sr. Lee, Agent Américain, ne nous a pas été fourni de la part de la Cour de Vienne, ou d'aucun de ses Ministres.” Mardi prochain il y aura quelque autre chose dans la feuille de Leide.3 Nous faisons ici, comme vous voyez, la petite guerre. Nous pelotons, en attendant partie.
Le g—— F—— m'a pronostiqué aujourdhui, que la permission de presenter le T—— arrivera mardi. J'ai compris que Ton s'attend à sa Maison, que ceci produira de la part de ceux d'ici une Résolution dans toutes les formes dans leur prochaine assemblée. Je le souhaitte de tout mon coeur; mais je ne le crois pas. On n'est pas dans le cas de pouvoir ou d'oser faire un tel coup d'éclat. Le point essentiel qu'il s'agissoit de gagner et que nous gagnerons sûrement, c'est d'ôter tout prétexte et espoir aux malintentionnés de faire entrer la republique dans aucune de leurs vues; et rien n'est mieux pour cet effet que la maniere don't nous manoeuvrons actuellement.
Je garderai ceci jusqu' à Mardi.
La pronostication du g—— F—— a manqué. Vous verrez, lui ai-je dit, que ce T—— deviendra public par les Gazettes Américaines et Angloises, et alors ma démarche auprès du G—— P—— n'aura plus ni mérite ni grace—Que voulez-vous? m'a-t-il répondu: 1'affaire est faite; on a écrit; nous ne pouvons à présent passer outre avant d'avoir réponse: elle viendra peut-être vendredi.
La Gazette de Leide a aujourdhui ce qui suit
“Par les soins du Gouvernement notre commerce s'accroît au milieu des querelles de nos voisins. Depuis quelque temps on { 222 } nous a même fait concevoir l'espérance de le voir fleurir plus que jamais, si notre ville [Ostende] devenoit un Port—franc pour les Américains. Cette attente vient d'être fortifiée par la nouvelle de l'arrivée d'un Agent Américain à Vienne.”4
Je suis, Messieurs, avec le plus vrai respect Votre très humble et très obeissant serviteur
[signed] D
Cette Lettre ne partit pas mardi passé, parce que, toute réflexion faite, son contenu ne me parut pas pressé au point de ne pouvoir attendre un ordinaire de plus.
J'ai enfin la permission de porter le T—— au G—— P——, et de le lui faire lire, comme aussi à Mr. notre Ami; mais ordre en même temps de n'en laisser copie à personne. On a ajouté, en me disant cela, que Mr. Franklin est instruit de cela, et approuve le tout.
Quelqu'un m'a dit ce matin, que l'Assemblée des Etats d'Hollande n'aura lieu que dans 19 jours. Je m'informerai plus amplement de cela.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0163-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-19

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

Nulla dies sine linea.1 I had the honor to send you, by the last regular mail, the insidious article inserted in the Gazette de la Haie by Sir Joseph Yorke and the dispatch from Count de Degenfeld. On the 16th I sent the material that you found enclosed to Leyden.2 On the 17th the local gazeteer, by order of Baron de Reischach, envoy of the Court of Vienna, with bad grace, sang the following palinode: “We are required by a very good source to state that the article in our No. 71 concerning Mr. Lee, the American agent, was not furnished to us by the Court of Vienna or by any of its ministers” Next Tuesday there will be something else in the Leyden paper.3 As you can see, we are waging a small war here. We keep our hands in until the game begins.
Today the Grand Facteur predicted that permission to present the treaty will arrive on Tuesday. I gathered that his House expects that it will produce a formal resolution on the part of those here at their next assembly. I hope so with all my heart, but I do not believe it. We are not in a position to be able or even to dare to attempt such an accomplishment. For us, the essential point to be achieved—and it surely will be—is to rid the ill-intentioned of any pretext for or hope of bringing the Republic to share any of their views and, in this respect, nothing could be better than the manner in which we are now proceeding.
I will keep this until Tuesday.
The Grand Facteur's prediction came to nothing. You will see, I told him, this treaty will be made public in the American and British ga• { 223 } zettes with the result that my démarche with the Grand Pensionary will cease to have either merit or propriety. What can I tell you? he answered, the deed is done; we have written and cannot now go forward before receiving a reply; it may come on Friday.
Today the Gazette de Leyde contained the following:
“Through the efforts of the government our commerce has increased in the midst of our neighbors' quarrels. For some time we have been made to conceive the hope of seeing it flourish more than ever if our town [Ostende] would become a port open to the Americans. This hope has been strengthened by the news of the arrival of an American agent at Vienna.”4
I am, gentlemen, with a very real respect, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] D
This letter did not go out last Tuesday because, all things considered, its contents did not seem urgent enough not to wait for the next regular mail.
I finally have permission to take the treaty to the Grand Pensionary and for him, and also our friend, to read it; but with the accompanying order that no one be given a copy of it. In addition, I was told that Mr. Franklin was apprised of all this and approved it fully.
This morning someone told me that the Assembly of the Dutch States will meet in only 19 days. I will seek further information concerning this.
RC (MH-H: Lee Papers); addressed: “à Leurs Excellences Messieurs les Plénipotentiaires des Etats-Unis de l'Amerique Paris.” Part of address page cut out where docketing might have been.
1. Not a day without a line.
2. This material appeared in the Gazette de Leyde of 19 June in the form of an “Extrait d'un Lettre de La Haie.” A clipping of that article is in the Lee Papers (MH-H) and may have been enclosed with this letter.
3. Dumas' reference is not clear, but see the passage inserted by Dumas in the continuation of his letter under 23 June.
4. This passage, taken from a “Lettre d'Ostende,” came at the end of that letter, which also commented on British naval activities and the depredations of the Guernsey privateers.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0164

Author: Lee, Richard Henry
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-20

From Richard Henry Lee

[salute] My dear Sir

Our enemies at N. York had contrived to distress us a good deal by a publication that the Boston was taken and carried into England. We were at first greatly concerned for our Friend, until we reflected on the lying genius of our enemies, and the improbability that Heaven would permit such a triumph of Vice over Virtue. Now we are made happy by an account from Boston that { 224 } you are safely arrived in France. The Treaty with France was soon ratified here, desiring only that the 11th. and 12th. Articles might be reconsidered and omitted. Three Copies of the ratification have been sent away from hence near a month, and now, 3 more are dispatching. The former dispatches would inform you the determination of Congress upon the English Acts of pacification, before we knew of our new Alliance, and these will acquaint you with the reception Messrs. the Commissioners from London have met with. The figure they cut is truly ridiculous. If this were all it would be happy for England, but she seems now to be a Setting Star. Two days ago the B: Army abandoned Philadelphia and our Troops are in possession of that City. The enemy are in the Jersies, but whether they mean to push for Amboy, or embark below Billingsport on the Delaware, is yet uncertain. The Jersey Militia are in readiness, and if our Army can cross Delaware in time, the gentry will yet get a parting blow.1 The friends to the future happiness and glory of America are now urging the Confederation to a close, and I hope it will be signed in a few days.2 All but a few Delegates have powers, and those that have not, come from Small States, that will undoubtedly <come> fall in. Our next business is Finance, and this is a Momentous point indeed. Every state exclaims, We are Overflown with our emissions of Money, yet all seem to be going on in the same beaten Track, and will I fear until invincible Necessity shall force a change. I wish to bring you, and my brother Doctor [Arthur] Lee, to be well acquainted. Republican Spirits who have so successfully labored for the liberty of their Country, and whose sole object is the security of public happiness, must esteem each other. The Continental Army is now on a much more respectable footing, both for <strength> numbers and discipline, and supplies of every kind, than it has been since the War began. It will give me singular pleasure to hear of your happiness at all times. I am dear Sir most sincerely and affectionately yours.
[signed] Richard Henry Lee
P.S. Cannot Monsr. Beaumarchais demand against us be fully and fairly explained. There is mistery in this business that demands to be thoroughly developed. Be so kind as contrive the <enclosed safely to my brother> lette[r] for my brothers safely to them.
[signed] R.H.L
{ 225 }
1. At Monmouth Court House, N.J., on 28 June, Washington's troops, fresh from Valley Forge, caught Clinton's army on its retreat to New York. The battle, indecisive because both sides could claim victory, was notable as the longest battle of the war, the last major engagement in the north, and the end of Gen. Charles Lee's military career (Ward, War of the Revolution, 2:576–586).
2. The Articles of Confederation were signed by eight states on 9 July (JCC, 11:677).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0165

Author: Moore, William
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-20

William Moore to the Commissioners

[salute] To the Honble the Commissioners of the United States of North America

Your Petitioner Humbly Sheweth that being a native of the States of New Jersey one of the thirteen United States of North America—That having Come Over from the East Indies where he now has A brother who is About Removing A Considerable property from thence to Great Britain—he being entirely unaquainted with the present Situation of that Kingdom—That from the attachment your petitioner has for the place of his Nativity he wishes to remove this property—as well as to advise the removal of that of his Brother and of Several of his friends Now in the East Indies immediately to the United States of North America. That for the Above reasons Your petitioner is now on his way to the East Indies and not only prays for a passport to go on But for liberty to return from thence with A vessal and Cargo to the United States of North America. And your petitioner Shall as in Duty bound ever pray
[signed] William Moore1
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Mr William Mores Petition 21. June 1778.”
1. Moore took an oath of allegiance to the United States on 23 June (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 4:264). See also his passport, 23 June (PCC, No. 102, IV, f. 20–21).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0166-0001

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-20

Sartine to the Commissioners

J'ai recû, Messieurs, une Lettre de Nantes qui m'a été ecrite par le Sieur J. D. Schweighauser Agent des Etats unis de L'Amerique Septentrionale, qui, comme chargé de la Direction des Prises faites et conduites a Brest, par les Fregates le Ranger et la Providence, me demande les Formalités a observer, pour la Vente des dites Prises. Je lui reponds qu'elle peut etre faite, Soit { 226 } a bord, Soit a Terre, a l'amiable. Mais qu'il ne doit etre question d'aucune des formalités qui S'observent en general pour des Prises. Je previens les officers de l'Amirauté de Brest de ce qui je lui marque a ce sujet, et Je vous en fait part etant a propos que vous en ayez Connaissance. J'ay l'honneur d'etre avec une parfaite Consideration, Messieurs, votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur
[signed] De Sartine

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0166-0002

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-20

Sartine to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

I have received, gentlemen, a letter from Nantes by Mr. J. D. Schweighauser, the agent of the United States of North America. Charged with the disposal of the prizes taken and sent into Brest by the frigates Ranger and Providence, he asked me about the formalities to be observed in the sale of the said prizes. I answered that it could be done amicably either aboard or ashore, but that there should be no question about any of the formalities usually observed for prizes. I am forwarding this information to the officers of the admiralty at Brest and am informing you because it seems only proper that you should know of it. I have the honor to be with the utmost respect, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] De Sartine

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0167

Author: Adams, Samuel
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-21

From Samuel Adams

[salute] My dear Sir

Although we are exceedingly pressd with publick Business at this Juncture, I cannot omit the Opportunity that now offers of writing to you. The general Scituation of Affairs, and the particular Transactions between the British Commissioners and the Congress will be transmited to you by this Conveyance, by the Committee for foreign Affairs. Since I last came to this Place from Boston, several Gentlemen have arrivd here from France viz Mr. Simeon Dean, Mr. Carmichael, Mr. Stephenson and Mr. Holker.1 Mr. Carmichael comes strongly recommend by Dr. Franklin and Mr. Silas Dean; but Dr. Lee in his Letter gives Reasons why he cannot place a Confidence in him.2 From a long Correspondence with Dr. Lee, I conceive so great an Opinion of his Candor as well as inflexible Integrity and Attachment to our Country, that I cannot entertain a Doubt that he would suffer partial Considerations to operate in his Mind to the Prejudice of any Man. Such a Difference of Sentiments concerning a Gentleman who I imagine must be of some Consequence, could not take { 227 } Place without at least apparently good Grounds; and it may produce such Effects on this Side of the Water as may prove uncomfortable to us if not injurious to our Cause. Would it not then be doing some Service, to exercise your Prudence in endeavoring to investigate the real Grounds of it, in doing which possibly some things may open to View of Importance and at present not thought of.
Dr. Lee is a Gentleman of a fair and generous Mind. I wish therefore that you would freely converse with him upon this Subject if you think you can do it with Propriety; and let him know that I have lately receivd many Letters from him; which I have duly attended to and would have acknowledgd to him by this opportunity, if I had Leisure.
By the Last Accounts I have had from Braintree your Lady and Family were in Health, though anxiously wishing to hear of your safe Arrival.
I shall write to you as often as I can and shall esteem myself happy in receiving your Favors. I remain very affectionately your Friend
[signed] SA
RC (Adams Papers); docketed: “Mr S. Adams ans. Aug. 7 1778”; in CFA's hand between the two lines of JA's docket entry: “Yorktown, June 21st.”
1. Samuel Adams took his seat in congress on 21 May (JCC, 11:517). Simeon Deane arrived in Philadelphia on 2 May, William Stephenson on 10 June, and Jean (John) Holker the younger and William Carmichael on 18 June (Burnett, ed., Letters of Members, 3:312, note 2 [No. 374]).
2. The letter to which Samuel Adams refers cannot be positively identified, but see Arthur Lee's letter to Adams of 5 Jan. (R. H. Lee, Arthur Lee, 2:125–126). Carmichael's dispute with Arthur Lee was probably largely owing to his relations with Silas Deane, but more specifically to his refusal to serve, without a commission, as Arthur Lee's secretary during the 1777 mission to Berlin and Lee's belief that Carmichael was the source of false and damaging reports about him and relations between the Commissioners (Floyd B. Streeter, “The Diplomatic Career of William Carmichael,” Md. Hist. Mag., 8:119–140 [June 1913]). For JA's opinion of Carmichael and the futility of attempting to trace the origin of the dispute with Lee, see Diary and Autobiography, 4:76–77; and JA's reply to Samuel Adams of 7 Aug. (below).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0168

Author: Lee, Richard Henry
Author: Heyward, Thomas Jr.
Author: Lovell, James
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-21

Foreign Affairs Committee to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

The British Commissioners have arrived and transmitted their powers and propositions to Congress, which have received the answer you will see in the Pennsylvania Gazette of the 20th. instant.1
On the 18th. of this month Gen. Clinton with the British army (now under his command) abandoned Philadelphia, and the { 228 } City is in possession of our Troops. The enemy crossed into Jersey, but whether with design to push for So. Amboy, or to embark below Belingsport on the Delaware is yet uncertain. Gen. Washington has put his Army in motion, and is following the enemy into Jersey.
There has arrived here a Mr. Holker from France who has presented a paper to Congress declaring that he comes with a verbal message to Congress from the Minister of France touching our treating with Great Britain and some other particulars which for want of his paper we cannot at present enumerate. The Style of his paper is as from the representative of the Court, but he has no authentic voucher of his Mission for the delivery of this verbal message. We desire of you Gentlemen to give us the most exact information in your power concerning the Autenticity of Mr. Holkers Mission for this purpose.2 We are Gentlemen, with esteem and regard your most obedient and very humble servants
[signed] Richard Henry Lee
[signed] Ths. Heyward Junr.
[signed] James Lovell
RC, in the hand of Richard Henry Lee (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To Honble Commissioners from the United States of America Paris” docketed in an unknown hand: “James Lovell Esqr. Yorktown 21 June 78.”
1. The resolution adopted on 17 June in the form of a letter from Henry Laurens to the British Commissioners. It stated that there could be no negotiations unless Britain explicitly acknowledged the independence of the United States (JCC, 11:614–615).
2. The Commissioners replied to this request for information on the status of Jean (John) Holker the younger in a letter of 17 Sept. (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:722–725). On the reverse of the present letter's first page is a notation, probably taken from the Commissioners' reply, in an unknown hand: “Count Vergennes Answer respecting Mr. Holker was—that he was astonish'd that Mr. Holker had no Commission verbal or other from this Ministry; and was only desird to communicate to them his observations on the Country.” In any event, the congress' uncertainty about Holker's status was removed when it was informed by Conrad Alexandre Gérard, the French minister, on 16 July, that Holker was an “Agent of the marine of France.” A few days later Gerard sent the congress two commissions, both dated 15 July, naming Holker agent of Marine and consul for Philadelphia (JCC, 11:696, 713; Gérard, Despatches and Instructions, p. 131; see also JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:54).
{ 229 }

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0169

Author: Castle, Joy
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-22

Joy Castle to the Commissioners

The petition of Wm. Castle of Philadelphia Mariner

[salute] Honourable Gentlemen

The petition of Wm. Castle of Philadelphia Mariner
Your petitioner is Come from Irland to Bordeaux to procure American papers to procead with a Cargo to America;
But the Embargo having taken place on English Vessells a few days before I arrived, I am Sized by the french as Coming In under English Coulours, and expect to be Confisticated if Your Honours does not take it Into Consideration and Lay my Case before the Ministerry; the Vessell is the Sole properity of my brother and myself, which we purchased with a Sole Intent to procead to America, I Hope Honourable Gentlemen that You will not Imagine that I Have made this a plea on Account of Saving our propertyes, far from it We have Indeavoured before to Git out to America but Miscarried in the atempt, and it was now our Sole Intent which time will prove our Sincearity for America And Service we are in Hopes of Rendering the Country.
I Refer Your Opinions to the Chariacters we always bore well knowen to many Gentlemen of Philadelphia in particular Mr. John Ross at Nantce.
And Hopes that Your Honours Humanity will Condesend to Render me every Service that Lays in Your power's if not we are totaly Ruined as this being the whole that we have Saved that we have bin Long plowing the Oacen for and if we shoul'd be Now Confisticated God only knowes what will become of our fameilly I Reley Soley on Your Humanity And we shall ever be in Duty Bound to pray for Your Long Lifes and prosperity to all your Undertakens &c. &c. &c.
[signed] Joy Castle2
[signed] Test Peter Amiel
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Joy Castles Petition” in another hand: “June 22. 78.”
1. Place and date are in JA's hand.
2. On 25 May, Samuel Tucker had written a letter of introduction to JA for William Castle (Adams Papers), captain of the barque Jane, who was apparently planning to come to Paris to place his grievances before the Commissioners. It was, however, Joy Castle who finally arrived at Passy to argue his and his brother's case for the return of the Jane, probably with John Bondfield's letter to the Commissioners of 14 June as an introduction (PPAmP: Franklin Papers). Bondfield informed the Commissioners of the Castles' plight and commented favorably on their case. Upon receiving the petition, the Commissioners acted swiftly, writing to Sartine on 23 June (JA, Diary and Auto• { 231 } biography, 4:141–142). In that letter the Commissioners asked for the return of the Jane and stated that Joy Castle had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 4:264) and that they believed the petition was legitimate. Replying on the 26th, Sartine declared that, in view of the Commissioners' assurances, orders would be sent to Bordeaux to release the vessel (MH-H: Lee Papers). On the 27th the Commissioners issued a passport to “Joy Castle Esqr. with his family and Servants, Subjects of the United States of America,” permitting them to proceed to America (P.R.O.: H.C. Adm. 32, Prize Papers, bundle 382). The presence in the Public Record Office of “a true Copy translated from the Original wrote in French” indicates that the Jane was probably taken on its voyage to America.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0170

Author: Powers, Pierce
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-22

Pierce Powers to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

I would beg leave to inform You that in the Action with the Drake Sloop of War on the 24th of April last, I had the misfortune to lose My right Arm, and at the same time receiv'd a bad wound in My left Hand; but am now so far recover'd that it is no longer necessary for Me to remain in the Hospital. As I am render'd unable to serve My Country as heretofore should esteem it a singular Favour if Your Honours would provide a Passage for Me to America as soon as is convenient and the Indulgence shall be gratefully acknowledg'd by Gentn., Your most obedt. & very humbl. Servant
[signed] Pierce Powers1
I had the Honour of Acting in the Capacity of Midshipman.2
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To the Honble. John Adams Esqr. one of the Commissioners for the American united States à Passy prés Paris, to be comunicated”; docketed: “Petition of Pierce Powers to return to America, wounded in the Ranger”; in another hand: “June 22. 78.”
1. It is not known what action the Commissioners took in regard to this letter, but on 7 July, Powers renewed his plea for a passage home in a letter to Benjamin Franklin (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:454).
2. Written in the left margin.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0171

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Schweighauser, John Daniel
Date: 1778-06-23

The Commissioners to J. D. Schweighauser

Passy, 23 June 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:140–141. The Commissioners, noting Schweighauser's letter of 18 June (not found) and their instructions to John Paul Jones and Abraham Whipple of 16 and 23 June respectively (for both, see instructions to Jones, 16 June, calendared above), enclosed resolutions of the congress on the disposition of prizes (probably those of 23 March and 30 Oct. 1776, JCC, 4:229–232; 6:913) for Schweighauser's use in disposing of prizes of the Ranger and Providence and informed him of the possibility of a { 232 } prisoner exchange. Finally, he was ordered not to send the Commissioners' circular letter of 10 June announcing the recall of Byron's fleet because it had since sailed.
For a possible postscript to this letter, see the Commissioners to Schweighauser, 10 June (calendared above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0172

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-23

John Bondfield to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble. Sirs

We are without any object Interesting other than the Eclat with which Le Marquis D'Almadova1 is receiv'd by the Governor Intendant and other Cheif officers of this City. He appears much a Man of the World.
He will leave this to Morrow for Paris where he proposes to stay Six Days. His Retinue which is Numerous creates delay by what I learn of them who have had opportunity to introduce themselves into his Family. They do not expect their residence in London will be of long durrée. I hear nothing further of the Boston. No vessels arrived on this Coast since my last. Nine American Seamen arrived here yesterday from St. Sebastians part of a Crew, taken by a Jersey privateer, from Edenton landed on the Biscay Coast. I am with great Respect Your honors Most Obedient Servant
[signed] John Bondfield
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honble. Benj Franklin Arthur Lee John Adams Esqrs. Commissioners from Congress at Paris”; docketed in an unknown hand: “Bonfield 23. Juin 1778.”; in another hand: “Bondfield June 23. 78.”
1. Pedro de Luxan y Silva, marques de Almodovar, the newly appointed Spanish ambassador to Great Britain, took up his post on or about 17 July, departing there from on 20 June 1779, the day before the declaration of war between the two nations (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:432).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0173

Author: Amiel, Peter
Author: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-23

Peter Amiel: Oath of Allegiance to the United States

I, Peter Amiel, do acknowledge the thirteen United States of America, namely New Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode Island, Connecticutt, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free independant, and Sovereign States, and declare, that the People thereof owe no Allegiance or Obedience to George the Third King of Great Britain; and I renounce refuse and abjure any Allegiance, or Obedience to him. And I do { 233 } Swear, that I will, to the Utmost of my Power Support, maintain and defend, the Said united States against the Said King and his Heirs and Successors and his and their Abettors, Assistants and Adherents, and will Serve the Said United States, in the office of Commander of the armed sloop the Alliance which I now hold, and in any other Office which I may hereafter hold, by their Appointment, or under their Authority, with Fidelity and Honour, and according to the best of my Skill and Understanding. So help me God.
[signed] Peter Amiel1
[signed] Test William MooreJoy CastleJohn Adams
Sworn before us at Passi this 23d day of June 17782
[signed] Arthur Lee
[signed] John Adams
MS, in JA's hand (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Peter Amiels Decn of Allegiance.”
1. This is an example of the oath required by the Commissioners of those going to America or entering its service. Amiel's oath and appointment as captain of the sloop Alliance was the result of a scheme proposed by Poreau, Mackenzie & Cie. of Dunkirk to outfit a privateer at that port. According to a letter from the company of 7 July (below), this proposal was presented and approved during conversations between the Commissioners and a member of the firm visiting Passy; thus little is known of it except what can be inferred from the letter noted above and those to the Commissioners from Francis Coffyn of 7 and 9 July (both below). The Commissioners, having been authorized to select the captain, chose Peter Amiel, formerly of Boston and captain of the merchant ship Ranger, who was then in Paris and in contact with the Commissioners. On 22 June they issued a bond for the Alliance and on the 23d, in addition to administering the oath, sent Amiel the instructions for commanders of privateers and ships of war adopted by the congress on 3 April 1776. Amiel went to Dunkirk to assume command but, disappointed with the small size of the Alliance, soon withdrew, and the project was terminated. Amiel later received a commission as a lieutenant in the Continental Navy and served under John Paul Jones on the Bonhomme Richard (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 3:431; Gérard, Despatches and Instructions, p. 440, note 2; JA, Diary and Autobiography, see index under Amiel, Peter).
2. This sentence is in the hand of Arthur Lee.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0174

Author: Ford, Hezekiah
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-25

Hezekiah Ford to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

As Mr. Ross,1 a Gentleman of Pennsylvania, has been kind enough to offer me a Passage on Board his Schooner, bound to Virginia; I have declined going by the Frigate; as it will be in my Power to return to the Camp sooner, this Way, than it could pos• { 234 } sibly be the other. Besides, I understand that Capt. Whipple considers his Clerk as Chaplain, and as I would not incommode, or deprive, any Gentleman of their Office willingly, I have thought proper to decline all Pretentions to the said Office, and to return you my most cordial thanks for the Letter of Recommendation you were kind enough to honour me with.2 Rest assured, Gentlemen, that this Favour shall ever impress my Mind with the deepest Sense of Gratitude; and that, while I have Time, or Opportunity, I shall always consider myself in duty bound to serve you in every Respect, my poor Capacity will admit.
As it is probable you may be desirous of sending Letters to His Excellency P. Henry, I have taken the Liberty to offer my Service, and to assure you, that such a Trust (should you think Proper to confer it on me) shall be executed with the greatest Care and Punctuality. The Schooner, I expect, will sail in about ten Days.
When I read in the London Evenning Post the Cruelty that has lately marked the Line of Gen. Howe's Conduct, in wantonly distroying the Property of Individuals up the Dalawar; my Mind was irritated to that Degree, which is scarce conceivable: and I still find in myself such a Disposition to revenge the unprovocked Injuries of my Country-men, that every Day seems an Age, while I am detained from so laudable an Imployment.
Alas! Dear Sirs, what Havock does Ambition make amongst all human Things! It is the Avarice, and Corruption, of a cruel Tyrant, that has occasioned so much blood-shed; and how much more he will occasion, God only knows. He is the Wretch, who has sacrificed so many innocent People for supporting their Rights; such Rights as they are entitled to, not only from human Contracts and the Charters granted their fore-fathers, but from the sacred Law of Nature. What will be the Result of our gracious King's Conduct no human Providence can foresee: But may the God of Justice and Avenger of Wicked Doe[r?]s, shortly bring to pass a glorious Revolution, in which George shall no longer set as Ruler of the british Nation.
With an Apology for moralizing the Subject, I have the honour to be, with all imaginable respect, Gentlemen Yr. Mo Obedient Mo Obliged, & very Hble Servt.
[signed] Hez. Ford3
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Mr Hez. Ford. 25 June 1778 from Nantes.”
{ 235 }
1. Presumably John Ross, the American commercial agent at Nantes.
2. The Commissioners to Capt. Abraham Whipple, 13 June (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:135).
3. Ford later became Arthur Lee's secretary; but apparently he was no more trustworthy than John Thornton, whom he replaced (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 1:539–541; see also Arthur Lee to JA, 5 July, below).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0175

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Coffyn, Francis
Date: 1778-06-26

The Commissioners to Francis Coffyn

Passy, 26 June 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:142–143. The Commissioners left to Coffyn's judgment the amount to be paid on a surgeon's bill, approved his proposal to transmit to America intelligence that he had obtained, and advised him either to send the unemployed sailors to serve on the frigates at Brest and Nantes or to retain them at Dunkirk to join the Alliance. Finally Coffyn was directed to execute the bond for the Alliance and to deliver the enclosed commission and instructions to Amiel.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0176

Author: Williams, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-27

From John Williams

[salute] Sir

Tho I have not the honor of a Parsonal acquaintance yet from your high Station and Character, and the Genteel as well as faithful conduct, you have Shewn to my Son1 who had the happiness of being Several years under your tuition, I take the liberty of Addressing you at this time, to express my Grateful Sense of your Goodness to him, and the Satisfaction I feel on hearing of your Safe arrival in France, and to congratulate you on the happy prospect of returning Peace Liberty and Safe[ty?] to the Country that gave us birth I mean the united States, where my best Affections ever were, and ever well be centered. I also beg the favour to be informed, should you have any opportunity by a Safe hand, whither you know any thing of my Son's welfere and Family's, as I have not had any certain intilligence from any of them Since I was last in Paris near a year go.
The Bearer Mr. Jona. Simpson2 who left Boston with Genl. Howe, having unhappyly from his youth, and inexperence, tho naturally of a Good Disposition been induced to address a late detestable, and Jusly detested Govr. but being now a True penitent, and wishing most earnestly to return to his Country and to his Allegiance, is Going to Paris to beg the best Advice upon this important business, and I am Sure he will be happy to be hon• { 236 } ored with your Directions. If he Should return to England I would beg to be favourd by him with what you may know of my Family. I shall leave this Kingdom as soon as a matter I have in Law can be Settled which I am in daily expectation of and indeed I have for Some Months past. I hope however it will be settled this Term. Therefore Should you have any commands here I shall be happy to receive them.
I am most Sincerely wishing you health & all posseble happiness Sir, Your much Obd. & Obld. Humble Servant
[signed] Jno. Williams
NB. Since I have wrote this above the news is Just arrived of three Ships of war belonging to France having been taken, by the English Fleet that Saild a few days ago under the command of Ad. Keppel on account of which Mr. Jona. Simpson has layd aside his intentions of going to Paris, and as my Friend who is an native of France is Just Seting out I have not time to Copy this over. Yrs. as before
[signed] JW
1. Jonathan Williams (1754?–1780), cousin of the Jonathan Williams who had been acting as an American commercial agent at Nantes. For further information about him and his father, former inspector general of customs at Boston, see vol. 2:104; JA, Legal Papers, 1:cxiii; and Sabine, Loyalists, 2:434.
2. Despite Williams' plea on his behalf, Jonathan Simpson was an ardent loyalist. A 1772 graduate of Harvard, Simpson addressed Hutchinson in 1774, fled to Halifax in 1776, was proscribed by the Massachusetts General Court in 1778, and engaged in trade with Georgia and South Carolina during the British occupation. Ordered from South Carolina in 1784 as a loyalist, Simpson ultimately returned to Boston, where he died in 1834 (Jones, Loyalists of Mass., p. 262; Sabine, Loyalists, 2:303).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0177

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-27

John Bondfield to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble Sirs

The Engagement of La Belle Poule is esteem'd at this port as a prelude to the declaration. Sugar Coffee and every other forreign Produce is buying up on Speculation which Acts are the Merchants Compass governing their views by the appearances of the times.
We have Letters of the 10 and 13 May from America but as they came by the Nymph Frigate can of course contain nothing more than what you will have received by said Conveyance.1
Admiral Byron don't appear destind for America if as is reportd two of the Ships of his Squadron are at Ancor near Ros• { 237 } coff. Four Copies of your Instructions of the 10th. are already forwarded and this day the perticular Account of rencontre as is here related of La Belle Poule, many favorable Circumstances Arriving together in America may posibly promote the Recruiting Service which they write me wants a Spurr to forward.
We have no Arrivals since my last from America in any of the Ports on this Coast.
Le Marquis D'Almadora left this 25th at night he makes very short Stages. The non Arrival of the Galions alarms the Interested.2 The Capital Sums Insured in England is the sole hope here of their not meeting with opposion. I am with due Respect Your honors Most Obedient Humble Servant
[signed] John Bondfield
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honble. Benj. Franklin Arthur Lee John Adams Esqrs. Commissioners from Congress at Paris”; docketed in an unknown hand: “Bondfield June 27 1778”; in another hand: “Bondfield John 27. June 1778.”
1. See William Heath to JA, 14 May (above).
2. The arrival of treasure fleets from Mexico and South America was a major determinant of Spanish policy since the specie contained in those vessels would be used to finance any war effort. Unwilling to risk their capture by premature action, Spain resisted French pressure to join in a war against England. Because the first of the vessels had been expected as early as May, anxiety was relieved only by the arrival of the first on 29 June and the last on 18 Sept. (Dull, French Navy and Amer. Independence, p. 86, 94–95, 100, 102, 113, 117, 126–127).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0178-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-27

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Voici copie de la Lettre que je viens d'écrire à Mr. le G—— P——
“Monsieur, Le Traite d'amitié et de commerce entre la France et les Etats-Unis de l'Amérique m'a été envoyé. Quand il plaira à Votre Excellence de me prescrire le jour et l'heure ou il Lui seroit commode de me donner audience, je recevrai ses ordres avec le profond respect avec lequel je suis, &c.”
Avant de porter cette Lettre, je l'ai fait voir au g—— F——, qui l'a approuvee. A present j'attends que le G—— P—— me fasse dire quand il voudra me recevoir. Je Suppose que la curiosite ne lui permettra pas de differer longtemps.
J'ai bien supposé. En revenant de chez le g—— F——, j'ai trouvé le billet suivant, tout entier de la main du G—— P——.
“Monsieur, Ayant vu hier par votre Lettre, que le Traité { 238 } d'Amitié et de Commerce entre la France et les Etats-Unis de l'Amérique vous a été envoyé, et que vous souhaitez de me voir, je vous prie, Monsieur, de vouloir vous rendre chez moi demain matin vers 8/12 ; heures. Je suis très parfaitement, Monsieur, Votre tres humble et très obéissant serviteur, P. Van Bleiswyk. Ce 28c Juin 1778.”
Je reçus hier au soir de la part de Mr. le Chev. Gd. le paquet dont vous m'avez favorise le 22e,.1 et dont j'ai lu, ou plutôt devore l'agréable contenu avec le plus grand intérêt. Après la Lettre que j'avois écrite au G—— P——, il n'y avoit plus moyen de reculer: aussi le g—— F——, a tout de suite dit qu'il falloit passer outre. J'irai done demain matin faire la communication du Traité, mais Seulement en le laissant lire, ou en le lisant, comme on voudra, sans en laisser prendre copie.
J'ai été chez le G—— P——. Il m'a rec, u avec la plus grande politesse. Je lui ai présenté le Traite, en le prévenant qu'il ne m'étoit pas permis pour le présent de le faire voir à d'autres qu'a lui et à notre Ami, comme à deux Ministres de la République, pour qui Mrs. les Plénipotentiaries des Etats Unis avoient la plus grande confiance et la plus haute estime. “Mais vous pouvez pourtant me le laisser un peu, n'est-ce pas?” me dit-il. Je l'assurai que tout ce qui étoit en mon pouvoir, et ma personne meme, étoit à sa disposition, mais que je le suppliois de considérer, que ceci étoit un dépot. Il n'insista pas; et ayant lu, il trouva “que c'étoit un Traité d'amitié et de Commerce comme tous les autres.” Je lui dis qu'on n'avoit pas voulu en faire un autre, et que la republique pouvoit en faire un pareil. Il me dit “qu'il y avoit sans doute des Articles secrets.” Je répondis “que cela ne seroit pas sans exemple, mais que je n'en savois rien.”2 Il parla “de l'irrésolution de la Cour de Madrid, et du peu de disposition de celle de Vienne à ecouter Mr. Lee.” Je m'enveloppai dans une parfaite ignorance de ce qui se traitoit dans les Cabinets. Il trouva que “le Traité ne garantissoit pas l'indépendance.” J'observai qu'il la supposoit, et que la déclaration que la France en avoit faite à toutes les Puissances, excluoit toute incertitude à cet égard.3 Il me parla de Mr. Franklin dans des termes qui manifestoient la plus haute estime, conĉue depuis longtemps déjà, et, a mot couverts, de sa bonne volonté pour le rapprochement des deux Peuples. Je lui offris, s'il avoit quelque desir de revoir le Traité, de le lui apporter aussi souvent qu'il voudroit. Il répondit que cela n'étoit pas { 239 } nécessaire, sur-tout puisque je devois aussi le communiquer demain à notre ami. Je lui remis copie de la nouvelle manuscrite,4 avec promesse de lui faire des Extraits de celles, Messieurs, que vous m'enverrez a l'avenir. Il me témoigna que cela lui feroit plaisir. Il me parut plus réservé à la fin qu'au commencement; faché apparemment, de n'avoir pu faire voir le Traité au Prince, mais qui l'auroit fait voir a S. J. Y.&c.
J'attends ce soir Mr. V. Berkel. Les Etats d'Hollande S'assemblent demain.
On m'a envoyé d'Amsterdam quelques feuilles de la dédicace5 ci-jointe. J'ignore qui en est l'auteur: mais cela vaut incomparablement mieux que le voeu des nations.
Je m'occuperai à présent à extraire pour nos Gazettiers les papiers dont vous m'avez favorisé et suis avec respect Messieurs Votre tres humble & très obeissant serviteur
[signed] D
On vient de me Conner que la Ville d'Amsterdam a fait un Emprunt de 3000,000 de florins (6000,000 de Livres de France), qui a été rempli dans 2 ou 3 heures de temps. Tant mieux; voilà toujours autant d'argent dont les Anglois ne profiteront pas, pour faire hausser leurs fonds. Mais il faut que je sache encore pour quoi cet emprunt a été fait; et je le Saurai. Toujours, le fait est sûr.6

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0178-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-27

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

Here is a copy of the letter I have just written to the Grand Pensionary.
“Sir: The Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and the United States has been sent to me. When it will please Your Excellency to indicate the date and time when it would be convenient for him to grant me an audience, I will receive his orders with the profound respect with which I am, &c.”
Before sending this letter I showed it to the Grand Facteur who approved it. At present I am awaiting word from the Grand Pensionary as to when he will receive me. I suspect that curiosity will not permit him to delay very long.
I guessed right. Upon returning from the Grand Facteur I found the following note, entirely in the hand of the Grand Pensionary.
“Sir: Having seen by your letter of yesterday that the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and the United States of { 240 } America has been sent to you and that you wished to see me, I suggest, sir, that you come tomorrow morning around 8:30. I am very respectfully, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant, P. Van Bleiswyck. 28 June 1778.”
Last night I received from the Chev. Grand the packet that you have favored me with of the lid,1 the agreeable contents of which I read or rather devoured with the utmost interest. After the letter I had written to the Grand Pensionary, there was no way of backing out; hence, the Grand Facteur said to proceed immediately, I shall, therefore, communicate the treaty tomorrow morning, but only permitting it to be read or reading it myself, as he chooses, without a copy being made.
I have been to the Grand Pensionary's. He received me with the utmost politeness. I presented the treaty and, at the same time, informed him that, for the time being, I was not permitted to show it to anyone but him and our friend: two ministers of the Republic for whom the Plenipotentiaries of the United States have great confidence and the highest esteem. “But,” he asked, “you can leave it with me for a short while, can't you?” I assured him that I and all that was in my power were at his entire disposal, but begged him to understand that this was entrusted to me. He did not insist and, having read it, said he found “that it was a Treaty of Amity and Commerce like all the others.” I told him that there had been no desire to conclude one that was different and that the Republic could make a similar one. He said to me “that there were without a doubt secret articles.” I replied “that it would not be the first time, but that I had no knowledge of any.”2 He then spoke “of the irresolution of the Court of Madrid and the slight disposition of that of Vienna to listen to Mr. Lee.” I cloaked myself in complete ignorance as to what transpired in the cabinets. He found “that the treaty did not guarantee independence.” I observed that it assumed it, and that the French declaration to all the powers had precluded any doubts in this regard.3 He spoke to me of Mr. Franklin in terms that manifested a high and longstanding esteem and, in covert terms, of his own goodwill toward the rapprochement of the two peoples. I offered, if he had any desire to reexamine the treaty, to bring it to him as often as he wished. He replied that it would be unnecessary, especially since I also had to show it to our friend tomorrow. I gave him a copy of the handwritten newsletter4 (nouvelle manuscrite) with the promise to provide him with extracts from those that you would send me in the future. He said that he would be very grateful. He seemed more reserved at the end than in the beginning, apparently upset because he could not show the treaty to the Prince, who would then show it to Sir Joseph Yorke, &c.
Tonight I expect to see Mr. V. Berkel. The Dutch States assemble tomorrow.
{ 241 }
I received from Amsterdam a few pages of the enclosed dedication.5 I am ignorant as to the author, but it transcends national interests.
I will occupy myself, at present, with extracting, for our gazeteers, articles from the papers that I had the honor to receive from you and am with respect, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] D
I have been told confidentially that the town of Amsterdam has borrowed 3,000,000 florins (6,000,000 French livres) which have been collected in two or three hours. Good, that is just so much money that will not go to the British to increase their resources. But I must, and will, find out why the borrowing was done. In any case, the fact is true.6
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “à Leurs Excellences Messieurs les Plenipotentiaries des Etats-Unis de l'Amerique a Paris.” docketed: “Dumas.” in another hand: “27 June 78.”
1. This packet has not been found; thus it is unclear why Dumas would consider withdrawing from his meeting with the Grand Pensionary. Nor is there any indication of the news that it contained, which Dumas provided the Grand Pensionary. Enclosed with this letter, however, was a page from the Gazette de Leyde of 30 June with two passages marked by “X's.” The first, an “EXTRAIT d'une Lettre particuliere de Paris du 22. Juin,” may have been taken from the Commissioners' letter and, in accordance with past practice, sent by Dumas to the Gazette. It announced the arrival in America of a small American fleet and its French escort and the rejection by the Continental Congress of the peace proposals submitted by the Carlisle Commission. The second passage, from Amsterdam and dated 27 June, gave an account of the engagement of 17 June between the Belle-Poule and the Arethusa.
2. Although Dumas may have been unaware of it, a secret article had been agreed upon and was ratified by the Continental Congress on 4 May. It provided that the King of Spain might adhere to the Franco-American alliance “at such time as he shall judge proper” (Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:45–46).
3. Dumas was of course communicating the Treaty of Amity and Commerce and not the Treaty of Alliance, which, in Arts. 2 and 8, was much more explicit on the question of American independence (same, p. 36–37, 38–39). The very fact that France had signed two treaties with the United States constituted, however, a clear de jure recognition of the new nation as a sovereign, independent power, and France's official notification to Great Britain of its actions in a note of 13 March was in itself a very strong implied guarantee of American independence.
4. Dumas' exact meaning here is unclear. It seems likely that he did not give van Bleiswyck a copy of the Commissioners' letter of 22 June (see note 1, above), but rather only of the portion of that letter containing news from America; thus Dumas' reference to a newsletter.
5. Not found.
6. For Dumas' correction of this report of a loan, see his letter to the Commissioners of 3 July (below).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0179

Author: Whipple, Abraham
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-27

Abraham Whipple to the Commissioners

[salute] Honorable Gentlemen

In my last letter I had the pleasure of Acquainting you, that it was in my power to take some Goods on board in account of the United States, agreable to Capt. Wm: Jones information, who ac• { 242 } quainted me that you had some Goods on hand, which you desired to forward for America.
My Ship is already graved, and now taking in ballast if am to take any Goods, would be extreamly glad to know, that I may stow the Ship accordingly; My Masts are all made to serve excepting Main and foretop Masts. The Cost of new Masts being so great, I have made the lower Masts serve by repairing them, and I believe they will hold till we Arrive in America. The Main Mast will be Ready to get in in three Days. The Ship will Certainly be ready without unforeseen Accident shou'd prevent, by the twentieth of July and if agreable to your Honours, should be happy of my Orders by the fifteenth,1 for I am flattered with the hopes of being Ready by that time, with four Months Provision on board, for which I have given indent unto Mr. Schweighauser Agent.
It gives me pleasure to Acquaint your Honours, that both Officers and Men omit no exertions in their power to get in Actual readiness for Sea, having unfortunately been blockaded so long already, and this alone, without any other motive would induce a desire not to be detained after my Ship is ready for Sailing. If your Honours have any Remarkable News not of a private Nature which has lately Arrived from America should think myself favoured with the Account. Again presuming to Repeat my most earnest Sollicitations for express Orders, to be transmitted as soon as possibly may be I have the honour to Remain, with all imaginable Respect, Gentlemen Your very Obedt. very Hble. Servt.
[signed] Abraham Whipple
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “C. Whipples Letter. June 27.1778.”
1. For Whipple's instructions of 23 June, see the Commissioners to John Paul Jones, 16 June (calendared above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0180

Author: Moylan, James
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-29

James Moylan [Jr.?] to the Commissioners

[salute] Honorable Gentlemen

The Frigate Oiseau who convoyed a Virginia Schooner out of the Bay which I dispatched from hence, is returned yesterday with the prize Hope, John Poignestre Master belonging to Jersey, a privateer of six Guns, who had taken the Brig Sally Captain Rapeal belonging to the state of Massachusettes the 3d. of May, with a cargo of Rice and Indigo from Charles Town on public account, bound to Bilboa. On board of said privateer, the following { 243 } sailors belonging to Marble Head were prisoners. Thomas Collie, James Howard and John Towler, for whose liberty I apply'd to the Commissary, who granted my request, and in order to save the expence that wou'd naturally attend their delay here, for an opportunity to return to their Country, I prevailed on the Captain of the Oiseau to take them to Brest and deliver them to Cap: Jones of the Ranger, who I make no doubt will receive them. I have the honor to be respectfully Honorable Gentlemen Your assur'd hl St.
[signed] James Moylan [Jr.?]
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honorable Plenepotentiary Ministers of the United States of America at Passy”; docketed: “Mr Moylan 29. June 1778.”

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0181

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-30

John Bondfield to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble Sirs

A vessel Arrived yesterday from Louisiana confirms the Accounts received from them parts of the Back Settlers from Georgia and Carolina having got possession of all the British Posts on the Banks of the Missisipi and of two valuable Vessels Loaden for London that they conducted to New Orleans and there disposed of the Cargoes.1
A Vessel from Carolina for this port was taken by a privateer within 40 leagues of the Land, we are adviced by a pilot Boat come up this Tide that a Privateer of 18 Guns being in the River taken by a french Frigate.
Le Comte D'aranda2 past thro' this City the 28th on his return to Paris from Madrid also a Spanish Noble yesterday Name unknown. I am most Respectfully your honors Most Obedient Servt
[signed] John Bondfield
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honble Benj Franklin Arthur Lee John Adams Esqs. Commissioners from Congress à Paris"; docketed: “Mr Bondfield 30 June 1778.”
1. This report probably refers to James Willing's expedition down the Mississippi that had been approved by the Commerce Committee in late 1777 and resulted in the capture of Natchez on 19 Feb. The expedition, intended to harass pro-British settlers and keep the Mississippi open for the transport of military supplies north from New Orleans, succeeded for a time in attaining its objectives but did little in the long run to improve the American position on the western frontier. The two vessels mentioned by Bondfield may have been the Neptune and Dispatch (John Caughey, “Willing's Expedition down the Mississippi, 1778,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 15:5–36[Jan. 1932]).
2. That is, Pedro Pablo Abarca y Boleo, Conde d'Aranda, Spanish ambassador to France from 1773 to 1787 (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter oiler Länder, 3:430–431).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0182

Author: Coffyn, Francis
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-30

Francis Coffyn to the Commissioners

[salute] Hond. Gentlemen

I take the liberty to crave your referrence to the letter I had the honnor of writing to you the 22d. instant1 being Still deprived of your long wish'd for favours, the Sole motif of this, is to inform you, that one John Gibson Master of an English Smuggling vessell which arrived here this morning, tol'd me that Six Russian Ships of war vizt. three of 90, and three of 74 guns, are arrived in England, and that Six more of the Same force are dayly Expected, as they all Twelve Sail'd together from Crownstad [Kronstadt].2 The Captains and officers on board these Ships are English and Scotch, and the people Russians. Three of the former are order'd to Sheerness, and three to Portsmouth to be put into the docks, to be Surveyed. This Intelligence appear'd to me too interesting to obmit communicating it to you, in the Same words as I received it. I have the honnor to remain very respectfully, Hond. Gentlemen, Your most obedient and most devoted Humble Servant
[signed] Frans. Coffyn
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To The Hble. Dr. Bn. Franklin, Arthur Lee, & John Adams Esqrs. at Passy;” docketed: “Mr Coffyn. 30 June 1778.”
1. Not found.
2. An unfounded rumor.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0183

Author: Ford, Hezekiah
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-06-30

Hezekiah Ford to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentl.

By Capt. Turner, who left South Carolina the Beginning of May, I have the Happiness to communicate the following Intelligence; which he received, in his Passage to this Place, from one of the Prizes. About the middle of last Month, two Privateers, belonging to the State of Connecticut, but last from Boston; the one mounting twenty, nine pounders; the other Sixteen 6's, fell in with two British Letter of Marques; the one burthen 5'00 Tons, and mounting twenty 9's: the other upwards of 4'00, and mounting Eighteen 9's and 6's: Both loaden with dry Goods, and bound to the West India's. An Engagement commenced; which { 245 } proved very obstinate: But at length, through the Bravery and Intrepidity of our Officers and Seamen, they were both made Prizes of, after receiving considerable Damage on both Sides.1
In a former Letter,2 I took the Liberty to inform you of my Intention of returning to Virginia by Mr. Ross's Schooner: But in this, I am detered, through the Information, brought by Mr. Turner of the Number of Cruisers, now on this Coast: So that unless you are disposed to honour me with the Care of Letters, to His Excellency, the Governor of Virginia, or to the President of the Hon. the Continental Congress, (in either of which Cases, I shall think myself in duty bound to execute your Orders, though they should be attended with inconceivable Danger) at present, I think it most advisable for me to continue with the Frigate; “to share her Glories, or to die in the Attempt.”3 I have the Honour to be, Gentlemen Your very Humble, and Obedient Servt.
[signed] Hez: Ford
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Mr H. Fords Letter”; in another hand: “30 June 78.”
1. The Connecticut privateers Oliver Cromwell and Defence took and sent into Boston the ships Cyrus, 500 tons, and the Admiral Keppel, 400 tons (Boston Gazette, 25 May, 3 Aug.).
2. That of 25 June (above).
3. This was the frigate Providence. Ford, however, apparently changed his mind again and decided to risk passage on a smaller vessel, perhaps one owned by John Ross (see letter of 25 June, above). Ford's fears were apparently justified, for on 21 July he wrote to the Commissioners and informed them that the “small Cutter” on which he had sailed had been captured and taken into Jersey and that he was planning to make his way back to Paris (PPAmP: Franklin Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0184

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
DateRange: 1778-06-30 - 1778-08-08

The Commissioners' Accounts with Ferdinand Grand

Doit Compte courrant des Etats unis par Messieurs Franklin Lee et Adams chez F. Grand

1778             [Debit]   [Credit]  
Juin   30   Pour solde de lancien Compte   697434.   4.          
Juillet   1er   Mandat de J. Williams du 25 7bre. ordre Mr. Franklin   891.   10.          
  1er   Ces Messieurs aiant été debites dans deux differents Comptes, de l'achat fait a L'Orient des 34 Affuts je les credite d'autant dans cellui cy, afin qu'ils ne soient debites qu'une seule fois du Montant de cet Achat de         5607.   2.   61  
  3   Acceptn. de Mr. Franklin du 18 May, aux traittes de Hy. Laurens de York Town a 30 Jrs. de vue ord: La Pierre   du 6 9bre.   900   }   1473.            
      14 do.   573            
  3   Acceptn. de Mr. Francklin du 5 Juin a traitte de Hy. Laurens du 14 9bre. a 30 Jours de vue   1030.            
  3   Payé a Mme. de Coalin les 6 derniers Mois de la Maison de Mr. Dean   3600.            
  16   Mandat de Messrs. Francklin Lee et Adams du 16 Juillet   720.            
  17   Payé a Poussin Tapissier, pour l'achat des Meubles qu'il louoit cy devant a Mr. Deane suivant le compte a ce Sujet   4294.            
  20   Pour la Voiture de Mr. Dean que le Scellier s'etoit engagé a reprendre pour 2000 et dont je me suis chargé         2000.      
    Reçu de ces Messieurs         750000.      
  21   Mandat de Mrs. Franklin Lee et Adams du 21 courant, ord Niles   4933.            
  28   Mandat de Mrs. Francklin Lee et Adams du 29 do., au Cape. Barnes   2108.   15.          
{ 247 } | view
  30   Acceptation de Mrs. Francklin du 26 Juillet a une traitte de Hy. Laurens du 17 9bre. a 30 Jours de vue   900.            
Aoust   4   Mandat de Mrs. Franklin Lee et Adams du 4 Aoust   ord: Collins   439.   }   823.2            
      ord: Welsh   192.            
      ord Grenall   192.            
  6   Acceptation de Mr. Franklin du 27 Juin, a traitte de Hy. Laurens du 7 9bre. a 30 Jours de vue   900.            
  6   Payé a Mr. Adams sur son ordre   2400.            
  7   Payé a Mr. Franklin, sur reçu   4800.            
  7   Payé a Mr. Arthur Lee, sur reçu   4800.            
    Commission a ½p% sur L[ivres]60172.18.6.   300.   17.          
    Ports de Lettres, Paquets, Commissionaires &ca   203.   11.          
    Pour Solde il levient a ces Messieurs   25995.   5.   6        
            L[ivres]757607.   2.   6   757607.   2.   63  
Ainsi arreté double sauf Erreurs ou Ommissions.
[signed] Grand
Note of Additional Sums paid out of the public money for Mr. Deane4
16 April 1778 To his Wheelright   168.    
1st. May, Hire of his Horses   128.    
   Remainder of his Acct.   278.    
7th Do. Remainder of a Servant's Acct.   417.   1.  
Do. To another Servant   244.   16.  
   Sadler's Acct.   6.    
13th. July Traituer's Acct.   12.   11.  
   Blacksmith's Acct.   80.   10.  
{ 248 }
RC (MH-H: Lee Papers); notation on the reverse of the first page: “No. 4.” On that same page is a column of figures by Arthur Lee listing payments made to him from 11 Aug. 1777 to 7 Aug. 1778 and totaling 65,719.5.6 livres. For the individual entries, see the accounts in the Lee Papers (MH-H) and those of 30 March–30 June, and descriptive note (above).
1. Entries for the purchases of gun carriages appear in the accounts for 15 Jan.–30 March (MH-H: Lee Papers) and 30 March–30 June (above). Together the two entries totaled 11,214.5 livres. The figure here represents that sum divided in half.
2. All three men were American prisoners.
3. Because of the error noted in the accounts of 30 March–30 June, the total should be 757,607.7.6 livres.
4. In Arthur Lee's hand, these sums were taken from the Commissioners' household accounts kept at this time by William Temple Franklin and for the period 9 April to 24 Aug. are printed above.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0185

Author: Cooper, Samuel
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-01

From Samuel Cooper

[salute] My dear Sir

After various Reports of the Capture of the Boston by a British Cruizer, and of her being struck with Lightning at Sea, it was with peculiar Pleasure I lately receiv'd an Assurance Of your Safe Arrival in France. Not long after you sail'd, Mrs. Adams wrote me a Letter upon a Report of Dr. Franklin's having been assassinated, full of the tenderest Anxiety, and the most amiable Sentiments, sollicitous for the Safety of her dear Partner whom she had given up for a long Interval, to the Service of our Country. I did evr'y Thing I could, in my Reply, to sooth her afflicted Mind, and most sincerely take Part in the Joy which a Letter, I am just inform'd, she has receiv'd from you, must afford her.1 I feel happy that my Country has two such Negotiators as you and your Collegue at the first Court in Europe, and not a little proud that I can call you both my Friends. May Heaven support you under your public Cares, and prosper all your Efforts for the Safety and Happiness of our dear Country. I congratulate you on the Prospect of a speedy and glorious End to our great Contest, that must give us a distinguish'd Place among the Nations, and peculiar Honor to those whose Services have eminently contributed to it. The Monarch, at whose Court you reside, gave by his wise and generous Treaty, a new Turn to our Affairs. They were indeed very far from being desperate· without it, but the Alliance with France gave a new Spring in ev'ry Part, and rapidly brighten'd all our Prospects. Our Paper Credit is that which of all others still labors most. It has remain'd rather at a Stand for some Time then been much advanc'd. I hope by forreign Loans, { 249 } or some Method or other, we shall soon be reliev'd in this important Point. I refer you for the State of our Affairs to the Paper, and Letter I have sent by this Conveyance to Dr. Franklin.2 The Vessel being on the Point of Sailing I must close. Adieu my dear Friend, and accept the warmest Tenders of Esteem and Affection from Your's
[signed] Saml. Cooper
1. An account of the assassination of Benjamin Franklin, allegedly instigated by the British ambassador to France, Lord Stormont, and taken from a letter of 12 Dec. 1777 from Bordeaux, appeared in the Boston Gazette of 23 Feb. AA's letter to Cooper concerning the report has not been found, but see Cooper's reply of 2 March (Adams Family Correspondence, 2:398–399). JA's letter, to which Cooper refers, was that of 25 April (same, 3:17).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0186

Author: Warren, James
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-01

From James Warren

[salute] Sir

I have wrote you several long Letters since you left us, some of which you will doubtless by the Enemy be releived from the trouble of reading. My last was by Capt. Barnes about 14 days ago,1 at A Time when we had reason to be Anxious for your safety. Two days ago for the first time we were Ascertained of the safe Arrival of the Boston and of your being in Paris. This Intelligence we have by A Packet from France in 46 days, which brought public and private Letters. I am told there are Letters from you tho' I have not the Honour and Happiness of being Numbered Among those to whom they are directed. I suppose the public Letters2 that go by this Conveyance with the Gazettes we shall Inclose will give you all the News of this Country. Great Expectations are formed here from the Circumstances and Situation of our own Army, and that of the Enemy. We have no Cruizers on our Coasts at this Time they are all Called into Hallifax where they are in the Horrors from the Apprehension of A French Fleet said to be in these Seas, tho' we have yet no perticular Account of them. By this Means our prizes and Merchantmen have A fine Chance to get in, and they succeed Accordingly. This Vessel goes of [f] so suddenly that I fear Mrs. Adams will not hear of this Oppertunity to write. If she does not it may be some satisfaction to you to be Informed that she is well. I am Obliged to Conclude and Am Your Assured Friend and Humbl. Servt.
[signed] J. Warren
{ 250 }
1. Presumably that of 7 June (above).
2. This letter, as well as the “public Letters” mentioned, was sent on the Arnold Packet, Capt. John Ayres, and arrived at Bordeaux on 28 July (Ayres to the Commissioners, 29 July, below). For the possible content of the official letters contained in four packets from the Committee for Foreign Affairs and sent to the Commissioners under a covering letter from James Warren of 2 July (PPAmP: Franklin Papers), see JA's reply to Warren of 4 Aug. (below).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0187

Author: Whipple, Abraham
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-02

Abraham Whipple to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

The honour of your Letter bearing date the 23d June,1 had the pleasure of Recieving on the 30th and shall think myself happy, in a strict attention to the Agreable Contents, as these Orders afford me every Satisfaction, being such as could have wished, had the intended Cruize been left to my own Determination. It affords me the most sensible pleasure to Acquaint your Honours, that both Officer's and Men are very attentive in getting the Ship ready, and flattered with their vigilance and attention, expect to be ready for Sea, before the last of this month.
With regard to Arms, Cloathing &c. Mr. Schweighauser acquaints me that he has only fourteen Bales of Blankets at present on Continental Account. It being in my power to take a considerable larger Quantity without impeding the Ship either in sailing or fighting, and having understood that Mr. Jonathan Williams late Agent at Nantes has to[o?] a very large amount of Arms Military Stores would be glad that your Honours would expedite the necessary Orders if Agreable to Mr. Williams, that such Merchandize might be put on board, as would be Convenient and fitting for the Ship.
Would earnestly sollicit with due submission to your Honours judgement, a ready attention to this Article and immediate Answer, as the Ship is Actually taking in Provisions, Water &c. and suffers by Delay in Respect to Stowing the Hold, as most Advantageous. Inclosed I transmit an exact Return of Prisoners on board my Ship2 as Ordered, and hope that an exchange may be facilitated on principles of mutual good.
All Dispatches Committed to my Care, your Honours may Depend upon the most Careful attention to and with thanks for your favourable wishes in the Destined Voyage, have the honour to Remain, Gentlemen, Your most Obedt. & very hbble servt
[signed] Abraham Whipple
{ 251 }
NB Expet the main Mast will be ready to put in tomorrow, which Compleats our masts.
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “C. Whipples Letter. July 2d contg. Return of Prisoners”; in another hand: “July 2d. 1778.”
1. Not printed, but see the Commissioners' letters to John Paul Jones of 10 and 16 June (both calendared above).
2. Enclosures not found.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0188-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-03

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Ce que j'eus l'honneur de vous marquer l'ordinaire dernier de l'Emprunt d'Amsterdam, etoit extrémement exagéré. Cela se réduit à un petit emprunt, que le trésorier de la Ville fait et rembourse, selon le plus ou le moins d'argent en caisse, pour être employé a des bâtimens. La personne de qui je tenois cela, avoit été mal informée. Notre ami m'a mieux instruit.1
Je lui communiquai hier le Traité, ainsi qu'àMr. le Bourguemaî tre régnant Temmink d'Amsterdam. Ces Messieurs en sont très contents: ils le trouvent le plus parfait dans son genre, qui ait jamais été fait; que tout y est prévu, tout ce qui est défectueux dans ceux des temps passéz, remédié.2
Il n'y àprésent qu'à laisser la tourbe s'allumer lentement. J'ai demandé àMr. Temmink la permission de l'aller voir quand j'irois à Amsterdam, et il me l'a très poliment accordée.
Vous verrez, Messieurs, par la Gazette ci-jointe,3 et bientôt par celle du bas rhin, si vous la lisez (sans compter les gazettes hollandoises), que j'ai commencé à faire usage des papiers que vous m'avez envoyés. Tout cela fait un bon effet dans ces provinces, entretient une haute idée des Américains, désole et confond Y. et les Nouvellistes ses amis. Depuis l'affaire de Saratoga j'ai rendu constamment les miens maîtres du champ de bataille ici.
Ce matin les papiers Anglois4 nous ont apporté la nouvelle singuliere, que la grande Flotte de Keppel n'a abouti qu'à une Expédition de parti bleu; qu'après avoir Surpris deux Frégattes en Station, commencé les hostilités, et fait la bravade vers Brest, dès qu'elle a vu la Françoise sortir de Brest pour en avoir raison, elle s'est retirée, et mise en sûreté dans les Ports d'Angleterre. J'espere à présent, qu'àson tour, la Flotte françoise usera de Représailles, et trouvera quelques Vaisseaux de Guerre Anglois { 252 } à prendre, sans compter ce qui pourra lui tomber entre les mains des flottes qui reviennent des deux Indes.
J'ai vu, avec bien de la joie, dans votre Liste, l'arrivée du Dean, parce que je Savois in Petto, que Mon cher Ami Mr. Carmichael étoit dans ce vaisseau, commandé par le Capitaine Nicholson. Les papiers Anglois du 30 Juin en parlent aussi.
Je prie Dieu, de tout mon coeur, pour qu'il bénir les Armes des Etats-Unis, et de leur accorder bientôt la plus glorieuse paix, et une felicité durable. Je Suis avec le respect le plus sincere, Messieurs, Votre très humble & très obéissant serviteur
[signed] D.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0188-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-03

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

That which I had the honor to note in my last concerning Amsterdam's borrowing was greatly exaggerated. It is limited to a small loan that the treasurer of the town borrows and repays more or less according to the amount of money in the coffers and is to be used for some vessels. The person from whom I learned this was misinformed. Our friend set me straight on the matter.1
Yesterday I communicated the treaty to both him and Burgomaster Temminck of Amsterdam. These gentlemen were very pleased; they find it to be the best of its kind, with every objection anticipated and all that was defective in previous ones remedied.2
Now all that we have to do is let the peat slowly ignite itself. At my request, Mr. Temminck very kindly granted me permission to come and see him when I go to Amsterdam.
You will see, gentlemen, from the enclosed gazette3 and soon, if you read it, by that of the Lower Rhine (not to mention the Dutch gazettes) that I have started putting to good use the documents you sent me. They have a very positive effect in these provinces, maintaining a high opinion of the Americans while annoying and confounding Yorke and his friends the journalists. Since the Saratoga affair I have consistently rendered my friends the masters of the battlefield here.
This morning the British papers4 brought us the curious news that the expedition of Keppel's great fleet ended up a wasted venture. After having taken two frigates on station by surprise, started hostilities, and blustered toward Brest, as soon as they saw the French fleet leave Brest to overtake them, they retired and sought safety in the English ports. I hope that, in turn, the French fleet will make a reprisal and find a few British men-of-war to capture, besides what they could get out of the fleets coming back from the two Indies.
I was very happy to see mention, in your account [liste] of the arrival of the Deane because I knew in petto that my dear friend Mr. Carmichael was on board that ship under the command of Captain Nicholson. The English papers of 30 June mention it also.
{ 253 }
I pray to God with all my heart that He may bless the arms of the United States and grant them soon the most glorious peace and everlasting happiness. I am, with the most sincere respect, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] D.
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “àLeurs Excellences Messieurs les Plénipotentiaires des Etats-Unis de l'Amerique à Paris.”; docketed: “Dumas"; in another hand: “3 July 78"; LbC (Algemeen Rijksarchief, The Hague, Dumas Papers, vol. 1.)
1. In the Dumas Letterbook this sentence is followed by a long, canceled passage analyzing the character and actions of Pieter van Bleiswyck, the Grand Pensionary, and giving van Berckel's opinion of him. Dumas later, with minor changes, inserted this passage in his letter to the Commissioners of 17 July (below).
2. A second canceled passage, which marks the end of the Letterbook copy, follows this sentence:
“Ils regrettent seulement que je n'ai pu le laisser à Mr. le G—— P——, conformément a ce que vous lui aviez promis, Messieurs, dans la Lettre que vous lui avez écrite, non seulement parce que cela donne lieu à ceux du parti opposé à semer des soupçons sur cette espece de dédit, et de mystere; mais aussi, parce qu'ils Se serviroient avec plaisir de ce Traité pour encourager et animer les Marchands d'Amsterdam à se lier dès à présent directment avec ceux de l'Amérique pour toutes sortes d'affaires, sans attendre un Traité dans toute les formes, qui viendroit à son aise, et même plutôt qu'autrement. Je leur ai répondu que les termes we shall speedily send &c. n'exprimoient pas plus le temps présent, que celui oil la Lettre fut écrite, et signifioient naturellement l'attente où vous etiez de pouvoir bientot rendre le Traité public; qu'en mon particulier, je n'avois point de raison pour douter qu'il ne le devienne bientot, et que je ne sois enfin autorisé à le remettre à Mr. le G—— P—— et à eux, pour en faire le bon usage qu'ils Se proposoient: qu'en attendant vous aviez fait, Messieurs, ce que vous aviez pu pour qu'ils en eussent une connoissance provisionelle.”
Translation:
They regretted only that I was unable to leave it with the Grand Pensionary as you promised, gentlemen, in your letter to him. This is not only because it provides the opposition with an opportunity to spread rumors about an apparent and mysterious retraction but also because they could use the treaty profitably to encourage the merchants of Amsterdam to undertake, immediately and directly, all sorts of business deals with those of America without waiting for the formal treaty which could then arrive at leisure and would probably do so sooner than otherwise. I answered that the words we shall speedily send, etc. did not reflect either the present time or that at which the letter was written, but rather your need to wait before making the treaty public. I added that, so far as I was concerned, I had no reason to doubt that this would happen Very soon and that I would, at last, be authorized to present it to both them and the Grand Pensionary so that it could be put to the good use they had intended, and, in the meantime, I stated that you had done your best so that they might have a provisional knowledge of it.
3. A supplement to the Gazette de Leyde of 3 July. The paper contained a report on American operations along the Mississippi River and in West Florida; a general order issued at Valley Forge on 25 April concerning the need to reduce the size of the officers' baggage; a resolution of the congress of 2 March (JCC, 10:213–215) and a letter from the Massachusetts Council of 24 March, both regarding the establishment of a corps of light cavalry; and various items containing European news.
4. For this report on Keppel's fleet, as well as the arrival of the Deane and William Carmichael in America mentioned in the next paragraph, see, for example, the London Chronicle of 27–30 June.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0189

Author: Jones, John Paul
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-03

John Paul Jones to the Commissioners

Being informed from good authority that the Minister desired much to converse with me on a subject of great utility to the United States of America1 —as there was then no prospect of obtaining permission to sell the prizes—or of getting the prisoners exchanged soon, I thought it for the interest of the Service that I shoud come myself to Paris. It was necessary too that some measure shoud be adopted to quiet the minds of the people in the Ranger.
The Minister told me his plan—But demanded my parole of Honour not to reveal it to any person whatsoever.2 I am not therefore at Liberty to communicate it even to you, unless you will first get me absolved of my Parole And also allow me to inform the Minister that it is what you have insisted upon knowing.
I can how-ever assure you that what has been communicated to me is perfectly consistent with my Duty as an American Officer—With the interests of the United States—and with the most disinterested friendship on the part of France—because tho' it will contribute to the success and Honor of the American arms, it will involve America in no Expence.
The Opinion of the Minister is that the success of this plan depends upon the most profound secrecy in the meantime—and I shall at a proper season give the most convincing proofs that it is not an affair of my seeking—and also that my journey to Paris has been perfectly consistent with my instructions from Congress and with My Duty as an American Officer, acting from principle, and having the satisfaction to know that my past conduct has always been honored with the most ample approbation.
MS (in Arthur Lee's hand MH-H: Lee Papers); notation at the top of the first page: “Copy of a Paper given to the Commissioners by Capt. Jones of the Ranger July 3d. 1778.”
1. The “good authority” was Benjamin Franklin, and the “subject of great utility” was probably the command of the Indien.
2. That is, JA and Arthur Lee were not to be told, although Franklin almost certainly was aware of what had passed between Jones and Sartine.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0190

Author: Simpson, Thomas
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-03

Thomas Simpson to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

I am to Acknowledge the receipt of your favor from Passi of the third of last month,1 for which, and your kind interposition in my behalf, I return you my most sincere thanks, Captain Jones has released me from Prison, and has permitted me to go for America, but holds me suspended until called upon by a court martial to meet him face to face: a copy of the Parole brought to me in the prison by Captain Jones, which I signed the evening before I was honoured with the receipt of your letter, I have hereunto annexed for your inspection.2 Immediately on my release, I wrote to Mr. Williams at Nantes whose clerk in his absence, answered, and informed me of several Vessels bound to Virginia, and South Carolina which places are at too great a distance from Portsmouth in New Hampshire, the place of my abode, especially as I have recieved no money since my being in the service for myself, and Servant, an able Seaman, who is now dead of his wound recieved in the action with the Drake, except about thirty eight crowns prize money for a brig sold in Nantes last winter, therefore cannot afford such a considerable expence. Mr. Cutler wrote me that Captain Whipple had generously offered me a passage in the Providence, provided she was bound to the Northern States of America; I have since wrote Capt. Whipple and am now expecting his answer, holding myself ready to go immediately for Nantes, if necessary.3 Captain Niles4 arriving this morning, an express vessel in the continental service, with whom, if no other opportunity offers before his return, I can conveniently go and be very welcome, being a person known to me long since. I beg your Honours excuse for this trouble—a line in answer by the return of Captain Niles, sooner, if your Honours think proper, will be confirming a further obligation, on Gentlemen, Your most Obedient, and very humble Servant
[signed] Thom Simpson
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “Honourable, the Commissioners for the United States of America at Paris. favor of Capt. Niles”; docketed: “Lt Simpson”; in another hand: “July 3d. 78.”
1. For this letter see the Commissioners to John Paul Jones, 3 June (calendared above).
2. Simpson's parole of 10 June (not printed) resulted from pressure exerted on John Paul Jones by the Commissioners. Despite the parole, problems apparently remained with the Ranger's crew and by 4 July, Jones was willing to go further. In a letter to the Commissioners of that date (ViU: Lee Papers), after stating that his instructions permitted him to appoint one of { 256 } his lieutenants to command the Ranger, Jones declared that “Lieutenant Simpson has certainly behaved amiss; yet I can forgive as well as resent and upon his making a proper Concession, I will, with your Approbation, not only pardon the past but leave him the Command of the Ranger.” The Commissioners were, however, still not satisfied and, according to JA, “with a great Exercise of Patience, We prudently brought him at last to write Us” a letter “which terminated all Difficulties for the present” (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:166). In that letter of 16 July, which Jones later declared to be “Involuntary” (Jones to the Commissioners, 15 Aug., below), he dropped his demand for a formal admission of error by Simpson and stated that “I am willing to let the dispute between Us drop forever, by giving up that Parole, which will entitle him to command the Ranger” (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:165).The Commissioners immediately wrote to Simpson, appointing him to the command of the Ranger and enclosing a copy of Jones' letter (same, 4:162).
3. Simpson, writing to the Commissioners on 18 July (PPAmP: Franklin Papers), reported that he had gone to Nantes to board Whipple's vessel, the Providence, for passage to America. It was at Nantes that Simpson received word of his appointment to the Ranger.
4. Of the Spy ; see Jonathan Trumbull to the Commissioners, 29 May and notes (above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0191

Author: Tucker, Samuel
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-03

Samuel Tucker to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

These may Serve to acquaint your Honours of my arrival at this port, after a short Cruze of twenty four Days. While on the Cruze I took four Prizes one of which I sent for Boston in Charge of a Carefull Prize Master and seven Men she being a Brig from Venus [Venice] her Cargo chiefly Medicine. The others I Ordered for this Port, two of their Cargos fish the other Coles [coal?] and Bottles, all of little Value.1 I would inform your Honours the Reason I came in so soon was on Account of Capt. Alexander Murry in the Brig Saratoga from Baltimore that I spoke with June 25th in the Longitude 25″00. West, who told me he had on Board many dispatches for your Honours in General and for the Court of France and many other Letters of Importence to our States.2 I sent my Boat, on Board he show'd them to my Officers and send me a Line or two, then I bore away to Conduct him Clear of the Cruzers in the Bay as far as I was able too, but unluckly on the 28th last att 10 AM. I saw a Sail to the Southward. I then haild Capt. Murry told him to stear his Course and I would overtake him in the Afternoon but could not come up with my Chase and loath to quit untill 5 PM then haul'd to the Northward for Capt. Murry, att 6 fell in with two Sail a Snow from Sweeden, and a Brig from Scotland, the former I past, the Latter I took, and by the Time I maned her it was very Dark. I went again in Persuit of Capt. Murry and carried all the Sail I possible { 257 } could to overtake him, when, coming in by Ushant I saw a Cutter of fourteen Guns coming from the Northward, gave her chase but could not come up with her, at Dark gave over Chase and made for Capt. Murry but had not the Good Fortune to see him after except I saw him Yesterday when I was coming in to the Eastward of me, and as he told me he was bound to Nantz I suppos'd it to be him, but was not so near as to be certain.
Gentlemen Mr. Livingston my 2d Lieutenant who presents this will give your Honours a just account of the Situation of my Ship in every respect whatever. His waiting on your Honours, prevents my Writing of many Circumstances as the Gentleman will give you a just detail of the whole. Pray Gentlemen inform me if I must Carry the Prisoners to America. If I am to carry them I shall build a Prison in the forepart of my Ship, for them and some who I have Entered on Board, who has appeared very Disaffected on the Cruize and two I've on Board confined. When meeting Capt. Whipple or Jones will try them, or carry them to America in their present Situation.
I would inform your Honours that Mr. Livingston acted in the above state like a Good man and must confess I am very sorry to part with him, but his Health is so Imperfect I am sure he Cannot endure the Fatigues of a Cruize, and Especial in my Situation, he will be able to give you the best Account off. I should be very glad to Accompany Capt. Whipple for my Future Cruze. I am Gentlemen with Respect Your Honours Most Obedt. Humble Servt.
[signed] Saml. Tucker
NB. Three Days after sailing from this Port I fell in with 7 Large Ships two and 3 Deckers Supposing them to be the English Fleet made way from them. The 16th. June I saw them.
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Captn. Tuckers Letter”; in another hand: “July 3. 78.”
1. The four prizes, together with the dates on which they were taken, were the brigs John and Rebecca, 19 June; Britannia, 24 June; Elizabeth, 25 June; and an unidentified Scottish brig, 29 June. The John and Rebecca, carrying medicines and sent to Boston, was recaptured by the H.M.S. Porcupine on 8 July (Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, Captain Samuel Tucker, Salem, 1976, p. 50–51, 104). The dates given in Tucker's log (MH-H) for the capture of the Scottish brig and the meeting with Capt. Murray are one day later than those in this letter.
2. The Saratoga arrived at Nantes on 3 July with dispatches from the congress that apparently did not include copies of the ratified treaties with France. Those arrived at Brest on the same day in the Spy.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0192

Author: Williams, Jonathan
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-03

Jonathan Williams to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble Gentlemen

Agreeable to your verbal order I have given Directions to stop the Reparation of the Arms at Nantes, paying the Workmen their Wages Gratifications and Conduct Money according to agreement. I beg to know if this is agreeable.1 I am very respectfully Hon Gentlemen Your most obedt Servant
[signed] Jona Williams
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Mr Jona. William's Letter July 3. 1778”; also: “ansd July 10 1778 approved, see the Letterbook.” The last reference is to JA's Letterbook, in which the answer is entered in Arthur Lee's hand.
1. This letter resolved, in part, the controversy that had begun in April over the Commissioners' efforts to end Williams' activities at Nantes as an American agent. Initially the Commissioners may have wished simply to return the RC to Williams with their comments, for on the second page of the letter is a note dated 10 July, in JA's hand, informing Williams that “the within directions given by you, being according to our Verbal orders to you, are approved.” Deciding, however, that a more detailed reply was needed, JA and Arthur Lee composed the answer referred to in the descriptive note above. In it they approved Williams' actions and requested that he send an order for the goods on hand at Nantes, including 63 barrels of beef, to J. D. Schweighauser. Williams complied on the same day, writing to a Mr. Cossoul and ordering him to send the beef and other merchandise, including 196 swivel guns and 49 cases of arms, to Schweighauser. The Commissioners notified Schweighauser of Williams' action in a postscript to their letter of 9 July (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:155, 158–159, 147).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0193

Author: MacCreery, William
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-04

From William MacCreery

[salute] Dear Sir

Last night arrived here from Baltimore the Brigantine Saratoga, Captn. Murray, who has brought 2 Packets from Congress for the Honble. the Commissioners, and as many for Yourself. My Letters are of the 28th. May, at which time it was generaly understood there, that the Enemy were about embarking from Philadelphia with all haste, and that Genl. Washington was advanceing towards the City in order to annoy them as much as possible. About the 25th. He detached the Marquis de la Fayette with 2500 Men to the East side of the Schuylkill to watch the Enemies motions. As soon as they had Notice of it, Genl. Clinton went out to Attack him in the Night with most of his Army, expecting to surprize him—but the Young noble man having discoverd the Enemy when within about a Mile of him, he made a safe retreat over the River to our Army—upon which Genl. { 259 } Clinton retreated to Town with great precipitation leaving and few Prisoners and wounded behind.1
All the Men of War have left our Bay (Chesapeak) since the 18 or 19th. May. The People have been made excessively happy by the Publication of the Treaty between us and this Power. They have gone so far as to indulge themselves with Dancing in consequence of it.
I have delivered the above mention'd Packets to Mr. Schweighauser, Continental Agent at this place, to be forwarded to Passi. This Vessel left Chesapeak the 11th. June.2 I am with the greatest Respect Dear Sir Your very Obt. Servt.
[signed] Will M.Creery
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “Honorable John Adams at Passi near Paris”; docketed, not by JA: “Wm McCrery Nantes 4 July 1778.”
1. The action at Barren Hill would probably have been a serious American defeat had it developed into a major battle. On 18 May, Lafayette and 2,200 men, fully one-third of Washington's available troops, crossed the Schuylkill River northwest of Philadelphia and occupied Barren Hill. Gen. Howe soon learned of Lafayette's movements and on the night of 19 May, in the hope of ending his American service with a victory, sent approximately 7,000 troops to encircle the American position and cut off any retreat to Valley Forge. Through ineptitude, the British left the road to Matson's Ford unblocked, thus permitting Lafayette to retire on the 20th across the river with minor casualties and his force intact (John W. Jackson, With the British Army in Philadelphia, 1777–1778, San Rafael, Calif., 1979, p. 226–229; Ward, War of the Revolution, 2:562–567).
2. This sentence together with the initial two paragraphs of this letter were translated into French and printed in Affaires de l' Angleterre et de l' Amérique, “Lettres,” vol. II, cahier 48, p. xliv–xlv.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0194

Author: Tucker, Samuel
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-04

From Samuel Tucker

[salute] Sir

These will be handed you by Musco Livingston Gentleman my 2d Lewt. Who now must Leave me on account of an Imperfect State of helth att Present and During the Short Cruze.1 Dear Sir your Honnours Provided me a Good offercer Whose Vallue on board my Ship Was great being a Good Commanding offercer and beloved throughout the Ship but my Loss is not Small in Parting with Such an offercer but I Consent to it out of Pure Regard to the Gentleman he not fit att Present to Indure the fatigues of a Cruze and hope Sir your Honnour will take the greatest <Notice> Care of Such Gentleman. He is in my opinion Worthy of any Command May be given him.
Dear Sir Mr. Livingston will give your Honnour a Just account and true Detail of my Cruze and Part of my Infernal Crue Who I { 260 } judge to be Concernd in the Consparicy Carred on att Bordeaux Before I Saild. But Sir I have two Confind Who was over heard damning the Congress the Ship and offercers and Each Other for not being sworn before the[y] where Confind and deprived of their oppertunity.
Dear Sir it was in my Power to make a great Cruze if my People was but well affected but am apprehensive they will not be Dureing this Cruze Except I Could get some Americans Exchanged from England Which makes my Situation Very Disagreable.
Dear Sir I Pray you may be in as good State of helth as I am at Present. Please to give my Complements to Masters Johne [and]2 Jesse and with due Respect I Remain yours to Serve
[signed] Saml Tucker
1. Here and below terminal punctuation and paragraphing supplied.
2. MS cut at this point.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0195

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-04

John Bondfield to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble. Sirs

The Union Cap. Barry arriv'd the 2 Instant from Edenton which place he left the 6th June. I apply'd for Letters that I apprehended as being loaden by Mr. Hewes he would have had in charge but am told he had only three, two for a Merchant at this place and one for Nantz. Its a disapointment having so short a passage not to receive advices. The Captain says he intended for Sweeden but the winds have held favorable for this Port he alterd his plan. It is distressing to hear the accounts given of Loss's on the coast by the negligence and wilful Misconduct of the Pilots situated at the Pass's on the Carolina Coast.1 We have receivd few [repor]ts from them quarters without accompanying [pro]tests of ship Masters against the Inhabitants who in lieu of succoring have frequently misled or refused assistance. It is an object very hurtful to the Navigating Interest and merrits to be noticed by the Gouvernment of that Province. The Captain gives accounts of a Sloop fitted out by Mr. Decater arriving at Edenton the day before he parted, Mr. Decater will undoubtedly write Mr. Res de chaument per this post. Mr. De Sartin has given an invitation to the Merchants at this Place to unite in fitting out Armd Vessels offering to provide the Cannon wanting at the Expence of the Crown to be return at the Cessation of Arms.
{ 261 }
Mr. James Willing headed the party that have cut off the English Settlements on the Missisipi a vessel from New Orleans arrived here a few Days past her Cargo is estimated at one Million Livres.
Great Arrivals from the French Islands the last two Tides. One of the Ships met an English Frigate, the Captain [ . . . ] led the Frenchman on his being so near his p[ . . . ][t] hey expected to Act offensively waiting only to learn the conduct Comte D'Estaing would observe at his Arrival in America.
There is a Whisper of an affair betwixt Genl. Washington and Genl. Clinton to the prejudice of the former. I have perticularly questiond the Captain arrived he says all was quiet therefore I suppose the Account fabricated on this side.
Permit me to pay to your Honors the Compliments of the Day which we propose to Celebrate in the Usual Strain. I am with due respect Honble. Sirs Your most Obedient Humble Servant
[signed] John Bondfield
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “the Honble. Benj. Franklin Arthur Lee John Adams Esq Commissioners from Congress at Paris”; docketed, not by JA: “Mr Bondfield Bordeaux 4. July.” MS has been torn at the top of each page, presumably through the removal of the seal, with the loss of several words.
1. Wreckers on the outer banks of North Carolina had been and apparently continued to be a problem, particularly around the Ocracoke Inlet, the major entrance into the Pimlico and Albemarle sounds. In a letter to Gov. Richard Caswell of 20 May 1778, Capt. Willis Wilson of the North Carolina Navy wrote that the pilots at Ocracoke had refused to cooperate with him in his efforts to expedite passage through the inlet and that “this is not the first instance by many of the rascality of those men; every merchantman coming to this place, experiences it, and its clearly evident to me that they wish every vessel cast away, as they may plunder them” (William L. Saunders and others, eds., Colonial and State Records of North Carolina, 30 vols., Winston, N.C., 1886–1914, 13:134)

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0196

Author: Jones, John Paul
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
DateRange: 1778-07-04 - 1778-07-05

John Paul Jones to the Commissioners

Plan for expeditions2 submitted to the American Plenipotentiaries and to the French minister of Marine by Com. Jones.
As the first proposal,3 will be impeded for some time, in the interval A great variety of projects present themselves, some of which might prove of great utility to France and America by distressing the common enemy at a small expence.
Three very fast sailing frigates, with one or two tenders, might enter the Irish Channel and burn at Whitehaven from two to { 262 } three hundred ships and besides the town, which contain 50,000 inhabitants, this would render it difficult, if not impossible to supply Ireland with coal the ensuing winter.
The same force would be sufficient to take the Bank of Ayr in Scotland, and to destroy the town:—or, perhaps, the whole shipping in the Clyde, with the towns and stores of Greenwich and Port-Glasgow provided no alarm was first given at other places. The fishery at Cambletown is an object worthy attention, and in some of the ports of Ireland ships may perhaps be found worth from 150,000 to £200,000 Sterling each.
It might, perhaps, be equally expedient to alarm Britain on the east Side which might be effected with equal and perhaps inferior force, by destroying the Coal shipping, of New-castle &c. which would occasion the utmost distress for fuel in London: and there are many towns of Consequence on the east and north coasts of England and Scotland which are defenceless, and might be either burnt or laid under contribution.
The success of either of these, or the like enterprizes will depend on surprizing well, and on despatch both in the attack and in the retreat, therefore it is necessary the ships should sail fast, and that their force should be sufficient to repel any of the enemy's cruizing frigates, two of which may perhaps be met at a time.
It is scarcely conceivable how great a panic, the success in any one of these projects, would occasion in England. It would convince the world that their coasts are vulnerable, and would, consequently, hurt their public credit.
If alarming the coast of Britain should be thought inexpedient, to intercept the Enemy's West-Indi[an] or Baltic fleets, or their Hudson Bay ships, or to destroy their Greenland fishery, are capital objects, which promise success if well adopted, and any one of them might be finished, before the first can take place.
FC in an unknown hand (DLC: John Paul Jones Papers); docketed, not by JA: “Plan of Expeditions proposed June 5 1778 to the French minr. of marine & the American Plenipots.”; notations in another hand: “Exd. [Examined?] J. Copd.”
1. These dates seemed indicated because Jones was still at Brest on 5 June, and in his private correspondence with Franklin at that time he made no mention of an expedition such as is described in this proposal. Such an error in dating may have resulted from Jones' having, at the beginning of a new month, inadvertently inserted the name of the previous month, a relatively common error. The “Plan” could have been drawn up on 5 July, since Jones was then present and meeting with { 263 } Sartine, who wrote to the Commissioners on that date (below) concerning him and an “expedition particuliere.” The date of 4 July seems equally possible because on 2 Aug., Jones wrote to the Commissioners (below) asking permission to make a copy of his “Memorandum” of the 4th, which had been intended for use in conversations then being held, and of which only one copy had been made. It seems likely that Jones referred to the plan here under consideration and that, from the notations immediately following the docketing, this document is the copy he obtained from the one in the possession of the Commissioners, which has not been found.
2. The plan is of additional interest, and perhaps significance, because of its close similarity to the course followed by Jones in his Bonhomme Richard expedition of 1779 (see Morison, John Paul Jones, p. 200–220, particularly the map on p. 211). Indeed, JA states that Sartine's letter of 5 July (noted above), marked “the first conception of the Plan which was afterwards carried into Execution under Jones in the Bonhomme Richard” (Diary and Autobiography, 4:158). Moreover, Jones, in the portion of his 1786 memoir to Louis XVI which discusses his visit to Paris and meetings with Sartine in the summer of 1778, notes his failure to gain command of the Indien and states that he made proposals, apparently much like those contained in this plan, for “secret missions” to be undertaken by a “small, light squadron” of as few as “three frigates and three cutters” (John Paul Jones' Memoir of the American Revolution, ed. Gerald W. Gawalt, Washington, 1979, p. 22–23). Finally, on 17 July, Jones wrote Sartine (PCC, No. 168,1, f. 177–178) in terms that seem to refer to this plan. In the letter he stated that “had your first plan taken Effect the most pleasing prospect of success would have been before me. But that seems now a distant Object. I have no doubt but that many Projects, that would Promise Success, might be formed from the Hints which I had the Honor of sending, lately for your Inspection: had I been entrusted with the Chief Command, I would have held myself Responsible for the Consequences.”
3. Very likely the scheme to obtain the command of the frigate Indien for Jones (see the Commissioners to Jones, 25 May, calendared above; Jones to the Commissioners, 3 July, above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0197

Author: Lee, Arthur
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-05

From Arthur Lee

[salute] Dear Sir

I enclose you my Copy of Capt. Jones's Instructions. My opinion is that in quitting his Ship without our leave or orders was a breach of his duty—that his continuing here after receiving his orders is a still more flagrant breach of his duty—that we shall be justly blamd, if we do not give him immediate and peremptory orders to proceed to his duty and compel obedience to them.1
You will see by the enclosd Account from Mr. Grand, that not only Mr. Williams's drafts have been paid before his Accounts are settled without our orders;2 but that he has been drawing and giving Mandates since his being here, as if he were a Commissioner, which are also paid without our knowlege or Order. It seems we are only Commissioners for the responsible part, while Mr. Chaumont and Mr. Williams are to plan operations for the Captains of continental Ships and to spend the { 264 } money for which we are to answer. These things must be checked, or it is easy to see where they will end. I am not well enough to come to Passi to-day, but will see you to-morrow. If the Order for Capt. Jones and the Letter for Mr. Schweighauser are made out today,3 they can be sent to me to sign. I shall be obligd to you to send me the charges you promisd me against the conduct of my Secretary.4 If they appear of consequence, he shall either answer them, or quit me. Adieu
[signed] A. Lee
RC (Adams Papers); docketed: “Mr A. Lee. July 5 1778.”
1. Lee is presumably referring to Jones' orders from the Commissioners of 16 June (calendared above), although JA had a copy in his Letterbook. JA acknowledged receipt of the orders in his reply to Lee of the 5th (NNPM). Lee might be referring to Jones' instructions from the Marine Committee of 6 Sept. 1777 (PCC, No. 168, I, f. 15–16), requiring him to obey the instructions of the Commissioners “as far as it shall be in your Power,” except that there is no evidence that Jones communicated them to the Commissioners, at least not to Arthur Lee, and no copies have been found in either the Franklin or Lee Papers.
Lee's transmission of the orders and the sentiments expressed regarding Jones' conduct probably stemmed in part from Jones' letter of 3 July (above), but more directly from an encounter that Lee had had on the previous day with JA and Franklin, which he recorded in his fragmentary journal of the period 25 May to 4 July (MH-H: Lee Papers). Lee wrote that JA had informed him that Chaumont and Jonathan Williams had brought Jones to him with a proposal, which he rejected, that the Commissioners permit Jones to serve, presumably during his wait for a new assignment, as a volunteer in the French fleet at Brest. At that point: “Dr. F. coming in Mr. L. said it was a most pernicious example that an Officer in the public service should quit his post without leave, stay here, in defiance of his orders intriguing to get into another service. Dr. F. excusd it, said we were not certain he was doing so, not knowing, that Mr. A. had told me what Mss. Chaumont and Williams had proposd but upon his repeating it the Dr. was silent. However he made an excuse of not having Capt. Jones's instructions to see how far he was under our orders, for postponing the proposition I made that we should order him to his ship immediately.”
Although Lee could have had only suspicions, Franklin's statements do seem questionable. He may not have known the exact nature of Jones' instructions from the Marine Committee, but it is difficult to believe that Chaumont and Williams would have approached JA with such a proposal without consulting Franklin first, and it was Franklin who had invited Jones to Paris (see the Commissioners to Jones, 25 May, calendared above).
2. It seems likely that the “enclosd Account” was that for the period 30 March to 30 June (above, under the initial date), which indicated that Jonathan Williams had received 114,281.14.11 livres.
3. No orders for Jones later than 16 June have been found in either draft or final form, probably because Franklin, in light of his role in bringing Jones to Paris, refused to permit any. The only extant letter to Schweighauser for this period is that of 9 July, which is partly concerned with Jonathan Williams' activities (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:147).
4. John Thornton, who served Lee as secretary and the British as a spy and was soon to be replaced by Hezekiah Ford (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr Amer. Rev., 1:539, 659–661). According to Lee's docketing on a copy enclosed in a letter to the Committee for Foreign Affairs of 7 Aug., the charges against Thornton were in a “Paper delivered secretly to Mr J Adams by Dr Bancroft, and by Mr Adams given to me” (PCC, No. 83,1, f. 233–237, 255–261; see also Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:679–680). Bancroft, reporting on Thornton's financial dealings with Joseph { 265 } Wharton of London, depicted him, at worst, as a British spy, and, at best, as a speculator using documents obtained from the Commissioners, or forgeries thereof, to gain financial advantage. In addition, Bancroft noted Thornton's attempt to cash a bill drawn on Arthur Lee of which, according to his letter of 7 Aug., Lee was unaware. In that letter Lee stated that, because of its source, he had at first discounted Bancroft's report, but had been led by later information (enclosed with the letter of 7 Aug.) to conclude that his secretary had been seduced by the “stockjobbers,” including Bancroft, who had continued to be trusted with state secrets even after the stockjobbers' activities were known to Franklin and Deane.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0198-0001

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-05

Sartine to the Commissioners

Comme je suis dans le cas, Messieurs, d'avoir besoin du Capitaine Jones pour quelqu'expédition particuliere, je desirerois qu'il pût rester ici.
Si vous n'y voyez point d'inconvénient, vous me ferez plaisir de le laisser à ma disposition et de donner le Commandement de son Batiment à son Second s'il doit retourner en Amérique.1 J'ai l'honneur d'être avec beaucoup de considération, Messieurs, votre très humble et très obéissant serviteur,
[signed] de Sartine

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0198-0002

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-05

Sartine to the Commissioners: A Translation

As I am in need, gentlemen, of Captain Jones for a specific expedition, I would like him to remain here.
If it is not inconvenient, I would be grateful if you could leave him at my disposal and, if his ship must return to America, turn the command of the vessel over to his second.1 I have the honor to be with the utmost respect, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant,
[signed] De Sartine
RC (MH-H: Lee Papers); docketed: “M. De Sartines Letter 6 July 1778.”
1. In commenting on the Commissioners' reply of 11 July acceding to Sartine's request, JA stated that the “expédition particuliere” was ultimately that of the Bonhomme Richard (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:158).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0199

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-07

John Bondfield to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble Sirs

Yesterday arrived from Edenton the Sloop Sally Cap Norton which place he left the 6th June. He has brought few Letters, he mentions the entire Capture of the fourth regiment who upon the expedition of Col. Maitland pushing into the Country their retreat was cut off and obliged to lay down their Arms officers { 266 } and Soldiers not one escaping.1 He gives also accounts of the Arrival of several vessels perticularly the Rodrique of Rochfort a valuable Ship in the Bay of Cheasapeak.
Having frequent oppertunities of Associating with the Agents or Consuls of the different European States I obtain an insight of the advantages which there respective Countries reap by their establishment which with submission permit me to represent to your honors presum[ing] that a like plan might be of use to your Mission.
The Commerce of the United States becoming at this day a new field in her Trade with Europe and for want of proper establishments no returns or estimates can be made of the Nature or value of the branches opening which might be of consiquence to your honors in the forming of Treaties or obtaining indulgence for certain branches of Imports or Exports a certain knowledge of which with its growing State might be obtain'd (as is acquird by the European States) by Instructing the Agents in the different departments to keep an Account of the Shiping arriving from and sailing to America which is easily performd should an order be obtaind for each vessel before her declaration at the Bureau de l'Amiraute make his Report to your Agent an object I could easily attain here but which would meet with more Sanction should and order from Mr. De Sartin to the Commissiaire or donateur come down in Virtue of [ . . . ] application in consiquence of which declartion I [should] be impowerd to transmit you monthly as would the other Agents in their respective departiments a general Return of the Imports and Exports. You would by that means be inform'd of the extent of the Trade, the quantity of the <objects> Produce Imported and thereby at one View draw the Ballance that America would hold in her Trade with this Kingdom as also others where your Agents are establishd.
I just scetch the above for your honors consideration which I judge may In time be so methodized as to be of essential Use.2 I am with due Respect Your honors Most obedient Humb Servant
[signed] John Bondfield
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honble Benj Franklin Arthur Lee John Adams Esq Commissioners from Congress at Paris;” docketed, not by JA: “Mr Bondfield Bordeaux 7 July 78.” Small tear in MS.
1. No mention of such an action has been found.
2. What action, if any, the Commissioners took on this proposal is undetermined.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0200

Author: Coffyn, Francis
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-07

Francis Coffyn to the Commissioners

[salute] Hond. Gentlemen

I had the honnor of writing to you fully the 5th instant,1 to which I beg leave to refer you. Mr. Amiel having granted to the people who were the occasion of his Journey to Dunkirk, as much time as they required to employ all their ressources to Execute the project they laid before you, and their endeavours proving fruitless, he at last determined to deliver me your much respected favour of 26. ultimo. Was I not afraid of being too intruding up on your patience and was I not withheld by that principal which binds us to return good for Evil, I should give you a full account of the proceedings of the people who endeavour'd to impose up on you, and to wrong me, but there is something So Extraordinary in their conduct that the issue of the affair will Sufficiently plead my Excuse for obmitting to say any thing more in my Justification. I leave to Capn. Amiel to explain every thing to you, and if after all, any doubt should remain wether I merit your confidence and favours, I humbly beg you would aford me an opportunity of satisfying my most Sanguine wishes to convince you, and the world, that those who have had the baseness to endeavour to wrong me in the dark, have not courage enough to Justify themselves in the middle of day.
The Commission, Instructions and Bond, mention'd in your letter, to my great Sorrow, being now useless, I return you the Same here inclosed, and beg you would be pleased to acknowledge the receipt thereof.
Since you are pleased to leave to me to settle with the Surgeon you may rely on my Exertions to do it to your Satisfaction, per my next. I shall forward to you their receipt.
As you Seem to approve the articles of intelligence I now and then take the liberty to give you, I shall Sease every opportunity to transmit them to America, and I beg you would be pleased to mention wether I may address them directly to Congress, or to your Correspondents in the different ports of the united States. I this day write to Messrs. Simeon Deane and C[u?] James River, by a vessell which will Sail tomorrow, that one Capn. Hyde Christiaen of the Vigilantiâ of Amsterdam which arrived here yesterday from Portsmouth, from which place he sail'd the 3. instant in the evening reports that on the Same day he Saw the Crews of the two frigats la Licorne and la Palase [Pallas] and of { 268 } two other french vessells which were carry'd in there, conducted to prison, and that Admiral Keppels Squadron which has been reinforced by Seven Ships amounting now to 30 Ships of the line besides frigats was ready to proceed to Sea with the first fair wind to meet the French Squadron which was Expected to sail from Brest; this leaves no doubt of the hostile vews of the common Ennemy; the Captain who made this report, Said to me that it may be rely'd on, and that he was ready to affirm it. The event will soon prove it.
There are no vessells at present in this harbour bound to Brest or to Nantes, but I Expect one will be put up Soon for the latter place, by which agreable to your orders I shall Send the American Seamen which are now here, but as it is generally believed, that the English will soon begin to take the french ships, I am afraid these poor people who have had enough allready of the English Jails, may fall again in the hands of their Ennemys; and as they all Seem desirous of being employed, and it is probable that in case any hostilities of that kind being committed by the English, Some privateers will immediately be fitted out from this port; would it not be better to keep them a few days longer till matters are clear'd up? If your opinion should be otherwise, I beg you would mention it, as I foresee that I may receive your answer before any vessell will Sail for Nantes &ca.
The value I set upon your benevolence and favours, shall make me very anxiously and impatiently wait your answer, whether Poreau's perfidious insinuations have made any impression to my prejudice on your mind, if they have, I beg for God's sake Gentlemen you will aford me an oportunity to convince you of their falshood; I rely so much upon your Justice, that I am persuaded you'll not deny me that Satisfaction, in Expectation of which I have the honnor to remain with the greatest respect, Hond. Gentlemen Your most obt. and most devoted Humble Servant
[signed] Frans. Coffyn
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed, not by JA: “Francis Coffyn Dunkirk 7 July.”
1. Not found, nor is it known whether it dealt with the effort, described by Coffyn, to outfit a privateer at Dunkirk. For the background of that affair see Peter Amiel, Oath of Allegiance, 23 June, note 1 and references there (above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0201-0001

Author: Poreau, Mackenzie, & Cie. (business)
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-07

Poreau, Mackenzie & Cie. to the Commissioners

[salute] Messeigneurs

Des Américains et autres nous ayant confié quils étoient retenus dans le desir de se signaler par le defaut d'apui et le manque de fonds, nous avons eü L'honneur de vous demander pour eux une Commission en Course sous votre pavilion. Votre intention ayant été de ne la remettre qu'a un capitaine que vous honorez de votre bienveillance il est venu icy et nous a paru bien méritant et tout a fait digne de votre Confiance. Mais occupé de la Gloire qu'il est fait pour acquerir il trouve un navire qui peut porter 4. pieces de canon et 12. pierriers beaucoup trop petit quoiquil en ait vû à côté de celui là autres tout à fait semblables pour ainsi dire tout prê a partir en cas dévenement. En un mot il voudroit un batiment d'un port et d'une force beaucoup plus considerable et un nombreux Equipage pour pouvoir tenter quelque action d'Eclat. Mais dans une projet ou Ion peut tout perdre nous ne voulons risquer que 30 a 40. mille francs et son projet couteroit au moins 100. mille Livres. Dans ces circonstances il nous refuse la Commission qui pourtant nous étoit destinée. Un autre Sujet de mortification pour nous, c'est qu'il s'est ouvert a Coffyn Courtier anglais de ce que nous avons eû L'honneur de vous Conner, car nous ne nous persuadons point que vos Seigneuries puissent avoir fait part de nos inquietudes a ce Courtier, nous le Connoissions pour l'Etre l'homme de confiance Des Anglais et nous ignorions qu'il fût Lagent Secret du Congrès, ainsi notre inquietude pouvoit être fondée. Au reste nous ne Croirons Jamais (quoiquil ose S'en vanter) que vous lui fassiez passer notre Lettre ce qui est une chose Sacré.1 Qu'ant au Cape. Amiel2 au merite du quel nous rendons Justice nous ne pensons pas que nous Soyons tenus de nous preter à un projet au qu'el nous n'avons Jamais songé et qui est beaucoup au-dessus de ce que nous voulions bien Risquer. Nous Sommes très mortifié que le nôtres ne puisse lui convenu quoique assurement il Soit moins douteux que bien dautres, c'est pourquoi nous vous prions de vouloir bien nous envoyer la commission pour en faire Lusage dont l'un de nous qui a eû l'avantage de vous entretenir a eû L'honneur de vous parler, nous osons le répeter encore une fois, ce projet est plus combiné sur la prudence et sur L'esperance du Succès. Sil y avoit de L'inconvenient de nous addresser la Commission, vous n'en trouveriez, peut être aucun de nous la faire { 270 } passer sous le couvert de M. Le Prince de Robecq, à moins que vous ne trouviez bon de la remettre à celui qui de notre part aura L'honneur de se presenter a vous, a moins encore que vous ne Jugiez plus a propos que l'un des Americains qui nous est recommandé et en faveur de qui nous vous faisons tant d'instances n'aille la recevoir de vos propres mains. Nous avons L'honneur d'Etre avec respect Messeigneurs Vos très humbles & très obeissantes Serviteurs
[signed] Poreau Mackenzie & Comp. &c.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0201-0002

Author: Poreau, Mackenzie, & Cie. (business)
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-07

Poreau, Mackenzie & Cie. to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Sirs

Some Americans and others having confided in us that they were hampered in their desire to distinguish themselves by a lack of both support and funds, we had the honor to ask you for a privateer's commission under your flag. Your intention was to give it only to a captain that you honor with your consideration. The gentleman you chose came here and seemed to us deserving and completely worthy of your trust. But, occupied with the glory that, in his own mind, he was born to win, he found a vessel that can carry but four cannons and twelve swivel-guns far too small, he having seen beside her similar ships, as it were, all equipped and ready to depart in case of need. In short, he would like a much larger and more powerful vessel with a more numerous crew in order to undertake some glorious mission. But, in a project where everything can be lost, we are only willing to risk 30 or 40 thousand francs and his project would cost at least 100 thousand livres. Under these circumstances, he refused us the commission that was, however, meant for us. Another subject of mortification for us is that he divulged to Coffyn, an English courtier, some information that we had the honor to confide in you, for we cannot persuade ourselves that your excellencies could have imparted our worries to this agent. We knew him to be the trusted man of the British, but were unaware that he was the secret agent of the congress, hence our worry could be well founded. Besides, we shall never believe (despite his openly saying so) that you had forwarded to him our letter which was a sacred thing.1 As to Captain Amiel,2 while paying due justice to his merits, we do not consider ourselves bound by a project that we did not originate and which entails far more than we were willing to risk. We are very mortified that our project does not suit him even though it is far less hazardous than many others. In view of these considerations, we entreat you to be kind enough to send us the commission to be used in the way described to you by the one of us who had the honor to speak with you. Dare we repeat it again, this project is built on prudence and the anticipation of success. If it is inconvenient to address the commission directly to us, you might find a way of doing it indirectly through the Prince de Robecq, unless you might prefer to give it to a represen• { 271 } tative of ours who will have the honor to visit you, or again unless you deem it more appropriate to give it to one of the Americans who, having been recommended to us and in favor of whom we have told you so much, would visit you and receive it directly from your hands. We have the honor to be with respect, sirs, your very humble and very obedient servants
[signed] Poreau, Mackenzie & Comp. &c.
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed, not by JA: “Poreau Mackenzie & Co Dunkirk 7 July 1778.”
1. This passage is not the first attack made on Coffyn by Poreau, Mackenzie & Cie.; for that see their letter to Benjamin Franklin of 27 June (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:447). See also Coffyn's defense made to the Commissioners, 9 July (below).
2. See Peter Amiel, Oath of Allegiance, 23 June, note 1 and references there (above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0202

Author: Moylan, James
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-08

James Moylan to the Commissioners

[salute] Honorable Gentlemen

The day before yesterday two of Captain Tuckers prizes arrived here, one of which is loaded with 1400 Quintals of Dry'd Cod Fish, the other with Twenty Chaldron of Coals and seventy Gross of empty Bottles.1 Both those prizes are Brigs, one of which is of very little value but the other is a new vessel. As no application cou'd yet be made from Mr. Schweghauser, and it being necessary to make their declaration at the Custom house and Admiralty, I passed them through these different ceremonys as vessels belonging to Portsmouth in N. England, in order to avoid the detention that wou'd be given them if declared as prizes. I have wrote Mr. Schweighauser of Nantes to inform me whether his appointment extends to this port, on receipt of his answer, if I find it do's, I will deliver to his order those prizes &ca. If I shoud not in the mean time receive different orders from you, as the steps I have already taken regarding them, proceeds only from a desire of being of some use.
The jealousys subsisting between Cap: Tuckers officers and the french part of his crew, have got to the disagreeable height of being obliged to come before the Admiralty, however I am in hopes matters will be soon reconciled.2 The Admiralty desire all they can to facilitate it. I have the honor to be Honorable Gentlemen Your assur'd hl svt.
[signed] James Moylan
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honorable Commissioners of the United States of America” docketed, not by JA: “Mr. Moylan 8 July 78.”
{ 272 }
1. Tucker's log indicates that these two prizes, the Elizabeth and an otherwise unidentified Scottish brig, arrived at Lorient on the evening of 5 July and that a third prize, the Britannia, came in on the 15th (MH-H; see also Tucker to the Commissioners, 3 July, above).
2. For the renewed unrest among French members of Tucker's crew, see the letters to the Commissioners from Benjamin Reed and Benjamin Bates, 11 July; and from Tucker, 12, 14 July(all below) and “Journal of William Jennison,” in Charles R. Smith, Marines in the Revolution, Washington, 1975, p. 350–351. The entry of Admiralty officials into the dispute did little to help, and only after Sartine's intervention with the Commissioners had produced new orders for Tucker could the dispute be resolved and the Boston depart for America (Sartine to the Commissioners, 18 July, calendared below; Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, Captain Samuel Tucker, Salem, 1976, p. 51–53).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0203-0001

Author: Genet, Edmé Jacques
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-09

From Edmé Jacques Genet

[salute] Monsieur

J'ai mis sous les yeux de M. le Cte. de Vergennes un Extrait de la lettre du general Heath, que j'ai lhoneur de vous renvoyer ci jointe. Vous aurés vu ici que j'en ai dit quelque chose dans le No. 46. des affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique.1 Le No. 47. n'attend pour paroitre que les premieres nouvelles qui vous viendront et que vous voudrés bien me communiquer toujours par la poste.2 Cet ouvrage périodique appartient entierement à la Cause américaine et à Mrs. les députés. C'est à ce titre qu'il est en possession de plaire au public francois. Je suis avec respect Monsieur Votre très humble et très obéisst. Serviteur,
[signed] Genet
Premier Commis des affaires etrangeres

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0203-0002

Author: Genet, Edmé Jacques
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-09

Edmé Jacques Genet to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I submitted to Comte de Vergennes an excerpt from General Heath's letter which I have the honor to return enclosed. You will have seen that I have mentioned it in No. 46 of Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amerique .1 The publication of No. 47 is but waiting for the first news which you will receive and wish to communicate to me as usual through the mail .2 This periodical pertains entirely to the American cause and the Commissioners. It is for this reason that it is in a position to appeal to the French public. I am with respect, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant,
[signed] Genet
Premier commis des affaires etrangeres
1. The excerpt from William Heath's letter to JA of 14 May (above, see note 3) appeared in Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique, “Lettres,” vol. 10, cahier 46, p. ccxxxvi.
2. It is not known when or if JA sent { 273 } Genet any news for inclusion in No. 47, but at the end of that issue is a report, probably taken from an English newspaper, of the impending arrival of the Saratoga and the Spy with copies of the ratified Franco-American treaties (same, cahier 47, p. cccxviii–cccxx).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0204

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Gerry, Elbridge
Date: 1778-07-09

To Elbridge Gerry

Passy, 9 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:149–150. Adams discussed Great Britain's shortsighted and self-defeating policy in refusing a just treaty and, as an example of Britain's self-deception and misunderstanding of America, pointed to a peace proposal, rejected out of hand, that sought to bribe American leaders by offering them peerages.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0205

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Henry, Patrick
Date: 1778-07-09

To Patrick Henry

Passy, 9 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:153–154. Adams stated that Lee had attended to Henry's requests contained in a letter of 5 March (above). He wrote that the ratified Franco-American treaties had been received, approved the actions of the congress, reported the outbreak of war between France and Britain at sea, speculated on the prospect of a battle between the fleets of Estaing and Byron in American waters, questioned reports of the evacuation of Philadelphia, and commented on the reception of the Carlisle Commission and the attitude of the French toward the Commissioners and the American cause.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0206

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Lovell, James
Date: 1778-07-09

To James Lovell

Passy, 9 July 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:148–149. Adams announced the arrival of dispatches from the congress, including the ratified Franco-American treaties and letters from Lovell. He commented on the outbreak of hostilities between Britain and France and the relative naval strength of each, the conflict between Prussia and Austria over Bavaria and its implications for the American cause, his progress in learning to speak French, and the large number of bills drawn on the Commissioners and his resulting anxiety over American finances.
He may have been troubled by the Accounts for 30 March–30 June (above), which showed that bills amounting to 257, 323.18.4 livres and signed by either John Hancock or Henry Laurens as president of the congress had been received by the Commissioners and ordered paid.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0207

Author: Genet, Edmé Jacques
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-09

From Edmé Jacques Genet

[salute] Honour'd Sir

Here inclos'd I have the honour to return you the letter you trusted me so obligingly.1
I'm in great impatience to get a printed copy of the Treaties. If you find it in the papers receiv'd by way of Brest, be So good as to Send it me, along with the other news you'll think fit for publication. My Number 48 is ready, and I expect only the Treaties and such news as you are pleas'd to see publish'd.2

[salute] I'm with great respect Hond. Sir Your most humble and obedient Servant

[signed] Genet
1. Not identified.
2. The Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique (“Lettres,” vol. 12, cahier 48, p. ii–xvi) contained the official American proclamation of the conclusion and ratification of the Treaties of Amity and Commerce and Alliance adopted by the congress on 6 May. The news soon appeared in American and English newspapers (JCC, 11:468–469; Boston Gazette, 25 May; London Chronicle, 4–7 July). The proclamation and the articles of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce that appeared with it—6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27, 29—and the attached passports and letters were translated into French directly from either the proclamation itself or a newspaper source, because the text of the articles in Affaires differs from the official French text of the treaty (Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:7–8, 12–16, 17–18, 20–24, 25, 28–29). JA apparently had some questions as to the propriety of printing articles from the treaty before the official exchange of ratifications had taken place, and it was probably for that reason that an unofficial source for the text of the articles was used. Extracts from various letters concerning American affairs, including James Lovell to JA, 29 April, and William MacCreery to JA, 4 July (both above), and JA to Genet, 12 July (below), also appeared in Affaires (“Lettres,” vol. 12, cahier 48, p. xxxvi–xxvii, xiv–xv, xlix–li).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0208

Author: Coffyn, Francis
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-09

Francis Coffyn to the Commissioners

[salute] Hond. Gentlemen

I beg leave to refer you to the letter I had the honor of writing to you yesterday.1 This cheafly Serves to inclose a Certificate from the officers of the Admiralty Court of this Town,2 which I hope will in Some measure obviate the bad impression Poreau's false insinuations may have occasion'd; however as I am determined to fill the measure to the brim, I shall take the liberty to send you tomorrow three other Certifficates from three different Jurisdictions,3 one from the Bourgmaster and Magistrates, one from the Judges and Consuls, and one from the President and Counsellors of the board of Commerce in this town, all which I hope will Sufficiently illucidate my Character and conduct, and { 275 } convince you of the criminal endeavours of my Ennemys. If these vouchers were not capable of restoring me to your Kindness and favours, whatever further proofs you may require, shall be immediately produced, and your order comply'd with; interim I refer to Mr. Amiel4 who will give you the particulars of every thing on handing you this. I have the honor to remain very respectfully Hond. Gentlemen Your most obedt. & most devoted Humble servant
[signed] Frans. Coffyn
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed, not by JA: “Francis Coffyn Dunkirk 9th July 78.”
1. That is, 7 July (above).
2. Not printed, but the certificate declared, among other things, that “Sieur Francois Jean Coffyn, natif de Cette ville, Courtier et interprette furé pour les nations qui parlent la Langue anglaise, muni de Commission de S. A. S. Mgr. Le due de Peuthiesre amiral de France,” performed his duties with “le plus Grand Zele, et la plus scrupuleuse Exactitude et Fidelité.”
3. The letter of the 10th (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) is similar to this of the 9th in its defense against the charges made by Poreau, Mackenzie & Cie. Two of the three certificates enclosed in it, those from the mayor and aldermen and the Chamber of Commerce, are also in the Franklin Papers (Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 4:267, 491).
4. Peter Amiel also wrote to the Commissioners on this date (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) in support of Coffyn and asked them to suspend any judgment until he could arrive at Passy.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0209

Author: Grinnell, Richard
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-09

Richard Grinnell to the Commissioners

[salute] Honour'd Sir

I would Inform you that on the 28th of August Last I a Rived heare from London I had att that time Just obtained my Discharge, from the Belile [Belle Isle] man of war of Seventy four Guns. I was Impressed on board of her at Sea and without asking my Leave they made mee a mid Shipman on board.1 A few days after faling in with I Reland2 I Tok o the oportunity by a fishing boat to write to London to a marchant whome I was none who a plyed to the Lords of the admaralty and obtained my Discharge, and Got me a Protection. With this Protection I made my Escape from London and a Rived heare the 28th of August 1777 I went Emedeately to Newport3 and Communicated to Mr. Nisbett4 my Intensions which was to Go to Parris and Indeavour to obtain a Commision to Go to the Brazels and Take and Distroy all the London fleete, which I Could Easely have done. Mr. Nisbett Recommended me to Mr. Coffin who Desired me to write to you.5 Which I did and Gave all my Papers to Mr. Coffin with a Letter of Recommendation from a marchant in Rhodeisland.
{ 276 }
After waiting two months and heareing Nothing from you Mr. Coffin Toald me that he Belived nothing would be done for mee. And Beged that I would Take the Command of a Vessel to the Braizels in the whaleing Buisness which I was obliged to accept and accordingly wrote to London and Got from thence about ten of my Countrymen four of them went the Voige to the Braizels with mee the Rest was Sent by Mr. Coffin to Nants.
Mr. Coffin wants me to Go a Nother Voige from hence to the Braizels in his Imploy but I will not Ingage untill I heare from Capt. Amy6 the Barer of this—as I Should be Glad to do Something for my Cuntry. I have been at a Grate Expence heare at Mr. Fitzgaralds. Mr. Coffin Toald me Before I went from heare he would Pay My account. But I have Setteld my Voige with him and he has Charged me with Every farthing of Mr. Fitzgaralds account and I have paid him. I am Desired by Mr. Nisbett to write a Gain to London and Git over as many of the Amaracans as I Can the way I Shall point out to them now is to Come heare by the way of Holland I make no dout but a Number will Come over if they Can Possibely make their Escape—which I think they will Do.
This day I heard that my Brother William Grinnell who was first Leftanant of the Columbas when She Ingaged the Glasko man of war is now in Breast and Commands a frigate from Boston.7 I no not wheather this is true or not.
I have Laid Before your honour my Preasent Surcumstances and Should be Glad of your honours Commands how I am to Proceede. I have Given my word to Capt. Amy not to Ingage untill I heare from him. I am with much Respect honoured Sirs, your moost obedant humble Servt.
[signed] Richd. Grinnell8
P.S. Mr. Dean9 who was heare about Nine monthe passt toald me hee was a Prisanor on board the Columbas at the time She had the Ingagement with the Glasko and new my Brother William Grinnell.
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To The Honorable Dr Bn Franklin Authur Lee & John Adams Esqrs. at Passy;” docketed, not by JA: “Mr Grimmell Dunkirk July 9 78.”
1. Period supplied.
2. Grinnell's meaning here is unclear, but he may be saying that when the Belle Isle put into an Irish port he took the opportunity to send a letter to London.
3. Presumably Nieuwpoort, Belgium.
4. On Jonathan Nesbitt, see Francis Coffyn to the Commissioners, 13 April (above).
5. No letters from Grinnell to the Commissioners earlier than this one have been found.
{ 277 }
6. Capt. Peter Amiel, who was also carrying letters from Francis Coffyn to the Commissioners.
7. Following the battle between the Columbus and the frigate Glasgow on 6 April 1776, William Grinnell had served as first lieutenant on the sloop Providence under John Paul Jones. After his capture as prizemaster of a brigantine taken by the Providence, and subsequent escape, he apparently left the navy. He probably was the same person who was given command of the Massachusetts privateer sloop Loyal American in Feb. 1778 and could conceivably have been at Brest in July (Mass. Soldiers and Sailors; Naval Docs. Amer. Rev., 7:982–983; Allen, Mass. Privateers, p. 212).
8. Grinnell, a merchant captain from Newport, R.I., was captured a second time when he sailed for America from Paimboeuf on 29 Aug. (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:319; Grinnell to the Commissioners, 15 Sept., PPAmP: Franklin Papers).
9. Dean remains unidentified.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0210

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Heath, William
Date: 1778-07-10

To William Heath

Passy, 10 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:156–158. Adams reported the arrival on 8 July of the ratified Franco-American treaties, which were seen as fresh evidence of the increasing isolation of Great Britain and of the unlikelihood of the formation of a coalition of powers against America. He predicted that even Spain would soon join Britain's open enemies and declared that the British government had but one wise choice—to make a treaty with the United States on the order of France's with America. Adams believed, however, that Britain would remain blind to the need for a new policy and would decline to a second-rate power.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0211

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: MacCreery, William
Date: 1778-07-10

To William MacCreery

Passy, 10 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:155–156. Adams discussed British reports of the evacuation of Philadelphia, congratulated MacCreery on the arrival of a ship in which he had an interest, and advised MacCreery that his description of the actions of Lafayette at Barren Hill would probably appear in Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique. Finally, the departure of the Brest fleet was noted together with the hope that a decisive naval battle would soon take place.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0212

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Grand, Ferdinand
Date: 1778-07-10

Benjamin Franklin and John Adams to Ferdinand Grand

[salute] Mr. Grand

We agree that the Bills drawn on you, by Mr. Williams, and paid by you according to the list herewith transmitted shall be charged to the Public Account of the United States; Mr. Williams to be accountable for the expenditure of all the sayd Sums to Congress or to any Person, or Persons appointed by Congress { 278 } for that purpose, and to the Commissioners of the United States at the Court of France whenever he shall be called to render such Account. This Consent however is not to be considered as any approbation of Mr. Williams Account, nor to have any Influence at all in the final Settlement of them.1
[signed] signed B. Franklin
[signed] signed John Adams
MS in the hand of Hezekiah Ford (PCC, No. 83, II, f. 455); docketed: “[ . . . ] Feb. 16 Messrs. Franklin & Adams to Mr. Grand respecting to Mr. Williams's Bills drawn on Mr. Grand” endorsed: “True Copy H. Ford Sect.” The date indicated in the docketing was probably that on which Ford made his copy.
This letter is taken from Ford's copy of a note from Ferdinand Grand to Arthur Lee of an undetermined date, forwarding the text of the order concerning Jonathan Williams. There the Franklin-Adams letter is preceded by Grand's statement that “M. Grand a l'Honeur d'envoyer a Monsieur Lee suivant ses ordres Copie de la Lettre de Messrs. les Deputés, Le Docteur Franklin & Adams a Mr. Grand en date du 10 Juillet.”
1. This tentative approval of the accounts submitted by Jonathan Williams in response to the Commissioners' order in their letter of 25 May (calendared above) resulted in considerable controversy and reflects the divisions among the Commissioners. The accounts in question dealt with transactions in 1777 and early 1778 and are variously dated 1,12, 14,16 May, 3, 30 June, 27, 31 July, 16 Aug., 31 Dec. 1777; 8 Jan., 25 Feb., 31 March, 20 April, 27, 28, 29, 30 May 1778 (ViU: Lee Papers).
In early 1779 these accounts, as well as some later ones submitted by Williams, provoked a formally correct but angry correspondence between Lee and Franklin, in the course of which the origin and intent of this letter to Grand was explained. On 16 March 1779 Lee wrote Franklin that the letter seemed to indicate “that you yourself, Sir, was convinced that those accounts, as they stood, could not be passed” (Arthur Lee, Observations on Certain Commercial Transactions in France Laid Before Congress, Phila., 1780, p. 39–42; Evans, No. 16819). Lee assumed that the order to Grand was the work of Benjamin Franklin as a favor to his nephew. In a reply of the 27th (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 3:101–102), Franklin informed him, “To prevent any suspicion of partiality towards him as my nephew I avoided having anything to do with the examination of them, but left it entirely to you and Mr. Adams. After that examination Mr. Adams drew up and sent me in, for signing, the order you mention. I considered the expressions in it as only serving to show that the accounts were not finally settled; and I considered Mr. Adams' drawing up and sending me the order as a proof that, in his judgment, who had with you examined the accounts, the bills drawn on M. Grand ought to be paid. I therefore signed it. I was not, as you suppose, convinced 'that the accounts as they stood could not be passed,' for, having never examined them, I could form no such opinion of them.”
Although no direct evidence substantiates it, the Lee-JA examination of the accounts, and Franklin's acquiescence in it, probably proceeded from Lee's refusal to sign a letter to Grand of 15 June declaring that “Nous approuvons toutes les Dispositions que Monsr. Jona. Williams a Fait sur vous jusqu'a ce Jour conformement a son Compte” (We approve all the bills that Mr. Williams has drawn on you to date conformable to his accounts [ViU:Lee Papers, unsigned copy in clerk's hand]). This letter, probably drafted by Franklin in consultation with JA, indicates that the two men were ready to approve the accounts. When Lee withheld his approval, the joint examination was probably proposed as a final effort to gain his signature. On its becoming clear during the examina• { 279 } tion that Lee would not approve Williams' accounts, JA drafted the letter of 10 July, which was more conditional than that of 15 June, perhaps to reflect the lack of agreement among the Commissioners.
Because its submission to him would have been futile, the letter was apparently never sent to Arthur Lee. It seems likely that Lee first learned of the order to Grand from Jonathan Williams' letter to the Commissioners, rather than to only Franklin and JA, of 17 July (below), thanking them for approving his accounts. This letter, the RC of which is in the Lee Papers (ViU), must have surprised Lee and may have led to his request to Grand for a copy of the letter of 10 July. That he did not know of the order as late as 15 July seems indicated by his very critical report of that date on Williams' accounts (ViU: Lee Papers), particularly the entries for commissions, sundry expenses, and postage. The report was probably meant for his colleagues, but, in view of Williams' letter of the 17th, it is unlikely that Lee submitted it. The Williams letter of 17 July, the report of the 15th, the fact that Lee obtained a copy of the letter from Grand, and his comments in the letter to Franklin of 16 March 1779 all seem to show that a split existed between JA and Lee, at least regarding Williams' accounts, that was as sharp as that between Franklin and Lee.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0213

Author: Genet, Edmé Jacques
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-10

From Edmé Jacques Genet

[salute] Hond. Sir

I have receiv'd the papers you Sent me, and will make a proper use of them as soon as possible.1 When I have done with them they shall be returned you with my gratitude. I am with the greatest respect Your most humble and obedient servant
[signed] Genet
PS2 Keppell's fleet was still at St. Helen's on the 6th. The mediterranean fleet under convoy of the Worcester was come into port, and also part of the Jamaica and Leeward Islands fleet. They Believ'd in London that Philadelphia had been evacuated, and 6000 men under Gen. Grant detached to Jamaica,3 Admiral Byron had been met with on the 19th. 20th. and 24. June. This last time near the Western Islands—and the Asia was in Mad era on the 25th. may with the C. E. I.4 ships on the 7th. this month July. 3 per % cons, were 60. 7/8; per cent Ex. divid.5
Our fleet was Still at Brest wind bound the 7th. of this month. I have a letter from an officer of the fleet of that date.
1. See Genet to JA, 9 July, note 2 (above).
2. This report is apparently a digest of items appearing in English newspapers and is essentially the same, except for information received after the date of this letter, as that which appeared in Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique, “Lettres,” vol. 11, cahier 48, p. xv–xvi, under the title of “P.S. De Londres le 10 Juillet.”
3. Comma supplied.
4. Probably an abbreviation for East India Company, at least that is what the reference is to in Affaires.
5. That is, in London 3-percent consolidated funds, or “Consols,” were being quoted at 60 7/8; exclusive of dividends. Genet's figures were accurate, as can be seen from the quotation in the London Chronicle of 10 July.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0214

Author: Hodge, William
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-10

William Hodge to the Commissioners

[salute] Honorable. Gentlemen

By Yesterdays' Post I had the honor of receiving your Letter of the 19th of April.1 What could have occasioned its not reaching my hands before now, I cannot say, unless the Person who was entrusted with sending it by the Post might have detained it to answer some particular purpose. You inform me in your letter that I am charged in your Bankers Account with upwards of one hundred thousand livres of the public Money for which there is no account from me among the Papers left by Mr. Deane. I have the happiness to inform you that I not only gave to Mr. Deane an account of what Money I received, and of what I paid, but likewise the Accounts of my Merchants at Dunkirk, nay, every Bill, even to the minutest article furnished the two small Vessels that I fitted out at Dunkirk. I have likewise the honor to inform you, that in all the charges I have brought against the two Vessels you will not find a single one made by myself, unless the poor trifling 2 ½ per Cent (which did not half pay my expences attending the fatiguing job I had during my stay at Dunkirk) the charges being all made by the Merchants who I was ordered to employ, and who produced me the Accounts of every tradesman, which I gave into Mr. Deanes' hands. I should not be thus particular was not your letter full of insinuations respecting my honesty which I look upon as ungenerous, and which I will prove to be without foundation. I gave double receipts for every farthing of Public Money that I received at Dunkirk, of consequence there can be no mistake in regard of the sum which I have received. I Shall inclose you for your satisfaction Gentlemen, the Accounts of the Monies I received, and of what I paid; by which you will find that there was a balance due me,2 as I was only accountable for one quarter of the Cutter, the other quarter belongs to Messrs. Conyngham and Deane, for which Mr. Deane was accountable. It is very probable that Mr. Deane has taken all the papers relative to the Cutter and Lugger with him, as neither Dr. Franklin nor Mr. Lee would have any thing to say to the two little Expeditions from Dunkirk, of consequence Mr. Deane thinking himself accountable to the Congress, he would undoubtedly take all the Accounts with him.
I have it from the very best authority that Mr. A. Lee has wrote to Congress3 and informed them that I had received large { 281 } sums of Public Money, and that he could not learn to what use it was converted. It is true that I had received some Public Monies, but as Mr. Lee complained that he could not get sufficient for his expences, private Persons were obliged to make use of their Money, as there was not sufficient of the Public's for the purpose intended. I blush when I think of the Congress being concerned with private Persons in an armed Vessel, but Mr. Lee has wrote to all his correspondents in Spain, that the Congress and I was concerned in a small Privateer, and that in case of any Prizes coming into Spain, they should only pay me one half of the Prize Money: the other half to be remitted to him at Paris; not considering that the Crew wanted their part, besides the great expence attending armed Vessels. I am not a stranger, Gentlemen, to the little disputes that have happened at Paris, Nantes, and elsewhere since I left France, and I am sorry that I am like to make one of the number; all owing to a certain Gentlemen whose characteristic is that of being a dissatisfied, troublesome Man.
I shall now Gentlemen give you an account of my conduct since my arrival in Spain. As to my claim of the Cutter as the property of Mr. John Ross and myself, I made it from the best authority, as it was in consequence of an Order given me by Silas Deane Esqr. a Gentleman equally empowered (at that time in matters respecting Public business as yourselves). I am greatly surprized to find Dr. Franklins' name at the bottom of your letter, as his honor not only gave his consent, but advised Mr. Deane to dispose of the Cutter in the manner he has done. This I know to be the case as I seen Mr. Deane speaking to Dr. Franklin upon the subject. Gentlemen, As Mr. Deane has made over to Mr. Ross and myself all right and title to the Cutter, which we have from under his own hand, he gave Captain Conyngham orders to deliver the aforesaid Vessell up entirely to our management, and to put himself under our directions, which he has done, and still intends to do, as both he and myself act from good authority, and in case of any bad consequences, Mr. Deane and not us that are accountable.
Dr. Franklin and Mr. Deane gave this Vessel up into our hands, as great expences was likely to be incurred, as well as much trouble to the Commissioners. The being upwards of two thirds of her time in Port before my arrival in Spain. The Merchant at Corunna has acted from the same authority as Captain Conyngham from whom I received a sum of Money which was { 282 } by no means sufficient to pay the Peoples Wages and their part of the Prize Money. I have likewise received other Monies which I have paid to the Officers and Crew, but still it has not been sufficient to satisfy them, as they have insisted on their part of all Prizes they have taken, altho' the greatest part of the Net Proceeds of Prizes has been stopped in Spain, in consequence of Captain Conynghams' unfortunately taking a French Brig from London and sent into St. Sebastian.4 As to my assuming to myself the produce of Prizes, I declare it to be false, and without the least foundation, for I do assure you I have not received one Dollar of the Prize Money more than has paid my trifling expences, which, Gentlemen I will one day prove by the dates and sums of Money I have received, and by the dates and sums I have paid, for all of which I have Accounts and receipts for every Dollar, which I defy Man to call in question. In the distribution of Prize Money I settled it agreeably to the rules and regulations of Congress, which Book of regulations5 1 had with me, and had I settled it in any other manner, I think then I should have been liable to have been called to an Account. As to the Ships' Company complaining of injustice in the settlement of their Accounts, I value it not, as it has been the case that every Ships' Company has complained of injustice in the settlement of their Accounts of every armed Vessel that has been fitted out since the commencement of the War, and generally without foundation. It matters but little to me what are their complaints, as I have taken receipts from each of them for what, and in what manner I have settled with them. The Vessel being abandoned in consequence, of my conduct, is without the least foundation as well as all the rest, for upon my arrival in Spain I found a number of Captain Conyngham's Men in Prison at St. Bastiens, in consequence of his taking a French Brig. A considerable number at Bilboa and other small Towns, and the Vessel left destitute of hands, having only a few Officers on board, who were obliged to wear their Arms to prevent a few French Marines from going ashore, and had I not arrived in Spain the Cutter would have remained in the Harbor until this day, for Captain Conyngham was so destitute of Men, that he made an offer of giving the command of his Vessel to the Captain of the New England Privateer that was at Bilboa.
Now Gentlemen, conscious of the uprightness of my conduct, and the regularity of my proceedings, I leave you to determine { 283 } upon the justice of the complaints. I have given you an account of my proceedings, and by what orders I have acted. As to your giving Captain Conyngham his future Orders Gentlemen you could not do it, even was the one half of the Cutter belonging to the Public, without my consent, as it would be more than the King of England would dare to do, in regard to the property of any one of his Subjects in like circumstances. As I have settled with the crews of the Privateer agreeable to the Book of regulations (which Captain Conyngham has) I shall make no other distributions amongst them, but shall leave the whole affair to be settled by Congress, when, as some of them understand business they will find that I have neither made any deduction or reservations but what are clearly just. We have had it reported for some days past that Captain Conyngham is taken, but I hope it is without foundation. I intended sailing for America in a few days, but in consequence of your Letter I have concluded if possible to proceed to France, when I shall have it in my power to inform you of every particular, and to convince you of the regularity of my conduct. I Am with the greatest respect &c.
[signed] (signed) William Hodge
N.B. The Prizes lately sent into Spain by Captain Conyngham are stopped by order of the Spanish Court, in consequence of his taking the French Brig that is at St. Sebastiers.
MS (ViU: Lee Papers); docketed: “Wm Hodge to Messrs. Franklin Adams and Lee Caddiz 10 July 1778 with his accot.” in another hand: “July 10th 1778.”
1. See Hodge's letter and note 1, as well as the Commissioners' letter to Gustavus Conyngham of the same date (both above).
2. The enclosure (MH-H: Lee Papers, dated [1777]), like the MS being printed, is apparently a copy. At the bottom of the account is the note: “Mr. Deane has the different inclosed Accounts, as well as the Tradesmen's Bills for every article, you will please to observe that I received only 92,292 Livres during my stay at Dunkirk, for all of which I gave double receipts. (Signed) W.H.” The sum mentioned by Hodge (actually it was 92,292.2.6 livres) includes all of the payments made to him by Ferdinand Grand, as indicated in the accounts submitted by Grand to the Commissioners on 10 June 1777 and 24 Jan. 1778 (MH-H: Lee Papers), as well as one of 480 livres on 5 June by a Mr. Murdock. Grand's accounts indicate that he paid Hodge 92,435.12.3 livres, which, after Murdock's payment has been deducted, is 623.9.9 livres more than Hodge indicates that he received from Grand. The difference is apparently owing to the service charge levied by Grand on each sum that he paid out after it was approved by Deane. For example, the account of 10 June 1777 lists a payment of 12,075 livres on 16 April, which Hodge indicates as being only 12,000 livres. In addition, Hodge lists expenditures of 113,720.12.7 livres (actually 113,719.13.3 livres), a sum that includes his 2% percent commission of 2,772 livres and makes his actual expenditures 110,948.12.7 livres (110,947.13.3 livres), thus leaving a balance due him of 21,428.12.7 livres (21,427.10.9 livres). See also Arthur Lee's calculations on the back { 284 } of a letter from Sartine to the Commissioners of 26 April (above).
3. Probably Lee's letter of 1 June to the Committee for Foreign Affairs, but see also Hodge's letter to John Ross of 19 Feb. for references to other letters from Lee, probably those referred to by Hodge below (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:600–603; Cruises of Conyngham, ed. Neeser, p. 122–124).
4. That is, the Graciosa. For its capture and the Commissioners' reaction to it, see Cruises of Conyngham, p. 4–5, 120–121.
5. Very likely a reference to Extract from the Journals of Congress, relative to the Capture and Condemnation of Prizes, and the Fitting out Privateers . . . (Phila., 1776; Evans, No. 15154). This pamphlet contained the actions of the congress in regard to the Continental Navy and privateers from 25 Nov. 1775 to 3 April 1776, with the result that there were conflicting provisions regarding the distribution of prize money for the two types of vessels. It seems likely that Hodge saw the Revenge as a privateer, while Conyngham, possessed of a Continental commission, and his crew viewed it as a Continental vessel.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0215

Author: Reed, Benjamin
Author: Bates, Benjamin
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-11

Benjamin Reed and Benjamin Bates to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

Whereas Jerome Cazneau, Serjeant of Marines, on board said Ship, on her Arrival in said Port, obtain'd Liberty to go on Shore, and there maliciously, and falsely represented to the French Men in general of their Abuse on board said Ship, telling them he would not return to said Ship, and injoyning and perswading those Marines and French Men who belonged to the Ship, to quit the Ship, and in every possible manner alienating their Dispositions from returning to their Duty, and that it was in his power to take every frenchman out of the Ship, and that it was his determin'd Resolution to hurt the Character of the Ship and Officers, as far as was in his power: thro' the Partiality of the General,2 (who himself says) his most Christian Majesty's Orders, to him are “to assist the Americans all that may be in his Power” at the same time encouraging the French Men who were engaged under American Regulations, to take a Choice whether to tarry, or quit the Ship. It was observed to him, our Regulations were such, that if any Man absented himself Forty Eight hours beyond the Bounds of his Liberty, unless in Case of Sickness or &c., he forfeits all Prize Money at that time due.
The Disturbance arose from a few Frenchmen's Complaint against Mr. Reed, our first Lieut, and Mr. Bates our third, for using their lawfull and proper Authority in their several Watches, with the becoming Strictness that those Stations required. And this may Certify all concerned, that all the Frenchmen on board the Boston, have been indulged in every thing, farther even than the Laws of America allowed: and that those { 285 } Officers have the Good Will and Wishes of all on board, (Frenchmen excepted) to which with pleasure we subjoin our Names.
[signed] Benjamin Reed 1st Lieuft.
[signed] Benjamin Bates 3d Lieuft.
NB The Generals Partiality to the frenchmen in general would not admit of those fore mentioned Officer's Vindication, but even forbid them to speak in their own Behalf, and hinted to Capt. Tucker that he would do as he pleased, we being under the Power of his Cannon at Port Louis. And consequently ordered they should all leave the Ship with all their Cloaths &c.
RC (“PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed: “Ship Boston Port Louis July nth 78.”
1. The outer port of Lorient.
2. Probably the Comte de La Touche-Tréville, later commandant of the port of Rochfort. He was probably the father of Louis René Madeleine Le Vassor, Comte de La Touche-Tréville (1745–1804), who in 1778 was a lieutenant de vaisseau and later a noted French admiral (Etat sommaire desarchives de la marine antérieures a la révolution, Paris, 1898, p. 140, 195; Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale). See reference to father and son in Samuel Tucker to the Commissioners, 12 July (below).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0216

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Genet, Edmé Jacques
Date: 1778-07-12

To Edmé Jacques Genet

[salute] Sir

There are Reasons to believe, that the Story of Commissioners appointed by Congress to meet the British Commissioners, is a Forgery.1
1. <Thomas> Phillip Ludwell Lee,2 is mentioned as one of them, whereas there never was a Person of that Name in the Congress. There was once a Person of that Name it is true, in Virginia, a Brother of Richard Henry Lee and of Francis Light- foot Lee, two Members of Congress, and of Arthur Lee Minister Plenipotentiary from Congress to the Court of France but this <Thomas> Phillip Ludwell Lee has been dead, some Time.3
A blank is left for the Christian Name of Mr. xxx Adams a Member from the Massachusetts, which shews that the Writer was ignorant of it: [because?] if this Account had been taken from any American Paper, it is [improb?]able that this Christian Name would have been omitted because [it is so well?] known in America, that there is at present [ . . . ].4
[ . . . ]5 intelligence is derived, which renders [it?][ . . . ] it would have been eager enough to have informed the [World of their?] Vouchers, if they had any good ones.
{ 286 }
There are others Reasons to suspect this to be a Fiction, which it is not worth while to enumerate.
I would not be understood however, to Say absolutely that the Congress will not send a Committee to meet the English Commissioners, to enquire of them what Powers they have, and to know whether they have Powers to make a Peace with America, as a Sovereign Republique, and consistent with their Treaty with France? The Answer must be <know> No. and it is equally certain the Reply will be “Go home then and get such Powers.”
As to a Publication of the Treaty, sir my Colleagues, are of opinion with me that it should be printed as soon as the King shall think proper. But it would perhaps be not sufficiently respectful for Us to publish it, without his Majesty's Knowledge.
[signed] John Adams
4.6 I have Seen in an English Newspaper, another Account that only three were of the Committee R. H. Lee, Mr. Carroll and Mr. Adams. This Variation in the English Accounts, Strengthens the suspicion of Fraud.
It is really a melancholly Consideration to an ingenuous Mind, to see a great Nation abandoning all Reverence for Truth, and perpetually imposing upon the World Such palpable Lyes. It is the Duty, it is the Interest of every human Being that the keenest sense of Detesta[tion]and Contempt, should be cultivated in every human Mind: But the English are doing all they can to confound the Distinctions between Truth and Falshood, and to make a Lye to be respected as much as the Truth.
[signed] J. Adams
RC (PWacD: Feinstone Coll., on deposit PPAmP). This MS was severely damaged by fire with the resulting loss of a significant number of words.
1. This letter resulted from comments Genet attached to the end of his letter to Benjamin Franklin of 10 July (PU: Franklin Papers). The body and postscript of this letter are almost identical to his letter to JA of the 10th (above), but the additional comments called for a reply to or clarification of a report on the appointment of five commissioners by the congress that Genet had seen in the Courier de l'Europe of 3 July, and which he thought was very likely a “Lye.” Franklin apparently showed Genet's letter to JA, who docketed it “Mr Genet.”
The report on the appointment by congress of commissioners, which was indeed false, also appeared in the London Chronicle of 2–4 July and was purportedly taken from a letter written at Nantes to a London merchant. It stated that five commissioners—Charles Carter of Caritowman, Philip Ludwell Lee, Charles Carroll, Matthew Tilghman, and —— Adams—— had been appointed to “treat with our Commissioners, if the latter will declare them independent; if not, the rebel Commissioners have instructions to return to Congress.” Neither Carter nor Lee had served in the Continental Congress.
2. Philip Ludwell Lee died in 1775, and { 287 } Thomas Ludwell Lee, his brother, whom JA at first mistook for Philip, died in 1778 (Cazenove Gardner Lee Jr., Lee Chronicle, N.Y., 1957, p. 348–349).
3. Extracts from this paragraph and those below beginning with “I would not be understood” and “4” were translated into French and formed the body of “Réponse au banquier de Londres par son correspondent américain” in Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique, “Lettres,” vol. 11, cahier 48, p. xix–xi.
4. It is likely that this paragraph, from which over one line of text is missing, was originally designated “2,” the number being obliterated by the fire damage.
5. An entire line is missing at this point, probably the first line of a paragraph designated as “3.”
6. In the margin, opposite the “4,” is an “X,” apparently intended to indicate that it was to be inserted after “3.” The corresponding “X” at the intended point of insertion was probably obliterated by fire damage.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0217

Author: Tucker, Samuel
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-12

Samuel Tucker to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

Since my Arrival at this Port, I have been much troubled with those Frenchmen I enter'd at Bourdeaux, although I Enlisted them according to your Honours Orders, which was by permission from the Admiralty; While on my short Cruze, some few words would pass as I understand between the Frenchmen and my other Sailors, but Contrary to Orders which they daily had the Perrusial off and likewise read to them, but on the same Day of my entering this Port they got Liberty eight of them to go on shore, then the Serjent of them who was a Frenchman with the others, raised such reports about their treatment from the Officers, that the Deputies of his Christian Majesty with a General La Touche of LOrient came on board last Evening and asked them in my presence if they would tarry or go on Shore, they told him they reather chuse to go on Shore, as they was Volenteares. But Gentlemen I Enlisted them at Bourdeaux telling them I was not permitted to take Volunteres, so they signed the Ships Book, to Proceed to Boston, I shewed the General the same when on Board, then the General telling me it was better to Leave them, than take them, ordered them on Shore with all their Cloths telling them they forfeited their Wages and Prize Money, but not forfeited, as they have had of the Pusser and myself more than their Wages and Prize Money will amount to. The General told me while on Board he had the Command of my Ship which I was very sorry to hear, and then I produced my Authority, and Regulations of the Honble. Congress, shewing the General by the Interpreter Monnsier Filyot of Port Lewis, an ar• { 288 } ticle which mentioned whoever was guilty of Joining in Mutiny or Sedition, should suffer death, and they all were guilty of the same, and then for an Answer to the General, I should command my Ship when at Sea, and made no doubt but I was as Capable as he was to Command any other. Then the General said he would write to the Court of France and Plenipotentarys about the two Officers who had treated his Christian Majestys Subjects so ill, that is Benjamin Reed Gentn. my first Lieutenant and Benjamin Bates my Acting Lieutenant. But Hond. Gentlemen be pleased to beleive that these Gentlemen Officers, never done any thing Contrary to my Orders, except boxing a frenchman's ears for floging a small Boy and strikeing another for calling him a Buger, puting his fist up to his nose, this they must expect [no] Officer could bear. My Orders being put up ag[ainst] the Bulk head, to Strike no frenchmen whatever, that small Article they broke twice and never farther which I do not blame them for, except their not acquainting me of it, but those small things will happen amongst such a Number of men and so many different Nations; This same Serjent I took in Bourdeaux, about the last of April, by the Recommendation of one Mr. Frazier a late Major in the Continential Army, he had not one farthing of Money and but few Cloths. I understand he is to go on Board a French Man of War under the Command of the Generals son, and therefore I am not Suppr[ized] of their Clearing of him as well as the rest. I would not deliver his Cloths, untill he formed an Account[?] that is unjust, nor a single farthing is due to him, but reather he is indebted to the Ship more then his Wages and prize Money will come to.
And now Gentlemen after their Plausible Complaint was heard, and not a Word of my officers beleived. They all would return on Board again but I refused them to come any more on Board my Ship. My Number in all on Board at present is one hundred and forty six, with which on Receiving your Orders how to proceed, I shall go to Sea with, in hopes to joyn Capt. Whipple. I remain with the greatest Respect Your Honours most Obedient Humble Servent.
[signed] Samuel Tucker
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To The Honble: American Commissioners att Parris.” docketed: “Capt. Samuel Tucker Port Lewis July 12 1778.”

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0218

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Coffyn, Francis
Date: 1778-07-13

The Commissioners to Francis Coffyn

Passy, 13 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:159–160. In reply to Coffyn's letters of 7 and 9 July (above), the Commissioners noted the “abundant Testimonies of your good Character” and declared that their confidence in him was undiminished. He was informed that whatever news he had for America could be sent to James Warren or the Committee for Foreign Affairs or both, but that he should, above all else, insure that his information was authentic because misrepresentations were so common. As to the unemployed American seamen at Dunkirk, the Commissioners wished them to be employed as soon as possible in order to save expenses.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0219

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Tucker, Samuel
Date: 1778-07-13

The Commissioners to Samuel Tucker

Passy, 13 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:160. The Commissioners advised Tucker that to improve the sailing qualities of the Boston, about which adverse reports had been received, he might, in order to replace his ballast, apply to J. D. Schweighauser for a quantity of lead and whatever other goods might be destined for America. Tucker was also to place himself under the orders of Capt. Whipple of the Providence in future voyages and provide future passage to America for Thomas Simpson if Simpson requested it.
In letters of the same date the Commissioners informed Schweighauser and Whipple of the portions of the letter relating to them (same, 4:160–161).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0220

Author: Genet, Edmé Jacques
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-13

From Edmé Jacques Genet

[salute] Hond. Sir

I hope to make a proper use of your observations in the relation to the pretended nomination of the American Commissioners, and am very oblig'd to you for the trouble you have had to write out that account. As for the Treaty, I never would presume to publish it, were it not a translation of a publick and printed paper, and the more So as you may have Seen a copy of it verbatim in the Lond. Ev. post of the 7th. and I dare Say the next Courier de l'Europe gives a translation of it. It is what the Honorable Commissioners cannot hinder, and no deed of theirs. I am with great respect Hond. Sir Your most humble and obedient Servant
[signed] Genet
I intend to have the honour to See you Wednesday before noon and [return?] you the Amere. papers.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0221

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-14

Sartine to the Commissioners

Versailles, 14 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:161 (JA's English translation). For the French text, see Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 94. Sartine noted that, because of the war, supplies from France to the inhabitants of the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon were in danger of being cut off and requested assistance from the United States, particularly Boston, to carry food and other necessities to them.
Copies of this appeal were enclosed in letters from the Commissioners to the Mass. Council on 16 July (same, 4:163–164) and to the congress on 20 July (calendared below). In the former they asked that Sartine's request be attended to if possible, adding as an inducement that a good price would be received, while, at the same time, humanity and Franco-American friendship were served.
The islands were captured in mid-Sept, by a small expedition under the command of Como. John Evans (London Chronicle, 14 Nov.).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0222

Author: Tucker, Samuel
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-14

Samuel Tucker to the Commissioners

[salute] Hond. Gentlemen

I received a Letter from Mr. Livingston of the 8th. Instant wherein he informs me that their is a possibility of an Exchange of Prisoners, a list of what I have on board I send your Honours inclosed with a List of the Men,1 I suppose must have been Recaptured in one of my Prizes, the other two arrived Eight or ten days past.2 I am only wating on your Honours how to proceed, in hopes to joyn Capt. Whipple.
I received a Line from Capt. Whipple wherein he tells me he shall be ready by the 20th to sail, expecting me to wait at the Rivers Mouth for him. As I wrote your Honours in my last of the 12th. Instant concerning my treatment from the Frenchmen, your Honours may be pleased to Judge from the Inclosed Instruement3 wrote by one of the Marines and five of the same seigned, the Treatment they received from me and Officiers; this I mention Gentlemen to your Honours, because General Latuch [La Touche-Tréville] intends waiting on your Honours with a tail for Serjent Cauzneau, beleave Gentlemen the Account he has in French I have a Coppy of in English as the General told me, and it is so far false that he is indebted to the Ship, and every person beging me to take the same Merines on board, as they were distitute of every thing, but I utterly denyed them { 291 } all except those mentioned in the inclosed Instrument, whom I received to Convince the Publick that their Reports was not true. Gentlemen be pleased to Exchange Capt. John Lee if possible, takein in the Brig Fanney and a Brother of mine his Master by the Name of Andrew Slyfield, who are in Mill Prison, and a Nephew of mine by the Name of John Diamond,4 and should be glad to have an equal Number exchanged from said Prison for mine. O that I was but Maned with Americans, or other Men I could depend upon, I should think my self a happy man, but Gentlemen as I am not I must do the Best I can, allways feeling for my Country, could whish to be at Sea. I am with Respect Your Honours Obedient Humble Servt
[signed] Saml Tucker
PS. I've opened this to acquaint your Honours that the Britania is this minute arrived and that I am happy that none of my People are Prizoners.
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To The Honble. American Commissioners att Parris” docketed: “Capt. Tucker July 14. 1778.”
1. Not found.
2. See the postscript below for the arrival of the third prize, Britannia, which, according to Tucker's log (MH-H), came into port on the evening of the 15th.
3. Not found.
4. Capt. John Lee of Newburyport and Andrew Slyfield of Marblehead, taken on the privateer brigantine Fancy, both escaped, the former on 14 Oct. and the latter on an unspecified date. John Diamond was pardoned for exchange on 20 Dec. (Marion and Jack Kaminkow, comps., Mariners of the American Revolution, Baltimore, 1967, p. 114, 174, 55; Allen, Mass. Privateers, p. 126–127).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0223

Author: Lee, Arthur
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-15

From Arthur Lee

[salute] Dear Sir

I am so unwell to-day that I cannot stir out. Will you have the goodness to expedite what is necessary for Mr. Livingston and he will bring the Papers1 for me to sign. I suppose a Commission, Instructions and our Orders for his sailing will be sufficient. Adieu
[signed] A Lee
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “Mr Commissioner Adams Passi”; docketed in an unknown hand: “Hon. A. Lee Esqr to Hon J. Adams Esqr July 15. 78.”
1. Carried by Muscoe Livingston to Nantes and Lorient, the papers probably included Thomas Simpson's appointment to command the Ranger (Simpson to the Commissioners, 27 July, below) and letters to Samuel Tucker of 13 July; to Abraham Whipple of 13 and 16 July; and to J. D. Schweighauser of 13 and 16 July (for the letters of the 13th, see that to Tucker, calendared above; letters of Schweighauser and Whipplethose of the 16th are both calendared below; see also Livingston to Benjamin Franklin, 21 July, Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S., 1:463).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0224

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-15

Sartine to the Commissioners

Versailles, 15 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:161–162 (JA's English translation). For the French text, see Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 94. Sartine's letter concerned James Niggins and John Selby, prisoners at Nantes, who claimed to be American seamen pressed into service on an English privateer after the capture of their vessel, the ship Hancock. Sartine wished to know if the two men were known to the Commissioners as Americans and thus deserving of release.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0225

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Date: 1778-07-16

The Commissioners to Sartine

Passy, 16 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:164. The Commissioners told Sartine that the congress and the authorities in Massachusetts would be notified of his request, but that the presence of British warships on the Newfoundland and Halifax stations might make assistance to St. Pierre and Miquelon difficult. They also enclosed a letter from J. D. Schweighauser (not found) regarding problems with the prizes taken by American frigates and requested that Sartine permit the prisoners taken by the Boston, Providence, and Ranger to be confined in French prisons at American expense until they were either exchanged or sent to America.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0226

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Schweighauser, John Daniel
Date: 1778-07-16

The Commissioners to J. D. Schweighauser

Passy, 16 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:163. The Commissioners notified Schweighauser of Thomas Simpson's appointment to command the Ranger and ordered him to provide Simpson with whatever he might need to prepare for sea. The Commissioners also informed him that the British prisoners were to be left behind and mentioned their effort to have them housed in French prisons.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0227

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Whipple, Abraham
Date: 1778-07-16

The Commissioners to Abraham Whipple

Passy, 16 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:162–163. The Commissioners informed Whipple of Thomas Simpson's appointment to command the Ranger as part of a force under Whipple's overall direction. He was ordered to make every effort to take or destroy the Jersey and Guernsey privateers and to leave his prisoners with whomever J. D. Schweighauser might direct.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0228

Author: Greenleaf, Thomas
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-16

From Thomas Greenleaf

[salute] Honored Sir

Pardon the presumption of addressing you in this manner at this unhappy Crisis of my life. Considering the distinguish'd nobleness of your sentiments, and your present exalted station as a support and defender of the American, glorious, Cause and persons, I at once resolve that this is an incumbent Duty on my part, and cannot entertain the least doubt but it will be attended too with that sympathy which is an immutable attendant on the hearts of ev'ry Great Man.
On Monday, the 25th. May, 1778, the Brigantine Angelica1 of sixteen six-pounders and ninety-eight Men, Congress Commission, Wm. Dennis Commander (myself Lt. Marine on board) sail'd from Boston, and on Saturday the 30th. May was Captured by the Andromeda Frigate, Guns twenty eight, Genl. Howe on board. The Brigantine was scutled, our treatment —————2 our Cloathing chiefly lost; had we fewer Garments the spectators would doubtless have judg'd we were not of the fallen race; from thence we were conducted to this abstruce confinement; but, thank God, thro' the benevolence and generosity of our British friends our spirits we support, notwithstanding our tabernacles are quite enervated and meagre.
I am at present intirely ignorant of what is in the power of our friends in France as to assisting us in our present situation small sums will be of great service to us, or, individuals; as you may judge, Sir, from Capt. Thompson, Capt. Porter, &c.
I preferr'd writing to you, Sir, imagining you will, after seeing my Name, recollect the family of Joseph Greenleaf, Esqr.
If there is nothing allowed us by Congress, in this our distress'd situation, I will obligate myself to return with interest any sum, you may please to send for my relief, when I get to Boston.
I will thank you in a particular manner if you will please to convey in the safest and most expeditious way the inclos'd letter to my father. With the greatest Veneration, I am, Honored Sir, Yr. most Obedient Humble Servant
[signed] T. Greenleaf3
NB. The above is nearly a Copy of a letter I have sent by another rout lest this should not get safe to hand. If you will please to direct your letter to be left at the Revd. Thomas <Rand's> { 294 } Wrens in St. Thomas Street, Portsmouth I shall get without fail with whatever it contains.
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “The Honble. John Adams Esqr; Passey near Paris France” docketed: “Thomas [Greenleaf]” in CFA's hand: “July 16th:” in an unknown hand: “1778.” A portion of the docket entry has been cut off.
1. The Angelica was a privateer, presumably with a commission from the Continental Congress (Allen, Mass. Privateers, p. 74).
2. Greenleaf left a space here, possibly because he thought that, considering his position, he should not be too specific about his treatment.
3. Thomas Greenleaf escaped from Forton Prison, to which he had been sent on 7 July, and may have been the “Mr Greenleaf” who carried JA's letter of 27 Dec. to AA in America. Greenleaf, who later became a noted New York city printer, was the son of Joseph Greenleaf of Boston (Marion and Jack Kaminkow, comps., Mariners of the American Revolution, Baltimore, 1967, p. 78; Adams Family Correspondence, 3:141; 1:198, note 4; James Edward Greenleaf, comp., Genealogy of the Greenleaf Family, Boston, 1896, p. 196, 77–78). For JA's opinion on aid to prisoners in general and to Greenleaf in particular, see his reply of 8 Sept., apparently not sent (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 93).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0229

Author: Rutledge, Edward
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-16

From Edward Rutledge

[salute] My dear Sir

The State of South Carolina, desirous of protecting her Trade, with as little Burthen to the United States as possible, has voted a Sum of Money for the purpose of purchasing three Frigates, has appointed Mr. Gillon1 to the Command of them and sent him to France to procure them. Satisfied as I am that, you would chearfully shew any Civilities, and if necessary, yield your Protection, to a Man of Character and a Gentleman, I could not forego the opportunity of introducing him to you; and of assuring you that, I shall consider any Act of Kindness, which he may receive at your Hands, with as much Esteem, as if confer'd personally on me.
I can say nothing to you on the Subject of Politics that would be at all new; you have them of every kind, from the Fountain Head. It is from your Side of the Atlantic that great Things are expected, it is from thence we hope to hear that, you have lighted up a Fire, not only to roast, but absolutely to consume, the whole House of Hanover. Little less will satisfy our sanguine Countrymen, and nothing less will be its Fate, unless the other { 295 } Powers of Europe should interpose their Influence, and preserve the Remains of a shatter'd Empire. I sincerely congratulate you on an Alliance with France; its Effects have been miraculous——besides its having placed our Currency on a more satisfactory Footing, it has worked wonders in the Minds of Men: with all your Knowledge of human nature you would still be amazed to see, what a Conversion has taken place in the political Opinion of Numbers; from the multitude of Disaffected, we have had whole Hosts of Patriots, new born Patriots Sir, who mean to be firm Friends to our good old Cause; until they shall think it for their Interest to be otherwise. However lest they should relapse, (which you know is ever dangerous, and to be dreaded in these quick Changes) and that they might make some Amends for their numberless Transgressions, we have sent forth Cargoes of them to preach the new Faith, and that they may do it to the Extent of their Abilities, Britain is the chosen Spot, on which they are to repose, their wearied Virtue. She has from Time to Time sent America her Convicts, the Obligation is now to be cancell'd. I congratulate her, on her Acquisition: And that she may be the more secure of her Subjects, we have followed her Example in another Instance, by annexing Death to the Crime of returning from Transportation; a small punishment, tho' apparently severe for the many Injuries, they have, and the irreparable ones they would have brought on the virtuous part of our Community. I am Dr. Sir with Esteem & with sincerity your most obedt. Servt.
[signed] Edward Rutledge
RC (Adams Papers); docketed: “Mr Rutledge recd. Ap. 23 1779. ansd. Ap 24. 1779.”
1. Alexander Gillon, commissioned on 16 Feb. and directed to sell South Carolina produce, borrow money, and purchase three frigates, reached France in Jan. 1779. He had little success in fulfilling his commission but, in May 1780, did manage to lease the frigate Indien, a vessel long sought by John Paul Jones, which was renamed the South Carolina (DAB; Louis F. Middlebrook, The Frigate South Carolina, Salem, Mass., 1929, p. 2–5; see also Gillon to the Commissioners, 25 Jan. 1779, PPAmP: Franklin Papers; and the Commissioners to J. D. Schweighauser, 10 June, calendared above). JA's relations with and opinion of Gillon were satisfactory until the voyage, undertaken in part to escape creditors, of the South Carolina in 1781 with JA's son Charles as a passenger. For additional information on Gillon and his relations with the Adamses, see JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:447; Adams Family Correspondence, 4:22, 55. On the day JA received this letter from Edward Rutledge he received another letter of introduction for Gillon, dated 4 July, from Arthur Middleton (Adams Papers). Additional letters recommending Gillon were received by the Commissioners from Christopher Gadsden, 15 July, and Rawlins Lowndes, 18 July (PPAmP: Franklin Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0230

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Genet, Edmé Jacques
Date: 1778-07-17

To Edmé Jacques Genet

In your forty Eighth Number of Affairs de L'Angleterre et de L'Amerique I find, in Page sixth, marked number I. Resolutions des sauvages contre l'armee Angloise, and in Page 7 marked No. III. Adresse des Principaux Habitans de cette Ville a Robert Rogers, Major General (nomme par le Congres) et Commandant en chef des savages.
Both these Papers, you may rely upon it, are Forgeries, and that no such Resolution or Address ever existed.
It ought to be contradicted for many Reasons, but especially because if uncontradicted these Papers will be considered by Historians as Proof, that the Americans, first engaged the savages to take an active Part in the War, and will give a Colour to the Argument of the British Administration, that the Indians must be engaged on their side to prevent them from engaging on the other, whereas nothing is further from the Truth.
All the Treaties with the Savages made by Congress, or by Commissioners under their Authority, were that they should be neutral. So far from soliciting their Alliance, the Congress, more than once refused the services of Indians. The Honour of employing Indians is wholly British.
This Robert Rogers,2 instead of being addressed by the principal Inhabitants of Philadelphia, was made Prisoner by the Council of safety, the first day of his Landing in that City, and enlarged upon his Parol, in Violation of which he afterwards made his Escape to New York, and had there a Commission given him [by Gener]al Howe.
[ . . . ] from that Body, he never had any [ . . . ] a Single Voice in his favour.3
Nor had he ever any Conferrence, or Concert with Indians, since this War began, as is asserted in Page 8 Number 4.
The whole of this is an Imposition on the World, and you may assert it to be so boldly, for there are Witnesses enough, who can prove it to be so, among whom one, is your humble sert,
[signed] John Adams
RC (Justin G. Turner, Los Angeles, 1958). Fire damage has resulted in the loss of several words.
1. The date is supplied from the letter as it appeared in Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Ame'rique, “Lettres,” vol. II, cahier 49, p. cxxiv–cxxv. The body of the letter deals with documents numbered I, III, and IV that appeared in Affaires, “Journals,” { 297 } | view { 298 } vol. 11. The cahier and page numbers supplied by JA are correct.
2. JA's account of Maj. Robert Rogers is substantially correct, for in 1776, as president of the Board of War, JA had dealt with the question of what to do with him. Rogers' arrest apparently occurred because of Washington's suspicions, probably the result of Rogers' previous employment by the British on the frontier and recent return from England. Following his escape to New York, Rogers formed the Queen's American Rangers (DAB; see also vol. 4:255).
3. It is impossible to supply the missing words from the MS, but the corresponding paragraph in Affaires is as follows: “Jamais le Congrès ne lui a donné de commission; encore moins le grade de Major-General, quoiqu'il l'eût sollicité. Mais il n'y a pas eu dans le Congrés une seul voix en sa faveur” (Congress has never given him a commission, much less the rank of major general, although he had solicited it. Moreover, there was not in the congress a single voice in his favor).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0231

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Author: Lee, Arthur
Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Vergennes, Charles Gravier, Comte de
Date: 1778-07-17

The Commissioners to Vergennes

[salute] Sir

We herewith communicate to your Excellency a Resolution of Congress relative to the Treaties, which we request may be laid before the King.1 Thereby his Majesty will perceive the unfeigned Sentiments of that Body, as well as those of the whole American People, whose Hearts the King has gained by his great Benevolence towards them, manifested in these Treaties, which has made so deep an Impression on their Minds, that no Time will efface it. We are, with great Respect, your Excellency's most obedient and most humble Servants
[signed] B Franklin
[signed] Arthur Lee
[signed] John Adams
RC (Arch. Aff. Etr., Paris, Corr. Pol., Espagne, vol. 590); enclosure not found.
1. On this day the United States and France exchanged the official ratifications of the Treaties of Amity and Commerce and Alliance. The resolution was probably adopted by the congress on 4 May, immediately after it had completed its ratification of the treaties. Congress, after thanking Louis XVI “for his truly magnanimous conduct,” declared that “it is sincerely wished that the friendship so happily commenced between France and these United States may be perpetual” (JCC, 11:457–458).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0232-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-17

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Quoique je sois tous les jours avec le G—— F—— et avec notre Ami, cependant, comme il ne se passe rien d'extraordinaire, j'ai cru pouvoir différer de vous écrire, jusqu'à-ce que les Etats de la Province se séparassent.
{ 299 }
Ce qu'il y a eu d'essentiel pendant cette Assemblée, a été la proposition d'augmenter les troupes, laquelle ayant été absolument rejetée par la ville d'Amsterdam, n'aura certainement pas lieu. Il y a eu de grands débats à ce sujet dans l'Assemblée, entre notre Ami et le G—— P—— dont notre Ami n'est nullement content.1 Ce Personnage, comme beaucoup d'autres Grands, a ses cotés forts et foibles. Puissamment riche, il ne tient qu'à lui d'être indépendant; très éclairé et judicieux, videt meliora, probatque, deteriora sequitur:2 avec la même ambition, S'il avoit le courage et la fermeté de notre Ami, il pourroit, dans ces conjonctures, jouer le plus grand rôle, et en faire jouer un à la Republique digne d'elle. Cependant le g—— F—— croit qu'il est pour nous, et dans les sentimens que nous pouvons desirer, et que ce qui déplait en lui à notre ami, n'est qu'une souplesse et des tours de Courtisan. Une telle autorité ne me permet guere de douter: mais, avec tout cela, je suis du sentiment de notre Ami, qui croit que nous sommes redevables de la plus grande partie de ses bons sentimens, à ce qu'il redoute la ville d'Amsterdam; elle lui en impose, à certains égards, plus que la Cour-même; et le parti que j'ai pris, de concert avec notre Ami, de Favertir qu'Amsterdam avoit connoissance de toutes les avances qui lui ont été faites, a influé le plus sur le bon accueil qu'il m'a fait, et sur le parti qu'il a pris de ne rien supprimer.
J'ai demandé à notre Ami, si les demarches que j'avois faites étoient done inutiles, et n'aboutissoient à rien? Il m'a répondu qu'elles n'etoient nullement inutiles, et qu'elles avoient produit un très grand bien: qu'elles avoient instruit la république, d'une maniere authentique, des dispositions favorables des Etats Américains pour elle, et qu'on ne pourroit plus lui en imposer à cet égard qu'elles avoient considérablement fortifié la ville d'Amsterdam dans Son opposition aux menées du Parti Anglois ici, et en même temps beaucoup affoibli celui-ci: et il m'a prié instamment de continuer à agir toujours de concert avec lui et à lui communiquer ce que j'apprendrois, Sans me décourager, et de me souvenir, moi qui connoissois la maladie de la république que le temps et la patience sont les seuls remedes qui conviennent à son état present. Je ne lui ai point caché, combien je trouvois qu'il y auroit d'impolitesse et de grossiereté, si le G—— P—— ne répondoit pas, au moins par une simple Lettre de politesse à celle, Messieurs, que vous lui aviez écrite. Il m'a dit, que tant que la Cour, par complaisance pour l'Angleterre, témoignera de { 300 } voir de mauvais oeil qu'on mette la chose en délibération, formelle, le G—— P——, de son côté, ne voudra pas se compromettre avec la Cour par une démarche de son chef. “Mais (a-t-il ajouté) assurer ces Messieurs, que la Ville d'Amsterdam est très sensible à la politesse et confiance avec laquelle ils lui ont fait part de l'ouverture faite au G—— P——, et communiqué le Traité, et qu'elle partage bien sincerement avec eux le desir, de voir le rapprochement et l'entrecours le plus amical entre les deux nations.” Je vous assure, Messieurs, que vous pouvez croire ces assurances sinceres.
Voilà donc enfin la guerre résolue et déclarée en Allemagne. Voici ce qu'écrit là-dessus l'Envoyé de la Republique Baron de Heide, à Berlin, le 7e. Juillet.
“Hier matin je reçus du département des affaires étrangeres un Mémoire3 des motifs qui ont porté Sa Majesté à s'opposer au démembrement de la Baviere, dans lequel, entre autres, le Roi fait voir, combien il a tâché de conserver le repos et la tranquillité de l'Allemagne; mais que tous ses efforts ont été inutiles: que la Cour de Vienne s'est opposée avec beaucoup d'opiniâtreté à tous ses bons desseins, et a rejeté avec fierté tous ses moyens d'accommodement. On apprend de Saxe, que le Genl. Mullendorf est arrivé à Dresde avec son Corps de 20,000 hommes; et de Silésie, que le même jour le Roi a levé son camp et a marché en avant. Ainsi on attend de là tous les jours des nouvelles importantes.”
Il y a longtemps qu'on ne m'a rien écrit d'Allemagne; et ce que j'ai vu des dépeches des Ministres de la Republique, n'a pas valu la peine d'un Extrait. C'est done par pure disette, et non par négligence, que je n'ai point écrit. Par exemple, Si je vous avois mandé, qu'on a écrit de Londres que le Chev. Howe auroit assuré le Roi, que les Provinces de Connecticut et de Jersey sont disposées à se soumettre, je ne vous aurois copié qu'une complaisance pour une Cour, afin d'en tromper une autre qui veut être trompée.
Cette Cour ici se proposoit de partir dans peu de jours pour Los, maison de Plaisance en Overyssel, et d'y passer l'Eté; mais tout est contremandé; du moins le départ du bagage est suspendu.
Les Etats d'hollande, qui devoient se séparer aujourdhui, siegeront encore demain au moins, pour délibérer sur de nouvelles instructions qu'il s'agit de donner au Comte de Welderen, { 301 } Envoyé à Londres, sur ce que les Anglois ont pris deux Vaisseaux Hollandois revenants de St. Eustache, l'un pour Amsterdam, l'autre pour Ziriczee en Zélande.4 Peut-être n'est-ce que pour cela que le Prince a différé son voyage.
Je me dispense de vous envoyer, Messieurs, les gazettes, où j'ai fait insérer[?] nombre d'articles: cela feroit un paquet.
Permettez-moi, Messieurs, de finir celle-ci par vous rappeller ce que vous avez eu la bonté de me faire dire par Mr. le Chev. Grand, savoir, qu'en attendant que l'honorable Congrès ait régié ce qui me concerne, je pouvois compter, pour vivre ici, de 6 mois en 6 mois sur cent Louis d'or. J'ai reçu cette Somme de votre part, Messieurs, au commencement de cette année, et j'en ai vécu du ier. Janvier au ier. Juillet. J'ai présentement besoin de pareille somme de 100 Louis d'or, pour Subsister jusqu'à la fin de l'année, ainsi que j'en ai prévenu Mr. Deane. Je prends done la liberté de demander vos ordres, pour savoir si vous voulez que je tire sur Mr. Grand de Paris, comme la derniere fois, ou si vous préférez que Mr. le Chev. Grand me remette cette somme à Amsterdam pour votre compte.5 J'ai l'honneur d'être avec le plus respectueux dévouement, Messieurs Votre très humble et très obéissant serviteur
[signed] D
Si vous vouliez, Messieurs, m'envoyer une Lettre de recommandation pour qu'un vaisseau qui va partir incessamment d'Amsterdam pour quelque Port de l'Amérique avec des Marchandises, en laissant les noms en blanc, afin que l'Officier commandant dans l'endroit où ils aborderont leur procure, comme à de bons amis, toutes sortes de protection et facilités pour la bonne défaite de leur cargaison, vous obligeriez de fort braves gens, qui font ce premier Essai par mon conseil, et avec le plus grand secret. Mais cela presse: car je crois que le bâtiment est chargé, ou peu S'en faut.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0232-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-17

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

Although I have seen the Grand Facteur and our friend every day, since nothing extraordinary has happened, I have postponed writing to you until the States General adjourned.
The major question during this assembly was the proposal to increase troops, but because it was firmly rejected by the town of Amsterdam, it will certainly not be adopted. There were great debates in the Assembly on the subject between our friend and the Grand Pensionary, with whom our friend is not at all satisfied.1 This personage, { 302 } like many men in high places, has his strengths and weaknesses. He, being extremely rich, can be independent, enlightened, and wise, videt meliora probatque, deteriora sequitur:2 with the same ambition, had he only the courage and determination of our friend, he could, in these circumstances, play the greatest role and have the Republic play one worthy of herself. Nevertheless, the Grand Facteur believes he is on our side, with feelings matching our wishes, and that what our friend dislikes so much about him is simply the flexibility and maneuvering of a courtier. Such an authoritative opinion alleviates my doubts, but I, nevertheless, share our friend's opinion that his good disposition is due for the most part to the fact that he fears the town of Amsterdam, which, in some respects, checks him even more than the Court does and thus the course I took, in concert with our friend, of warning him that Amsterdam knew about all the overtures made to him was the strongest influence for the warm reception he gave me and for his decision not to delete anything.
I asked our friend if the steps I had taken were, therefore, useless and amounted to nothing. He replied that they have not been useless and that they had produced much good: they had informed the Republic, in an authentic way, of the favorable disposition of the United States toward it, and the Republic cannot anymore be misled about this. They also had considerably strengthened the town of Amsterdam in her opposition to the maneuvers of the British party here and, at the same time, greatly weakened that party. Futhermore, he urgently pressed me to continue to act in concert with him and to communicate what I would learn, without letting myself become discouraged and, since I knew the diseased state of the Republic, to remember that time and patience are the only remedies that befit her present condition. I let him know that I would consider it very impolite and offensive if the Grand Pensionary did not reply, at least with a simple courtesy letter, to the one you wrote him. He told me that as long as the Court, out of kindness for England, maintains an unfavorable attitude toward submitting the issue to formal consideration, the Grand Pensionary, for his part, will not wish to compromise his position with the Court by initiating proceedings on his own. “But,” he added, “assure these gentlemen that the town of Amsterdam is very aware of the courtesy and confidence shown in apprising her of the overtures made to the Grand Pensionary and in communicating the treaty, and that she very sincerely shares their desire for a rapprochement and relations of the most amicable kind between the two nations.” I confirm the sincerity of these assurances.
At last war has been decided on and declared in Germany. Here is what Baron de Heide, the Republic's envoy at Berlin, wrote on 7 July: “Yesterday morning I received from the department of Foreign Affairs a statement3 of the grounds for His Majesty's opposition to the dismemberment of Bavaria, in which, among other things, is shown { 303 } how much the King tried to preserve the peace and tranquility of Germany and that all his efforts were in vain: the Court of Vienna very obstinately opposed all his good intentions and arrogantly rejected all his plans for an accommodation. We hear from Saxe that General Mullendorf has arrived at Dresden with his army of 20,000 men; and from Silesia that, on the same day, the King broke camp and moved forward. We are thus expecting important news every day.”
It has been a long time since anyone has written me anything from Germany, and what I saw in the communiqués of the Republic's ministers was not worth an abstract. Therefore, my reasons for not writing are based on sheer dearth of information, rather than on negligence. For instance, had I reported to you the news received from London that Sir [William] Howe assured the King that the provinces of Connecticut and Jersey were ready to submit, I would have been merely reporting a statement meant to please one court and to deceive another which wishes to be deceived.
This Court was planning to leave in a few days for Los, a country estate in Overyssel, and spend the summer there; but all is canceled, at least the departure of the luggage is suspended.
The Dutch States General, who were to adjourn today, will convene again tomorrow, at least to consider the new instructions to be given Count Welderen, envoy to London, concerning the British capture of two Dutch vessels returning from St. Eustatius; one bound for Amsterdam, the other for Zierikzee in Zeeland.4 This may be the only reason why the Prince postponed his journey.
I will not send you the gazettes in which I have inserted many articles because it would become a packet.
Permit me, gentlemen, to end this letter by reminding you that you had the kindness to inform me through Chevalier Grand that, while waiting for the honorable congress' decision concerning me, I could count on one hundred louis d'or every six months for my living expenses here. I received this amount from you, gentlemen, at the beginning of the year and have lived on it from 1 January to 1 July. But, as I told Mr. Deane, I am now in need of a similar sum of 100 louis d'or in order to survive until the end of the year. I, therefore, take the liberty of asking you for your orders, so that I may know whether you would like me to draw, on account, on Mr. Grand of Paris, as last time, or if you would rather Chevalier Grand gave me this sum in Amsterdam from your account.5 I have the honor to be, with the most respectful devotion, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] D
Could you please send me a letter of recommendation for a vessel about to leave Amsterdam for some harbor in America with merchandise, leaving the names blank, so that the commanding officer where they land may give them, in their capacity as friends, whatever protection and facilities are necessary for the advantageous disposal of their { 304 } cargo. By doing so, you would help very good people who are following my advice in making this first attempt in great secrecy. But haste is needed, I think the vessel is more or less loaded.
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers;) docketed, not by JA: “Dumas Le Haie 17 July 78.”
1. The remainder of this paragraph, with minor variations in wording, was originally included in the letterbook copy of Dumas' letter to the Commissioners of 3 July (above), but was canceled (Algemeen Rijksarchief, The Hague, Dumas Coll., Inventaris 1, p. 185).
2. I know the right, but the wrong pursue (Ovid).
3. For this “Manifesto, or Declaration of the Motives which engage his Majesty the King of Prussia to make War against the Emperor of Germany,” as proclaimed and later published in England, see the London Chronicle, 18–21 July.
4. Dumas' reference to the two vessels seized by the British remains obscure, but see his letters to the Commissioners of 21 and 24 July (both below).
5. For payments by the Commissioners to Dumas, see James Lovell to JA, 29 April, note 7 (above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0233

Author: Williams, Jonathan
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-17

Jonathan Williams to the Commissioners

[salute] Honble Gentlemen

I am highly sensible of the Confidence you honour me with by your Approbation of my Drafts on Mr. Grand,1 and am ready to account for the expenditure of them up to the 30th May. The Charges since my Departure from Nantes, to go to new Account.
As your Time is too constantly and too importantly employed to attend to the Details of commercial Concerns, would it not be well to appoint some Gentleman in whom you have Confidence to compare the Bills and Receipts with the Charges in the Accounts.2 The general Approbation of them to depend afterwards on the Commissioners?
I submit the Matter to your Judgement and have the Honour to be with great Respect Honble Gentlemen Your most obedient & most humble Servant
[signed] Jona Williams
RC (ViU: Lee Papers); docketed, not by JA: “Jonan. Williams to Ministers Pleny. U.S. (17 July 1778.)”; and “Williams.”
1. Apparently a reference to the action taken by JA and Benjamin Franklin in their letter to Ferdinand Grand of 10 July (above).
2. The Commissioners apparently took no action on this request, but Williams renewed it when the dispute with Arthur Lee over his accounts reached a head in early 1779 (Williams to Franklin and JA, 31 Jan. 1779, PPAmP: Franklin Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0234

Author: Sargeant, William Hill
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-18

William Hill Sargeant to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

Having lately Arrived in a Very fast Sailing Vessell from the State of Virginia whose Owners not having it in their Power to arm her in that Country gave me full power So to do here (As well to take the Advantage of any thing that might Offer as to protect our Vessell and Cargo). I therfore take the Liberty of Requesting the favour of your granting me a Commission for that purpose, and least you might Suggest that I have lately Entered in to Arms, or that I might make a Bad Use of your Favours, I beg leave to Inform you that I have served the State of Virginia most part of the present Warr, In a small Trading Vessell nor did I quit her untill She was Condemned and broke up, the Vessell I now Command Is a Briggantine named the Dispatch mounting Eight four Pounders Navigated with twenty five Men, Saint George Tucker of Williamsburgh Owner. Mr. John Hanse: Delap to whom I am Addresed will be so Obligeing as to Stand Security for my Behaviour. I have now been here five or Six Weeks and Shoud have made this Application sooner (But that I Intended to have paid my Respects personally to you as well for this purpose as to have Inquired wether you had any Stores to Ship for the Continent haveing Room for Considerable freight in My Vessell) had it not been for the Very great Difficulty I find while present to keep an American Crew of Sailors in Order in this port. I shall be Ready to sail in 7 or 8 Days. But shall wait for your Answer.
Shoud you have any Dispatches for the Continent and think proper to send them by me You may Depend On My Care to Destroy them if taken or forwarding them Shoud I arrive safe. I shall Attempt the Capes of Virginia or Ocrecok as Winds weather and other Circumstances may Admitt. I Am Gentlemen Your Most Obedt: Humb servt
[signed] William Hill: Sargeant1
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “To the Honorable Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee, and John Adams, Esqrs. Plenipotentiaries from the United States of America, at the Court of Versailles”; docketed, not by JA: “Wm Hill Sargeant Bordeaux July 18. 1778.”
1. This letter was enclosed in one of the same date from S. and J. H. Delap (PPAmP: Franklin Papers) that recommended Sargeant and offered security for his good behavior. The Commissioners responded quickly by writing to S. and J. H. Delap and to Sargeant on 23 July, enclosing a blank bond for the Delaps to sign and return and sending Sargeant his commission and instructions (LbC, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 92).
It was not, however, until 19 Sept. that S. and J. H. Delap replied (PPAmP: Franklin Papers). In that letter they enclosed { 306 } the bond that they and Sargeant had executed for £1,000 lawful money, a sum they believed usually required for a vessel of the size and force contemplated. The Commissioners had not indicated in their letter the amount of the bond.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0235

Author: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-18

Sartine to the Commissioners

Versailles, 18 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:166–167 (JA's English translation). For the French text, see Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 94. Sartine recounted reports that he had received concerning problems with the French members of the Boston's crew. Their grievances did not seem to be directed against Samuel Tucker, but rather concerned their treatment by the first lieutenant and two other officers over pay, shares in prizes, and the term of enlistment. Sartine asked that Tucker be sent orders to alleviate the situation and noted that facilities had been offered for the recruitment of new volunteers.
In a postscript Sartine reported that, in response to a letter from J. D. Schweighauser, he had sent orders to the admiralty officers at Nantes that should remove any problems connected with the disposal of the Ranger's prizes.
In a second letter of the 18th (same, 4:167, JA's English translation; see Microfilms, Reel No. 94 for the French text) Sartine noted the presence in French ports of several American vessels that could be used in the Franco-American war effort, but which were idle. He asked that the Commissioners give orders to end their inactivity.
printed: (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:166–167 (JA's English translation)).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0236

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: President of Congress
Recipient: Laurens, Henry
Date: 1778-07-20

The Commissioners to the President of the Congress

Passy, 20 July 1778. printed: JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:168–170; also, with “The Function of Consuls” enclosed, in Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:650–653. The Commissioners reported that the Spy had arrived with ratified copies of the Franco-American treaties and that the exchange of ratifications had occurred on the 17th. In regard to the deletion of Articles 11 and 12 of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, the Commissioners stated that, despite receiving news of the action and assurances from the French government that it was agreeable to the change, they were still awaiting instructions and authorization. The Commissioners also commented on the outbreak of hostilities between Britain and France at sea; the prospect of Spain's joining France against England; their financial situation, requesting that the congress limit its drafts on them; and the services of C. W. F. Dumas, which they believed justified an annual payment of £200 sterling. Finally, the Commissioners noted that the resolution of the congress of 9 Feb. and a letter from the Committee of Commerce of the same date (JCC, 10:139; letter not found) concerning the appointment of commercial agents had been superseded by the Treaty of Amity and { 307 } Commerce, which permitted the appointment of consuls. They requested instructions on such appointments.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0237-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-21

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Ma derniere est du 17e. Je viens de recevoir, traduire et porter au g— F— une Lettre Allemande. En attendant qu'il me renvoie mon feuillet, après en avoir fait tirer copie, j'aurai l'honneur de vous dire, que les Etats d'hollande se sont séparés, et que le Prince part aussi pour Los en Overyssel. On n'a point donné d'Instructions nouvelles au Comte de Welderen, ie. parce qu'après avoir fait son devoir en réclamant les 2 Vaisseaux, il n'avoit pas encore reçu réponse du Ministere, lorsqu'il écrivit sa Lettre à LI. hh. pp. 2e. parce que les propriétaries ne se sont pas encore plaints; et ceux d'Amsterdam peut-être ne se plaindront pas; car le Tabac qui étoit Sur le Vaisseau est pour Mrs Hope, qui s'entendent avec le Ministere Anglois. Notre Ami m'a dit cela.
Le g—— F—— m'a dit, que le bruit que couroit hier d'une Frégatte Angloise prise par la Flotte françoise S'est confirmé: c'est le Dighby .1 On S'attend ici, d'un jour à l'autre, à la nouvelle d'un combat naval. Je portai hier à Leide un article concerté au sujet des 2 vaisseaux hollandois pris par les Anglois; mais comme le Gazettier de Leide2 n'ose pas le mettre dans toute son énergie, je l'envoie aujourdhui au Courier du Bas-Rhin.

[salute] Je suis avec le plus vrai respect, Messieurs Votre trés humble & très obeissant servitr.

[signed] D

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0237-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-21

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

My last was of the 17th. I have just received, translated, and delivered a German letter to the Grand Facteur. While waiting for him to return it after making a copy, I have the honor to inform you that the Dutch States General have adjourned and that the Prince is leaving for Los in Overyssel. No new instructions were given Count Welderen because: 1. after doing his duty in reclaiming the 2 vessels, he had not yet received a reply from the Minister when he wrote his letter to Their High Mightinesses; 2. the owners have not yet complained, and it may even be that those in Amsterdam will not do so since the tobacco aboard the vessel is for Messrs. Hope, who are on good terms with the British Ministry. Our friend supplied me with this information.
{ 308 }
The Grand Facteur told me that yesterday's rumor concerning the capture of a British frigate by the French fleet has been confirmed. It is the Dighby.1 We are expecting any day now news of a naval battle. Yesterday I carried to Leyden a concerted article concerning the British capture of the 2 Dutch vessels, but since the journalist of Leyden2 dares not publish the article in all its vigor, I am sending it today to the Courier du Bas-Rhin. I am with the most genuine respect, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] D
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed, not by JA: “Dumas La Haie 21st July 78.”
1. In regard to the name, at least, Dumas' report of the capture of a British frigate was almost certainly incorrect. The only such seizure reported during this period was that of the Lively by the French frigate Iphigénie on 9 July (London Chronicle, 21–23, [p. 79, 80], 23–25 July; see also Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique, “Lettres,” vol. 14, cahier 56, p. cxxviii).
2. This was Jean Luzac, editor of the Gazette de Leyde . For a sketch of his later relationship with JA, see Adams Family Correspondence, 4:xiv–xv.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0238

Author: Livingston, Muscoe
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-21

Muscoe Livingston to the Commissioners

[salute] Gentlemen

I arrived here Last night, deliverd my letters to Capt. Whippie,1 and shall have his Instructions for Capt. Tucker and Sett out immediately for Lorient.
I will be Exceedingly Obligd you, to do me the Favour, to give me two, or three Lines, either to the President of congress or by way of Certificate, Mentioning, what Capt. Tucker Said of My Conduct,2 during my being on board the Boston; as it will be a very great Satisfaction to My Friends, and may be, Other wise Servicible to me; I for got to make this Request while in Paris, or would not now, have taken the Liberty to trouble you; I shall Return to Nantes, in five or Six days from whence I Expect to get a passage to America; So that If I am honourd with your Letters under cover to John Loyd Esqr. at this place, I shall, be Sure to get it. I have the Honour to be with Much Respect Gentln your most obet. H Ser.
[signed] M. Livingston
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “the Honble the Commissioners for the United States of America at Paris”; docketed, not by JA: “M Livingston Nantes 21 July 1778”; postmarked: “NANTES.”
1. Livingston carried letters to Whipple, J. D. Schweighauser (both calendared above), and Thomas Simpson (see Simpson to the Commissioners, 27 July, below), all dated 16 July.
2. See Tucker's letter to JA, 4 July (above). The Commissioners recommended Livingston to the president of the congress in a letter of 29 July (LbC, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0239

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Sartine, Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de
Date: 1778-07-22

The Commissioners to Sartine

We have the Honour of your Excellencys Letters of July the 15th, and 18th.
James Niggins and John Selby are wholly unknown to Us, but as their Account of themselves to your Excellency is probable enough; and if nothing appears to invalidate their Relation, We should be obliged to your Excellency if you will grant their Request.
We are very Sorry for the Dispute between two Officers of the Boston, and some of the Men belonging to this Nation, who had inlisted on board that Frigate, and for the Trouble your Excellency has had in Consequence of it. We have a Letter from Captain Tucker and another from those two officers upon the same subject.1
Captain Tucker informs Us, that these Men were inlisted at Bourdeaux, by Permission of the Admiralty, not as Voluntiers, but that they signed the ships Books like other Men, to proceed to Boston and were consequently liable to do the Duty, and ought to be governed by the Rules of War which are made by the Congress, for the Government of all their ships of War. That on the day of his entering at Port Louis, Eight of them obtained Liberty to go on shore, that one of them who was a serjeant, raised such Reports of their ill treatment from the Officers that the Deputies of his Majesty with the General came on board, and asked them if they would tarry or go on shore. They chose to go on shore. The Captn. shewed the General the Book of their Enlistment, but the General, Saying it was better to leave them, than to take them, ordered them on shore, with all their Cloaths, telling them, they forfeited their Wages and Prize Money. But the Captain observes that they have received of His Purser and himself, more than their Wages and Prize Money will amount to. That the two officers, complaind of, have never done any Thing contrary to, his orders except boxing one of these Mens Ears for flogging a Boy and Striking another for calling him a Buger, putting his fist up to his Nose, which they must expect no Officer would bear. The Captain says his orders were put up against the Bulk head, to strike no French Man whatever. This Article the two Officers broke twice, and nevermore.
This is the substance of the Captains Account of the Affair. It { 310 } is impossible for Us, at this Distance to judge between the Parties. All We wish for is that Justice may be done.
Our Opinion is this, if the Men are inlisted upon the ships Books to go to Boston they ought to return to the ship and be received by the Captain, and are intituled to their Wages and Prize Money.
But if they are not inlisted in Writing to go to Boston, but only for a Cruise that Cruise is compleated by the ships return to France, they have a Right to leave the ship if they choose it, and are still intituled to their share of Wages and Prize Money, deducting from it however What has been Advanced them by the Captain and Purser.
These are our sentiments of the Justice of the affair. These We shall write to Captain Tucker, and We hope that the Dispute may in this Way be amicably ended. <We have the Honour to be &c.>2 We inclose your Excellency a Copy of the acknowlegement of good treatment by some of those Sailors3 and our Letter to Captain Tucker, and should be obliged to your Excellency to forward it, to him with yours to the officers who have made the Complaint. We have orderd all our Frigates to sail immediately with what Goods they can carry so as not impede their Cruize.4
1. Tucker's letter is that of 14 July; the other is that from Benjamin Reed and Benjamin Bates of the 11th (both above).
2. JA apparently intended to end the letter at this point.
3. The preceding 15 words were interlined in the hand of Arthur Lee. The “acknowlegement” (not found) was enclosed in Tucker's letter of the 14th. The letter to Tucker is that of 22 July (below).
4. This sentence, in Arthur Lee's hand, refers to a second letter from Sartine of 18 July. For the first and second letters from Sartine to the Commissioners, see JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:166–167(not printed), but see the first letter of that date (calendared above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0240

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Author: Lee, Arthur
Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Trumbull, Jonathan
Date: 1778-07-22

The Commissioners to Jonathan Trumbull

[salute] Sir

We received your Excellencys Letter of May 29, by Captain Niles, with the Dispatches from Congress, which you had intrusted him, with, in good order. He had a short Passage of 22 days and brought Us the agreable News of the Ratification of the Treaties, and of their being universally pleasing to our Country. We shall order some Lead to be shipped on Board his Vessell,1 and have furnished him with the Money you mention,2 in ready Compliance with your Request. We are with great Esteem And Respect.
[signed] F. L. A.
{ 311 }
1. In a letter of the same date to J. D. Schweighauser (LbC, Adams Papers), the Commissioners ordered that “fourteen or sixteen Tons of Lead,” together with whatever other cargo Capt. Niles might request, be sent on board the Spy and that his expenses be paid. They also requested a list of the articles received by Schweighauser from Jonathan Williams.
2. On the previous day the Commissioners had ordered their banker, Ferdinand Grand, to pay Niles 4,933 livres (Accounts, 30 June, above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0241

Author: First Joint Commission at Paris
Author: Adams, John
Author: Lee, Arthur
Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Tucker, Samuel
Date: 1778-07-22

The Commissioners to Samuel Tucker

[salute] Sir

We have received your Letters relative to the Disputes between two of your Officers and some of your Men belonging to this Nation, and we are of Opinion that if the Men are inlisted upon the Ships Books, to go to Boston, they ought to return to the Ship, and be received by you, and are entitled to their Wages and prize Money. But if they are not inlisted in writing to go to Boston, but only for a Cruise, that Cruise is compleated by the Ships Return to France, and they have a Right to leave the Ship if they chuse it, and are intituled to their Share of Wages and prize Money, deducting therefrom however what has been advanced them by the Captain and Purser.1 You are strictly enjoined to take special Care that all Frenchmen who may be in the Service <of> under you be at all times treated with Justice and Impartiality, and that Suitable Allowances be made for the Difficulties they are under in not understanding our Language, and not being habituated to our Customs. We are Your humble Serv'ts.
[signed] B Franklin
[signed] Arthur Lee
[signed] John Adams
PS. If however the Men insist on leaving the Ship altho' inlisted expressly to go to Boston, we advise you to agree to it, but in that Case we think they are not intitled to Wages or prize Money.
RC (MH-H: Tucker Papers); docketed: “The Honble. Commissioners Letter Passy July 22d 1778”; with the notation: “Copyd.” LbC (Adams Papers). Where the seal was removed, words lost are supplied from the LbC.
1. In the LbC this sentence was continued, apparently as an afterthought, to include the material forming the postscript in the RC.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0242

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Author: Adams, John
Recipient: President of Congress
Recipient: Laurens, Henry
Date: 1778-07-23

Benjamin Franklin and John Adams to the President of the Congress

[salute] Sir

We have just received a Message from Monsr. Le Comte De Vergennes, by his Secretary, acquainting Us; that Information is received from England of the Intention of the Cabinet there, to offer (by additional Instructions to their Commissioners) Independence to the United States, on Condition of their making a Separate Peace, relying on their Majority in both Houses, for Approbation of the Measure.1 M. De Vergennes, upon this Intelligence requests, that we would write expressly to acquaint the Congress, that tho' no formal Declaration of War has yet been published, the War between France and England is considered as actualy existing from the time of the Return of the Ambassadors; and that if England should propose a Peace with France, the immediate Answer to the Proposition would be, our eventual Treaty2 with the United States is now in full Force; and we will make no Peace but in Concurrence with them. The same Answer it is expected, will be given by the Congress, if a seperate Peace should be proposed to them. And we have given it as our firm Opinion, that such an Answer will be given by you, without the least Hesitation or Difficulty, tho' you may not have been informed before, as you now are, that War being actually begun, the Eventual Treaty is become fully and compleatly binding. We are with great Respect, Sir, your most obedt. & most humble Servants
[signed] B Franklin
[signed] John Adams3
RC (PCC, No. 85); docketed: “Letter from B. Franklin J. Adams Paris July 23. 1778 Read March 5. 1779. The eventual Treaty is become actually in Force”; notation at the top of the first page: “(Duplicate).”
1. Compare the official view of this reported offer with JA's more pointed comments in his private letters to James Warren, Henry Laurens, and Samuel Adams of 26, 27, and 28 July respectively (all below).
2. That is, the Treaty of Alliance was an eventual treaty in the sense that events—the outbreak of war—had to occur before its provisions, in this case Article 8, could go into effect (OED; Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:38–39).
3. Arthur Lee did not sign this letter, although he was given an opportunity to do so, but he did make a copy (MH-H: Lee Papers). Included with Lee's copy in the Lee Papers is a note, apparently from JA and Benjamin Franklin, stating that “Mr A. Lee is desired to sign and return the enclosed if he approves it.” Lee docketed this note as follows: “Reed, from a Commissionaire on my way from Challiot to Paris, between 6 and 7 O'clock in the Evening, containing a Paper of which the enclosd is an exact Copy. A. Lee July 24th. 1778. Returned unsignd at 8 O'clock next morning.”

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0243-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-24

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

[salute] Messieurs

Le g—— F—— ay ant oublié de me renvoyer le 21 mes Nouvelles d'Allemagne, je fus obligé de les traduire à la hâte, telles que je vous les envoyai ce jour-là. Voici quelques Extraits.1 Les Papiers Anglois et les Lettres d'Amsterdam sont remplis de ce que les François auroient déclaré la guerre à l'Angleterre. Les fonds Anglois ont baissé à Amsterdam de 2 p% environ: il ne se presénte pas même des acheteurs. Les vaisseaux hollandois de St. Eustache et Curaçao, conduits à Plymouth, sont, dit-on, relâchés. J'en serois bien aise, Si cela se confirmoit, parce que des Marchands, qui sont fort de nos Amis, sont intéressés pour une forte portion dans celui de Curaçao destiné pour la Zélande. Autrement je ne serois pas fâché de voir les Anglois irriter nos flegmatiques Bataves par leurs violences.
Je reçois en ce moment le paquet que vous avez eu la bonté de m'acheminer, Messieurs, de la part de l'honorable Committé de la Correspondance secrete. Son contenu me rend extrêmement heureux, surtout de voir que les Lettres que je leur ai écrites jusqu'à Y inclus leur sont successivement parvenus avant le 2e. May, et leur ont été d'autant plus agréables, qu'elles ont rempli un intervalle de presque une année, pendant laquelle diverses fatalités les avoient privés de toutes les vôtres.2
Je continuerai de mettre à profit toutes les plus petites circonstances ici, pour augmenter nos partisans, et affoiblir le parti ennemi, C'est un Goliath, et je ne suis qu'un petit David, qui n'a pour armes que quelques cailloux; avec cela je l'ai déjà bien fatigué; et j'espere à la fin de l'abattre, ou du moins de le rendre enfin traitable.
Je remettrai peut-être Lundi le traité au G—— P—— et je l'enverrai aussi à Amsterdam. On En fait pour cet effet 2 copies, dans lesquelles seront omis par ordre de la Maison3 (que le g—— F—— a eu la bonté de me lire, et où j'ai eu le plaisir délicat de me voir désigné par l'expression flatteuse de l'Ami de Mr. Franklin) les articles 11 et 12, pour raisons que le g—— F—— m'a dites, et qu'il est inutile de répéter, parce que vous les savez. Je suis avec le plus respectueux dévouement Messieurs Votre très humble & très obéissant serviteur
[signed] D

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0243-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-24

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

[salute] Gentlemen

Because the Grand Facteur forgot to return my news from Germany on the 31st, I was obliged to translate in haste that which I sent that day. Here are some excerpts.1 The English papers and the letters from Amsterdam are filled with the allegation that the French have declared war on England. The British stocks fell about 2 percent in Amsterdam; there are no buyers even. It is reported that the Dutch vessels from St. Eustatius and Curacao that were conducted into Plymouth have been released. I would be greatly relieved if it were confirmed because the merchants, our great friends, are interested in a large portion of the vessel from Curacao bound for Zeeland. Otherwise, I would be rather pleased to see the British anger our phlegmatic Batavians with their attacks.
I have just received the packet you had the kindness to send me, gentlemen, on behalf of the honorable Committee of Secret Correspondence. Its content makes me very happy, especially since I see that all the letters I wrote them, through Y, reached them, one after another prior to 2 May, and have proved to be all the more agreeable in that they filled a gap of almost one year, during which several mishaps had deprived them of yours.2
I will continue to put to good use every available occasion here to add to our friends and weaken the enemy which is a Goliath and I but a small David with some pebbles for my weapon. With that, however, I have already significantly weakened it and hope finally to demolish it or at least make it more manageable.
On Monday I will perhaps deliver the treaty to the Grand Pensionary and send it also to Amsterdam. Two copies are being made for this purpose in which, by an order of the House3 (which the Grand Facteur had the kindness to read to me and in which I had the refined pleasure of hearing myself referred to by the flattering expression: friend of Mr. Franklin), Articles 11 and 12 will be omitted for reasons which the Grand Facteur explained to me, and which I will not repeat here since you know them already. I am, with the most respectful devotion, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] D
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); docketed, not by JA: “Dumas 24 July 78.”
1. These were extracts from dispatches sent by the Dutch representatives in Vienna, London, Paris, and Berlin. In letters of 29 June, and 1 and 8 July, Count Dagenfeld reported from Vienna on the impending war in Bavaria and the departures of the Prussian minister and William Lee. Reports on British and French naval movements were contained in letters from Count Welderen from London on 14 July and from Mr. Berkenrode from Paris on 12 July. Count Heide wrote from Berlin on 14 July that the British minister had accused the French of being the aggressor in the naval action of 22 June, the French minister stating the contrary, and reported on the movements of the Prussian Army against Austria. Dumas also noted dispatches from Madrid, Lisbon, Cologne, St. Petersburg, and Constantinople, none of which contained anything of importance.
{ 315 }
2. The letter from the Committee for Foreign Affairs to Dumas was that of 14 May, while Dumas' letter Y was that of 16 Dec. 1777 (PCC, No. 79, 1; No. 93,1).
3. That is, the French Foreign Ministry.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0244

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Cushing, Thomas
Date: 1778-07-25

To Thomas Cushing

[salute] Dear sir

I had this Day the Pleasure of your Letter by Captain Barnes, of June 9.1 I did myself the Honour, when in Boston to call at your House, but was told you was ill and could not be seen, upon which I sent in my Name, as the Fashion is, intending to call at another opportunity, but was dissappointed.
I had a very disagreable Passage, to this Country, passing through many Dangers, from the Wrath of Neptune and Boreas, as well as from that of Bellona and her Britons;2 But had at last sufficient Cause for Gratitude to a Power superiour to them all, in a safe Arrival, in good Health, and in the Midst of good News.
I thank you sir for the Newspaper, you incased to me, containing the Resolutions of Congress, upon the British Bills, Resolutions, which have been highly esteemed and applauded in Europe, as has also their Address to the People, and their prompt and polite Ratification of the Treaty.
As to News sir, altho there has been no formal Manifesto published as yet, either by the Court of Versailles or London, yet the two Nations are at actual War, and the King of France has given orders to all his ships of War, to attack the English at sea, whenever they are found.
We are in hourly Expectation of important News from America. The Count D'Estang must have arrived long ago—and he must have been, probably thirty days before Admiral Biron. Was Lord Howes Force sufficient to make a stand, at New York, or else where against D'Estang, untill Birons Arrival? In short We expect Something very good or very ugly from America, but I am not so sanguine as you know I have been sometimes, which it will be.
I cant bear the Histories I read of the impudent Excursions from Philadelphia and Rhode Island, burning Vessells and Houses. Will America suffer such a Race of Tormentors so contemptible as they are at present in Comparaison of what they have been, to plague her much longer?
I am grieved to the Heart at the Diversity of Sentiment, con• { 316 } cerning our Constitution: but I have <one> a Consolation, in knowing that Disputes in our state are not usually carried to that Pitch of Heat, Rancour and Extravagance, that sometimes happens in other Places, and I therefore hope, that Harmony and Unanimity will in Time take Place.

[salute] Be so good as to make my Compliments acceptable to all our old Friends, and believe me to be with much Respect, sir your most obedient, humble servant

P.S. The Abby Reynel3 is writing an History of this Revolution, and is very desirous of obtaining authentic Documents. Can you help him to any?
1. Cushing congratulated JA on his arrival in France and the success of the Commissioners in negotiating the treaties with France (Adams Papers, not printed here).
2. Boreas, Greek god of the north wind; Bellona, Roman goddess of war.
3. Guillaume Thomas François, Abbé Raynal (1713–1796), philosophe and author of the widely read and reprinted Histoire philosophique et politique des établissements et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes, Amsterdam, 1770, had apparently begun the preparation of his Révolution de l'Amérique, 1781 (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale). JA sent a Dutch translation of that work, Stattsomwenteling van Amerika, Uit net Fransch, Amsterdam, 1781, to AA in a letter of 9 Oct. 1781 (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:224–225, and note 4).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0245

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Lee, Richard Henry
Date: 1778-07-25

To Richard Henry Lee

Passy, 25 July 1778. printed:JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:171–172. In this letter, the last copied from Adams' Letterbooks into his Autobiography for the period of the first mission, he thanked Lee for his letter of 13 May (above), described his voyage to France, and commented on the European political situation which he saw as unfavorable to Great Britain. Adams also mentioned French enthusiasm for the American cause—he had “never seen a French Tory”—the problems caused by the lack of funds, and his difficulties with the French language. Finally, he assured Lee that Beaumarchais' accounts would be closely examined.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0246

Author: MacCreery, William
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-25

From William MacCreery

[salute] Dear Sir

Your favor of 10th. Instant did not reach me 'till this moment. I thank you kindly for your good wishes, and for the whole contents of it.
{ 317 }
There are three Vessels arrived here this Week from America two from Baltimore and one from Boston. Each have brought Letters &c. for each of our Honorable Plenipotentiaries all which have been deliverd to the Agent1 here. My latest Letters from Baltimore are of the 7th. Ultimo and inform me that the Artillery, Baggage, Sick and Wounded of the Enemy had been Shipp'd at Philadelphia and the Ships departed. It was also reported and beleived that they were Shipping the Artillery and Baggage at New York. They were in hopes that the whole of the Enemy wou'd immediatly bid Adeiu to the Continent. Chesapeak Bay had been clear from the middle of May to the middle of June. Their Force no doubt was collected to one point, and has had'ere this a severe trial. The E[nglish] Commissioners had arrived at Rhode Island, perhaps it was in consequence of their arrival that the Troops were leaving N. York.
I hear today on Change that two E[nglish] Cutters are at the mouth of this River. The Saratoga will go out in a few Days, and I think will be able to give a good account of any one of them. She Mounts 12 four Pounders, and is the completest Vessel [for] her Size for fighting I have ever seen.
I lately had the pleasure of a Letter from Isaac Smith Esqr. at Boston, in consequence of my Letters to you while in America.2 You have no doubt recommended me to him, for which I pray you to accept my thanks. The purport of it is to be acquainted of the terms &c. of the Insurance Office at Bordeaux, on which head have Wrote him fully.
The Post being just ready to depart obliges me to curtail this Letter, as I had some things to mention to you, but must like Parson Chase postpone them to subsequent [opportunity?]. Mean time, beg leave to assure you that I am with all possible Respect Dear Sir Your very Obt Servt.
[signed] Will M.Creery3
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “The Honorable John Adams at Passi near Paris”; stamped: “NANTES”; docketed in unknown hands: “McCreery. 1778”; “July 25th.” Tears in the MS have resulted in the partial loss of some words which are supplied in brackets.
1. That is, J. D. Schweighauser.
2. Probably a reference to MacCreery's letter of 10 Oct. 1777 and its addition dated the 25th (above).
3. MacCreery wrote again on 27 July (Adams Papers), enclosing some Baltimore newspapers of 6 June that he had received in the meantime and noting the imminent sailing of Capt. Whipple with a large number of merchant ships, two of which were MacCreery's.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0247

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Lovell, James
Date: 1778-07-26

To James Lovell

[salute] My dear Friend

Your favours of May 16 and 251 by Captain Barnes reached me Yesterday. These with those by Niles from Connecticut and those by the Saratoga from Baltimore are all that I have received from you or from any Body at Congress, which gives me Pain, because your other Letters must have miscarried, and I hold your Letters in so high Esteem that I cannot be willing to loose one.
The Robbery of Folgiers Packet, by all that I can learn must have been committed by a Traitor who made his Escape to England. But Dr. F. and Mr. L. who were acquainted with this Transaction, will I suppose, devellope the Mistery as far as they are able. One of these Gentlemen has some other Suspicions, but I believe, the Fugitive to England was the only Thief.2
Mr. D. whom you mention is no doubt with you before now, but if the Count D'Estang has not been able to strike a decisive Blow before the Arrival of Biron, I should fear that some Misfortune has befallen, since the Junction of Biron and How. We are however anxious to know, the naval Maneuvres in America, as well as those of the Armies. Mr. D. complains of ill treatment, and claims great Merit, for his services. I shall not add to the ill treatment, nor depreciate the Merit: but it will never do for Congress to dread the Resentment of their servants. I have heard a great deal in this Country concerning his Conduct— great Panegyricks and <rough Cen> harsh Censures. But I believe he has nither the extravagant Merit, that some Persons ascribe to him, nor the gross faults to answer for, which some others impute, or suspect. I believe he was a dilligent servant of the Public, and rendered it useful service. His Living was expensive: but whether he made the vast Profit to himself that Some Persons suspect, I know not, or whether any Profit at all. One thing I know that my family will feel that I shall not imitate him in this faculty if it really was his. For which Reason I wish Congress would determine, what Allowance We shall have for our Time, that I might know whether my Family can live upon it or not.
Extravagant Claims of Merit are always to be suspected. General Gates was the ablest Negociator you ever had in Europe, and next to him General Washingtons attack upon the Enemy at Germantown. I dont know indeed whether this last affair had { 319 } not more Influence upon the European Mind than that of Saratoga—altho the Attempt was unsuccessfull, the military Gentlemen in Europe considerd it, as the most decisive Proof that America would finally succeed.3
And you may depend upon it, altho Your Agents in Europe were to plead with the Tongues of Men and Angells, although they had the Talents and the Experience of Mazarine, or the Integrity of D'ossat,4 your Army in America, would have more success than they.
I foresee there will be Diversities of sentiment concerning this Gentleman, and perhaps warm Debates—perhaps there will be as much as there has been about a General in the Northern Department.5 All that I request is that I may not be drawn into the Dispute. Europe has not charms enough for me, to wish to stay here, to the Exclusion of abler Negociators, much less at the Expence of Heats and Divisions in Congress. How well united you were in the Choice of me I never was informed, and how soon attempts may be made to displace me I know not. But one thing I beg of my Friends, and one only that if any Attempt of that Kind should be made, they would give me up, rather than continue my Residence at the Expence of Debates in Congress, and by the favour of small Majorities.
If I were capable of Speculating in English Funds, or of conducting private Trade, I might find opportunities here to make a private Profit, and might have Inducements from private Considerations to continue here: But this will never be my Case. And I am very well perswaded that Congress will never grant me So much for my services here as I could earn by my Profession in Boston, to which I will return with submission to old Ocean, old Boreas, and British Men of War, the Moment I am released from this station. I wish however that Congress would determine what allowance they will make, that honest Men may not be made, nor suspected to be otherwise. As to the public, I am fully perswaded, that its Interests are not at all concerned in my Residence here, as there is a great Plenty of Persons quite as well qualified.
If I had Leisure my Friend to write you Descriptions of Cities of Villages of Gardens, of Groves, Parks, Forests, Buildings, Churches Palaces, Equipage Furniture, Gold, silver, Marble, lacce, Velvet, silk and Alabaster I could give you Pictures more charming than any Thing in Philadelphia: But yet I must con• { 320 } fess that I am so much of Mrs. Climers Mind that I would rather live there than here. My <most> affectionate Respects to that worthy Lady and her sister, to Mr. Clymer her son and to the Children, and especially to the General,6 whom I shall ever love for his integrity his firmness and his Love to his Country.
Dont forget to make my Respects to the Gentlemen who were formerly my Colleagues but are so no longer, as I learn my Constituents in the Massachusetts have displaced me from the Delegation. My Respects to Dr. Holten.
1. For the letter here designated as being of 25 May, see Lovell to JA, [May] (above).
2. The “Traitor” was Joseph Hynson, the sea captain who had actually stolen the dispatches, while the “other Suspicions” were those of Arthur Lee, probably in regard to William Carmichael, but Lee may have disclosed to JA his suspicions of Jacques Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont, the Commissioners' landlord at Passy (Lewis Einstein, Divided Loyalties, Boston, 1933, p. 63–64, 67, 71; Lee to the Committee of Correspondence, 14 April, Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:550–552; Lee to James Lovell, 3 June, R. H. Lee, Arthur Lee, 2:141–142).
3. For an assessment of the impact of the Battle of Germantown that largely agrees with JA's, see Orville T. Murphy, “The Battle of Germantown and the Franco-American Alliance of 1778,” PMHB, 82:55–64 (Jan. 1958).
4. Arnaud d'Ossat (1536–1604), cardinal and French diplomat (Hoefer, Nouv. biog. générale).
5. Gen. Philip Schuyler and the controversy that raged around him from his appointment as commander of the Northern Department to his acquittal by court martial in Oct. 1778 (DAB).
6. Brig. Gen. Roberdeau.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0248

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Warren, James
Date: 1778-07-26

To James Warren

[salute] My dear Sir

Yours of [7] June by Captain Barnes fortunately reached me, Yesterday. I was much Surprised, you may well imagine at its Contents. But I Suppose, the Cause of their not electing you to the Council, must have been your Engagements in the Navy Board.
I am unhappy to learn by the Newspapers, that our Constitution is likely to occasion much Altercation in the State, but notwithstanding all our Dissentions, there is a Mass of Prudence, and Integrity among our People, that will finally conduct them into the right Way.
I wish now that I had accepted of your polite offer of your son. It is however I presume for his Interest, because, he may pursue Business there to much better Profit. If Mr. Austin should leave me, I should have occasion for a Clerk, which would afford a { 321 } young Gentleman, a decent subsistence and no more. The Frigates, the Merchandise, the Negociations and the vast Correspondence, we have, render a Clerk, indispensably necessary for each of the Commissioners, and for some of them more than one. <If your Son will accept of so humble an Employment,>.
Mr. Hancock Mr. Adams, and my respectable successor Dr. Holten, are gone to Congress, but you dont mention Mr. Paine.1 Where is he? Earning Twenty thousand dollars a year at the Bar? If he is I wish him Joy, and hope in Time to arrive at some Post of the same Honour and Profit. Dana I suppose is earning Thirty thousands. Upon my Word I think these Gentry ought to through their rich Profits into Hotchpotch with a poor Brother at Passi.
Where is the Spirit and the Genius of America? To suffer the feeble Remnants of <your> our Ennemis, in Philadelphia and Rhode Island, to come out with such Insolence, and burn Houses and Vessells, without Retaliation, is intollerable.
Will it ever do to think of Peace, while G. Britain has Canada, Nova Scotia and the Floridas, or any of them? Such a Peace will be but short. We shall have perpetual Wars with Britain while she has a foot of Ground in America. But if the belligerant Powers should be exhausted, so as to think of Peace, leaving Canada in the Hands of Britain, which I hope they will not, the Boundaries of Canada, must be ascertained, and of the Floridas too.
I believe I can tell you a Piece of News. The Cabinet at London, have determined to send to their Commissioners in America Instructions to offer you Independance, provided you will make Peace with them Seperate from France, and make a Commercial Treaty with them, by which they may retain something like their late Monopoly.
They certainly think that Americans are not Men of Honour. They believe them capable of violating their first Treaty, their first solemn sacred Faith, within a few Moments of its unanimous Ratification. Is it because they have seen, or heard any Thing like this Perfidy in Americans, or is it because they feel themselves capable of such Conduct and infer from thence that all other Men, are equally so?
Is there a Man in America, who would not run all hazards, who would not suffer the last Extremity rather than stain the first Page of our History with so foul a Breach of Faith? Is there { 322 } who would confess and prove to the World that America has no Honour, no Conscience, no faith, no Pride, for the sake of avoiding the Evils of War?
But where and how did the King and Council obtain Authority to make Such an offer? They have no such Power. Parliament alone can do it.
But they mean no such Thing. They mean only to seduce soldiers to Desertion. They mean only to draw in Congress or some public Body to break their Faith with France and to do some Act which shall forfeit the Confidence of all Mankind, and then they think they can manage America. Their object in this Piece of Policy as in all their others towards America, appears to me to be to seduce, to deceive, and to divide. They must however <at length> be brought to mingle some sincerity with their Policy, before they will succeed. I am as ever, yours
1. Robert Treat Paine, attorney general of Massachusetts, did not attend the congress during 1778, while Francis Dana, mentioned later in the paragraph, served for a few days in January and from at least 24 March until 11 Aug. (Burnett, ed., Letters of Members, 3:liv).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0249

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Laurens, Henry
Date: 1778-07-27

To Henry Laurens

I thank you, my dear sir for your kind Congratulations,1 on the favourable Appearances in our American Concerns, and for so politely particularising one of the most inconsiderable of them, my Safe Arrival in France, which was after a very inconvenient Passage of forty five days.
Your Letter to Mr. Izzard, I had the Pleasure to send to him immediately, in Paris, where he resides, the Court of Tuscany being so connected with that of Vienna, as to discourage hitherto his Departure for Italy. He did me the Honour of a Visit Yesterday, when We had much sweet Communion as the Phrase is upon American affairs.
Your other Letter to your Daughter in Law, I have forwarded by a safe Opportunity. You may depend upon my conveying your Letters to any of your Friends by the best Opportunities and with Dispatch. The more of your Commands you send me the more Pleasure you will give me.
War is not declared. That is no Manifesto has been published. But each Nation is daily manufacturing Materials for the others { 323 } Manifesto, by open Hostilities. In short, sir, the two Nations have been at War, Since the Recal of the Ambassadors. The King of France, has given orders to all his ships to attack the English, and has given vast Encouragement to Privateers.
The K. of G. B. and his Council have determined to Send Instructions to their Commissioners in America to offer Us Independency, provided We will make Peace with them, Seperate from France.2 This appears to me to be the last Effort to seduce, deceive, and divide. They know that every Man of Honour in America must receive this Proposition with Indignation. An immaculate Virgin would scarcely feel more Grief, more shame, more Horror, from an attempt made upon her chastity, by an old Debauchee, in a public Assembly. But they think they can get the Men of no Honour, to join them by such a Proposal, and they think that the Men of Honour are not a Majority. What has America done, to give Occasion to that King and Council to think So unworthily of her?
The Proposition is in other Words this—“America, you have fought me untill I despair of beating you—you have made an Alliance with the first Power of Europe, which is a great Honour to your Country and a great stability to your Cause. So great, that it has excited my highest Resentment, and has determined me to go to War with France. Do you break your Faith with that Power, and forfeit her Confidence, as well as that of all the rest of Mankind forever, and join me to beat her, or stand by neutre and see me do it, and for all this I will acknowledge your Independency, because I think in that Case you cannot maintain it, but will be an easy Pray to me Afterwards, who am determind to break my faith with you, as I wish you to do yours with France.”
My dear Countrymen I hope will not be allured upon the Rocks by the syron song of Peace. They are now playing, a sure Game. They have run all Hazards, but now they hazard nothing.
I know your <Avocations are> Application is incessant, and your Moments precious, and therefore that I ask a great favour in requesting your Correspondence, but the Interest of the Public as well as private Friendship induce me to do it. I am with great Esteem your Frd & sert.
1. Laurens to JA, 19 May (above).
2. Compare the treatment of the reported offer in this personal letter with that in the letter of 23 July from Benjamin Franklin and JA to Laurens in his role as president of the congress (above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0250

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Vernon, William Sr.
Date: 1778-07-27

To William Vernon Sr.

[salute] Sir

Your Letter of 26 May with Duplicats of those of 9 March and 20 May, arrived safe at Passy by the Hand of Captn. Barnes the day before Yesterday. The two Letters for your Son shall be conveyed, by the first Opportunity to him, who has taken his Residence, at a Manufacturing Town in the Province of Guienne, where he will have an Opportunity to learn the Language, and see the first Springs of Commerce. He proposes soon to remove to Bourdeaux. Your son, sir, while I was with him conducted, with much Discretion and very agreably: and I have no doubt he will continue to do so.
I am extreamly mortified at the Relation you give of the Conduct of Captain Thompson of the Rawley, of whose Abilities, and Qualifications for his Command I had a good opinion. I really know not the Cause, but the Continental officers of the Navy, have not answerd the Public Expectation. Discipline is the soul of a Navy. With it every Thing may be done—without it nothing. The Want of Discipline gives our Commanders a Diffidence in their Crews, from whence I fear proceeds the Dread of Fighting, that has appeared so often. The Voice of the World is very Severe against Thompson, but perhaps the Facts are not sufficiently, which I sincerely wish may be the Case.
The News Papers are very acceptable and very Usefull. My Compliments to your Colleages and to Mr. Story.1 I am sir with great Respect, your humble & Obedient servant.
1. That is, to the other members of the Naval Board for the Eastern Department and the secretary or clerk of that body, William Storey (see references to Storey in that capacity in JCC, 11:735, 747).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0251

Author: Simpson, Thomas
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-27

Thomas Simpson to the Commissioners

[salute] May it please your Honours

I wrote you from Nantes that I had arrived there, and was to take my passage for America in the Providence, the 25. Mr. Livingston arriving from Paris informed me that you had appointed him to the command of the Ranger, but on Captain Jones delivering up my parole, you were pleased to honour me with that appointment.
{ 325 }
Your Honours letters to Captain Whipple, and Mr. Schweighasser1 coming to their hands advising them of it, and that I was to obey Captain Whipple's instructions, he ordered me the 24th to proceed immediately for Brest, to take the command of the Ranger, and to get her ready for sea immediately, with not less than three months provissions on board. Mr. Schweighasser also gave me a letter to his friend here to supply me with every necessary I shou'd want for that purpose. I set out from Nantes the 24th in the evening, and arrived here the 26th. Find the Ship near ready, wanting a few stores, and her bottom to be cleaned for which only a few days will be required. Captain Whipple, and Mr. Schweighasser recommended my entring thirty or forty of the prisoners if possible to serve in the Boston, which I shall endeavour to do, and make no doubt I shall succeed. As soon as possible, shall procure a State of the Ranger in regard to her stores, and forward you. The prizes are not yet sold, Mr. Schweighasser has been kind enough to say, if their value cou'd be nearly ascertained, he will advance the money for the Ships company, which will set every thing on a proper footing.
I have the pleasure to inform you that your appointment affords the greatest satisfaction to Officers, and men. And am with gratitude for the trust you have been pleased to repose in me Your Honours, most Obedient and very humble Servant.
[signed] Thom Simpson
RC (PPAmP: Franklin Papers); addressed: “The Honourable Commissioners from the United States of America At Passi”; stamped: “BREST”; docketed: “Brest July 27. Mr Simpsons. Lett.”; in another hand after the date: “78.”
1. Letters to Schweighauser and WhippleThose of 16 July (both calendared above).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0252

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Adams, Samuel
Date: 1778-07-28

To Samuel Adams

[salute] My dear Sir

The Sovereign of Britain and his Council have determined to instruct their Commissioners to offer you Independance, provided you will disconnect yourselves from France.
The Question arises how came the King and Council, by Authority to offer this? It is certain that they have it not.
In the next Place, is the Treaty of Alliance between Us and France, now binding Upon Us?1 I think there is not room to doubt, it: for Declarations and Manifestos dont make the state of { 326 } War they are only Publications of the Reasons of War. Yet the Message of the King of Great Britain to both Houses of Parliament, and their Answers to that Message2 were as full a Declaration of War as ever was made. And accordingly Hostilities have been frequent, ever since.
This Proposal then is a modest Invitation to a gross act of Infidelity and Breach of Faith. It is an Observation that I have often heard you make, that “France is the natural Ally of the united States.”
This observation is in my opinion both just and important. The Reasons are plain.
As long as Great Britain shall have Canada Nova Scotia, and the Floridas, or any of them So long will Great Britain be the Enemy of the United States, let her disguise it as much as she will.
It is not much to the Honour of human Nature, but the Fact is certain that neighbouring Nations are never Friends in Reality. In the Times of the most perfect Peace between them their Hearts and their Passions are hostile, and this will certainly be the Case for ever between the 13 united states and the English Colonies.
France and England as Neighbours and Rivals never have been and never will be Friends. The Hatred and Jealousy between the Nations is eternal and ineradicable.
We therefore, as on the one Hand we have the surest Ground to expect the Jealousy and Hatred of Great Britain, so on the other We have the Strongest Reasons to depend upon the Friendship and Alliance of France. And no one Reason in the World to expect her Enmity or her Jealousy, as she has given up every Pretention to any Spot of Ground on the Continent. The United states therefore, will be for Ages, the natural Bulwark of France against the Hostile designs of England against her, and France is the natural Defence of the united States against the rapacious Spirit of Great Britain against them.
France is a Nation So vastly eminent, having been for so many Centuries what they call the dominant Power of Europe, being incomparably the most powerfull at Land, that united in a close Alliance with our states and enjoying the Benefit of our Trade there is not the smallest Reason to doubt, but both will be a sufficient Curb upon the naval Power of Great Britain.
{ 327 }
This Connection therefore will forever secure a Respect for our states in Spain Portugal and Holland too, who will always chose to be upon friendly terms with Powers who have numerous Cruisers at sea, and indeed in all the rest of Europe.
I presume therefore that sound Policy as well as good Faith, will induce Us, never to renounce our Alliance with France, even altho it should continue Us for some time in War. The French are as sensible of the Benefits of this Alliance to them as We are, and they are determined, as much as We, to cultivate it.
In order to continue the War, or at least that We may do any good in the common Cause, the Credit of our Currency must be supported, but how? Taxes, my dear sir Taxes. Pray let our Countrymen consider and be wise. Every farthing they pay in Taxes is a farthings worth of Wealth and good Policy.
If it was possible to hire Money in Europe, to discharge the Bills, it would be a dreadfull Drain to the Country to pay the Interest of it. But I fear it will not. The House of Austria, have sent orders to Amsterdam to hire a very great sum, England is borrowing great sums and France is borrowing largely. Amidst such demands for Money, and by Powers, who offer better Terms I fear We shall not be able to succeed.3

[salute] Pray write me as often as you can & believe me your Frd & servant

1. For the official view on the status of the Franco-American Treaty of Alliance, see Benjamin Franklin and JA to the president of the congress, 23 July (above).
2. For the King's message of 17 March concerning the Franco-American treaties and the responses of the Lords and Commons, see Parliamentary Hist., 19:912–913, 926–928.
3. JA's opinion, restated in his letter to Richard Henry Lee of 5 Aug. (below), on the difficulty of raising a European loan is significant and was shared by the other Commissioners (see Arthur Lee to the Committee for Foreign Affairs, 21 Aug., and the Commissioners to the president of the congress, 17 Sept., in Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:691–692, 722–725). On 3 Dec. 1777, the congress had directed the Commissioners to attempt to obtain a loan of £2,000,000 sterling at a rate of not more than 6 percent interest and for a period of not less than 10 years (JCC, 9:989–990). On the date of this letter and in obedience to those instructions, the Commissioners were signing the promissory notes for a proposed loan of 205,000 florins to be raised in the Netherlands through the agency of Horneca, Fizeaux & Co. (Arthur Lee to the Committee of Correspondence, 28 July, Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 2:671–672; Commissioners to Horneca, Fizeaux & Co., 31 Aug., below). The effort, like that of William Carmichael's in 1776, was, however, a failure for essentially the reasons given here by JA (Edler, Dutch Republic and the American Revolution, p. 71–80).

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0253-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-28

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners

Voilà, Messieurs, la quintessence de douze pages Hollandoises in folio, que je viens de par courir.1 Les dépêches de Cologne, Paris, Elseneur, Hambourg, Bruxelles, Londres, et Smyrne ne contiennent rien qui puisse vous interesser.
On a ici la nouvelle sure d'une suspension d'armes en Allemagne jusqu'au ier. d'Août; et lon croit généralement que la paix s'ensuivra. Le Roi a fait venir ses principaux Ministres à Glatz2 pour examiner de nouvelles propositions faites par la Cour de Vienne.
J'ai porté ce matin une Copie du Traité que le g—— F—— a fait faire par ses commis, et où l'on a omis les articles 11 et 12, au G—— P——. Il m'a reçu poliment, et promis de ne pas le laisser répandre, jusqu'à ce que vous m'ayiez écrit qu'il peut être publié. Il m'a demandé ce que je pensois du succès qu'auroit la Commission Britannique en Amérique. J'ai répondu que j'étois sur qu'il seroit mauvais. Il m'a demandé ce que je pensois de la négociation du Ms. d'Almodovar;3 j'ai dit que cela me paroissoit le dernier effort de la maison de Bourbon pour conserver la paix, et que je ne doutois nullement d'un parfait accord entre la France et l'Espagne. Il étoit de mon sentiment sur l'un et l'autre article. Enfin il me demanda si vous ne m'aviez rien mandé de l'état interne des choses en Amérique. Je sentis ce qu'il vouloit dire, et lui répondis que j'étois chargé de déclarer, que la plus parfaite union regnoit parmi le Congrès et dans les differents Etats; que ce qu'on débitoit de la mésintelligence entre le Congrès et le Général W. étoit la plus insigne Imposture, et que l'Amérique ne feroit point la paix, si la France n'y étoit comprise, et son Traité avec elle approuvé.
J'ai aussi envoyé Mr. Van Berkel le Pensionaire d'Amsterdam, une pareille Copie, avec la Lettre dont voici copie.
“M. chargé par Mrs. les Plenipotentiaires des Etats Unis de l'Amérique de vous faire parvenir la Copie ci-jointe du Traité d'Amitié et de Commerce conclu entre la France et les dits Etats, avec le témoignage de la haute estime et considération qu'ils ont pour Vous en particulier et pour tous les honorables membres de la Régence d'Amsterdam en général; je m'acquitte de ces ordres avec toute la satisfaction et l'empressement que me { 329 } dicte mon respectueux attachement aux intérêsts de cette Republique Mrs. les Plenipotentiaires vous prient de vouloir ne communiquer ce Traité que de maniere qu'il ne puisse s'en répandre des Copies, jusqu'à-ce qu'ils m'aient écrit qu'il peut être publie, et entre les mains de tout le monde. J'ai porté ce matin à Mr. le G—— P—— une copie pareille, avec la meme priere. Je joins à cela une proclamation du Congres,4 que je viens de recevoir, et dont je pense que la Communication vous fera plaisir. Elle va paroître dans les Gazettes en françois et hollandois, et doit autant satisfaire les Puissances maritimes, qu'elle fait honneur à l'équité et à la sagesse du Congrès.”
La Poste va partir. Il ne me reste qu'un instant pour vous présenter les assurances du respect avec lequel je suis Messieurs Votre très humble & très obéissant serviteur
[signed] Dumas
Les Etats d'Hollande se rassembleront ici le 26 Août.

Docno: ADMS-06-06-02-0253-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: First Joint Commission at Paris
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1778-07-28

C. W. F. Dumas to the Commissioners: A Translation

Here, Gentlemen, is the substance of twelve pages in folio, in Dutch, that I have just skimmed through.1 The dispatches from Cologne, Paris, Elsinore, Hamburg, Brussels, London, and Smyrna contain nothing of interest to you.
One has here reliable reports of a suspension of arms in Germany until 1 August; and it is generally thought that peace will follow. The King has summoned his chief Ministers to Glatz2 examine some new proposals made by the Court of Vienna.
This morning I took a copy of the treaty, made by the assistants of the Grand Facteur and omitting articles 11 and 12, to the Grand Pensionary. He received me politely and promised not to circulate it until you have written me that it can be published. He asked me what I thought of the British Commission's chances for success in America. I answered that I was certain that they were very poor. He then asked me what I thought of the negotiation initiated by the Marquis d'Almodovar;3 I said that it appeared to me to be the last effort of the House of Bourbon to maintain the peace, and that I had no doubts concerning a perfect agreement between France and Spain. He shared my opinion on both matters. Finally, he asked me if you had told me anything about the internal state of affairs in America. I guessed what he meant and told him that I was directed to declare that the most perfect harmony existed in both the congress and the various states; that what was alleged about a misunderstanding between the congress and General Washington was a most flagrant case of slander; and that America would not make peace if France was not included and the Franco-American treaty approved.
{ 330 }
I also sent a similar copy to Mr. van Berckel, the Pensionary of Amsterdam, with a letter of which a copy is enclosed.

[salute] “Sir

I was directed by the Plenipotentiaries of the United States of America to convey the enclosed copy of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce concluded between France and the aforementioned states to you along with their expression of the high esteem and regard in which they hold you in particular and all the Honorable Members of the Regency of Amsterdam in general. I fulfill this mission with all the satisfaction and eagerness that inspires my respectful attachment to the interests of this Republic. The Plenipotentiaries kindly request you to communicate this treaty only in such a way that copies will not be circulated until they have written me that it may be published and placed before everybody. This morning, I took an identical copy to the Grand Pensionary with the same request. I enclose with it a proclamation of the congress,4 which I have just received, and whose communication will, I think, please you. It will appear in the gazettes, in French and Dutch, and ought to satisfy the maritime powers all the more since it is a tribute to the equity and wisdom of the congress.”
The mail is about to leave. I have but an instant to present to you assurances of the respect with which I am, gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Dumas
The Dutch States General will reconvene here on 26 August.
RC (MH-H: Lee Papers); addressed: “A Leurs Excellences Messieurs les Plénipotentiaires des Etats-Unis de l'Amérique Paris.”
1. Departing from his usual practice, Dumas filled two-thirds of the first page of this letter with extracts from dispatches dated 11 July from Vienna and on 16 July from the Bavarian city of Ratisbon (now Regensburg, West Germany). The first reported on the disposition of the Austrian army, meetings between the minister from Saxony and Prince Kaunitz, and the voyage of a vessel fitted out at Trieste to India and Africa. The second stated that the constituent states of the German Empire had been informed that the Emperor considered those favoring the Russian party as his enemies.
Dumas' letter of 31 July (PPAmP: Franklin Papers), which reported on desertions from the Dutch army and efforts to secure publication of news sent by the Commissioners, contained extracts from seven additional dispatches. The first, from London, dated 21 July, described events in America as reported by a recently returned British officer. From St. Petersburg on 3 July, Paris on 19 July, and Madrid on 6 July came reports on a possible Russo-Turkish war, the French fleet at Brest, the capture of two Guernsey privateers, and the arrival at Cadiz of the fleet from Vera Cruz. Those from Berlin of 18 and 21 July and Vienna of 15 July contained additional information on the Austro-Prussian conflict over Bavaria.
2. Glatz (now Klodzko, Poland) was a strongly fortified town in the Prussian province of Silesia on the border with Bohemia.
3. The ill-fated effort by Spain to mediate between France and Britain on the condition that for its neutrality, Spain would receive Gibraltar (Bemis, <