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Browsing: Papers of John Adams, Volume 8


Docno: ADMS-06-08-02-0075

Author: Austin, Jonathan Loring
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1779-07-07

From Jonathan Loring Austin

[salute] Honble. Sir

When Individuals emerge from Difficulties, and by a happy turn of Fortune, suddenly find their Circumstances, not only bettered, but their future prospects very promising, the Gloom of Sorrow, which before clouded their Brows, is removed, and Joy and Gladness resume the place. Its thus with our Country at this happy Period. The Letter herewith, which is a Copy of my last,1 was a Representation of our lax Situation on my Arrival here, the Virtue which calld forth the Efforts of Americans when threatned with Chains, that Virtue which had lain so long dormant, revives afresh. The spirited and timely Address from Congress to the People of this Continent2 (which I had the Honor of enclosing you per Capt. Thompson) calld up a Blush, and roused them from their Lethargy; Self Interest was before this the Idol; Monopoly and Oppression advanced with rapid Strides; the Necessaries of Life (tho' no ways scarce) were at exorbitant prices; and the Money was esteemed of little more value than the Paper upon which it was stamped. This Address awakened the nominal rich, whose Fortunes { 97 } appeared only ideal, the Farmer adopted the Sentiment, and those in a lower Sphere of Life were forward to remedy the Evil.—At Philada. the combined Effort of all Ranks began. Massachusetts, or rather this Town approved their plan,3 and in a few days a Stop was put to the extravagant Rise of all Sorts of Merchandize, and the Money visibly grew <better> in greater Credit, instead of thirty paper Dollars given frequently for a hard one they were last week offerd for ten and refused. Every kind of Merchandize on my Arrival4 was esteemed better than our Money, at almost any price, Goods have now fell 25 per Cent or more, and the proprietors would be glad to have paper Money for them.
In the midst of these Efforts, providence as it were approving our Resolutions, and to add Firmness and Stability to the proceedings, blessed us with the agreeable News that the British Troops had received a Check at South Carolina.5 I have now the Honor as well as Satisfaction of congratulating you and all Friends upon this signal Success, which in its Consequences may have a happier Tendency than the great News I had the Honor of carrying to France.6 I enclose you all the papers which mention this glorious Event, from the first Rumor here, to the authenticated Account; and hope this Affair in Conjunction with the Resolutions of the Merchants Traders &c.7 will discover to Great Britain the Folly of her Conduct, and demonstrate to her and to the whole World, that while America continues virtuous she is invincible.

[salute] I have the Honor to be with all Respect and Attachment Sir Your most Obedient & very humble Servant

[signed] Jon Loring Austin
RC (Adams Papers); docketed: “J. L. Austin. July 7. 1779.” Enclosures not found.
1. That of 7 June (above).
2. Austin probably enclosed the Address with his letter of 7 June. The Address of 26 May is in JCC, 14:649–657; Independent Chronicle, 17 June; and Evans, No. 16636. This congressional exhortation to the people admitted that too much paper money had been issued, but put a part of the blame for constantly rising prices on monopolizers, and urged the people to act through their state governments to control hoarding. The larger theme was that the people must cooperate in bringing about change; the congress could not act alone.
3. The people of Philadelphia, gathered on 25 May at the State House yard, were addressed by Gen. Roberdeau on the subject of monopolizers and rising prices. Resolutions were passed and committees appointed in a plan to publicize the extent of rising prices and to shame merchants into reducing excessive demands. The meeting also moved to look into corruption in the spending of public money and sought a like program throughout the United States (Independent Chronicle, 10 June). The town of Boston responded to the congressional appeal by passing resolutions in a meeting whose minutes have not been preserved, but which was held on 17 June (Boston Record Commissioners, 26th Report, p. 70). Reportedly, several Massachusetts counties reacted favorably to the Philadelphia example (Inde• { 98 } pendent Chronicle, 1 July).
4. Austin arrived on 29 May.
5. The Independent Chronicle of 24 June carried four highly exaggerated reports of a battle at Charleston in mid-May: two from Baltimore, one from Smith's Clove, N.Y., and one from a ship arrived in Beverly. All claimed severe losses for the British, ranging from 700 to 1,500 casualties. All agreed that the British were caught between the forces of Gens. Lincoln and Moultrie and likely to suffer total defeat. The victory was further confirmed by a South Carolinian arriving in Philadelphia. A dispatch from Lincoln himself was said to claim 1,400 casualties and 700 prisoners captured (Independent Chronicle, 1 July). Actually, British Gen. Prevost had avoided a major engagement by withdrawing from the Charleston area when he discovered that he was between two armies. A significant engagement between Lincoln and Prevost did not occur until June, when the American losses were greater than the British (Ward, War of the Revolution, 2:685–687; Howard Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence, Chicago, 1974, p. 60–61). See also James Lovell to JA, 13 June, note 14 (above).
6. That is, news of the American victory at Saratoga (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:300).
7. On 16 June, Boston merchants resolved that no increase should be made in prices of commodities above then existing levels and that by 15 July prices would not exceed those of 1 May. Boston's merchants expected future monthly reductions, provided merchants in other Massachusetts towns agreed. They also voted to stop acquiring gold and silver and to expose those who demanded hard money (Independent Chronicle, 17 June).

Docno: ADMS-06-08-02-0076

Author: Warren, James
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1779-07-29

From James Warren

[salute] My Dear Sir

I am Told that in the few Letters which have been received from you here you Complain greatly that your Friends dont write to you oftner, and that you seldom hear from America. I easily Conceive such A Situation painful, and have Contributed my Mite to prevent it by writeing by every good Opportunity and long Letters too, for I know that People in high Stations have their Curiosity as well as others, and if they Assume Brevity themselves in their Letters, they Love to have Matters in detail from others. Upon this Principle I filled a large Sheet which went six weeks ago1 per Capt. Thompson in A little flying Schooner, which I dare say will run Clear and deliver you the Letter in safety, and make it Unnecessary to be lengthy in this. Our Spirits have been Alternately raised and depressed by the Accounts we have had at different Times from South Carolina. Sometimes the British Army has been wholly routed, and destroyed, and at others were advancing with A prospect of Carrying Charlestown. In Short the Accounts both here and at Philadelphia have been Interrupted, Confused and Uncertain.2 I dont learn that Congress ever get any regular Official Accounts. I had a Letter from Mr. Lovel of the 18th. Instant, in which he gives such Accounts as they had received from Transient Persons, from which Compared with each Other he dared only to Infer that we might Expect good Tideing from thence. I now hear A Vessel arrived at New London in A short passage, says the Britons had reached their { 99 } Shipping and Embarked. I don't Understand how it is that these fellows can prowl about A Country for six Months, with an army of Continentals and Militia all round them, and then get off without much loss.
Genl. Sullivan is gone into the Woods with about 5000 Men,3 (An Expedition I have no great Opinion of) while the Enemy have been ravageing the C[o]asts of Connecticut and Burning their Towns &c &c,4 According to the true Spirit of Magnanimity, and Humanity of the Plan Expressed by their Commissioners. If there be no Check to their proceedings it seems to me this is their Plan of Operation, for the present Campaigne. If it be Infamous for its Barbarism, or Contemptible for its Malicious Littleness, British Historians and Poets may reconcile it if they Can to their Boasted national Politeness and Magnanimity, or which is more probable deny the facts. The last we hear of them is at Rhode Island. What Town is the object of the next Expedition is Uncertain. I suppose they will soon work themselves out of Stock on that Side <unless> and must come round the Cape to find new Objects to glut their Cruelty and revenge.
You will find by the Papers that a Detachment from Genl. Washington'[s] Army under Genl. Wayne has shewn what the Spirit of Enterprise may do if Exerted.5
We Just hear that Count D. Estaing has gained a great Naval Victory in the West Indies.6 I wish it may prove true. If it does probably some of their Ships will be sent this way, to avoid Hurricanes, and Assist us.
Our Continental Ships as well as Privateers have been very Successfull. Many Prizes are sent in. We are now Engaged in An Expedition against the Enemy, who have made a Lodgment at Penobscot.7 About 20 Sail of Armed Vessels of different forces, Sailed about 10 days ago to Join 1600 Troops Assembled at the Eastward. If the Enemy do not draw of[f] their Force, or reinforce them they are stupid indeed. If they do the last, our Fleet may be in danger, and A Capital Loss may Ensue. I gave you an Account in my last of the deplorable State of our Currency, since which an Alarm of danger from that quarter has become so general, as to form Associations of Merchants and a pretty general Convention of delegates from the several Towns at Concord. I have some Expectations from these measures, whether they sprung from Fear, or a resolute Fortitude, from self Interest, or genuine Patriotism. You will see their several proceedings in the Papers.8
In September we are to have A Convention at Cambridge to form A Constitution of Government.9
This is to go by the Mercury Packet Capt. Samson, who Carries dis• { 100 } patches of Congress. What they Contain I dont know. I hope some Honourable Appointment for You. I have felt some resentment lately for your detention in Europe without being in A public Active Character and Station. I am however Assured by Mr. Adams that A great Majority of Congress have very favourable Sentiments and designs with regard to you.
There goes Passenger in this Packet Mr. Elkanah Watson10 A Young Gentleman I am told of very good Character. He is Son of Capt. Watson of this Town, and a remote relation of Mine. He has lived and served his Time with John Browne of Providence, and I suppose is now in pursuit of Commercial plans. He Intends to go to Paris, and seems to be possessed of A Laudable Ambition to be taken Notice of by Gentlemen of distinction. You will therefore by some Attention to him Cherish a good Principle in the Mind of a Youth and oblige Your Friend and Humbe. Servt.
[signed] J Warren
RC (Adams Papers); docketed in an unknown hand: “Gen Warren”; by CFA: “July 29th 1779.”
1. Warren's letter of 13 June (above).
2. Conflicting reports, ranging from claims of a serious defeat for the British to one claiming that sickness prevented the forces of Prevost and Lincoln from clashing, appeared in successive weeks (Independent Chronicle, 15, 22, and 29 July).
3. During John Sullivan's extensive raiding in the country of the Six Nations in the summer of 1779, he claimed to have burned forty Indian towns along with their crops and orchards. Notable for the savagery of its assaults, the expedition killed or captured few of the enemy and thus did not afford the protection to the frontier settlements that had been intended (Ward, War of the Revolution, 2:638–645).
4. In early July the British, under the command of Gen. Tryon, burned New Haven, Fairfield, and Norwalk (Independent Chronicle, 15 July).
5. On 15 July, Anthony Wayne, commanding a brigade of four specially chosen regiments, mounted an attack on the fort at Stony Point, N.Y., a stronghold recently taken from the Americans and considerably strengthened by the British. The fort and its counterpart on the east side of the Hudson River, at Verplanck's Point, formed the gateway connecting the upper and lower Hudson Valley. British possession threatened both the ferry in the vicinity and West Point to the north. Marching under the tightest discipline, Wayne's force cut its way through two abatis, assaulted the fort, and took it in hand-to-hand fighting. The British suffered nearly 600 casualties in killed, wounded, and captured; the Americans, 100. Apart from the boost to morale that the American victory provided, the capture of the fort had no lasting result. Washington decided that it could not be maintained, and the British later recaptured it. The congress awarded Wayne a gold medal and two of his officers silver ones (Ward, War of the Revolution, 2:596–603; Howard Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence, Chicago, 1974, p. 62). A brief account appeared in the Independent Chronicle for 22 July.
6. There were reports of the capture of the West Indian island of St. Vincent by Estaing in June, but the fullest report, made by William Bingham, Continental agent at Martinique, plainly implied that Adm. Byron's departure had made the capture possible (Independent Chronicle, 22 and 29 July; see Mackesy, War for America, p. 272–273).
7. For the Penobscot Expedition, see William Vernon Sr. to JA, 10 April, note 4 (above).
{ 101 }
8. The Independent Chronicle of 29 July carried the names of the delegates from the towns of the state, the resolutions that were passed, and an address to the people. The towns were more responsive in choosing delegates than many of them were in electing representatives to the General Court. This convention set maximum prices for “Merchandize and Country Produce” and resolved to regard as enemies to the country those who ignored the price list. It also condemned the selling of gold and silver and the demanding and receiving of either in business transactions.
9. The convention met for its first session on 1 Sept. See Report of a Constitution, [ca. 28–31 Oct.] (below).
10. Elkanah Watson Jr., having recently completed his apprenticeship with the Providence merchant John Brown, was setting off for France to begin his long and successful mercantile career (DAB). He was to carry this letter, one of the same date from Mercy Otis Warren (below), and possibly others from AA and Robert Treat Paine. According to Watson, all were intended as recommendations when he sought JA's aid in establishing himself in Europe. Mercy Warren's letter, however, does not mention Watson, and the letters from AA and Paine, if they existed, have not been found. In any event, JA's return to America caused Watson to leave the letters with James Warren rather than take them to France (Watson to JA, 10 March 1780, Adams Papers).
Cite web page as: Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses, ed.C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2014.
http://www.masshist.org/apde2/