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Browsing: Papers of John Adams, Volume 12


Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0189-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-10

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Après que vous futes parti, je reçus un billet de notre ami, pour me prier de lui envoyer au plus vite une copie du projet de réponse que vous avez vu et désapprouvé, en m’assurant qu’il en feroit un bon usage.1 Je le lui envoyai avec ce correctif au bas.
“Je crois necessaire d’ajouter, que Mr. A— ne se contenteroit pas de cette réponse, et ne la recevroit pas, parce qu’elle ne seroit pas cathégorique, comme il l’a demandée. D’ailleurs on ne peut pas dire avec connoissance de cause, que l’admission d’un Mine des E.U. éprouve des difficultés aux autres Cours; car il n’y en a pas une des Neutres où il y en ait un; et quant aux belligérantes, on sait qu’ils y en ont, et que la Rep. en est une. Mr. A— est venu ouvertement et rondement offrir, avec l’amitié sincere de son Souverain, ses Lettres de Créance et Pleins-pouvoirs. Il convient de les admettre ou refuser tout aussi rondement. Ce procédé est digne des deux Nations.”
J’allois immédiatement après chez l’ami moi-même. Je le trouvai occupé de l’affaire avec Une autre personne devant qui il me somma de déclarer hautement et nettement ce qui vous satisferoit? Rien, sinon une audience telle qu’il l’a demande, ai-je répondu.
Voici la Réponse du Roi Brittannique à l’adresse du Parlement donnée le 1er. Mars.
“N’ayant à coeur aucun objet autant, que le repos, félicité et prospérité de mon peuple, vous pouvez être assuré, qu’en conséquence de vos conseils, je prendrai telles mesures, qui me paroitront contribuer le plus au rétablissement de l’harmonie entre la Gr. Br. et les Colonies révoltées, si essentielle à la prospérité de toutes les deux: et que mes efforts seront dirigés de la maniere la plus efficace contre nos Ennemis Européens, jusqu’à ce que telle paix puisse S’obtenir, qui s’accordera avec les Intérêts et le bien-être permanent de mon Royaume.”
La Résolution d’avant’hier ne plait ni à l’une ni à l’autre des parties: et par-dessus le Marché elle est suivie d’un vigoureux Protest de 8 villes, qui lui servira de Pendant.

[salute] Je suis avec le plus respectueux attachement Monsieur Votre très-humble & très-obéissant serviteur

[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0189-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-10

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

After you left, I received a note from our friend asking that I send him a copy of your criticism of the proposal as quickly as possible. He assured me that he would make good use of it.1 I sent it to him with the following statement.
“I believe that it is necessary to add that Mr. Adams would not be satisfied with this response and would not have accepted it because it is not the categorical response he requested. Moreover, it cannot be said with full knowledge of the facts that the admission of an American minister will pose difficulties for the other courts since there has never been one in a neutral country. As for the belligerents, it is known that there have been some and the republic is one of them. Mr. Adams has offered openly and frankly, with the sincere friendship of his country, his letters of credence and plenipotentiary powers. It is advisable to accept them or refuse them just as frankly. Such conduct is worthy of the two nations.”
I went immediately to see our friend. I found him engaged in this business with someone else before he asked me to state clearly and openly what would satisfy you. Nothing short of the requested audience was my response.
Here is the English king’s response to Parliament’s address on 1 March.
“Having no other objective at heart other than the tranquility, felicity, and prosperity for my people, you can be assured that as a result of your advice, I will take those measures which will seem to contribute the most to the reestablishment of harmony between Great Britain and the revolted colonies, which is so essential to the prosperity of both. And that my efforts will be directed in the most efficacious manner against our European enemies, until such a peace can be obtained and will be in agreement with the interests and permanent well-being of my realm.”
The resolution of the day before yesterday did not please either party and above everything else, it was followed by a vigorous protest of 8 cities, which will serve as a determining factor.

[salute] I am, with the most respectful attachment, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Dumas
1. “Notre ami” was Engelbert François van Berckel who requested JA’s opinion of a proposal that the individual provinces recognize U.S. independence but the Republic, through the States General, refrain from doing so (Schulte Nordholt, Dutch Republic and Amer. Independence, p. 206). For JA’s criticism of the plan, see his letters to Dumas of 13 and 14 March, both below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0190

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1781-03-11

To Robert R. Livingston

No. 5.

[salute] Sir

The Promise, which was made me by Mr. Bergsma, that I should have an Answer from the Province of Friesland in three Weeks, has been literally fulfilled. This Gentleman, who as well as his Province deserves to be remembered in America, sent me a Copy of the Resolution in Dutch as soon as it passed.1 It is now public in all the Gazettes, and is concieved in these Terms.2
“The Requisition of Mr. Adams, for presenting his Letters of Credence from the United States of North America to their high Mightinesses, having been brought into the Assembly and put into Deliberation, as also the ulterior Address to the same Purpose with a Demand of a Categorick Answer made by him, as is more amply mentioned in the Minutes of their high Mightinesses of the 4th. of May 1781 and the 9th. of January 1782. Whereupon, it having been taken into Consideration, that the said Mr. Adams would probably have some Propositions to make to their high Mightinesses, and to present to them the principal Articles and Foundations, upon which the Congress on their Part would enter into a Treaty of Commerce and Friendship, or other Affairs to propose, in regard to which dispatch would be requisite.
It has been thought fit and resolved, to Lower down. Compared with the aforesaid Book to my Knowledge. authorize the Gentlemen the Deputies of this Province at the Generality, and to instruct them to direct things at the Table of their high Mightinesses in such a manner, that the said Mr Adams be admitted forthwith as Minister of the Congress of North America, with further Order to the said Deputies, that if there should be made moreover any similar Propositions by the same, to inform immediately their Noble Mightinesses of them. And an Extract of the present Resolution shall be sent them for their Information, that they may conduct themselves conformably.
Thus Resolved at the Province House the 26th. of Feby. 1782.
Lower down. Compared with the aforesaid Book to my Knowledge.

[salute] Signed

[signed] A. I. V. Sminia.”
This Resolution has, by the Deputies of Friesland, been laid before their high Mightinesses at the Hague, and after deliberation, the Deputies of the Provinces of Guelderland, Zealand, Utrecht { 309 } and Groningen have taken Copies of it, to be communicated more amply to their Constituents. In the States of the Province of Holland and West Friesland, the Requisition of the 9th. of January had been committed to the Committee of grand Affairs, and Taken into deliberation by the Body of Nobles and ad Referendum by all the eighteen Cities.
The Sovereignty of the United States of America would undoubtedly be acknowledged by the Seven United Provinces, and their Minister recieved to an Audience in State in the Course of a few Weeks, if the Regency of the City of Amsterdam had not visibly altered its Sentiments: but all things are embroiled. The Opposition to Mr. Van Berkel, and the glittering Charms of an Embassy to Petersbourg or Vienna, which have been artfully displayed, as it is said, before the Eyes of one Man,3 and many secret Reasonings of similar kind with others, have placed the last Hopes of the English and Dutch Courts in a City, which had long been firm in opposition to the Desires of both. The Public in general however expects, that the Example of the Frisians will be followed. Wherever I go, every Body almost congratulates me upon the prospect of my being soon recieved at the Hague. The French Gazettes all give their Opinions very decidedly that it will be done, and the Dutch Gazettes all breath out God gaave, that it may be so. I confess however, that I doubt it; at least I am sure that a very little thing may prevent it. It is certain that the Court will oppose it in secret with all their Engines, altho’ they are already too unpopular to venture to increase the Odium by an open Opposition.
Friesland is said to be a sure Index of the national Sense. The People of that Province have been ever famous for the Spirit of Liberty. The feudal System never was admitted among them: they never would submit to it, and they have preserved those Priviledges which all others have long since surrendered. The Regencies are chosen by the People, and on all critical Occasions the Frisians have displayed a Resolution and an Activity beyond the other Members of the State. I am told that the Frisians never undertake any thing but they carry it through, and therefore that I may depend upon it, they will force their Way to a Connection with America. This may be the Case if the War continues, and the Enemies of Great Britain continue to be successful: but I have no Expectations of any thing very soon, because I have much better Information than the publick of the secret Intrigues both at the Hague and Amsterdam.4 Patience however. We have nothing to fear. Courtiers, Aristocraticks, as well { 310 } as the People, all say, You know very well We love the Americans, and will ever be their good Friends. This Love and Friendship consists however rather too much in mere Words. “Be Ye warmed” &ca, and a strong Desire of Gain by our Commerce.
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC Misc. Papers,, Reel No. 1, f. 547–552); endorsed: “Letter March 11. 1782 J Adams Read 31 May”; and in another hand: “John Adams March 11. 1782.” LbC (Adams Papers).
2. The resolution appeared in the Gazette de Leyde of 12 March.
3. Joachim Rendorp allegedly was to be offered the ambassadorship to St. Petersburg (to the president of Congress, 14 Jan., note 4, above). Nearly thirty years later, when he published his letters in the Boston Patriot, JA recalled that “One last effort was made to defeat me in Holland, a very absurd and stupid attempt to be sure; but it was hazarded.” This “effort,” which JA speculated was Rendorp’s work, presumably occurred in March or April 1782. According to JA,
“When the cities and provinces of the Batavian confederation were in the midst of their deliberations and a vast majority of them had already determined on my admission; when every day brought us fresh assurances from every quarter that the states would be unanimous in a few days—Mr. De Neufville, jun. made me a visit and with great gravity and a sort of melancholy, begged leave to communicate to me some important information and advice. His advice to me was “to desist and give up my hopes and pursuits.” Of all the oddities I had seen, this struck me with the most surprise. Mr. De Neufville advise me to desist and give up! Could his father be privy to this strange suggestion? in contradiction to every word and action of their lives, I had ever seen, heard or understood. I was determined, however, to be upon my guard. What can be your reason, Mr. D’Neufville? are not the cities and provinces very harmonious and unanimous? ‘Aye, but the states general cannot acknowledge you.’ Why not? “We are so small and so weak.” Small and weak! Are you great and strong enough to go to war with France, Spain, America, and perhaps the emperor of Germany, and possibly the armed neutrality all together? “I am told it will not do; you must give up.” By whom are you told this? “By one of the first men in this city.” Who is he? “I cannot tell you, but he has abilities and influence equal to any man among us.” Why will you not tell me his name? “Because I must not.” If you will let me know who he is, I will send him a decent and respectful answer. “No, I am forbidden to say who it is, but he is one of the first men in the city.” By this time I was convinced it was Burgomaster Rendorp. But I answered, if you will not let me know who he is, I will tell you he is a fool and thinks me a fool. ‘Oh no.’ But then he repeated again what he had said before about their weakness, and that I must wave my pretensions. I repeated again that he was a fool. He repeated the same things several times and I as often answered that his adviser was a fool—and thus we parted. This anecdote got wind and excited much ridicule—not at my expence, however” (Boston Patriot, 20 April 1811).
4. In the Letterbook JA ended his letter here, but then canceled the closing and inserted the remainder of the paragraph.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0191-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-11

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Une petite absence de chez moi durant la plus grande partie de la journée d’hier, a retardé les incluses; J’espere que leur retard est { 311 } sans conséquence. Elles sont arrivées toutes deux d’Amsterdam, et notamment le cachet de l’une dans l’état ou vous le verrez. J’ai une Lettre de Mr. Carmichael, qui me dit entre autres2—“I wish Mr. Adams all the success he can desire. You will please to inform him, that I have received Letters from our new Secretary of foreign affairs, dated the 20th. Dec.3 If he has not a Copy of the Resolutions of Congress touching this Department,4 I will send it to him and will forward any Letters he may chuse to send via Cadix. I hear that this Court Negociates a Loan for 5 millions of florins chez vous. Please to inform me how the subscriptions fill, and at what periods the money is paid, and whether by Bills of Exchange, or how. I think I shall know this from others; but we never can have too many sources of Information. You will be pleased to present the proper Compliments for me to Mrs Adams and de Neufville, to the Latter of whom I shall write next post. We have no arrivals from America, except one at Cadix, which brought me the Letter above mentioned.”
Notre ami ici est d’avis, qu’il faudroit que vous eussiez un entretien et explication avec Mr. le Bourguemaître Hoofd, et autres Régents d’Amsterdam, pour être assuré de la maniere dont ils en agiront ici la semaine prochaine et les suivantes, s’ils insisteront franchement et presseront que votre affaire soit mise au plutôt sur le tapis, et au cas qu’oui, concerter avec eux, si une démarche de votre part, par exemple, d’aller chez Mr. le Greffier, lui fixer verbalement une terme, par exemple, le 15 d’Avril prochain, pour avoir une réponse cathégorique, passé lequel terme, vous vous verriez dans le cas d’écrire à votre Souverain en consequence, &c. Vous userez, Monsieur de cette idée, de la maniere que vous jugerez vous-même la meilleure. Si ces Messieurs d’Amst. agréent et desirent la démarche, qui devra été communiquée comme la précédente aux Villes, ils devront vous donner leur parole de la soutenir de tout leur pouvoir à l’Assemblée provinciale ici, que l’on vouloit séparer, à quoi Dort, Harlem et Amsterdam se sont opposés, par la raison de diverses choses importantes à finir avant de se séparer, et notamment le concert des opérations avec la Fce sur lesquelles les Instructions de M. l’Ambassadeur sont en chemin pour demander Explication cathegorique; et l’affaire de votre Admission. Ce refus de se séparer a beaucoup surpris et mortifié ceux qui n’y sont pas accoutumé; Il a été forcément unanime, car les 3 villes susdites auroient pu prendre les résolutions qu’elles auroient voulu en l’absence des autres.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0191-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-11

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

A short absence for most of the day yesterday has delayed the enclosed letters. I hope this poses no difficulties. They both arrived from Amsterdam and the seal on one of them arrived in its current condition. I have a letter from Mr. Carmichael that says among other things2—“I wish Mr. Adams all the success he can desire. You will please to inform him, that I have received Letters from our new Secretary of foreign affairs, dated the 20th. Dec.3 If he has not a Copy of the Resolutions of Congress touching this Department,4 I will send it to him and will forward any Letters he may chuse to send via Cadix. I hear that this Court Negociates a Loan for 5 millions of florins chez vous. Please to inform me how the subscriptions fill, and at what periods the money is paid, and whether by Bills of Exchange, or how. I think I shall know this from others; but we never can have too many sources of Information. You will be pleased to present the proper Compliments for me to Mrs Adams and de Neufville, to the Latter of whom I shall write next post. We have no arrivals from America, except one at Cadix, which brought me the Letter above mentioned.”
Our friend is of the opinion that you should have a meeting and discussion with Burgomaster Hooft, and the other Amsterdam regents, to be assured of what action they will take next week and in the following weeks, and if they will emphasize clearly to take up your business as soon as possible. If this is so, for example, then you can work with them to make a verbal agreement with the secretary to obtain a categorical response by April 15th, after which date, you will be obliged to write to your government as a result. Use what you think best, sir, of this idea. If these men from Amsterdam agree to and desire the démarche, which will have to be communicated to the cities just as the previous one was, they must give you their word to support it with all of their power in the provincial assembly here, that some want to recess, but which Dordrecht, Harlem, and Amsterdam oppose because of the need to finish many important matters before separating, most notably the agreement over operations with France, for which the ambassador’s instructions require a categorical explanation; and the matter of your admission. This refusal to separate has surprised and mortified those who are not accustomed to it. It was forcibly unanimous because the 3 cities could have taken the resolutions that they wanted in the absence of the others.
RC (Adams Papers); filmed at ([12–16 March], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 356.)
1. This date is derived from Dumas’ letter of 12 March, below.
2. For William Carmichael’s letter of 16 Feb., see PCC, No. 101, f. 222.
4. Carmichael likely refers to Congress’ resolution of 10 Aug. 1781 appointing Robert R. Livingston secretary for foreign affairs.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0192-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-11

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Vous aurez reçu ce soir une Lettre que j’ai fait enrégistrer No 4 par le Chariot de Poste, parti d’ici à Une heure après midi.2 Je dois ajouter, de la part de notre ami ici, qu’il est nécessaire que vous vous abouchiez au plutôt avec Mr. Van Berkel le Pensionnaire, et Mr. Bikker le fils, et que tous trois vous ayiez une conférence sérieuse et décisive, dès demain, s’il est possible, chez Mr. Van Berkel sur l’idée que je vous ai proposée dans la susdite Lettre.3 Notre ami écrit là-dessus ce soir à Mr. Bikker, et le prévient que vous le mettrez au fait, et Mr. Van Berkel aussi, de ce qu’il propose: car il n’écrit qu’en termes généraux à Mr. Bikker, pour ne pas exposer le secret au sort d’une Lettre. Mr. Bikker est intime avec Mr. Hoofd. Ainsi cette matiere peut le mieux se traiter, comme je le dis ci-dessus entre Vous trois. Il n’y a, pour préambule, qu’à offrir et exiger une parfaite cordialité. Si vous pouviez arrêter là-dessus quelque chose de fixe avant Samedi, notre Ami croit que ce seroit un coup de partie. La chose presse, parce qu’il y a toute apparence que votre admission va être incessamment mise en déliberation ici. Pour cet effet, notre ami se donne des mouvents, et écrit en divers autres endroits, d’une maniere dont je suis parfaitement satisfait; car il m’a montré ses Lettres. Ainsi, si les mesures réussissent de votre côté (je parle de votre conférence avec les deux Messieurs susdits) comme j’espere qu’elles réussiront de ces côtés ci, votre voyage de Samedi prochain ici, pourra avoir des suites importantes. En attendant, je dis à tout le monde ici ce que vous m’avez autorisé de dire hautement, that nothing short of a cathegoric answer will satisfy you.
Je n’ai pas eu le temps de signer ma Lettre de ce matin. Cela m’auroit fait manquer le Chariot de poste. Ce défaut de formalité ne doit pas vous empêcher de vous y fier. Je vous la confirme et suis prêt à la signer quand vous voudrez, ainsi que toutes celles où il s’agira de témoigner mon Zele et ma fidélité pour les intérêts de notre Souverain, et le respectueux attachement avec lequel je suis pour toujours, Monsieur Votre très-humble & très obéissant serviteur
[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0192-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-11

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

This evening you will have received a letter marked no. 4 that was sent with the 1 o’clock post.2 I must add, on behalf of our friend here, that it is necessary for you to meet for a serious and decisive talk with the pensionary Mr. van Berckel and with Mr. Bicker, the son, as soon as tomorrow, if possible, regarding what was proposed in the aforesaid letter.3 Our friend is writing to Mr. Bicker this evening to tell him that you will inform him, as well as Mr. van Berckel, of the matter he is proposing. He will write to Mr. Bicker in general terms so as not to expose any secrets. Mr. Bicker is close to Mr. Hooft. So, this matter can be better dealt with among the three of you as I said above. Perfect cordiality is all that is required as a preliminary step. If you could decide upon a fixed date before Saturday, our friend believes it would be a decisive factor. It is necessary to hurry since it seems that deliberation on your admission will begin very shortly here. To this end, our friend is taking steps and has written to various places in a satisfying manner, which I know since he did show me these letters. Therefore, if the measures taken on your side succeed (I am speaking about the meeting with the aforementioned two gentlemen) as well as matters on this side, your trip here next Saturday will have important consequences. Meantime, I am saying to everyone here that you have authorized me to say openly, that nothing short of a cathegoric answer will satisfy you.
I did not have time to sign this morning’s letter. I would have missed the post. This lack of formality should not prevent you from trusting it. I will confirm it for you and am ready to sign it when you want, just as I did in all those letters in which I have attested to my zeal and fidelity for the interests of our sovereign, and the respectful attachment with which I remain always, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Dumas
RC (Adams Papers); (filmed at [12–16 March], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 356.)
1. This date is derived from Dumas’ letter of 12 March, below.
2. Dumas’ first letter of [11 March], above.
3. See JA to Dumas, 13 March, below, for his account of the meeting with van Berckel and Bicker, presumably a son of Hendrik Bicker.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0193

Author: Grand, Henry
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1781-03-11

From Henry Grand

[salute] sir

I do presume from my repeated Aplications to Dr. franklin, and your Silence, that your former misunderstanding concerning the sum you requested me to pay to Mr. Dana is cleared up, by an equal Allowance made you in reimbursmt thereof.
{ 315 }
The Doctor having requested me to inform messrs. fizeaux Grand &c. that you would draw on him for your Appointments, I accordingly returned them your last Receipt for £400 str. to be exchanged against your draft, either for the whole, or only for that part exceeding the Ballance I owe you as Stated on the other Side. I hope this Arrangement will meet your Aprobation and shall be glad to hear it.
I heartily congratulate your Excellency and America on the late Resolutions of Parliament, my only wish now is to see you soon enjoying the Blessings of your Independency, and to see us soon restored to a general peace.

[salute] With best Compliments to all your young Gentlemen I remain with due Respect sir Your most obt. hble servt.

[signed] Grand
Ballance due to your Excellency on the 10th. of Sept last as p At.   2557.   16  
the 24 do. I paid to Chevanne de la Giraudiere   lt31.   4   }   63.   4  
19 of Oct I paid to ditto   32.    
at 52 3/4 Bof 1096.11         Lt2494.   12  
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “A Monsieur Monsieur John Adams Ministre plenipotentiaire de Etats unis de L’Amerique A Amsterdam”; endorsed: “Mr Grand. March 11 1782 ansd March 16.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0194

Author: Hartley, David
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-11

From David Hartley

[salute] Dear Sir

Having been long informed of your benevolent Sentiments towards peace I writt a letter to you on the 19th of last month thro the hands of Mr Laurens junr1 to renew that subject with you because I was aware at that time from conferences and correspondencies to wch I had been a party that the topic of peace wd soon become general. I understand that Mr Jay Dr Franklin Mr Laurens and yourself are impowered by a special commission to treat. I hope the powers of that commission will soon be called forth in to action and that success may attend. The public proceedings of parliament and the proposed bill to enable the Crown to conclude peace or truce with America are or will certainly be made known to you. The first object will be to procure a meeting of authorized persons and to consult upon the preliminaries of time place and manner, but the requisites above all others are mutual good dispositions to conciliate { 316 } and to accommodate, in the confident hope that if the work of peace were once well begun it wd soon become general. Permitt me to ask whether the four gentlemen above specified are empowered to conclude as well as to treat and whether jointly so or severally. The bill now depending in Parliament on the part of this Country is to conclude as well as to treat. As to other provisions of it I cannot speak positively but I understand (from the best authority) that the general scope of it is to remove the parliamentary obstructions now subsisting, wch would frustrate the settlements wch may be made at the termination of the war—I heartily wish success to the cause of peace.

[salute] I am Dear Sir with great respect Your most obedt Servt.

[signed] D Hartley
PS Mr Digges who will deliver this to you will explain many things of great importance on the Subject of peace.2 I have been witness of the Authority upon wch they have been delivered to him. When the first application was made to him he consulted me as knowing that such topics had more than once passed thro my hands. I have recently had many conferences on my own part with the Ministry here relating to the mode of entering in to negotiations of peace, and am fully informed of the subject of Mr Digges’s commission to you. You may therefore be assured that it comes to you from the highest Authority.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr D. Hartleys Letter to me by Mr Digges.”
1. JA received this letter and a duplicate of the 19 Feb. letter as enclosures in Thomas Digges’ letter of [20 March], below. The copy carried by Henry Laurens Jr. probably did not reach JA until young Laurens visited JA in mid-April (to Benjamin Franklin, 16 April, below).
2. Hartley also wrote to Benjamin Franklin on 11 March and provided considerably more detail on the origins and purpose of Thomas Digges’ mission to visit JA in the Netherlands (Franklin, Papers, 36:684–685).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0195

Author: Andrews, Samuel
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-12

From Samuel Andrews

[salute] Sir

Your Exellency will permitt me to Lay my presant Situation before you being perswaded you will render me all the assistance in your { 317 } Power.1 After haveing been most Cruelly detained in this City Sixteen months my affairs have at last pastd: the Council of apprizals. This Council have judged with rigour in respect to me, Which is this, that I am evidently Neutre and in good faith But say I have omitted some formalites in respect to a late ordinance of the King that they could not undertake to intrepret his Law. This it seams is a paper called an act of Proprity. I have from under the Govenour and Secretary hand and Seal of Demerary a paper Comferming me my proprity setting fourth this Vessell is mine. Yett it seams this was not sufficent and in Consequence comfermed the sentance of the Admiralty of Martinieque, But blame them for the great delay they have made.
I have now with great faith and Confidence appeald to the King and Royal Council with whom it lays to render me that justice which so evidently appears to be my due. As His Majesty is hear Himself consernd it is he alone can rightly intrepret the Law And to say, Weather, after a man is acknowledge’d evidently Neutre and in good faith that upon so frivolous a pretence as the neglect of one paper He should stand condemned. I trust when the Royal Council sees into this matter and this Confirmation of proprity it will obviate every difficulty and that His Majesty Himself will declare in my favour conserning my Just demand.
I consider the presant moment as that in which I am bound to make every possible exertion and to leave nothing omitted that may make for me as this Judgment is definetive. Your Exellencey will in consideration pardon the lenth of this letter, Mr. Thaxter imformed me when I had the pleasure to see him that you had recieved a Letter from my Worthy decased friend Mr Ellis Gray respect this my business as also that He had Intrest therein (which is very true).2 I shall conseive myself under the greatest obligations if you will wright to His Exellency Doctor Franklin upon this head and that my friend Mr Gray had wrote you, or if agreable send him the origanel. It is in his Power to be of infinate sarvis to me. As it is to come before the Royal Council, I shall also thank your Exellency for a line to the Marquis La Fyatte who seames much disposed to render me assistance, as also to aney one you think may give me assistance. His Exellency the Dutch Ambassador has it now in his charge. I have taken care to geet every Intrest from this Quater and deliverd him Instruction from the Hague upon my arrival in this City. I shall be Obliged to your Exellency for your friendley advice an assistance, in this business. I hope you injoy your Health And that the same may { 318 } be continued to you is the Prayer of your Exellinceys most Obedint & Respectfull Humble Servant
[signed] Sam Andrews
Pleas to present my Complements Mr Thaxter.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed by John Thaxter: “Mr. Saml. Andrews 12th March 1782.”
1. JA wrote to Benjamin Franklin on 29 Sept. 1780 asking him to assist Samuel Andrews in the recovery of his vessel, the Sally, which had been captured and condemned at Martinique (vol. 10:185–186).
2. From Ellis Gray, 25 July 1780 (Adams Papers). Gray informed JA that Andrews was an American as well as a burgomaster of the Dutch colony of Demerara. Andrews sailed under Dutch colors, but his vessel was taken by a French privateer and condemned at Martinique. The judge accepted the claim that the Sally and its cargo were Dutch and thus neutral, but ruled that it was a good prize because its crew was English.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0196-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-12

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

En vous confirmant mes deux Lettres d’hier, celle-ci est pour vous faire part, d’une Résolution que la Ville de Dort vient de prendre, par laquelle elle donne à Mr. De Gyzelaer, son digne Pensionaire, une marque touchante et honorable de son estime et de son approbation, et d’ailleurs non équivoque de sa disposition par rapport aux affaires publiques: par cette résolution elle s’attend qu’il ne se chargera d’aucun emploi Ministériel dans une autre Ville votante de la province, mais qu’il restera constamment attaché à la ville de Dort; et en revanche elle augmente d’un tiers les appointemens dont il a joui jusqu’ici en vertu de sa place.1Partagez avec moi, Monsieur la joie que j’en ressens.
Dans une Lettre de la même Ville, arrivée ce matin de bonne main, on m’a fait lire ces paroles énergiques: “Nous brûlons ici du desir de reconnoître l’Indépendance Américaine.”

[salute] Je suis, comme vous savez pour toujours, avec autant d’attachement que de respect, Monsieur Votre très-humble & très-obeissant serviteur

[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0196-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-12

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

In addition to confirming my two letters of yesterday, this one is to inform you that the city of Dordrecht just passed a resolution by which it honors its worthy pensionary Mr. De Gyselaar, with a moving and honorable proof of its esteem and approbation and, moreover, unequivocally to { 319 } his disposition with regard to public affairs. With this resolution, it is expected that he will not take on any other ministerial job in another provincial voting city, but instead will remain continuously attached to the city of Dordrecht. On the other hand, the resolution increased his salary by one third by virtue of his position.1 Share with me, sir, the joy that I feel from this.
In a letter that arrived from the same city this morning, I read these spirited words: “We are burning with desire here to recognize American independence.”

[salute] I am, as you always know, with as much attachment as respect, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Dumas
1. The Gazette de Leyde of 15 March reported that the council of Dordrecht resolved to increase the salary of Cornelis de Gyselaar, the town’s councillor pensionary, by 600 florins in recognition of the indefatigable zeal, steadfastness, and patriotism that he had displayed during difficult times. Gyselaar was friendly to JA and sympathetic to the American cause (Schulte Nordholt, Dutch Republic and Amer. Independence, p. 112, 160, 197).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0197

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Date: 1782-03-13

To C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Sir

I have recd your two Letters both without Date and one without a Name.1 My Respects and Thanks to Mr Carmichael &c. I have Some of the Resolutions of Congress touching that department but cannot Say whether I have all.
I have had last Evening an agreable Interview with the two worthy Gentlemen you mention. They are both of opinion, that it is better to wait and See what will be proposed by the grand Besogne.2 As to any ministerial Step to be taken by me, at present, it had better be omitted. Let Us leave, the Members to their own Enquiries and Reflexions and Judgment.
As to the conciliatory Project I have an utter detestation of it, between you and me. Besides Friesland will not agree to it: So that it cannot pass if Holland should adopt it. Friesland has set, the right Example and will be followed by all in time. The Members of the Regency here are thinking very Seriously, and will determine right in the End if We do not furnish them an Excuse by talking of conciliatory Propositions.
I shall fall naturally in the Way, of Several Mercantile Houses here and shall See if, their aid can be obtained, in their Way.
The late Visit of the Ambassador here, and his Conversation with { 320 } several Persons will have a good Effect. The British Cause will become more and more, disgusting, contemptible and ridiculous, every day. There is no danger of Perselytes to that side. So that all must come into the sentiments of Friesland, e’er long. Dont let Us be impatient. It is not possible to make right and Wrong meet half Way. Is not the G. Pensionary at the Bottom of the conciliatory Project? I have altered my Design of coming to the Hague. Shall not come on saturday. Perhaps not for some Weeks.

[salute] With great Esteem yours

[signed] J. Adams3
RC (DLC:C. W. F. Dumas Papers); endorsed: “250/Amst. 13e. Mars 1782 S. E. Mr. J. Adams.”
1. OfFirst and second letters of[11 March], both above.
2. When this letter was printed in the Boston Patriot of 5 Jan. 1811, JA identified the “grand Besogne” as “the committee of great affairs of the regency of Amsterdam.”
3. Immediately following this letter in the Boston Patriot, where the closing and the signature were omitted, JA wrote,
“In proportion as the probability of my obtaining the object so long pursued, increased; the activity of my disguised enemies redoubled their secret intrigues. Whether Mr. Dumas was drawn in, to assist in this project of reconciliation, the design of which was merely procrastination, by any insinuations from any gentleman of the French legation, (for the compt Vergennes was certainly mortified at my prospect of success) or whether the grand pensionary, Mr. Van Bleiswick had any agency in it, or whether the burgomaster Rendorp of Amsterdam, who thought himself sure of an embassy to one of the empires if he could recommend himself at court by defeating, had employed in a round about manner, any of his confidential instruments to raise doubts in the mind of Mr. Dumas; I shall leave to the conjectures of your readers. Indeed all these causes might unite. Nor was this the last effort of the kind.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0198

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Date: 1782-03-14

To C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Sir

I rejoice with you, in the Testimony of approbation given to a very meritorious Character.1 If they burn in one City to acknowledge American Independence, it is to be hoped, that the virtuous flame will Soon extend itself to all others.
I am vastly obliged to the Duke de la Vauguion for the Service he did our Cause and for the many noble Compliments which, I learn from Sure Sources, he was pleased to make to my personal Character, when last in this City.
But am mortified to find that he has not So great a dread upon his Mind, of the Conciliatoire, as I have. This trimming System is So much in the Character of a certain Personage2 who has lately been, Sometimes Sick and Sometimes better that the Duke, and our { 321 } other Friends have reason to expect, that Something like it will be proposed: but after the maturest Reflection, I cannot reconcile myself to it. The aversion of the other Powers of Europe, to acknowledge our Independence, is not only Supposed without Proof, but against Evidence.
It is easy to prove that the Powers of Europe in general, are disposed to favour American Independence. There is full Proof of this, from the Emperor of Germany, the Empress of Russia, and the King of Spain.
The King of Spain has acknowledged the Independence of America. You know that America is bound to Spain by a Treaty, which She has a right to acceed to when she will. She has not yet acceeded, that We know of. Yet I can assure you, that Senior del Campo is appointed to treat with Mr Jay, and a Treaty may before now have been executed. But whether it has or not, I assure you, as a fact that Spain contributes and has contributed annually, her Quota of the Cash and Aids that are sent from France to America. You may also depend upon it as a Fact that the King of Spain, whose orders to his Vice Roys are a Law to his Dominions, acknowledged American Independence, immediately after his Declaration of War, by sending written orders to all his Vice Roys to treat all the Inhabitants of the United States, as the best Friends of Spain. Without this We should have been Ennemies of Spain as subjects of the King of Great Britain. I look upon Spain as really our Ally, as France. She is bound in honnour and I have not a doubt but she considers herself so bound, as much as France, although for Reasons easy to conjecture, she has not yet made the Formalities of a Treaty.
I have in my Possession, certain Propositions made by the Courts of Vienna and Petersbourg, to the belligerent Powers to serve as a Basis for a general Pacification in which the two Imperial Courts propose a Congress at Vienna, and that at that Congress there should be a Treaty of Peace between Great Britain and the “American Colonies.”3 Now, I Say, that this Proposition is, a virtual Acknowledgment of American Independence. It is an Implication that the American Colonies are a Power, a belligerent Power, sufficiently independent to be a free Agent, sufficiently respectable to be invited to such an August Congress of all the Powers of Europe.
England has repeatedly declared that she considers a Treaty with America as an Hostility against her and has not Scrupled to declare War against France and Holland upon this professed Principle. It is { 322 } not to be wondered at therefore that those Powers which have entered into solemn stipulations to be neutral, have not treated with America. However, they have never had the offer. Notwithstanding all the Talk about Congress offering Treaties of Amity and Commerce to all the powers of Europe, there is no truth in it. There is no Minister in Europe, empowerd to treat with any Power but Spain and Holland. Mr Dana, has only Power to acceed to the Principles of the armed Neutrality, and he has never communicated, even that Power, to any Neutral Court, not even to Russia. I rely upon it therefore that every Court in Europe is well disposed towards American Independence, unless We except Portugal and Denmark, and I am far from being clear that either of these ought to be excepted.
Holland is at War, with England, and therefore has no Motive to restrain her, and she will be laughed at by every Court in Europe, if she hesitates any longer.
To declare, that she is well disposed and yet not give me an Audience is a Contradiction. It is however an Answer in the Negative, and I must take it as such and depart in Consequence. However, Friesland will never agree to such an answer. She will protest, and thus, I shall remain, like Ariel “wedged by the Middle in a rifted oak.”4
Nothing that this Republick can do, will have Such Influence towards accellerating a general Peace, as a frank Acknowledgment of our Independence and an Audience to your servant.
This would contribute to dispose the two Imperial Courts, and the Court of Spain and even that of London, to put a stop to this horrid Wrangle among Mankind.

[salute] Adieu

[signed] J.A.
RC (DLC:C. W. F. Dumas Papers); endorsed on the first page: “252/S. E. Mr. J Adams.”
1. Cornelis de Gyselaar.
2. Pieter van Bleiswyck.
3. See Art. 1 of the Austro-Russian Proposal for Anglo-American Peace Negotiations (vol. 11:408–410).
4. A reference to Shakespeare, The Tempest, Act I, scene ii, lines 274–279. This was one of JA’s favorite literary allusions, and one that he consistently got wrong: Ariel was imprisoned in “a cloven pine.” See, for example, vol. 8:145, 224.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0199

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Dana, Francis
Date: 1782-03-15

To Francis Dana

[salute] My dear Sir

Your favour of Feb 10/21. arrived last night, and I thank you for the Copy inclosed. I think that if the Ct. of St. James’s is capable of taking a hint, she may see herself advised to acknowledge the Sovereignty of the U.S. and admit their Ministers to the Congress.
There Seems to be a Change of System in England, but the Change is too late: the Kingdom is undone past Redemption. Minorca, St Kits, Demerara Essequebo, &c gone. Fleets combining, to stop the channell. And what is worse than all, Deficits of Taxes to pay Interest, appearing to the amount of half a Million, sterling in three Years, and stocks at 54. or 53.1 French and Dutch united too in the East Indies against them. The French have nothing to do, but take Prisoners the Garrisons of N.Y. and Charlestown. The Volunteers of Ireland again in Motion &c.2
The Dutch are now occupied in very serious Thoughts, of acknowledging American Independence. Friesland has already done it. This is the Second Sovereign State in Europe that has done it. But a certain foreign Faction are exhausting all their Wiles, to prevent it. But, would you believe it? all their hopes, are in Amsterdam. But what can be the meaning of these People? how do they expect, to get their Islands? how do they expect to exist? We shall Soon See something decisive.
I am of late taken up So much, with Conversations and Visits that I cannot write much, but what is worse, my Health is so feeble, that it fatigues me more to write one Letter than it did, to write 10 when We were together at Paris. Inshort to Confess to you, a Truth that is not very pleasant, I verily believe your old Friend will never be again the man he has been. That hideous Fever has shaken him to Pieces, so that he will never get firmly compacted together again.
I have bought an house at the Hague, fit for the Hotel des Etats Unies, or if you will L’hotel de nouveau Monde. It is in a fine Situation and there is a noble Spot of Ground. This occasions great Speculations.3 But my Health was such that I could not risque another Summer the Air of Amsterdam. The House will be for my successor, ready furnished. I shall live in it, myself but a short time.
I see no objection against your attempt, as you propose to find out the real Dispositions, of the Empress, or her Ministers. You cannot take any noisy Measures like those I have taken here. The { 324 } form of Government forbids it. You can do every thing that can be done in Secret—I could do nothing here in secret. Thank God, publick Measures have had marvellous success.
My Boy Should translate Sallust, and write to his Papa. Charles Sailed 10 December from Bilbao in the Cicero Capt Hill. Does John Study the Russian Language?
Pray what is the Reason that the whole armed Neutrality cannot agree to declare, America independent, and admit you, in behalf of the U.S. to acceed to that Confederation. It is so simple, so natural, so easy so obvious a Measure and at the same time so sublime and so glorious. It is saying Let there be Light and there is light. It finishes all Controversies at once, and necessitates an Universal Peace, and even saves old England from total Destruction and the last Stages of Horror and Despair. It is so much in the Character and to the Taste of the Emperor and Empress that it is amazing it is not done. However thank God We have no particular Reason to wish for Peace. The longer the War continues now the better for Us. If the Powers of Europe will in Spight of all Reason and Remonstrance continue to sport with each others Blood, it is not our fault. We have done all in our Power to bring about Peace. One Thing, I think certain, that the British Forces will evacuate the U.S. if not taken Prisoners this season.
I cannot get a Copy of the Miniature of G. Washg. made for less than 12 ducats but will have it done notwithstanding if you persist in the desire. We will also endeavour to send you a secretary and to execute your other orders as soon as We can.
My Love to my dear Boy. He must study the Greek of the New Testament &c.

[salute] Adieu my dear Fnd Adieu.

RC (MHi:Dana Family Papers); endorsed: “Mr. J: Adams’s Letter Dated March 15th. 1782. Recd. March 28th. O.S.”
1. JA does not indicate what stock he is referring to, but on the date of this letter the 3 percent consolidateds or consols were at 54 1/8. When the North ministry fell on 21 March they were at 54 7/8; by 1 April they had risen to 55 1/2 and a month later were at 59 1/2.
2. Probably a reference to the volunteer convention held at Dungannon, Ireland, in February, which, among other things, asserted the longstanding Irish demand that the British Parliament grant Ireland legislative independence by repealing or amending Poyning’s Law of 1495 (R. F. Foster, Modern Ireland, 1600–1972, N.Y., 1989, p. 246–247). For more on the volunteer movement, see vol. 8:358.
3. For example, the London Chronicle of 9–12 March reported from The Hague that “Every one is curious to know what will be done by the States relative to the memorial presented to them by the American Agent Mr. Adams; some imagine, that notwithstanding the warmth with which some members of the States have expressed themselves in favour of acknowledging the Independ• { 325 } ence of America, yet it would be very impolitic to make any such acknowledgment till the States of America are declared independent by Great Britain. In the mean time Mr. Adams has bought a very spacious house here, which looks as if he meant to stay some time.” The London Public Advertiser of 13 March carried a report, dated 3 March at The Hague, that “It is known for a Certainty, that Friseland has determined that the Americans should be acknowledged as forming a free and independent State, and Mr. Adams admitted in quality of Minister from this new Republic. His Excellency having purchased a House at the Hague, in order to reside there, at quitting Amsterdam, has occasioned many Conjectures.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0200

Author: Jenings, Edmund
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-15

From Edmund Jenings

[salute] Sir

I think your Excellency must have been greatly surprized at the Vote, which the House of Commons came to on General Conways Motion agst the Advisers for subduing America by Force; but how much soever One may be surprized to see such a measure taken at this Time, it is perhaps more Amazing that it was not taken before; it ought to have been the Declaration of Parliament at the beginning of the Troubles and it would then have been done with some grace at present it has but very little; and yet one cannot but be pleased with it particularly when it has the Concurrence of the Body of the people, who cry aloud for Peace. What a Change of Disposition! There were formerly but few Englishmen, who would not have embraced their Hands in an Americans Blood, and annihilate the Country of the United States. He that attempts it now is declard an Ennemy to G B; they who did so before were by Consequence Traytors.
But give me leave to Ask your Excellency what is your Sense of the true disposition of the Court of London?1 I must Confess to you I think I see its former Hypocricy and Insidiousness continued Even in this proceeding. The King has no sincere design to Obtain peace however He will perhaps enter into some Negociation in order to impose on his people; He will enter into it in the Spirit of Lewis the 14th at the Town of Gertruydenburg,2 where during the Treaty He endeavoured to divide the Allies and afterwards pretending to have offered to make the greatest Sacrifices of his Glory and his Interest, He appealed to his people, and calld on them for their utmost Exertions and obtaind them by this Management. The King of England, as it appears to me, means to Act in a similar Manner. He pretends to follow the Dictates of the <Parliament> opposition in order to gain a general Concurrence and induce them to make those Efforts, which the Spirit of the Country can and will make, when it believes, { 326 } that the King Acts according to his Duty and its Interest. He means perhaps to make plausible Proposals, which he is sure will not and cannot be accepted. The Conduct of the Opposition enables Him to Act as He will for it seems not to have any certain Object. Perhaps the most decided men of it dare not yet Speak out and that they will Stop with their last Motion; if they do, their Conduct is Absurd: for As Matters now Stand, I do not see, that the Admiralty can issue any Commissions to Cruise Against the Subjects of the United States, for that would be endeavouring to subdue them by force, Which by this resolution of the Common cannot be used Against them either in America or Elsewhere, the words of the Motion being general—and may not Neutral Ships sail to the ports of the States with Merchandice and Stores? an Attempt to Seize them would Surely be a means of reducing the revolted Colonies by force, which is certainly contrary to the Letter of the Resolution.
While I am mentioning neutral Ships I must Observe to your Excellency, they advertize in England for neutral Vessels, among others, to carry troops and Stores to America. I Hope France and Spain will notice this, and that foreign powers will prevent their Subjects from entering into any contracts for this purpose, for it is certain, that it will be a breach of Neutrallity.
But whatever may be the Object of the English Ministry I trust that the late resolution comes most apropos to ensure Success to your Excellencys Mission in Holland.
There passed through this Town last Monday three English Couriers—one of them is gone to Holland and the other two to Vienna and Petersburg.
I have some design of going to Paris the End of this month and Staying there about a fortnight, unless your Excellency hath other Commands for me.

[salute] I am with the greatest Consideration Sir your Excellencys Most Faithful & Obedient Humble Servt

[signed] Edm. Jenings
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed by John Thaxter: “Mr. Jenings March 15th. 1782.”
1. There is no specific response by JA to Jenings regarding this question, but see JA to Robert R. Livingston, 10 March, and note 1, above.
2. Jenings probably means that George III would initiate peace negotiations, but would insure their failure by offering terms unacceptable to the U.S. Such was the course Louis XIV followed at Geertruidenberg, Netherlands, in the winter of 1709–1710, during negotiations to end the War of the Spanish Succession, for which see vol. 9:96, note 5.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0201

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Grand, Henry
Date: 1782-03-16

To Henry Grand

[salute] Sir

Your Letter of March 11th, which I recieved last night, is totally incomprehensible to me.
My Account was to be made up for two Years Salary ending the 13th. day of last November, amounting to five thousand pounds sterling. Every farthing of Money I have recieved, including my last Receipt for 400 £ amounts to but about that Sum. I transmitted You the account between Us stated with all possible exactness. You dont acknowledge the Receipt of it. There is now due to me the whole of my Salary, or very near the whole from the thirteenth day of November last, now about four months, which I must soon draw for, to pay my debts already contracted.
Why so much difficulty is made about the plainest thing in nature, I know not.
The ballance due to me on the 12th. of October last, as stated in the Account transmitted You,1 is eight thousand nine hundred and one Livres, five sols and eleven deniers—since which I have recieved of Messs. Fizeaux & Grand, the four hundred Pounds sterling for which I gave the Receipts You mention. The difference between Livres 8901. 5.S. 11.D. and four hundred Pounds sterling added to the 63 Livres 4.S paid Chevanne de Giraudiere, is the Sum that I have recieved towards my third year’s Salary.
This is the only Way in which I can ever settle the Account: and it is very odd to me, that the simple payments and Receipts of about five thousands Pounds should cost as much Writing of Letters and Negotiations, as to make a War or a Peace.

[salute] With great Respect & Esteam I have the Honor to be, Sir, your Friend & Servt.

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. See the account submitted with JA’s letter to Ferdinand Grand of 12 Oct. 1781, above. See also the indexes to this and the preceding volume for the full correspondence between JA and the Grands about his accounts.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0202-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-16

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Voici une petite Cargaison de Lettres, qui m’ont été remises par M. le D. De la Vauguyon pour vous.1
{ 328 }
J’ai bien reçu l’honorée vôtre du 14, et ferai bon usage du contenu, premierement avec nos amis, et puis avec les autres.
Quant au projet conciliatoire, je puis vous assurer, that the convalescent is not at the Bottom of it.2 Ceux-mêmes qui l’ont conçu et modifié ne l’ont jamais regardé que comme leur pis aller, au cas qu’il ne leur fût pas possible de faire; et dans ce cas-même ils ont desire, qu’avant d’en faire usage il fût soumis à votre jugement. Ils sont à présent suffisamment instruits que vous ne voulez pas en entendre parler. Au reste on m’avertit de tous côtés, que le Parti Anglomane prépare toutes ses batteries pour former la plus violente opposition à votre admission, par une Résolution de cette Province. Faites valoir dans vos quartiers, Monsieur, comme je fais ici, l’idée d’un Acte de Navigation, par lequel les Ports des Et. Un. pourroient être ouverts aux Frisons seuls, à l’exclusion des Villes d’Hollde qui ne se declareront pas actuellement; en recompense de la Résolution de Frise: car cette opération trancheroit le noeud Gordien qu’on opposeroit, en prétendant qu’une Province seule ne sauroit traiter avec une Puissance étrangere, sans le consentement des autres.
J’ai écrit avant-hier au soir une Lettre par la poste a Mr. Van Berkel, avec priere de vous en communiquer le contenu. J’espere qu’il l’a fait. Vous y aurez vu, que les Mintres des 7 Villes protestantes, sont d’accord ici sur votre sujet, en attendant leurs Instructions; que l’on est sûr d’avance de celles de Dort; et très-probablement de celles de Leide et Rotterdam; j’ajouterai, que la delibération sur votre sujet est renvoyée à Vendredi prochain, afin de laisser le temps aux Villes, et notamment à Amsterdam, d’assembler là-dessus leurs Conseils, et que le succès, bon ou mauvais dépend sur-tout de la vigueur, ou du contraire du Vroedschap (ou Conseil) d’Amstm. Ne vous attendez qu’à de la mauvaise volonté de la part de Mr. R—p. Ayez s’il se peut, un entretien avec Mr. De Marseveen,3 afin que lui et les autres amis déterminent Mr. Hoofd à l’exertion de tout son crédit et pouvoir.
Il ne s’agit pas seulement de lier la rep. avec nous, qui pourrions peut-être l’abondonner à elle-même, sans tant de conséquence, mais aussi et sur-tout d’achever d’arracher cette rep. d’entre les griffes du Léopard, ce qui importe à nos amis et à toute l’Europe, encore plus qu’à nous; et voilà pourquoi, me dit-on we must not be too rash, if a little longer temporizing can do it.
Dans ce moment l’Ambr. me fait demander de passer chez lui. Je ne fermerai la présente qu’à mon retour, afin de pouvoir y ajouter, { 329 } S’il y a quelque chose de plus à vous marquer. Mais pour ne plus commettre une incongruité à force d’être pressé, je signerai toujours le respect et l’attachement avec lequel je suis pour toujours, Monsieur Votre très-humble & très obeissant serviteur
[signed] Dumas
It may be perhaps worth yr while, Sir, to come hear towards de end of next week, en hear from the ambr, that the C. V. is and will be more yr friend, than you seemed to apprehend he was.4

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0202-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-16

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

Here is a small packet of letters for you that was given to me by the duc de la Vauguyon.1
I received your honored letter of the 14th and will make good use of it, first with our friends, then with the others.
As for the conciliatory plan, I can assure you that the convalescent is not at the Bottom of it.2 Those who conceived and modified it always regarded it as their last resort, in the event they were unsuccessful, and even in that case they wanted to submit it to your judgment before implementing it. They are now sufficiently instructed that you do not want to hear about it. Moreover, I was alerted on all sides, that the Anglomane party is marshalling all of its resources to form the most violent opposition to your admission through a resolution of this province. Let it be known in your area, sir, as I have done here, of the idea of a navigation act by which the American ports could be open only to the Frieslanders, to the exclusion of the cities of Holland who will not presently declare, as compensation for Friesland’s resolution. This operation would cut the Gordian knot that confronts us, by maintaining that only one province knows how to deal with a foreign power, without the consent of the others.
The evening before last I wrote to Mr. van Berckel and asked him to tell you the content of the letter. I hope that he did it. You will have seen there, that the ministers from the seven protesting cities are in agreement here on your subject, while awaiting their instructions. One is certain in advance about those from Dordrecht and very probably about those from Leyden and Rotterdam. I will add that deliberations on your subject will be taken up again next Friday in order to give the cities, especially Amsterdam, time to assemble their councils, and that the outcome of it, good or bad, depends above all on the strength or weakness of the Vroedschap (or council) of Amsterdam. Expect only unwillingness from Mr. Rendorp. If possible, have a meeting with Mr. De Maarseveen,3 so that he and the other friends can enjoin Mr. Hooft to exert all of his credit and power.
It is not only a question of linking the republic to us. We could abandon it to itself, without great consequence, but it is also a question of snatch• { 330 } ing this republic from the leopard’s claws, which is of much more importance to our friends and to all of Europe than it is to us. This is why, I am told, that we must not be too rash, if a little longer temporizing can do it.
The ambassador has just now asked me to visit him. I will close the present letter only when I return, in order to add anything if necessary. But so that I do not commit further incongruities as a result of being in a hurry, I will close at the very least with the respect and the attachment with which I remain always, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Dumas
It may be perhaps worth your while, Sir, to come here towards the end of next week, and hear from the ambassador, that the Comte de Vergennes is and will be more your friend, than you seemed to apprehend he was.4
1. The letters have not been identified.
2. Pieter van Bleiswyck, who was too ill in January to receive JA’s demand for a categorical response to his memorial of 19 April 1781 (to the president of Congress, 14 Jan., above).
3. Probably Jan Elias Huydecoper van Maarseveen en Neerdijk, member of the Amsterdam town council and former alderman (Schulte Nordholt, Dutch Republic and Amer. Independence, p. 208).
4. The final sentence of JA’s 26 March letter to Benjamin Franklin, below, suggests that he may have met with La Vauguyon at The Hague.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0203-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-16

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Vous aurez reçus par le Chariot de poste parti d’ici à 1 heure après midi, un paquet contenant des Dépeches Americaines, que j’ai reçues pour vous des mains de S. E. l’Ambr de fce. J’y ai ajouté le Catalogue d’une vente qui se fera ici dans la 15ne.1 S’il y a quelque chose que vous vouliez avoir, je suis à vos ordres. En vous proposant Monsieur, de venir faire un tour ici vers la fin seulement de la semaine prochaine, mon intention étoit simplement, de ne pas interrompre les conférences que vous pourriez avoir encore avec quelques-uns de ces Messieurs, avant qu’ils aient tenu le Conseil de leur Ville, d’où dépendra la conduite que leurs Députés tiendront ici sur le sujet de votre demande: sans cela, rien n’empecheroit que je n’eusse plutôt l’honneur de vous revoir ici.
Je vous dirai historiquement, mais de Science certaine, que le Pce Str a reçu ce matin une Lettre des Seignrs Etats de Frise, resolue le 11e. et expédiée le 12e, dans laquelle on expose à S. Ae. S., “qu’il a existé depuis quelque temps parmi les habitans de la Province, un Mécontentement dangereux au sujet de la direction des affaires, { 331 } sur-tout de celles concernant la guerre;—que ce mécontentement, loin de diminuer, s’affermit de plus en plus, au grand regret des Etats;—que cette disposition de leurs sujets importe trop aux Etats, pour ne pas mettre tout en oeuvre, pour qu’elle n’ait pas des suites plus dangereuses encore;—que la personne de M. le D— de Br—, considérée comme Conseiller de S. A. S., est tenue généralement pour la cause de la marche lente et pitoyable des affaires, et s’est attiré par-là une haine de la part de la nation, dont les suites sont à craindre;—que les Seigrs Etats, en vrais peres de la patrie, ne sauroient cacher cela à S. A., mais doivent requerir S. A., afin d’écarter autant que possible, toute diffidence, de persuader au Seignr D de la meilleure maniere que faire se pourra, de se retirer de la personne de S. A. et de la République.”
Il y a dans la Gazette de Rotterdam un article qui vous regarde Monsieur. On y écrit d’Ostende, que les Lettres de Londres du 8e. reçues là, annoncent que Mr. Lawrens ayant déclaré n’avoir aucun pouvoir pour traiter, mais que c’étoit vous, Monsieur, qui étiez muni de pouvoirs pour traiter avec la Gr. Br. dans le futur Congrès général, le Ministere avoit dépéché tout de suite des Passeports pour vous en hollde., et que vous étiez par consequent attendu à Londres la semaine prochaine.2 En comparant avec cela, que l’on me dit il y a 3 jours, que l’Emissaire W—th venoit de recevoir un Courier de Londres avec d’importantes dépêches, et que ce même jour le nouvel Envoyé Ajoint de R—ie, avoit au une conference ici soit avec Mr. Adams, soit avec quelque autre Agent Americain, je suis violemment tenté de croire, que l’article susdit de Rotterdam a été forgé ici par l’Emissaire, et lâché dans le public pour donner de l’ombrage et de l’inquiétude soit à nos amis ici, soit à la fce, et pour nous rendre suspects aux uns et aux autres s’il pouvoit. Je n’ai pas hésité là dessus devant des gens respectables, qui m’ont parlé de l’article, et je l’ai traité avec le mépris qu’il mérite soit qu’il vienne de Londres ou d’ici.

[salute] Je suis toujours avec grand respect et tous les sentimens que vous me connoissez, Monsieur, V. t. & très ob. serv,

[signed] D
P.S. Demain notre ami prendra des mesures efficaces pour que l’Emissaire W—th parte tout de suite. En fermant mon paquet aujourdhui, mon intention étoit d’y joindre une Lettre d’Amerique pour Mrs. De Neufville. Je crois l’avoir fait; mais comme j’ai oublié de vous en parler dans ma Lettre, j’en fais mention ici. Je ferme celle-ci chez notre Ami, qui vous présente ses sinceres respects.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0203-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-16

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

You will have received a packet of American dispatches from his Excellency the ambassador of France that left here with the 1 o’clock post. I also added a catalog of a sale that will take place here on the 15th.1 2If there is something in it that you would like to have, I am at your disposal. By proposing, sir, that you come here toward the end of next week, my intention was simple. I did not want to interrupt any meetings you could still have with these gentlemen before they seek counsel from their cities, from which the decision that their deputies would take here on the subject of your demand depends. Barring this, nothing would have prevented me of having the honor of seeing you here earlier.
I will tell you for the record, but with exact certainty, that Prince Stadholder received a letter this morning from the nobility of the States of Friesland, resolved on the 11th and sent on the 12th, in which it explains to His Serene Highness “that a discontent has existed for some time among the inhabitants of the Province, a discontent dangerous to the progress of public affairs, especially those concerning the war. This discontent, far from diminishing, reaffirms itself more and more to the regret of the states; that the disposition of their subjects is too important to the states for them not to do everything possible to prevent any further dangerous consequences. The Duke of Brunswick, considered advisor to His Serene Highness, is generally held responsible for the slow and pitiful progression of affairs and has drawn upon himself the hatred of the nation, from which there will be consequences to fear. The nobles of the States, the true fathers of the country, cannot hide this from His Highness, but must call upon His Highness in order to remove as much diffidence as possible, and to persuade the noble Duke, in the best way possible, to retire from his position and the republic.”
There was an article about you in the Gazette de Rotterdam. It was written from Ostend that letters dated the 8th received there from London stated that, Mr. Laurens having declared that he lacked powers to negotiate, but that you, sir, had been vested with the power to treat with Great Britain in the future general congress, the minister had immediately sent your passports to Holland, and as a result, you were expected in London next week.2 In comparison with that, I was told three days ago that the emissary Wentworth just received an important dispatch from London, and that this same day the new Russian adjunct envoy had a meeting here either with Mr. Adams or another American agent. I am violently tempted to believe that the aforementioned article from Rotterdam was forged here by the emissary and released to the public in order to give offence and cause anxiety among our friends here and in France, and to render us suspect to both if he could. I have not hesitated to say this before respectable people { 333 } who have spoken to me about the article. I have treated it with the contempt it deserves whether it is from London or here.

[salute] I remain with great respect and attachment, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Dumas
P.S. Tomorrow our friend will take measures to insure emissary Wentworth’s departure. When closing my packet today, I intended to enclose a letter from America for Mr. De Neufville. I believe that I did, but forgot to mention it in my letter so I am telling you here. I am closing this at the home of our friend, who sends his sincere regards to you.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed by John Thaxter: “Mr. Dumas 16th. March 1782.”
1. Not identified.
2. For a similar report that appeared in the London Public Advertiser of 11 March, see Edmund Jenings’ letter of 7 March, note 3, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0204-0001

Author: Dubbeldemuts, Adrianus
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-18

From Adrianus Dubbeldemuts

[salute] Son Excellence

Il y a quelque tems que J’ai eu l’Honneur de Correspondre avec Votre Excelle.1 Depuis Cette Epoque Rien d’Interessant Sest Presentee pour que J’ai pu avoir eu Celuy de vous Ecrire, et quoi que Je Compte que Votre Excellence Sera deja Instruit de l’Intention tant des Commercants des Villes d’amsterdam, Rotterdam et autres, Je Crois Etre Utille de vous Envoyer Copie de la Requete que Les Committés des Negociants de Cette Ville, dont J’ai l’honneur d’Etre du Nombre, ont Presentee Samedy passee a notre Magistrat,2 La gazette de Damermeer en fait mention aujourd’huy, mais Come elle en donne un detail Imparfait. J’Espere que Votre Excellence ne trouvera pas meauvais de Liberté que Je viens de Prendre, a quoi J’ajoute mon desir d’Etre honnoree de Votre Reponce, et Si votre Excellence voudrait me donner Ses Reflections. Le tacherai d’y Satisfaire, tant par mon Zêle que le desir que Les Committees de notre Ville et les negociants en general, ont, de nous unir avec Votre Republique dont J’Espere Le Succes desiré.
Comme J’ai Eprouvé que Les Lettres a mon addresse ne Soyent quelque fois decachettee, Je prends la liberté de Vous Prier la Permission d’Envoyer notre messager qui Vient a la Haie 3 fois par Semaine, a l’Hotel de Votre Excellence, pour demander Ses ordres. Ce Sont les mardis Jeudi et Samedis Vers les 2 heures apres midi que cet homme pourrai Venir.
{ 334 }

[salute] J’ai l’honneur d’Etre avec les Sentiments du plus profond Respect De Votre Excellence Le Tres Humble Serviteur

[signed] A Dubbeldemuts

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0204-0002

Author: Dubbeldemuts, Adrianus
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-18

Adrianus Dubbeldemuts to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Your Excellency

It has been a long time since I had the honor of writing to your Excellency.1 During this time there was really nothing of importance to write to you about. Although I am sure that your Excellency has already been informed of the merchants’ intentions in Amsterdam, Rotterdam and elsewhere, I believe that I can be of use to you by sending you a copy of the merchant committee’s petition of this city, of which I am a member, that was presented to our magistrate last Saturday.2 The Damermeer Gazette mentioned it today, but gave an inaccurate account. I hope that your Excellency will excuse the liberty I have just taken to which I would like to add my desire for your response. If your Excellency would give me his thoughts on this, I will try, as much by my own zeal as by the desire that our city’s committees and the merchants in general have, to unite us with your republic, which I hope achieves its desired success.
Since letters to my address sometimes arrive unsealed, I take the liberty of asking you, sir, if our messenger could come to your residence at the Hague three times a week to request orders. This man can come on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays around 2 o’clock in the afternoon.

[salute] I have the honor to be, with the deepest respect for your Excellency, the very humble servant

[signed] A Dubbeldemuts
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Dubbledemutts 18 March. ansd 22. 1782.”
1. The last letter from Rotterdam merchants Franco and Adrianus Dubbeldemuts was 27 June 1781 (Adams Papers), for which see JA’s letter of 21 June, note 2 (vol. 11:381).
2. The enclosed petition from the Rotterdam merchants, [ca. 16 March], is not in the Adams Papers. JA included an English translation in his letter of 19 March to Robert R. Livingston, calendared below, and reprinted the translation in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 45–46.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0205

Author: Jay, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-18

From John Jay

[salute] Sir

I had the Pleasure of recg your favor of the 28 ult. a few Days ago.
I congratulate You sincerely on the accession of Friesland and the flattering Prospect there is that the Example of that Province will be followed by that of Holland and the others.
It would give me great Satisfaction to be able to transmit you In• { 335 } telligence equally agreable, but that is not the Case. Prudence forbids me to explain myself, for tho’ I am not even now without Hopes, yet the Completion of them is so contingent that I dare not predict when the Delays of this Court will terminate.
I thank you for the Hint respecting the 10 article—that matter has heretofore been attended to, and pressed—I could mention some singular Circumstances respecting it—but they must not be committed to the post office.
The protest of my Bills for want of Payment, will afford you some meditation, and I am persuaded that your Discernment will save me the Necessity of being particular—that affair and others connected with it, has so engaged me that I must take another opportunity of writing more fully to You.

[salute] With great Esteem & Respect I am Sir yrs.

Dft (NNC:John Jay Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0206-0001

Author: Berckel, Engelbert François van
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-19

From Engelbert François van Berckel

Madame Van Berckel, qúi ne pouvoit pas S’attendre a úne Si grande distinction, qu’elle viént de recevoir de la part de L’illústre Anonÿme; a l’honneúr de lui en temoigner toúte Sa reconnoisance. En effet, Le Billet qúi a accompagné le Present, Servira d’un doux Soúvenir de cette heúreúse Joúrnée, qúi vient de Serrer des Liens indissolubles entre La Republique des Etats únis en Ameriqúe et cette ville; Comme aússi des liens d’amitié entre quelques úns des Individús respectifs.1
La Consideretion favorable, d’ont L’Anonyme daigne m’honorer, dans ce même Billet, me doit être d’aútant plús pretieúse, parce qúe toút le contenú en develope le caractere de la Sincerite. De mon coté, donc, Si Ces efforts, que j’ai pú mettre en oeúvre, pour l’avancement de L’únion entre les deúx Repúbliqúes, Sont recús Si favorablement; Qu’elle ne doit pas être L’ardeúr de mes voeúx, poúr qúe la dite joúrnée Soit aússi l’Epoqúe de Son parfait accomplissament; et d’Alliances, qúi etablissins fermement L’Amitié, La Liberté et l’Independance des deúx Nations.

[salute] En attendant j’ai l’honneúr de temoigner la consideration la plús distinguée pour l’Illústre Anonyme; et la plus grand veneration poúr Sa Respectable Nation.

[signed] E. F. Van Berckel

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0206-0002

Author: Berckel, Engelbert François van
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-19

Engelbert François van Berckel to John Adams: A Translation

Mrs. Van Berckel, who could not have expected that the illustrious anonymous one would bestow such a great distinction on her, has the honor to show her gratitude toward him. The note that accompanies this letter will very much serve as a sweet reminder of this happy day when unbreakable ties were made between the republic of the United States of America and this city, as well as binding ties of friendship between respective individuals.1
The consideration you have shown me in this same letter is made even more precious by its sincerity. Therefore, as far as I am concerned, if these efforts, which I have been able to set in motion for the advancement of the union between the two republics, have been received so favorably, how ardent my wishes would be that the said day mark its perfect accomplishment, as well as the alliances which firmly establish friendship, liberty, and independence of the two countries.

[salute] Meantime, I have the honor to show the most distinguished consideration for the illustrious anonymous one, and the most veneration for his respectable country.

[signed] E. F. Van Berckel
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Madam Van Berckel 19. March. 1782. ansd Same day.”
1. Engelbert François van Berckel married Gertruy Roskam, widow of Gerald Muyser, in 1759. She would die on 25 June 1782 (Nieuw Ned. Biog. Woordenboek, 4:111). The enclosed note has not been found.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0207

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Berckel, Gertruy Roskam van
Date: 1782-03-19

To Gertruy Roskam van Berckel

Mr. Adams is very sensible of the honor done him in the polite Card of Madam Van Berkel of this day’s date;1 but has the Mortification to be conscious that he is not the anonymous Person alluded to, and therefore has no Title to the genteel Acknowledgments for the Present or the Billet.
The happy Auspices of a future Connection between the two Nations, which appear at this time in the City, are extreamly grateful to Mr. A., because it has been upon the best Principles for a long time, one of the most ardent wishes of his Heart.
The constant Friendship of Mr. Van Berkel to a young Country struggling against Oppression, and his long continued Endeavors to form a Friendship between two Nations, which have the best Rea• { 337 } sons to esteem each other, and the clearest Interests to be united, have erected a Monument to him in every American Heart.
Mr. Adams has had in the Course of his life too much Experience of the inexpressible Consolation to be derived from a Companion whose public Sentiments and Affections are in perfect harmony with his own, and has been too sensible of the cruel Misfortune of being deprived of it for so many Years, to be inattentive to the Obligations which his Country is under to Madam Vanberkel, altho’ he had not the honor to send, or know any thing of the Present alluded to.
LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. Not found. See Engelbert François van Berckel’s letter of 19 March, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0208

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1782-03-19

To Robert R. Livingston

Amsterdam, 19 March 1782. RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 25–60). printed: Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:246–265. LbC in both JA’s and John Thaxter’s hands (Adams Papers). The Letterbook text is divided between two Letterbooks, Lb/JA/16 and Lb/JA/18 under the dates of 19 March and 19 April respectively (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel Nos. 104, 106). Read in Congress on 12 Nov. 1782, the letter contains English translations of thirteen resolutions, petitions, and addresses supporting the recognition of American independence, the admission of JA as minister plenipotentiary from the United States, and the negotiation of a Dutch-American commercial treaty. Each document expressed concern that Dutch commercial opportunities, created by the American Revolution, would be lost unless the Dutch acted quickly, prior to an Anglo-American peace treaty. JA included several of the texts in A Collection of State-Papers, which documents the events leading to the States General’s resolution of 19 April to recognize the United States. Lb/JA/16 contains the texts of documents one through eleven, as indicated below, and Lb/JA/18 included documents twelve and thirteen: 1. Gelderland’s resolution of 23 Feb. supporting recognition, but postponing a final vote until the commercial provinces acted; 2. petition of 18 March from the manufacturers, merchants, and other traders of Leyden to the grand council of the city; 3. joint petition of 20 March from the merchants, manufacturers, and other inhabitants of Haarlem, Leyden, and Amsterdam to the States General (JA indicates it was only from Amsterdam); 4. petition from the merchants and manufacturers of Amsterdam to the burgomasters and regents of the city; 5. petition of 16 March from the merchants, insurers, and freighters of Rotterdam to the regency of the city; 6. identical petitions of 20 March from the merchants and manufacturers of Haarlem, Leyden, and Amsterdam to the States of Holland; 7. newspaper item of 20 March indicating that the active lobbying of the merchants of Dordrecht led the council of { 338 } that city to instruct its delegates in the States of Holland to agree to JA’s admission as minister; 8. resolution of 29 March by the States of Holland to recognize the United States and admit JA as minister; 9. petition of the merchants, manufacturers, and factors of Zwolle to the States of Overijssel; 10. request by the merchants of Amsterdam that the city’s regency not be tempted by the illusory advantages of a Russian mediation of the Anglo-Dutch war, but rather continue to support JA’s admission as minister; 11. address of thanks from the merchants, citizens, and inhabitants of Amsterdam to the city’s regency for making it possible for the States of Holland to recognize the United States and admit JA as minister; 12. address of 15 April from the manufacturers, merchants, and other traders of Leyden to the city’s great council, thanking it for its efforts leading to the States of Holland’s recognition of American independence and admission of JA as minister; 13. address of thanks dated 28 April from the manufacturers, merchants, and other traders of Utrecht to the provincial states for its vote to recognize the United States, admit JA as minister, and negotiate a Dutch-American commercial treaty.
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 25–60). printed: (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:246–265). LbC in both JA’s and John Thaxter’s hands (Adams Papers). The Letterbook text is divided between two Letterbooks, Lb/JA/16 and Lb/JA/18 under the dates of 19 March and 19 April respectively (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel Nos. 104, 106).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0209

Author: Luzac, Jean
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-19

From Jean Luzac

[salute] Honorable Sir

The Committee of the corporate Body of Merchants, Manufacturers and Traders of this City have charged me, as their Counsel, to present Your Excellency with two printed Copies of the Petition, they have put up Monday last to the Great-Council of Leyden, in order to pray for the conclusion of commercial connexions with the United-States of America.1 They hope, Your Excellency will accept those Copies as a testimony of their regard for You, Sir, as the Representative of a State, which they desire to call soon, with full and avowed right, their Sister-Republic. My love for my Country, my inclination for yours, my respect for your character, public and private, these are all motives, Sir, which make this commission one of the most agreeable I could ever perform in my life.2

[salute] I am with the sincerest and most perfect regard, Sir, Your Excellency’s Most obedient and very humble Servant

[signed] J. Luzac
RC and enclosure (Adams Papers).
1. Only one copy of the petition of 18 March signed by 64 merchants, manufacturers, and traders, is in the Adams Papers. JA included an English translation in his letter of 19 March to Robert R. Livingston, calendared above, and reprinted the translation in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 26–34.
Luzac, whom JA credited as the author (to Edmund Jenings, 3 April, below), gave a more detailed account of the petition’s origins in a letter to John Thaxter of [19 March] (copy, Adams Papers). Luzac remarked upon the unanimity of the merchants in their desire for a commercial treaty with the United States and had “l’honneur de dire à Mr. Adams, que le Corps de la Nation desiroit { 339 } vivement la reconnoissance de l’Independance Americaine” (the honor to inform Mr. Adams that the body of the nation eagerly wished for the recognition of American independence). He indicated that the burgomasters had graciously received the petition and that the council agreed unanimously to direct their deputies in the States of Holland to insist vigorously that the wishes of the people be fulfilled.
2. In his letter to Thaxter, Luzac apologized for his letter to JA, having had time only for a short note in poor English.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0210

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Luzac, Jean
Date: 1782-03-20

To Jean Luzac

[salute] Sir

This morning I recd. the Letter, which You did me the honor to write me on the 19th. of this month with the two Copies inclosed, of the Petition of the Merchants, Manufacturers and Traders of Leyden, to the Great Council of that City, praying for the Conclusion of commercial Connections with the U. States of America.
You will be pleased to present my Acknowledgments to the respectable Body, whose Intentions You execute, for their obliging Attention to me, which does me much honor: and it is with great sincerity that I join in their Wishes and rejoice in the pleasing Prospect, of seeing the two Republicks acknowledged to be Sisters, which cannot fail to have the most favorable Effects upon the Manufactures, Commerce and Prosperity of Leyden.

[salute] Accept of my particular thanks, Sir, for the affectionate and obliging manner in which You have made the Communication and believe me to be, with sincere Esteem and great Respect, Sir, your most obedient & most humble Servant.

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0211

Author: Digges, Thomas
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-20

From Thomas Digges

[salute] Sir

I am just arrivd here from London, and instead of personally waiting upon You I make so free as to send a messenger with this and its inclosure together with a few late News Papers.
I have a matter of publick moment to mention to You; As well as to speak to a private affair of consequence to myself which will I think lead me in a very few days to Dr. F at Paris. My present purpose is to beg for half an hours conversation with You. I am at present, and shall be for tomorrow, totally unknown in the Hotel, a line { 340 } directed for me, or any message to the Gentn who arrivd this night and lodges in the Room No 10 will be duly attended to.

[salute] I am with Great Respect Sir Your very Ob Servt

[signed] T. Digges
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “John Adams Esqr”; endorsed: “M. Diggs Letter from the first Bible.” and “Mr Hartley.”; by John Thaxter: “Mr. Hartley Feby. 19. March 11th. 1782.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0212-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-20

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

L’incluse pour vous m’est parvenue je ne sai d’où ni comment avec une Gazette de Rotterdam où l’on a inséré la Requête des Negociants de la dite Ville à leurs Magistrats. Je suppose qu’il y en a une pareille sous ce couvert. Vous aurez vu par les gazettes, qu’avanthier pareille démarche s’est faite à Leide par 64 Negociants et Fabriquants. J’ai lieu de croire, que demain il en sera présenté une semblable par les Commerçants combinés des villes de cette Province, aux Etats d’Hollde. et Généraux.1 On m’a donné la substance de la Résolution prise à Amsterdam. A un seul terme près, dont on pourroit vouloir abuser, j’en suis content. Il dependra toujours de vous, Monsieur, qu’on n’en abuse pas avec succès, en refusant d’entrer en conférence et explication à moins que préalablement on ait accepté Vos Lettres de Creance, et que vous soyiez écouté sous le Caractere que ces Lettres constatent.
Je pense qu’après-demain la matiere sera tout de bon sur le tapis. En attendant, pour ne pas donner des lumieres aux curieux indiscrets, qui voudroient visiter cette Lettre, je n’ose y mettre diverses bonnes choses que je sais.1
Je crois vous devoir avertir, que selon ce qu’on m’a assuré, le Sr. Wentworth est parti cet après-dîner pour Amsterdam, où il lui reste, dit-il, quelques affaires à régler, et qu’il a envoyé le gros de son bagage, par Rotterdam à Anvers, où il continuera peut-être de résider: car il ne lui sera pas permis de venir et résider ici pour le présent; le sujet prétexté de sa venue ici étant terminé, ainsi que j’en suis informé de la meilleure part. Je suis avec tous les sentimens de respect & d’attachement que vous connoissez Monsieur V. t. h. & t. o. S.
[signed] Dumas
J’ai fait un très-grand usage de votre excellente Lettre du 14. Mais je ne puis vous le dire que de bouche, quand nous nous verrons.3

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0212-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-20

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I received the enclosed for you, from where and from whom I don’t know, with the Gazette de Rotterdam, which had the merchants’ petition inserted in it. I suppose it contains the same thing. You will have seen in the newspapers that the 64 merchants and manufacturers acted the same in Leyden. I have reason to believe that the combined merchants of the province’s cities will make a similar petition tomorrow to the states of Holland and to the states general.1 I was given the substance of the Amsterdam resolution. Inasmuch as there is only one sticking point that could make trouble for us, I am happy. It will still depend on you, sir, that it is not successfully thwarted through a refusal to start any meetings before your credentials are accepted and you are treated accordingly.
I believe the matter will be up for discussion the day after tomorrow. Meantime, I do not dare add any more of the details I know to this letter, lest they fall before curious, indiscreet eyes.2
I believe I must warn you, that I have been assured of Mr. Wentworth’s departure this afternoon for Amsterdam, where he has, he says, some business to attend to. He has sent most of his baggage by way of Rotterdam to Antwerp, where perhaps he will continue to reside since he is not allowed to stay here at the present time. The pretext for his coming here is over, and I have been informed of most of it. I am with great sentiments of respect and fondness, as you know, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Dumas
I put your excellent letter of the 14th to good use. I cannot say anything more about it until I speak to you face to face.1
1. Printed copies of the 20 March petitions to the States of Holland and the States General from the merchants of Haarlem, Leyden, and Amsterdam are in the Adams Papers. There were 53 signatures from Haarlem, 12 from Leyden, and 345 from Amsterdam, including all those with whom JA had done or would do business. JA included English translations of the petitions in his letter of 19 March to Robert R. Livingston, calendared above, and in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 47–48, 52–59. In both the letter of 19 March and the Collection, JA indicated that the petition to the States General was only from Amsterdam.
2. This sentence was interlined.
3. This sentence was written in the left margin.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0213

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Digges, Thomas
Date: 1782-03-21

To Thomas Digges

Mr Adams will Stay, at home, for the Gentleman in No. 10, whom he will receive at ten o Clock, this Day, Sans Ceremonie, provided { 342 } the Gentleman is content the Conversation Should pass in presence of Mr Thaxter, Mr Adams’s Secretary.
But Such is the Situation of Things here and elsewhere, that it is impossible for Mr. A. to have any Conversation with any Gentleman from England, without Witness. And indeed, Mr Adams’s Advice to the Gentleman is, to proceed forthwith to Paris, and communicate, whatever he has to Say to Dr Franklin and the Comte de Vergennes in the first Place, without Seeing Mr A. who will certainly think himself bound to communicate, whatever may be made known to him, without Loss of Time to those Ministers, as he has no Authority to treat, much less to conclude, but in Concert with them and others.2
FC (Adams Papers); notation: “Mr Adams’s Answer to Mr Digges at the first Bible. Amsterdam.”
1. This is the last extant letter from JA to Thomas Digges.
2. For JA’s account of his conversation with Digges on 21 March, the first time the two men had met face to face, see JA to Benjamin Franklin, 26 March, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0214

Author: Baraux, M.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-21

From M. Baraux

[salute] Your Excelence

Being appointed Director of the Imperial priviledged trade Compagnÿ of Trieste and Fiume and almost ready to Set out for the first place where my residence will be, I take the liberty to apply to Your Protection in order to obtain an extensive list of the best Merchands in the different towns of America, with whose the Companÿ Could guet into a reciprocal advantageous connection; I dare flatter my Self, with the Smiling hope, that Your Excelence will be So Kind to grand me that favour.1 I have the honour to present my most dutiful Services and to be with Respect of Your Excelence The most obedient and Humble Servant
[signed] Baraux
Directeur de La Compaignie Impérial
et Roÿale Privilegiée de Trieste & Fiume
1. When it became clear that the Netherlands was likely to recognize American independence and receive JA as minister from the United States, a steady stream of merchants and others began to seek his assistance in his role as minister to the Netherlands. This note was one of the first such letters to reach JA and is an excellent example of the type of assistance desired by merchants hoping to trade with the United States.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0215

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Dubbeldemuts, Adrianus
Date: 1782-03-22

To Adrianus Dubbeldemuts

[salute] Sir

I have recd. the Letter, which You did me the honor to write me, the 18th. of this month, with a Copy inclosed of the Petition of the Committee of the Merchants of the City of Rotterdam to their Magistrates, presented last Saturday. You will please to accept of my thanks for this very acceptable present, and of my hearty Congratulations upon that remarkable Harmony and Unanimity in the sentiments of the various Cities and Provinces of the Republick, concerning the present subject of their Deliberations, a Treaty with America.
The Unanimity of the Republick in this important measure, and the forcible Arguments adduced in support of it, by the Bodies of Merchants and Manufacturers in the several Cities, will probably have a great Influence even in England for a general Peace: in such Case the Commerce will be free, and the City of Rotterdam from her Situation will have as large a Share at least in proportion as any other. I wish it all the Prosperity it can desire, and beg leave to subscribe myself very respectfully, Sir, your most obedient and most humble Servant
LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0216-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-22

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Mardi ou Mercredi prochain nous pourrons selon toute apparence dire avec Ovide Dicite Io Paean,1 &c. c’est-à dire notre Soeur la Hollande, comme nous pouvons déjà dire notre Soeur la Frise; et puis les autres ne tarderont pas de compléter la Fraternité. Hier l’affaire de votre admission fut tout de bon sur le tapis; il n’y eut aucun débat là-dessus. 9 Villes, savoir Dort, Harlem, Delft, Leide, Amsterdam, Gouda, Schoonhoven, Purmerend, et la 9me je l’ai oubliee, donnerent leurs suffrages pour l’affirmative, sans aucune contradiction, pas même de Mr. le Gd. Pre, qui se montra fort traitable; et les Députés des 9 autres ne garderent le silence que parce qu’ils n’ayoient pas encore reçu leurs Instructions. Notre Ami déclara, qu’il ne souffrira pas que cette Assemblée se séparât sans { 344 } qu’on prît une Resolution définitive à ce sujet, et lui ainsi qu’un autre ami m’ont assuré qu’elle passera unanimement mardi ou mercredi prochain.2 Ayez la bonté, Monsieur, de me dire d’abord en réponse, si la copie de la Résolution que vous avez reçue des Etats de Frise, est ce qu’on appelle une copie authentique, c’est-à-dire, si elle est signée de la main de Mr. Sminia le Secretaire des Etats de Frise:3 on me l’a demandé; et j’ai lieu de croire, que c’est pour se conduire en conséquence, c’est-à-dire, qu’on vous enverra aussi une Copie signée de Mr. Clotterboke le Secretaire des Etats d’Hollande. Notre ami est surpris que vous ne Soyiez pas venu aujourd’hui ici. Il dit qu’il est bon de vous montrer ici pendant quelques jours; et je crois que Mr. l’Ambassadr. sera bien aise aussi de pouvoir vous dire ce que je vous ai marqué il y a quelques jours de la part de Mr. de V—.4
Pour le coup, je crois être sûr que Wth est parti hier tout de bon pour Amsterdam; A moins qu’il ne se soit caché dans quelque gouttiere.
Agréez les respects de ma petite famille. Je tirerai sur vous, Monsieur, l’un de ces jours, à l’ordre de Mrs. Moliere fils & Ce, pour le 15e d’Avril prochain, les ƒ6052.10 restants, afin d’être prêt à la Minute, quand il faudra qu’on me fasse le transport final de la Maison.

[salute] Je suis avec tout le respectueux attachement qui vous est connu et voué pour toujours, Monsieur, Votre très-humble & très obéissant Serviteur

[signed] Dumas
Je soupçonne qu’il S’agira encore d’une petite ruse, pour ôter quelque chose à l’authenticité de votre admission: mais vous pourrez éviter facilement ce petit piege, si tant est qu’on veuille l’essayer, en refusant tout net de présenter vos Lettres de créance autrement que comme tous les Ministres publics les présentent, c’est-à-dire, en pleine audience à l’Assemblée des E. G., et non à une Commission. Après cette premiere Audience, on pourra, tant qu’on voudra, traiter par Commissaires, à la bonne heure: mais l’audience doit précéder, pour prévenir toute chicane à l’avenir.
Il est bon de ne rien dire, encore du contenu de cette Lettre, à d’autres qu’à Mrs V. B., Biker, et Marsseveen;5 si vous jugez à propos de leur en parler. Tout autre ne doit savoir rien de la Résolution, que lorsqu’elle sera prise et communiquée.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0216-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-22

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

From all appearances we will, with Ovid, be able to utter Dicite Io Pæan1 next Tuesday or Wednesday, that is to say, that our sister Holland, along with our already established sister Friesland, will soon complete the fraternity with the others. Yesterday, the matter of your confirmation was discussed with no debate. Nine cities, Dordrecht, Haarlem, Delft, Leyden, Amsterdam, Gouda, Schoonhoven, Purmerend, and I forget the ninth one, all voted in the affirmative without contradiction, even from the grand pensionary who seemed very accommodating. The other nine deputies kept silent only because they had not yet received their instructions. Our friend declared that this assembly could not adjourn until a definitive resolution was taken regarding this subject, as did another friend, who assured me that it will pass unanimously next Tuesday or Wednesday.2 Be so kind, sir, as to respond to me whether or not the copy of the resolution that you received from the states of Friesland is an authentic copy, that is, if it is signed by Mr. Sminia, secretary of the states of Friesland.3 I was asked about it and I have reason to believe that it was because of the next step needed as a result, which would be to also send you a copy signed by Mr. Clotterboke, secretary of the states of Holland. Our friend is surprised that you did not come here today. He says it would be good for you to be here for a few days. I believe that the ambassador will be pleased to be able to tell you in person what I wrote to you several days ago about Mr. de Vergennes.4
I believe it to be certain that Wentworth finally left yesterday for Amsterdam, unless he is hiding in some gutter.
Please accept my family’s regards. One of these days I will ask you, sir, for the 6052.10 florins remaining to be paid to Messrs. Moliere fils & Co and due by April 15th, so that I will be ready when the house sale becomes final.

[salute] I am, with the most respectful attachment known and vowed to you always, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Dumas
I suspect that there will be still yet another small ruse to question the authenticity of your confirmation. But you can easily avoid this little trap, if one wishes to try it, by clearly refusing to present your credentials in any other way than how all public officials present theirs, that is to say, to a full audience at the assembly of the states general and not to a committee. After this first audience, the commissioners can question all they want, but the audience must come first in order to prevent any chicanery in the future.
It is best not to say anything about this letter to anyone except Messrs. V. B., Bicker, and Maarseveen,5 if you think it is appropriate to tell them. No one else must know anything about the resolution until it is passed and communicated.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed by John Thaxter: “Mr. Dumas 22d. March 1782.”
{ 346 }
1. Give the victory cry (Ovid, Art of Love, Bk. II, line 1).
2. The States of Holland acted on Thursday, 28 March.
3. An extract, in Dutch, from the resolutions of the States of Friesland on 26 Feb. in the Adams Papers is certified as having been “Accordeert met Voorst Boek” (compared with the aforesaid book), but is not signed by A. I. V. Sminia (Descriptive List of Illustrations, Resolution by the States of Friesland to Recognize the United States and Admit John Adams as Minister Plenipotentiary, 26 February 1782 276No. 5, above). English translations that JA sent to Congress (to Robert R. Livingston, 11 March, above; 19 April, below) and included in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 79–80, however, do carry Sminia’s signature.
4. See Dumas’ 2d letter of 16 March, above.
5. Presumably Engelbert François van Berckel, Hendrik Bicker, and Jan Elias Huydecoper van Maarseveen en Neerdijk.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0217

Author: Neufville, Leendert de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-22

From Leendert de Neufville

[salute] Sir

Our Good friend Dumas beggd that I would inform Your Excelency of this—L’Emissaire P W devait partir hier pour Amsterdam. Il n’en a rien fait. Il est encore ici. Je crois et d’autres aussi que ce n’est pas Ce dis promis.1 Others Say however Confidentally that he has gone.
We have very Satisfactory tidings from Rotterdam and Dort. They are in motion at Utrecht. As I expect Some Gentn with me I am prevented from going out but hope to pay Your Excellency my respects to morrow meanwhile I am with very great respect & great hurry Your Excellencys most obt hb St
[signed] L de Neufville Son of
1. Leendert de Neufville’s handwriting at best is difficult to read. This is particularly true of the French passage, which has been rendered by the editors as accurately as possible. The passage reads: The emissary Paul Wentworth was supposed to leave yesterday for Amsterdam. He did not. He is still here. I believe, as do others here, that it is not the said promised one. Because Dumas indicated in his letter of 20 March to JA, above, that Wentworth had left The Hague that day, his communication to Neufville was probably on the 21st.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0218-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-23

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Celle-ci n’est que pour vous confirmer la mienne d’hier, et que l’affaire va grand train. J’ai vu ce matin M. l’Ambr., qui m’a entretenu très-gracieusement, et avec une bonne humeur charmante. Il pense, tout comme notre ami, que votre apparition ici pour quelques jours est à propos, non pour faire aucune démarche, mais seulement pour vous montrer sans affectation.
Une Dépêche secrete d’un Ministre de la Rep. à certaine Cour, leur donne l’avis, de la part du Souverain de cette Cour-là, non seu• { 347 } lement de la part intime qu’il prend et prendra toujours aux intérêts de la Rep., mais aussi celui de ne rien attendre de la prétendue Médiation, et d’être persuadés que cette médiation n’aboutira à rien, et n’est qu’un être de raison.
Permettez, Monsieur, que je présente ici mes remercimens à Mr. Thaxter, de l’obligeante Lettre qu’il m’a fait l’honneur de m’écrire par Mr. Harrisson,1 lequel j’ai fort regretté, avec Ma famille, de posséder si peu de temps ici. Nous nous impatientons tous ici, de voir passer le mois prochain, et de lui donner et recevoir des preuves journalieres de notre amitié, comme à V. E. de l’attachement sincere & respectueux pour votre personne, Monsieur, de votre très humble & très obéissant serviteur
[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0218-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-23

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

This letter is only to confirm yesterday’s letter and the fact that everything is moving forward. This morning I saw the ambassador who treated me very graciously and with charming good humor. He thinks, as does our friend, that it would be appropriate for you to be here for a few days, not to take any action, but rather just to present yourself without any affectation.
A secret dispatch by a minister of the republic to a certain court gives them advice on behalf of its sovereign, not only because of the close interest he takes and will always take in matters regarding the republic, but also to say that nothing is expected from this so-called mediation, which will not result in anything and is an impossibility.
Permit me, sir, to thank Mr. Thaxter for his obliging letter sent to me by Mr. Harrison.1 My family and I much regret that he had so little time to spend here. We are all impatient here to see him [Thaxter] next month and to give and receive written proof of our friendship, as I do to your Excellency with sincere and respectful attachment, sir, from your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Dumas
1. Probably George Harrison; see Benjamin Rush to JA, 23 June 1781, and note 1 (vol. 11:388). Thaxter’s letter has not been found.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0219-0001

Author: Baumberg, Johann Christoph
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-24

From Johann Christoph Baumberg

[salute] Excellenz

Unstern meines Lebens und Mißkenntniß meiner durch 23 Jahre { 348 } erworbenen Verdienste zwingen mich, mein Vaterland zu verlassen und in fremden Ländern mein Brod und Glück zu suchen—. Ich wäre daher fest entschlossen, mich nach den vereinigten Staaten in Amerika überschiffen zu lassen, wenn ich nur abzusehen vermöchte, wie ich meine Frau, meinen 16 jährig hoffnungsvollen Sohn und meine 17 jährige Tochter indessen und bis zu deren Nachkommlassung versorgen, auch ob ich als ein purer Deutscher, aber auch—rechtschaffener (bin 42 Jahre alter) Deutscher, dem es weder an Muth, Traun und Fleiße, noch an sonst thätigster Verwendung gegen den meine Dienste und Verdienste erkennenden Staat im geringsten fehlet, gebrauchet und durch Euer Excellenz großmögende Veranlassung bald zu meinem erwünschlichen Zwecke gelangen könnte?—In dieser kurzerwähnten Absicht ergehen an Eure Excellenz, (von Derer erhabenen, edelmüthigen und menschenfreundlichen Denkungsart ich mir die vortheilhaftesten Begriffe mache,) meine gehorsamste Bitte, mich durch Ihren gütigst gefälligen Briefwechsel des Näheren unterrichten, und Ihre ggl. Befehle unter Endes stehender Addresse mich kennen zu lassen.
In gierigster Erwartung derselben verlasse ich mich unter gehorsamster Empfehlung zu Dero großmögenden Schutzhaltung mit vollkommenstem Respekte Eurer Excellenz. Gehors. Diener
[signed] Johann Christoph Baumberg
k.k. öffentlicher Lehrer der deutschen Hauptschule allda
Addresse.
M. Baumberg, Professeur de l’Ecole normale, de sa Majl. Imp. et Royl. ap. à p Bruxelles St. Pölten en Autriche inferieur

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0219-0002

Author: Baumberg, Johann Christoph
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-24

Johann Christoph Baumberg to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Excellency

Misfortune in my life and the misjudgment of my merits, in the past 23 years, force me to leave my fatherland, and to seek my bread and fortune in foreign countries. I would have been firmly resolved to travel by ship to the United States, if only I knew what my wife, my promising 16-year-old son, and my 17-year-old daughter would live off until I could have them follow me, and also whether I, as a true German, but also an upright (42-year-old) German, who does not lack courage, entrepreneurial spirit or diligence, and who would be prepared to do anything for a country that recognizes my achievements and merits, could be of any use there, and { 349 } whether, with the help of your Excellency, I could soon reach my desired goals. After having described my plans briefly, I bid your Excellency (whose eminent, noble and affable disposition I have the highest regard for) to consider my most obedient request, the details of which you could inform me of by means of the goodness of your correspondence, and in case you have orders, be made known to me at the below mentioned address. With eager anticipation I remain under the most obedient recommendation and put myself under your protection with complete respect of your Excellency’s Obedient Servant
[signed] Johann Christoph Baumberg
Imperial and Royal Instructor of the German Intermediate School
Address
M. Baumberg, Professeur de l’Ecole normale, de sa Majl. Imp. et Royl. ap. à Bruxelles St. Pölten en Autriche inferieur
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “German”; and by John Thaxter: “March 24th 782.”
1. This letter from Johann Christoph Baumberg, about whom nothing else is known, is the first extant German language letter that JA received in the Netherlands. There is no evidence that he replied to this letter, which is similar to others in English, French, and Dutch requesting his aid in going to America that also often went unanswered.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0220

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-24

From John Bondfield

[salute] Sir

Permit me to congratulate you on the progress which the vigorous resolves of the province of Frise informs us is taking to a publick acknowledgement of the american Independance as also of the late resolves of the British parlement.1 The Neutral Consuls at this Port construe the late Acts to a licence to their flag to transport Goods to the United States under the privalidge and restrictions observed in Europe and at present in the West Indies. I dined yesterday with the prussien Consul he is ready to embark deeply in conections with us so soon as licence is granted. We have upwards of one hundred Sail of neutral Ships in this port all which wish to be Charterd for America. The late resolves of Parlement is not a direct acknowledgement of Independance but under the present situation of Great Britain with the neutral powers a spirritted instruction from the Emperor or the King of Prussia to their Consuls would smoth the road. Every State are anxious to open Commercial Conections with us. You have brought Holland to your terms. The Confederated Neutrals are impowerd by their Union to Act without Control being satisfied there { 350 } can be no longer a doubt of Americas ever returning under the Gouvernment of Great Britain. To obtain a Cessation of Hostilities and establish a firm and speedy Peace Spirritted resolves of all the European Nations is the most certain line. But these Neutrals reap such advantages that is more probable they will add feul to the Flame than attempt any measure to bring about a Conciliation.
We expect our Great West India fleet from St Domingo dayly. We are held in suspence by the various reports transmitted of the Operations at St. Kitts from Cadiz by a vessel that left martinico 29 Jany. The French possest the Island but Brimstone Hill was stil in possession of the English.2 I have the Honor to be with due respect Sir your most Obedient Humble Servant
[signed] John Bondfield
1. Bondfield presumably means Parliament’s resolutions of 27 Feb. to end the further prosecution of an offensive war in America and to declare those who acted contrary to that motion to be enemies of the King. During the debate on the second motion the issue had been raised, but not decided, as to what constituted the prosecution of an offensive war (Parliamentary Hist., 22:1099). Apparently the neutral consuls believed that the seizure of neutral ships trading with America would violate the resolutions and contemplated the sort of arrangement that was negotiated with the French by the residents of Nevis and Montserrat following the fall of St. Kitts. They were allowed to act as neutrals and export their produce on neutral ships (Mackesy, War for America, p. 456). The British, however, contemplated no similar accommodation.
2. See JA’s letter of 5 March from Robert R. Livingston, and note 5, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0221

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Franklin, Benjamin
Date: 1782-03-26

To Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

One day, last Week, I recd at Amsterdam a Card from Diggs, inclosing two Letters to me from Mr David Hartley. The Card desired to see me upon Business of Importance: and the Letters from Mr Hartley contained an assurance that to his Knowledge the Bearer came from the highest Authority. I answered the Card, that in the present Situation of Affairs here and elsewhere, it was impossible for me to See any one from England without Witness, but if he was willing to see me in Presence of Mr Thaxter my Secretary and that I should communicate whatever, he should Say to me to Dr Franklin and the Comte de Vergennes, I would wait for him at home at ten o Clock, but that I had rather he should go to Paris without Seeing me and communicate what he had to Say to Dr Franklin, whose situation enabled him to consult the Court without loss of time. At ten, however he came, and told me a long story about Consultations { 351 } with Mr Pen, Mr Hartley Lord Beauchamp and at last Lord North, by whom he was finally sent, to enquire of me, if I, or any other, had Authority, to treat with Great Britain of a Truce. I answered, that I came to Europe last with full Powers to make Peace, that those Powers had been announced to the public upon my Arrival, and continued in force untill last Summer, when Congress Sent a new Commission, containing the Same Powers to five Persons, whom I named.1 That if the King of England were my father, and I the Heir apparent to his throne, I would not advise him ever to think of a Truce, because it would be but a real War under a simulated appearance of Tranquility, and would <finally> end in another open and bloody War, without doing any real good to any of the Parties.
He Said, that the Ministry would send, Some Person of Consequence over, perhaps General Conway, but they were apprehensive, that he would be ill treated or exposed. I said, that if they resolved upon such a measure, I had rather they would send immediately to Dr Franklin, because of his Situation near the French Court. But there was no doubt, if they sent any respectable Personage properly authorised, who should come to treat honourably, he would be treated with great Respect. But that if he came to me, I could give him no opinion upon any thing without consulting my Colleagues, and should reserve a Right of communicating every Thing to my Colleagues, and to our Allies.
He then Said, that his Mission was finished. That the Fact to be ascertained was Simply, that there was a Commission in Europe to treat and conclude, but that there was not one Person in G. Britain who could affirm or prove that there was such a Commission, altho it had been announced in the Gazettes.
I desired him and he promised me not to mention Mr Laurens, to the Ministry without his Consent, and without informing him that it was impossible he should Say any thing in the Business, because he knew nothing of our Instructions, because altho it was possible that his being in such a Commission might induce them to release him, yet it was also possible, it might render them more difficult concerning his Exchange.2
The Picture he gives of the situation of Things in England, is gloomy enough for them. The Distresses of the People and the Distractions in Administration and Parliament, are such as may produce any Effect, almost that can be imagined.
The only Use of all this I think is, to Strike dicisive Strokes at New York and Charlestown. There is no Position so advantageous { 352 } for Negotiation, as when We have all an Ennemies Armies Prisoners. I must beg the favour of you, Sir, to send me, by one of the C de Vergennes’s Couriers to the Duc de la Vauguion, a Copy in Letters of our Peace Instructions. I have not been able to decypher one Quarter Part of mine. Some Mistake has certainly been made.
Ten or Eleven Cities of Holland, have declared themselves in favour of American Independence, and it is expected that to day or tomorrow, this Province will take the decisive Resolution of Admitting me to an Audience. Perhaps Some of the other Provinces, may delay it for, three or four Weeks. But the Prince has declared that he has no hopes of resisting the Torrent and therefore that he shall not attempt it. The Duc de la Vauguion has acted a very friendly and honourable Part in this Business, without, however doing any ministerial Act, in it.

[salute] With great Respect, I have the Honour to be, sir, your most obedient and most humble servant

[signed] J. Adams3
RC (OClWHi:Autograph Letters of U.S. Presidents, 1782–1963).
1. In a conversation with Matthew Ridley on 20 May, JA indicated that he read his commission to Digges (MHi:Matthew Ridley Diaries).
2. For more on JA’s conversation with Digges, see letters from Digges of [26 March] and 2 April, note 1, both below; Digges to Benjamin Franklin, 22 March (Digges, Letters, p. 357–362); Henry Laurens’ memorandum, [post 18 April], below; and Matthew Ridley’s diary, 20 May (MHi:Matthew Ridley Diaries).
3. Benjamin Franklin enclosed a copy of this letter in one to Robert R. Livingston dated 30 March. Franklin wrote that the meeting between JA and Digges showed that the British “are weary of the war, and would get out of it if they knew how” (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:277).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0222

Author: Digges, Thomas
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-26

From Thomas Digges

[salute] Dear Sir

I got here this day and am nearly about the hour to Embark. I find I passd Mr Laurens Jnr at Rotterdam, as some questions were askd in the Hotel Where I put up for a person answering my description, from one who was at another Hotel who did not leave His name, but answered the description of Mr Laurens.
I stopt at the Hotel Angleterre at the Hague and found that P. Wentworth had gone from thence for England rather suddenly the day before; He went from Antwerp for Brussells, and by the time Genl Faucit2 went from hence, for Brussels also, I do suppose these Heroes in different line of action and for as little purpose (I hope) met at Brussels: Faucit is going to Hannover (as was said here) and { 353 } P. W embarkd in a purposely hird boat about 2 hours ago for England.
In the matter I lately visited You upon I have informd You of every step taken as well as my motives for acting, and shall keep nothing from You relative thereto.
Since our last conversation3 I have thought much on the subject of witholding from Dr. F a letter I bore to Him from M Hartley (wch I know is partly on a publick matter in agitation between them) as well as informing the Doctr that I had been in Holland;4 and upon much consideration I think I cannot acting fairly to Dr. F either carry back Mr Hartleys letter, or explain to Him my motives for being silent when I had got so much nearer Him and had matter of much private consequence to myself to explain and clear up, either by letter or personal appearance.5 Besides others, I have two motives for writing; the first is that of forwarding a letter wch I know contains matters of business between Dr F and David Hartley and wch would be rather unjustifiable in me to carry back to England, and the other is an explanation why I donot repair to Him while now abroad on the matter relative to myself. I cannot see another road for doing either without intimating to Him the Business I went on to You: I have mentiond my first intention to visit and explain it to You and the motives I had for altering that intention and going back as quick as possible to Engld and then Set out for Paris. That You did not think the matter in the stage it then was of so much moment as to think it necessary to make it known to your Colleagues;6 that my doing it soon and in person to Dr. F would be the best mode; That all future movements must be made known to Dr. F and Mr Vergennes, and that You urgd strongly to have any future movements in the business made directly to Dr. F whose residence made it more convenient to give the Communications to the French Minister. I am sorry in doing this that I have deviated from a purpose wch I had rather fixd with You; but on much thinking I really think I have done the best; for Dr. F would certainly here I was at Amsterdam and think rather odly of me that I had turnd my back upon Him and seemingly gone from a purpose of explaining a matter to Him which my reputation is at stake for.
I beg a thousd pardons for writing thus hastily and Desultorily to You. The Packet Boat is so near sailing I have not time to read over the letter and I am rather in the midst of hurry and noise. I will write You immediately on my arrival7 and if any thing occurs wch You want done or to say to me a line under cover to Mr Stockdale { 354 } Bookseller Piccadilly London will get safe to Sir your very Obedient Hum Servant
[signed] T Digges
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Diggs. from Helvoet as I Suppose.”
1. The location and date are derived from Digges’ second letter of this date written from Ostend (Adams Papers), in which he refers to his earlier letter to JA and introduces Jacob Sarley of New York, a partner in a mercantile house in Leeds.
2. In 1782 Maj. Gen. Sir William Fawcett was the most influential officer in the British army, but for the war in America his chief importance was as the principal British negotiator of agreements with the various German states to supply troops (DNB; see also vol. 9:64).
3. According to Digges he met with JA on 21 and 22 March. See Digges to Benjamin Franklin, 22 March (Digges, Letters, p. 357–362).
4. Hartley sent two letters to Franklin, dated 11 and 12 March respectively, under the care of Digges (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:290). Both touched directly on the possibility of opening Anglo-American peace negotiations. The first announced Digges’ mission. The second letter centered on the questions of how, when, and with whom negotiations would be undertaken. Hartley indicated that he discussed the matter with Henry Laurens, but that Laurens was wholly ignorant of his appointment to the peace commission. Hartley also wrote that he had “been informed that some gentlemen in this country (not in administration) have lately entered into a correspondence with Mr. Adams, relating to his commission of treating for peace” (same, 5:237). There are no extant letters between JA and anyone in England on the subject of peace negotiations, nor is there any mention of such correspondence in JA’s papers.
5. Digges’ apprehension about visiting Benjamin Franklin at Paris was justified. Franklin believed Digges had embezzled funds that he had supplied to assist American prisoners in England (Catherine M. Prelinger, “Benjamin Franklin and the American Prisoners of War in England during the American Revolution,”WMQ, 3d ser., 32:261–294 [April 1975]).
6. In view of JA’s complete account of his conversation with Digges in his letter of 26 March to Benjamin Franklin, above, Digges’ statement seems strange. But the fact that JA took four days to send his account to Franklin may lend it some credence. If JA initially did not think it necessary to inform Franklin of his discussion with Digges, it may have been because there was nothing new to tell. The matters about which Digges inquired were already more or less part of the public record and nothing that JA said to Digges was at variance with what he had already written to Franklin.
7. Of 2 April, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0223

Author: Lafayette, Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-27

From the Marquis de Lafayette

[salute] My Dear Sir

I Beg You will Accept My Best thanks for the two letters You Have Been pleased to write Giving the Particulars of Your Situation in Holland, and favouring me with Your Opinion Upon the Operations of Next Campaign.
I am Happy to find You Are likely to Get the Better of British Cabals, and Hope our independance will Be Soon Aknowledged throughout the United Provinces. Such a Measure from a Republican and Commercial Nation will prove Particularly Agreable to America. You will Vastly oblige me, My Dear friend, to let me Hear { 355 } of the Progress of Your Negotiations, and I do Assure You that independant of Public Considerations, the High Regard and warm Attachement I feel for You, will Greatly Contribute to My Satisfaction.
On My Departure from America I Have Been Desired By Mr Moriss to Represent the Necessity of a Pecuniary Assistance. It Has Been Granted, But four or Six Millions are wanting to Make up the Sum. Could it Be Possible to find them in Holland upon American Credit?
The defensive plans of general Connway are So Very absurd, that I think with You a General Evacuation will probably take place. However we ought not to Be too Sanguine. In all Cases, I am entirely of Your Opinion about what we ought to do. I Cannot write So Confidentially By post as I would wish, and will Be More Particular when an Opportunity offers. I Had a letter from Mr Jay.1 Things there as Usual. General Washington writes me that Every thing in the Several departements is taking a Good turn, and Great Improvements are Made. He Appears Much Satisfied with the Present Situation of Affairs.2
You are to Receive a Visit, not from a friend.3 That I Had from the Ministers Here. You will Vastly oblige me with the Particulars. But let me know, what I am to Say, and Not to Say. The Next Safe Opportunity I will write You a Confidential letter, and wish it was in Your Power to let me Have a Cypher to Correspond with you. I will Remain Some weeks more in france, and am Sure Congress will approuve of the delay.

[salute] With the Highest Regard and Most Sincere Affection I Have the Honor to be dear Sir Yours

[signed] lafayette
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “M. de la Fayette. 26 March ansd. 6 April 1782.”
1. Jay to Lafayette, 1 March. See Lafayette’s reply of 28 March (Lafayette in the Age of the American Revolution, Selected Letters and Papers, 1776–1790, ed. Stanley J. Idzerda and others, Ithaca, N.Y., 5 vols., 1977–1984, 5:19–20).
2. Washington to Lafayette, 4 Jan. (Washington, Writings, ed. Fitzpatrick, 23:429–431).
3. Thomas Digges.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0224-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-28

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

La grande oeuvre est accomplie. Aujourd’hui les Etats d’Hollde ont résolu, que leurs Députés aux Etats Genx. seront instruits, de diriger les choses dans l’Assemblée de L. H. P. à telle fin, que Mr. { 356 } | view { 357 } Adams soit admis pour leur présenter ses Lettres de créance de la part des Etats unis; et les Etats ont chargé expressément Mr. le Grand Pensionaire de vous donner incessamment connoissance de cette Résolution.1 Le Corps des Nobles a déclaré, qu’il ne concouroit ni ne s’opposoit à cette résolution. Sigillum veri simplex.2 Je n’ajouterai donc rien à ce que dessus, qui vient de m’être communiqué par Mr. Zeberg avec ses complimens sinceres pour V. E. Je n’ai pu voir les autres qui sont actuellement à celebrer l’oeuvre en bonne compagnie, et le Verre en main, au sortir de l’assemblée, sans retourner chez eux, où je les ai cherché en vain.
Je suis d’avis qu’il est convenable, Monsieur, que vous témoigniez par une Lettre à Mr. le Duc de la Vauguyon, la part que vous prenez au facheux accident arrivé la nuit du mardi au mercredi.3

[salute] Je suis avec le plus respectueux attachement Monsieur, Votre très humble & très obeisst. servit

[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0224-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-28

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

The great work is done. Today, the States of Holland resolved that their deputies to the States General will be instructed to direct proceedings in the assembly of Their High Mightinesses, so that Mr. Adams will be admitted to present his credentials on behalf of the United States. The States expressly directed the grand pensionary to immediately inform you of this resolution.1 The corps of nobles has declared that it will neither concur with nor oppose this resolution. Sigillum veri simplex.2 I will therefore add nothing to the above, which was relayed to me by Mr. Zeberg with sincere regards for your Excellency. I have not been able to see the others, who are celebrating at present in good company with glass in hand, after leaving the assembly without returning home, where I looked for them in vain.
I believe it would be fitting, sir, if you could write a letter to the duc de la Vauguyon regarding the terrible accident on Tuesday night and Wednesday.3

[salute] I am with the most respectful attachment, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Dumas
1. For an extract from the resolutions of the States of Holland and West Friesland, containing the resolution of 28 March, see the Descriptive List of Illustrations, Resolution by the States of Holland and West Friesland to recognize the United States and admit John Adams as minister plenipotentiary, 28 March 1782 356No. 6, above. For English translations of the resolution, see Dumas to JA, 29 March, and JA to Robert R. Livingston, 19 April, both below.
2. Simplicity is the seal of truth.
3. On the night of 26–27 March fire destroyed the French embassy at The Hague. According to newspaper reports, La Vauguyon’s eldest son narrowly escaped with his life, but the ambassador managed to save his official papers and plate, as well as a portion { 358 } of his jewels and wardrobe. He had since taken up residence at the Dutch East India House (Morning Herald and Daily Advertiser, 3 April). JA mentioned the fire in a letter to AA on 1 April. He hoped that it would not distract the attention of the ambassador, “my very good Friend,” at such a critical period in Dutch-American relations (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:303). For the French embassy as it appeared before the fire, see same, 4:xii, facing 380.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0225-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-29

From C. W. F. Dumas

Copie de la Résolution de leurs Nobles et Grandes Puissances les Seigrs. Etats d’Hollde et de West-frise.1
Is goed gevonden en verstaen, dat de zaak van wegens hun Edele Groot Mog. ter Generaliteit daarheen zal worden gedirigeerd, en daarop ten Sterksten geinsteerd, dat de Heer Adams als Afgezant van de Vereenigde Staten van America ten spoedigsten by hun Hoog-Mog: moge worden geadmitteerd en erkent; En word de Raad-Pensionaris gelast, den voorschreven Heer Adams van de ze hun Ed. Gr. Mog. Resolutie onder de hand te informeeren.

Traduction

Il a été trouvé bon et arrêté, que l’affaire soit dirigée de la part de leurs Nobles et Gr. Puissces à la Généralité à telle fin, et que l’on y insiste de la maniere la plus forte, pour que Mr. Adams soit admis et reconnu au plutôt par leurs H.P. comme Envoyé des Etats-Unis d’Amerique; Et le Conseiller Pensionaire est chargé, de donner connoissance sous main au susdit Sr. Adams de cette Résolution de leurs Nobles et Grandes Puissances.2

[salute] Monsieur

En attendant que Mr. le Gr. Pensionaire fasse ce dont il est chargé, en vous informant officiellement ou ministeriellememt de la Résolution ci-dessus, qui m’a été communiquée par notre Ami, je vous en envoie en mon propre et privé nom la copie et la traduction, sans préjudice de ce que vous en apprendrez de la part de Mr. de Bleyswyk-même. Il envoya hier son Secretaire chez moi, pour savoir si vous étiez ici. Je répondis que vous étiez à Amsterdam, que vous veniez quelquefois ici sur la fin de la Semaine, mais que je doutois que vous fissiez le voyage cette fois, parce que vous m’aviez dit avoir des affaires à Amsterdam. Aujourd’hui le Secretaire est revenu me prier de passer chez son Maître demain matin à dix heures et demie.
Je le ferai, déterminé cependant à ne pas recevoir une informa• { 359 } tion verbale pour vous la transmettre, ni autre commission que de vous acheminer une Lettre, s’il m’en remet une pour V. E. Car ceci est une formalité, entre vous Monsieur et lui; et je ne suis nullement qualifié pour recevoir ce qui n’est dû qu’à Vous dans ce cas. D’un autre côté, je crois que l’on ne doit pas vous donner la peine d’un voyage ici pour cela seul, lorsque l’on peut S’acquitter de la Commission par Ecrit, comme ont fait les Frisons. Je consulterai encore ce soir nos amis là-dessus; et si je ne vous dis rien de plus là-dessus demain, c’est qu’ils auront approuvé mon idée.

[salute] Je suis avec grand respect, Monsieur Votre très-humble & très obéissant serviteur

[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0225-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1781-03-29

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

Copy of the Resolution of their noble and most powerful lords of the states of Holland and West Friesland.1
Is goed gevonden en verstaen, dat de zaak van wegens hun Edele Groot Mog. ter Generaliteit daarheen zal worden gedirigeerd, en daarop ten Sterksten geinsteerd, dat de Heer Adams als Afgezant van de Vereenigde Staten van America ten spoedigsten by hun Hoog-Mog: moge worden geadmitteerd en erkent; En word de Raad-Pensionaris gelast, den voorschreven Heer Adams van de ze hun Ed. Gr. Mog. Resolutie onder de hand te informeeren.
It hath been thought fit and resolved, that affairs shall be directed on the Part of their noble and grand Mightinesses at the assembly of the States General, and there Shall be there made the Strongest Instances, that Mr Adams be admitted and acknowledged as soon as possible, by their High Mightinesses, in Quality of Ambassador of the United States of America, and the Councillor Pensionary hath been charged to inform under Hand, the Said Mr Adams of this Resolution of their noble and grand Mightinesses.2

[salute] Sir

While waiting for the grand pensionary to fulfill his duty of officially informing you of the above resolution, which was communicated to me by our friend, I am sending you the copy and translation under my own name without prejudice to what you will learn from Mr. Van Bleiswyck himself. Yesterday he sent his secretary to my house to find out if you were here. I responded that you were in Amsterdam, that you sometimes come here at the end of the week, but that I doubted that you would make the trip this time because you told me you had business in Amsterdam. Today, the secretary returned to ask me to call on his master at 10:30 tomorrow morning.
{ 360 }
I will go, determined, however, not to receive a verbal communication to convey to you or any other message, but only to convey a letter for you if they give me one. Because this is a formality between you, sir, and him, I am hardly qualified to receive what is due only to you in this case. On the other hand, I believe that you should not have to go to the trouble of coming here just for that, since they could inform you of your commission in writing just like the Frieslanders did. I will ask our friends again this evening about it and if I do not tell you anything more about it tomorrow, it will be because they have agreed with my idea.

[salute] I am with great respect, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Dumas
RC (Adams Papers). Dumas wrote the resolution in Dutch and French in two columns.
1. Dumas copied only the portion of the resolution that dealt specifically with JA. For the complete text of the resolution in Dutch and English, see the Descriptive List of Illustrations, Resolution by the States of Holland and West Friesland to recognize the United States and admit John Adams as minister plenipotentiary, 28 March 1782 356No. 6, above, and JA to Robert R. Livingston, 19 April, below. The English translation is taken from the resolution as it appears in JA’s letter of 19 April to Livingston.
2. For van Bleiswyck’s transmittal of the resolution, see his letter of 30 March, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0226-0001

Author: Bleiswyck, Pieter van
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-30

From Pieter van Bleiswyck

[salute] Monsieur

C’est avec baucoup de Satisfaction que J’ai L’honneur de m’acquitter de la Commission dont Les Etats d’Hollande et de West Frise viennent de me chargee en vous faisant parvenir, Monsieur, une Copie de La resolution que Leurs Nobles et Grandes Puissances ont prises avanthier au sujet de vottre Admission comme Envoyé des Etats Unis de L’Amerique.1

[salute] Jai L’honneur d’etre avec La plus parfaite Consideration Monsieur Vottre Tres Humble et très Obeissant Serviteur

[signed] P. V Bleiswyk

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0226-0002

Author: Bleiswyck, Pieter van
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-30

Pieter van Bleiswyck to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

It is with much satisfaction that I have the honor to acquit myself of the commission with which I have been charged by the States of Holland and West Friesland and convey to you, sir, a copy of the resolution that their Nobles and Grand Mightinesses have taken the day before yesterday on the subject of your admission as envoy from the United States of America.1

[salute] I have the honor to be with the most perfect consideration, sir, your most humble and most obedient servant,

[signed] P. V Bleiswyk
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “P. Van Bleiswyk G. Pensionary of Holland 30 March 1782.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0227-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1781-03-30

From C. W. F. Dumas

Copie de Ma Lettre a notre Ami1
“Selon vos desirs, Monsieur, je vous rends compte de ce qui s’est passé il y a un moment. On m’a reçu très poliment, et tout s’est passé de-même. On m’a prié affectueusement de faire la notification, comme un service que je rendrois. J’ai témoigné le grand regret que j’avois, de ne pouvoir, faute de qualification requise pour le cas, exécuter une commission si peu pénible, et même si agréable, moi qui ne plaindrois aucune peine pour des services plus difficiles; mais que la démarche étant un honneur que L. N. et G. P. vouloient faire au caractere, j’étois un canal impropre pour faire parvenir cet honneur autrement que par une Lettre cachetée de Ministre à Ministre, que j’offrois de porter moi-même. On m’a fait entendre alors, que cela n’étoit pas nécessaire, et qu’on se serviroit peut-être de la voie de la Poste. On m’a demandé l’Adresse (que j’ai portée ensuite au Sécrétaire en un Billet en ces termes M . . . demeure au Keyzersgragt près du Spiegelstraet à Amsterdam). J’ai raconté alors historiquement, que la Copie de la Rn Fsonne avoit été remise en mains propres, de la part et par ordre de qui il appartenoit, en une Lettre cachetée, à laquelle je savois que M . . . avoit fait une réponse, qui avoit été fort goûtee en Frise. Nous avons ensuite parlé de nouvelles courantes, entre autres du bruit d’une prétendue pacification entre la Gr. Br. et l’Amérique; sur quoi j’ai dit, que je savois de science certaine, que la Pacification ne pouvoit se faire qu’en Europe, et notamment de la part des Etats-Unis par cinq Plenipo:, dont M . . . étoit le premier en date; que ceux près des Cours de V— et de M— en étoient; que rien ne se concluroit que du su, consentement et concert de ces Cours, et vraisemblablement aussi de cette Rep., si elle ne perdoit pas du temps pour serrer le noeud d’une amitié cordiale; que je savois enfin, que quand la Gr. Br. enverroit la Commission la plus solennelle en Amérique, elle seroit renvoyée delà en Europe, pour y traiter avec les Plenipo: susdits à un Congrès de paix génerale.”

[salute] Monsieur

Hier au soir Mr. le Gr Pe. m’envoya encore son Secretaire, pour me prier de passer chez lui ce matin à 10 1/2 h. et vous venez de voir ce qui s’est passé en conséquence. Mr. l’Ambr., qui a vu ce que des• { 362 } sus l’approuve. J’espere que ma conduite aura votre approbation aussi. Rien ne presse à présent pour que vous veniez ici: au contraire, je compte d’avoir l’honneur de vous voir chez vous Lundi au soir. Ce voyage est concerté entre Mr. l’Ambr., notre ami et moi. pour une très bonne oeuvre de votre part, dont je ne puis vous faire l’ouverture que de bouche. J’irai Lundi à une heure par le Chariot de poste. Si votre Cocher pouvoit se trouver à l’endroit et à l’heure où le chariot de poste qui part de Lahaie Lundi prochain à 1. h. après midi arrive, je serois plus vite rendu chez vous, et nous pourrions tout de suite parler de choses pour le lendemain. Je suis avec respect, Monsieur, V. t. h. & t. o. serviteur
[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0227-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1781-03-30

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

Copy of my letter to our friend1
“According to your wishes, sir, I will give you an account of what just passed. I was received very politely and everything proceeded in the same manner. They kindly asked me to provide the service of making the notification. I expressed my great regret of not being qualified in this case to execute such a commission, a commission that would hardly be any trouble, but rather would be quite agreeable, especially for one who does not complain about more difficult assignments. But this démarche, being an honor that their noble and high mightinesses would want to make themselves, would not be properly conveyed by me other than by a sealed letter from one minister to the other, which I would offer to carry myself. I was made to understand that this would not be necessary and that it would be sent by mail. They asked me for the address (which I wrote down for the secretary as follows: M. Adams lives in the Keyzersgragt near Spiegelstraat in Amsterdam). I recounted that the copy of the Friesland resolution had been remitted directly on behalf and by order of whom it belonged in a sealed letter, to which I know Mr. Adams responded, and that this was well received in Friesland. Next we talked about current news, among other things about a rumored pacification between Great Britain and America to which I added that I know for certain that the pacification could only be achieved in Europe, and notably by the five American plenipotentiaries of which Mr. Adams was the first in date. And that there were plenipotentiaries at the court of Versailles and Madrid, and that nothing would be concluded without the knowledge, consent and agreement of these courts and most likely the republic’s as well, if it does not lose the chance to tie the knot for a cordial friendship. And that I knew, that when Great Britain would send the most solemn commission to America, it would be sent back from there to Europe, so that the aforementioned plenipotentiaries could negotiate for a general peace.”
{ 363 }

[salute] Sir

Last evening, the grand pensionary sent his secretary to see me so that I might call on him this morning at 10:30 and this is what happened as a result. The ambassador, who saw the above, approved of it. I hope that my conduct will have your approval as well. Nothing is so pressing here at the moment for your presence. On the contrary, I am counting on coming to see you Monday evening. The ambassador, our friend, and I planned this trip as a kindness to you, which I will tell you about when I see you. I will be going at one o’clock on Monday by the postal wagon. If your coachman could pick me up at the place where the one o’clock wagon arrives from The Hague next Monday, I could get to your house sooner and we could be able to discuss matters immediately for the next day. I am with respect, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Dumas
1. Engelbert François van Berckel.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0228

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Bleiswyck, Pieter van
Date: 1782-03-31

To Pieter van Bleiswyck

[salute] Sir

I have received the letter, which you did me the honour to write me, on the thirtyeth, inclosing the Resolution of the States of Holland and Westfriesland, of the twenty eighth of this month, upon the subject of my admission to the audience demanded on the fourth of May, and the ninth of January last.
I am very sensible of the honour that is done me by this Instance of personal attention to me, in their Noble and grand Mightinesses; and beg of you, Sir, to accept of my acknowledgments, for the obliging manner, in which you have communicated to me their Resolution.
But my sensibility is above all affected by those unequivocal demonstrations of Harmony and Unanimity, which appear in the whole Nation, in this important Measure; which can not fail to have the happyest Effects in America, and in every part of Europe, even in England itself, as well as in this Republick, and which there is great reason to hope, will forcibly operate towards the accomplishment of a general Peace.

[salute] In the pleasing hope, that all the other Provinces will soon follow the Examples of Holland and Friesland, I have the honour to be with great Respect, Sir, Your most obedient and most humble servant

[signed] (sign’d) J. Adams
Tr (Koninklijk Huisarchief); LbC (Adams Papers). This is the first letter entered in Lb/JA/18 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 106).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0229

Author: Andrews, Samuel
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-31

From Samuel Andrews

[salute] Sir

I had the honour to write your Excellencey fully respecting my situation in this City on the 12th: Instant Last. Hope you may have received the same and the great hurry of business has prevented your Excellencys honouring me with an answer. Hope when convenient will grant my request. In addition to my former letter and request I must pray your Excellencey if acquanted with, His Excellency the French Minister in the Hague, you would speak to him in my favor. As my friends in Holland and my Advocate at the Hague are useing there Intrest to prevail on Him to write to this Court in my favor respecting my business. I am perswaded from your known goodness your Excellency will pardon me in giveing you this trouble. I shall take the Liberty to send you some of my Memoirs by the first convenient opportunity.1

[salute] I have the Honour to be with Respect your Excellencys most Obedient & very Humb: Sert:

[signed] Sam Andrews
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr S. Andrews 31. March ansd. 6. April 1782.”
1. In letters of 3 April, below, and 16 April (Adams Papers), Andrews wrote that he sent a “memoir” of his business in the care of a Mr. Texier, but it has not been found in the Adams Papers.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0230-0001

Author: Brouwer, Hendrik, Chs. zoon
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-31

From Hendrik Brouwer Chs. zoon

[salute] Aan syn Excellentie

Vergeeft Bid ik Uw dat ik vry genoeg ben U deese myne missieve te adresseeren, de Liefde voor myn Vaaderland, t’herdenken wat onse voor Ouders hebben gedaen, Sig Een vry Volk te maaken heeft in my en veele weldenkende Hollanders bevestigt dat t’Volk van America onse naeste Broederen in Deugd waaren, dus wierd het onse verschuldigde Pligt hun in hunnen Onderdrukkinge te helpen Onderschraagen, veele Weldenkende Negotianten, Edog dat wel het minste getal uytmaakte waeren hier toe geneygd, dan wy vonden tot ons herten leed Een aental Engelschen Effectief niet alleen, maar nog grooter Partij Hollanders Engels gesind of D’Engelse toegedaen, Eventwel niet teegenstaende de Overmagt waer teegen wy Dagelyks { 365 } moesten Worstelen, om de regtvaerdiege Oorlog der Americaanen teegens Engeland in Een helder Dag ligt te Stellen, wierden versterkt door de naergedagten onser voor Ouderen, en heeft ons de vrees van niet eens te Zullen treumpheeren weg genoomen.
Wy hebben dus volhard in onse Denkenswyse die wy voorgenoomen hadden te Maintineeren, van D’Eerste tyt af dat de Onlusten tusschen America en Engeland Syn begonnen, wy hebben in de Waagschaal gestelt onse Huyse, Goederen, en famielies geplundert te Zien door de Oproggeling van onse teegen Party, was t’moogelyk t’Gepeupel in hun belang te Krygen, dan Een regtvaardig God heeft hier in voorsien, wy Danken dien Selven Opperheerscher met Needergeslaagen Oogen, dan met traanen van blydschap dat wy Eindelyk in weerwil van de Quaade Geintentioneerde tot ons doelwit Zyn geraakt, Eene Zaak van dat gewigt (Sonder dat ik wil my in laaten in het Politique) had men myn’s gedagten direct moeten Aenvaarden by de Onregtvaardiege Oorlogs de Claratie van Engeland Aen Ons, niets is Evenreedieger als Synen Onnatuurlyken Vyand, Ja God beetert onse Zoo genaemde Geloofs en bontgenooten afbreuk te doen, en Juyst bragt men hun de Grootste Slag met Americaa Een vry Volk te verklaaren Dit nu by Holland En Vriesland geschied Synde in weerwil der Ridderschap, heb ik nu geen moment twyffel of het Zal by alle 7. Provencies werden doorgedrongen God bekragtige dit heylsaem werk met Syne Zegeningen en Vermurwe de herten die van ander Gevoelen Zyn.
Neemt dan niet Qualyk dat Een hart Overstulpt van Vergenoeging vry genoeg is Uw Excellentie te fielieciteeren met de Erkentenis van Minister Pleni Potentiaris—by Holland en Vriesland, in Weiniege Daagen hoop ik Zal ik met Uw Excellentie’s Goed Gunstiege Permissie my mogen verstouten U in Persoon Geluk te wenschen de Gantsche Unie U dusdanig Erkent heeft.
Myn Huys heeft het Geluk gehad, en myne vrienden daar teegenwoordig hebben Sig met my Eene biesondere Eer gemaakt, Sig met D’Eerste hier Gearriveerde Americaanen ter myner Tafel te bevinden, op Welker Maeltyt t’Respectabel Congres der 13. Verenigde Staaten heylig wierd indagtig Gehouden.
Niemant moet Eygen belang naauwer ter herten Gaen als t’welsyn van Syn Vader Land, of van Zyne Broederen die dus daanig Denken, maar myn ’s bedunkens is er buyten Eygen Intrest ook Eene Reedelykheid, dat de Soo daaniege ingeval van Vrugten te kunnen Plukken niet moeten vergeeten werden, t’ is om die reeden ik Uw Excel• { 366 } lentie wil Kenbaer maaken Eeniege myner Goede Geintentioneerde Vrienden, wy verlangen niets meer als Eene Geschikte Correspondentie met Sollide Huysen van N: America wy verbeelden ons door onse bestendiegen Yver ons Een Gedeelte der Preferentie toekomt.
En wy Zyn bereyd met de Scheepen en Gelt dat wy hebben, ons Een voordeeliegen handel Weederzyds te Procureeren, Inclosa Vind U Een Nota der bovenaengehaelde Vrienden,2 en wy recommandeere ons in U Gunstige Aendenken in Americaa.
Mogt nu myn Huys by Geleegenheid dat U Zig in Rotterdam Liet vinden, Sig begunstigt Zien Uw Excellentie ter myner Tafel te moogen Ontfangen, niets Zoude my meer vergenoegen, buyten D’Eer die alle hoogagting waerdig is, Zoude ik my biesonder met myne Lieve Kinderen Kittelen tot Spyt der Engelsgesinde, Ik bid vergeeft dat ik vry genoeg ben Een antwoort te vraagen,3 en naer U voor myn Aendeel Gronthertig Dank Gesegt te hebben voor Uw aller Vriendelykste missive aen t’Corps van Negotianten alhier,4 noeme my met de verschuldigde Eerbied en hoogagting, Uw Excellentie’s Onderdaniege En Gehoorsaamste Dienaer
[signed] Hendrik Brouwer Chs. zoon

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0230-0002

Author: Brouwer, Hendrik, Chs. zoon
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-31

Hendrik Brouwer Chs. zoon to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] To his Excellency

I pray you forgive me that I am so free as to address this letter of mine to you, to recall the love for my fatherland, what our forefathers have done to make themselves a free people, has confirmed in me and many right-thinking Dutchmen that the people of America were our closest brothers in virtue, so that it has become our obligatory duty to help support them in their oppression, many right-thinking businessmen, but yet nonetheless making up a minority, were inclined to this, then we could be strengthened, to our hearts’ sorrow not only a number of English effectively but an even greater group of Anglophile Dutchmen, or supporters of the English, however, notwithstanding the superior power against which we had to wrestle daily, to put the just war of the Americans against England in the clear light of day, by the thoughts of our forefathers, and that has removed from us the fear of never triumphing in the future.
We have thus persevered in our manner of thinking that we had intended to maintain, from the first moment that the disturbances between America and England began, we have risked seeing our houses, goods, and families plundered, by the fomenting of our opponents, if it proved possible to get the mob to support them in their interests, then a just God has provided in this, we thank the same Lord of all with downcast eyes, then { 367 } with tears of joy that finally, against the will of those of evil intentions, we have reached our goal, a matter of such importance (without wanting to involve myself in politics) should have been accepted immediately, in my opinion, on the unjust declaration of war by England against us, nothing is more equal than its unnatural enemy, yea, God forbid causing damage also to so-called fellow believers and allies, and just now the greatest blow to them has been accomplished by declaring America a free people, this now having happened in Holland and Friesland against the desires of the nobility, I now do not doubt for a moment that it will be pushed through in all 7 provinces, God strengthen this healing work with his blessings and soften the hearts of those of another persuasion.
Forgive it that a heart bursting with satisfaction takes the liberty to congratulate your excellency on your recognition as minister plenipotentiary by Holland and Friesland, in a few days I hope I shall, with your excellency’s well-intentioned permission, be able to wish you happiness in person that the entire Union has recognized you as such.
My house had the pleasure, and my friends there present, have joined me in making a special honor to invite to my table the first Americans who have arrived here, at which meal the respectable Congress of the 13 United States was held in holy commemoration.
Personal interest should not lie closer to anyone’s heart than the well-being of his fatherland, or of his brothers who feel the same way, but my idea is that beyond private interest there is a reasonableness, that the appropriate opportunity should not be forgotten, to pluck the fruits, it is for that reason that I would like to introduce to your excellency some of my well-intentioned friends, we desire nothing more than an appropriate correspondence with solid houses of North America, we imagine that a share of preference is due us for our continuing zeal.
And we are prepared, with the ships and money that we have, to procure a profitable mutual trade. Enclosed you will find a note of the friends just mentioned,2 and we commend ourselves in your favorable consideration in America.
In case you find yourself in Rotterdam, might my house find itself benefited in being allowed to receive your excellency to my table, nothing would please me more, beyond the honor that is worth all respect, my sweet children and I would be especially tickled to spite the Anglophiles. I pray you forgive me that I am so free as to ask a reply,3 and having for my part sincerely said thanks to you for your very friendly letter to the group of businessmen here,4 I call myself with the obligatory respect and honor, your excellency’s humble and most obedient servant,
[signed] Hendrik Brouwer Chs. zoon
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed by John Thaxter: “H. Brouwer Chz 31st. March 1782.”; by JA: “ansd 7 April.”
1. This letter was received as an enclosure in a brief note of 1 April from M. H. van son [Hendkz?] (Adams Papers), who is otherwise unidentified. The author congratulated JA on the action of the States of Holland and expressed his hope that the remaining mem• { 368 } bers of the States General would soon follow.
2. Brouwer failed to enclose the list and apologized and enclosed it with his 15 April letter, below.
3. JA’s endorsement indicates that he replied on 7 April; no copy of the letter has been found, but see Brouwer’s letter of 15 April, below.
4. Perhaps a reference to JA’s letter of 22 March to Adrianus Dubbeldemuts, above, in which JA commented on the petition by Rotterdam merchants supporting a commercial treaty between the Netherlands and the United States. No other letter from JA to a Rotterdam businessman has been found.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0231-0001

Author: Capellen tot den Pol, Joan Derk, Baron van der
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-31

From Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol

[salute] Monsieur

Les Magistrats de Deventer ont pris Jeudi au Soir une Resolution dans les formes pour recevoir Votre Excellence en qualité de Ministre plenipotentiaire des 13 Etats Unis de L’Amerique. Vendredi au matin la requete des Citoiens de cette Ville a été presentée et les Magistrats ÿ ont repondus qu’ils avoient deja pris la Resolution mentionnée. La ville de Campen, a ce que j’ai été informé, est tres bien disposée. Elle a accroché Son consentement pour les impots a la conclusion d’un Traité de Commerce avec l’Amerique. Une Requete presentée a Zwol a operé une Resolution de presser de la part de cette ville le comitté, chargé de l’examen des Memoires de Votre Excellence, de donner Son preavis afin d’en faire un point de deliberation dans la Ville meme. Ceci est assez Constitutionel, mais tire trop en longueur. C’est pourquoi j’ai taché de faire voir la necessité de Suivre l’exemple de Deventer et de donner ordre au Deputés de la Ville a la Diete de Se declarer immediatement pour l’Independance etc. et j’ai de l’esperance que mes efforts reussiront. Mais je crains les Nobles. Ces viles Creatures ont ici la moitié de la Regence. J’espere neammoins que les Requetes qui Se preparent a la Campagne, auront quelque influence Sur eux. Les Predicateurs même commencent a les appuier. Un d’eux a prié le Bon Dieu aujourdhui: Qu’il veuille benir les efforts du Peuple!
Le Demon Aristocratique a encore joué Son role a Zwol meme Les Corps de Metier qui Sont nombreux ici et des centaines des citoiens desiroient de signer aussi la Requete; mais quelques uns a qui leur orgeuil inspire l’idée d’une Superiorité, qui n’existe pas, refusoient de signer Si cela dut Se faire par une foule et l’on fut obligé d’avoir de la deference pour eux. Je ne Suis pourtant pas eloigné de conseiller a ces gens de Signer une requete Separée et je crois que mon conseil a quelque influence Sur eux. L’on commence a crier { 369 } ouvertement que cest plus que tems de reparer le tort qu’on m’a fait et de me readmettre a l’assemblée. Mon attachement a l’Amerique et ma conduite dans l’affaire de la Brigade Ecossoise1 m’ont rendu cher au jeux de mes concitoiens qui Sentent a present combien il auroit été dangereuse et nuisible Si la Republique S’eut laissé entrainer insensiblement par l’angleterre a Se ranger de Son coté, comme l’on avoit projetté de faire par le moien de cette demande insidieuse. La Province de Gueldre S’assemble le 16 Avril. Je Suis bien faché que ce ne Soit pas plus tot et j’ai l’honneur d’etre avec bien de respect de Votre Excellence Le tres humble et tres obeissant Serviteur
[signed] Capellen de Pol

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0231-0002

Author: Capellen tot den Pol, Joan Derk, Baron van der
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-31

Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

On Thursday evening, the Deventer magistrates passed the resolution necessary for your Excellency’s recognition as minister plenipotentiary of the thirteen United States of America. The citizens of this city presented their petition Friday morning and the magistrates responded that they had already passed the resolution. Kampen, I was informed, was very well disposed. It was linking its approval of taxes to the conclusion of a commercial treaty with America. A petition presented at Zwolle resolved to urge the committee charged with examining your excellency’s memorials on behalf of this city, to give its advice and bring to an end the deliberations in the city. This is sufficiently constitutional, but is too drawn out. This is why I tried to explain the necessity of following Deventer’s example and of giving orders to the city’s deputies to the Diet to immediately declare themselves for independence, etc., and I hope my efforts succeed. But I fear the nobles. These vile creatures make up half of the regency. Nevertheless, I hope these petitions will have some influence on them. The preachers are even beginning to support them. One of them prayed to the good lord today: May the efforts of the people be blessed!
The aristocratic demon is still playing his part in Zwolle, even the trade guilds, of which there are many, and hundreds of citizens wanted to sign the petition. But, some of them, whose pride led them to falsely believe themselves to be superior, refused to sign if it were to be decided by a mob, and so they had to be deferred to. I was, however, not beyond suggesting to these people that they sign a separate petition, and I believe my advice had some influence on them. They started to cry out that it was high time to repair the injustice done to me and to readmit me to the assembly. My attachment to America and my conduct regarding the Scottish brigade1 has endeared me to my fellow citizens, who feel that it would have been dangerous and harmful if the republic had allowed itself to be drawn insensi• { 370 } bly by England to its side, which is what was intended by this insidious request. The province of Gelder is assembling on April 16th. I am angry that it is not earlier and I have the honor to be with much respect for your Excellency, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Capellen de Pol
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “The Baron de Poll 31. March ansd. 6. April. 1782.”
1. For van der Capellen and the Scots’ Brigade, see vol. 10:381.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0232

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-31

From Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

I received yours of the 10th Instant, and am of Opinion with you, that the English will evacuate New York and Charlestown, as the Troops there, after the late Resolutions of Parliament, must be useless, and are necessary to defend their remaining Islands where they have not at present more than 3000 Men. The Prudence of this Operation is so obvious, that I think they can hardly miss it: otherwise I own that, considering their Conduct for several Years past, it is not reasoning, consequentially, to conclude they will do a thing because the doing it is required by Common Sense.
Yours of the 26th. is just come to hand. I thank you for the Communication of Digges’s Message. He has also sent me a long Letter, with two from Mr Hartley.1 I shall see Mr. de Vergennes to-morrow, and will acquaint you with every thing material that passes on the Subject. But the Ministry by whom Digges pretends to be sent being changed, we shall, by waiting a little, see what Tone will be taken by their Successors. You shall have a Copy of the Instructions by the next Courier. I congratulate you cordially on the Progress you have made among those slow People. Slow, however, as they are, Mr Jay finds his much slower. By an American who goes in about Ten Days to Holland, I shall send you a Packet of Correspondence with Mr Hartley, tho’ it amounts to little.

[salute] With great Esteem I have the honour to be Your Excellency’s most obedient & most humble Servant

[signed] B Franklin2
1. See Digges to JA, [26 March], notes 3 and 4, above.
2. The closing and the signature are written in the left margin.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0233

Author: Jenings, Edmund
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-31

From Edmund Jenings

[salute] Sir

I Congratulate your Excellency on the Confusion in England. A Letter from thence received this day says, that the King sent on Saturday night (ie, Saturday sennight), for the Chanceller conversed with Him, and deffered—so parted, and about 4 o Clock on Sunday Morning sent again for Him to come immediately; the Chancellor sent him Word, that He was too ill, but would come as soon as He arose, which was about 10, when the Consultation began (Lord Stormount present). The next morning Lord Shelburne was sent for, arrives at 10, Stays til 12, and then goes to Lord Rockingham to acquaint Him, that His Terms were entirely aceeded to by his Majesty, who desired Him to send Him his Arrangement which was also acceded to, and announced by Lord Shelburne, who called on his Return on Mr. Fox about 2 O Clock, who then set out with Mr. W Pitt for the House of Commons. Mr. Fox Called by the way on the Duke of Richmond, and about 3 got to the Houses, where the members were waiting with the utmost distrust Impatience and Anxiety. Mr. Dunning then quietd their Uneasiness by declaring that the Cabinet was settled, and that the inferior departments would be filled up before Wednesday—so that tomorrow (Tuesday last) warrants will be issued out for the Reelection of such Gentlemen as will do his majesty the Honor to serve Him.

The Supposed list of the Cabinet1

  • Lord Rockingham first Lord of the Treasury.
  • Lord Shelburn and Mr. Fox Secretaries of State the West Indies under the one and N A under the other
  • Lord John Cavendish Chancellor of the Exchequer
  • Admiral Keppell First Lord of the Admiralty
  • The Duke of Gloucester Commander in Chief of the Army Seconded by General Conway
  • Duke of Richmond Master General of the Ordnance
  • Duke of Grafton <President of the Council> Privy Seal.
  • Lord Thurlow Chancellor.
  • Lord Camden president of the Council
The Terms on which these Gentlemen come in are said to be these.
{ 372 }
  • 1st no Veto to the making a seperate Peace in N America
  • 2dly the same respecting a general Peace.
  • 3 the Contracters Bill to pass.2
  • 4 Mr Burkes OEconomical Bill to pass in part
  • 5 for the future no person holding Place under or who are influenced by the Commissioners of the Customs or Excise to have a Vote for members of Parliament.
I congratulate your Excellency on the Taking of St Kitts and other Islands.
Inclosed is the receipt for the money disbursed by my Friend. Nothing hath yet been of young Bracket.3
I beg your Excellency would give the inclosed Letter to Mr Lawrens, who I find is arrivd at Amsterdam. I expected Him here. His Father is gone into the Country. He is better in Health than He was.

[salute] I am with the greatest Respect Sir your Excellencys Most Obedient Humble Servant

[signed] Edm: Jenings
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Jennings 31. March ansd 3. April. 1782.”
1. In the new cabinet Shelburne was ostensibly responsible for home and colonial affairs, while Fox was concerned with foreign affairs; in practice both sought to control peace negotiations. It should also be noted that Conway was appointed commander in chief and that Thurlow was the only holdover from the North ministry.
2. The Contractor’s Bill prohibited any party to a government contract not open to public bid from holding a seat in the House of Commons.
3. For Benjamin Brackett, see JA to Jenings, 21 Feb., above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0234-0001

Author: Wild, Bartholomé
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-31

From Bartholomé Wild

[salute] Vôtre Exellence

Etant Neé Libre en Suisse et plus que 40. Année dans cette Libre Republique, on ne doit pas S’ètonner que je m’interesse pour un nouveaux Peuple Libre, qui avec l’aide de Dieu à S’en Se Soustraire de la tiranie Brittanique, en S’en franchissant de l’adieu ésclavage. Nôtre Province et Surtout les habittant de cette Ville ont apris avec un Joix extraordinaire que Les Etat d’hollande les onts enfin recconnû Libre et qui Veuillent entammer un Traitté d’Amitie et de Commerce qui ne Sçauroit etre qu’avantageux pour les 2. Nations ou Republiques. Nous ésperons que les autres Provinces prendrons également avec la Frise de ferme resolution. Celle ci est pour vous aviser que Venderdi passé on à presenté une Requête aux deputés de nos Etat à ce même êffet signé de 83. Negotiants, fabriquers et { 373 } Traffiquants, laquelle à êté favorablement reçu. Hier on à tenû à ce Sujet une assemblée extraordinaire pour se mettre en Etat de prendre la conclusion à l’Assemblé de Leurs Noble Puissance Mecerdi qui vient. J’ai lieu de croire que les Souhaits de tant les braves Bourgeois Seront accomplie et que nous triompherons enfin Sur tout les traittres de la Patrie Les Anglomanes.
J’ai l’honneur de vous envoyer provisionèllement La Requette, que je vous prie de ne pas laisser Sortir de vôtre Mains avant que j’aurai la sattisfaction de vous envoyer une Seconde, Sur laquelle, vous trouverés les Noms de tout ceux qui ont Signé.1
J’ose vous dire qu’avec Mr. Le Procureur Hoevenaar je me Suis donné tout les mouvement pour venir jusqu’à ce point et Soyés assuré qu’a la reserve de fort pêu de Personnes, tant de nos Seigneurs, que des Bourgeois tout est pour la bonne Cause. Le Tout Puissant benissent cet Ouvrage et quelle tendent pour sa gloire et pour nôtre Commune prosperité.

[salute] Je me reccommande dans vôtre bienveuillance ayant l’honneur d’etre avec une haute Consideration De Son Exellence, Le très humble, très obeissant & très devoué serviteur

[signed] B. Wild

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0234-0002

Author: Wild, Bartholomé
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03-31

Bartholomé Wild to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Your Excellency

Being born a free man in Switzerland and living in this free republic for more than 40 years, it should not surprise you that I am interested in a new free people, and that, with God’s help, they will escape British tyranny by surmounting this enslavement. Our province, especially the inhabitants of this city, has learned with great joy that the states of Holland have finally recognized their freedom, and would like to commence a treaty of friendship and trade that could only be advantageous for both nations or republics. We hope that the other provinces will take a firm resolution, equal to the one taken by Friesland.
This letter is to inform you that last Friday, a petition presented to our states’ deputies to this same effect, signed by 83 manufacturers and traders, was favorably received. Yesterday, an extraordinary session was held on this subject in order to prepare for the conclusion of the assembly of their noble mightinesses next Wednesday. I have reason to believe that the wishes of the good bourgeoisie will be achieved and that in the end we will triumph over all of the country’s traitors, that is to say, the Anglomanes.
I have the honor to provisionally send you the petition, and ask that you keep it until I will have the satisfaction of sending you the second one with all of the signatures.1
{ 374 }
I dare tell you that along with Mr. Hoevenaar, the state prosecutor, I have devoted all actions to arrive at this point and be assured that with the reservation of very few people, mostly nobility and bourgeoisie, all are for the good cause. The all powerful blesses this work and may it accrue to his glory and our common prosperity.

[salute] I recommend myself, with your kindness, in having the honor to be with the great consideration of your Excellency, your very humble, very obedient, and very devoted servant

[signed] B. Wild
1. The petition was dated of 29 March, but the copy that Wild, a Utrecht bookseller, apparently enclosed with this letter has not been found. The Adams Papers, however, do contain what is likely the copy with 83 signatures, including Wild’s, that he promised to send later. It is printed, with the names of the signers entered in an unknown hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0235

Author: Collins, Isaac
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-03

From Isaac Collins

[salute] Sir

It is no less a duty which I owe to myself, than to those, my fellow Citizens and fellow Captives, with me here: that I am at present induced to address you, the subject cruel as it is, can by no means whatever be Justified, nor could either my fellow Captives, or self, have conceived the most distant Idea, that a person of such distinguished abilities, and honored as you are by the call of your Country to the high rank in which you now exist, could have descended so much beneath, the dignity and Character of an Ambassador, as to let private prepossession, or unmerited partiality, take precedence of equity and justice within the line, or limit of your administration, or in any degree, to have met your countenance, much more, to have been your very direct and immediate act and deed, wholly uncontrovertable and as plain a demonstration as that one, and two, make three. And as I have a greater and more sufficient reason, to think myself more particularly aggrieved, than the generality of my fellow sufferers here, I will be plain to tell you, that for some months past, I have been flattered, and finally promised to be released, against one of them three Gentlemen of this Country who were prisoners, to the American Flag in Holland, and for whom you have in direct violation of all laws of equity and justice demanded three Boys, purely because they are natives of the same Town with you (Brantree) in partial and unjustifiable exchanges of this nature, a man may rot in prison, because his immediate fellow Citizen, or { 375 } | view { 376 } Townsman, is not an Ambassador to the Court of our Allies, or such other court in Europe wherein the American Flag is protected. It is several months to my knowledge since that the Duke of Richmond undertook to negociate the exchange of them three prisoners against Capt. McNeil, Mr. Wm: Cozeneau and myself at the requisition of some of our Friends then in Holland, and I had been fully informed that the fair, was acomplished and we were the persons compriz’d in exchange for them, to prove this fact, I have sufficient vouchers in the Letters of several Gentlemen friends to humanity in this Country, to wit, Mr. Wren of Portsmouth and Mr. Heath of Plymouth, and had you in preferance to us who were first mentioned and appointed to exchange them Men; taken three of the oldest, longest or most senior Prisoners in England, some of whom are five years and upwards captives, I had not thought it so unjustifiable and injudicious, but your giving the preferance to three Boys, merely because they were your townsmen is in the opinion of almost all the prisoners here as well as myself a flagrant breach of Justice and equity which you can no ways palliate, and altho’ you may think this unworthy of your notice and attention, yet let me tell you that however unfortunate we may be at present, we hope by the interposition of divine Providence to be one time, or other released from this and enabled to return to our Country when be assured we will not forget or let pass with impunity, such flagrant acts of your ministry, by stating in true Colours, and in a clear point of view, your Conduct in this particular, which in fact and as a duty you owe your Country, you ought, instead of increasing the woes of your fellow Citizens in captivity as in this instance; you should and it is your indispensible duty to alleviate as much as possible their distresses, for know Sir, as I am free to tell you, that ministers are constituted by, and for the good of the people whom they represent to see and administer justice freely, honorably, uprightly and impartially, and not as you have done on this occasion, therefore if you have any thing to urge in defence of so unjust, not to say unpardonable a proceeding you will be brief, as we hope soon to be all sent home, without the Assistance of your ministry, or being under any gratitude whatever, I am however, Sir, Your humble Servant
[signed] Isaac Collins1
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Isaac Collins’s Letter March 1782.—free enough! not to be answered.—the most groundless abuse possible.”
1. For Collins, born in Gloucester, Mass., and captured on the Black Princess in Oct. 1781, see the Descriptive List of Illustrations, Isaac Collins, by John Brewster Jr. 375No. 7, above. Collins’ charge that JA’s efforts { 377 } on behalf of his Braintree neighbors obstructed the exchange of himself and his fellow prisoners has not been substantiated. JA’s assistance to the Braintree prisoners was wholly monetary and there is no evidence in the Adams Papers that JA knew of or was involved in any effort to exchange Americans held in England for British subjects held in the Netherlands.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0236

Author: Digges, Thomas
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-02

From Thomas Digges

[salute] Dr Sir

I wrote You from Ostend the 27th Ulo and stated what I had done with Dr. F. I arrivd here the last mail day but too late to look about me and to write so fully as I could have wishd. I found the intire kick up of the great ones to make much noise and to give universal pleasure. As the Parliament is not setting no fixd measure of the new people is yet talkd of and the reports are various and vague. Mr L being out of town and still in the West of England I had not the opportunity of making my first communications with Him or of mentioning anything from You. As Genl. C–n–y was privy to and at the bottom of my message to You, I was not many hours in Town before I communicated to Him the sum and substance of what I brought. From him I went to the man whose province it now is to act in any negotiations with Ama. (Lord Shelburne). I am intimate with Him and he was pleasd with the Communication and matter of my irrand in every instance but that of the necessity of communicating any serious or direct profer, going from hence, to the French Ministry.1 I have had much conversation with Him and others of the new ministers on the matter; They all talk of Peace with America if it can be got by great and direct offers, but what this great offer is I cannot learn for they rather draw back when a question is put is this the offer of Independence. Notwithstanding such shyness their insinuations go to that point; but I should be glad to be ascertaind of the real fact. I found all ranks of people delighted with the change of men all and every visage speaks a general joy from the prospect of getting better times and Peace with America; but a quiet thinking American even in the midst of this clamor is apt to reason with himself and things, and to say to what point of good will all those changes tend? will my Country or those European friends who have helpt her be benifited by the new system and set of men; certainly no; without that new set of men go heartily to the work of Peace. Every declaration among the great and leading men is for Peace, but I suspend my opinion until I see some actual measures adopted for { 378 } the attaining that desirable object—a Peace with america seperately from France seems universally scouted; and within a few days an opinion seems to go generally abroad that the Present ministers are likely to detatch Holland from its presents connections with the house of Bourbon—This I look upon as only a maneuvre to help the Stocks; yet it is confidently said that the marquis of Carmarthen will be sent forthwith to Holland, and that a messenger is already gone to the two Imperial Courts to desire them to again open their intercessions for Peace. There are vast exertions making in the Navy and no increase of Army—The new men have the wishes of the people very much with them and there is an appearance of unanimity wch during my 8 or 9 years residence here I have never seen before. Lord Sh–ne is the only new minister suspected of not wishing to go to the length of declaring American Independence; but I think his good sence and excellent information of things in America must make him think the measure a necessary one whatever He may hold out as his intention. He may be said to be prime minister for the great work is in his department, he having all the Southern district of Europe, the whole of home and Irish matters, the East and West Indies, and every thing relative to America. There seems a little disunion between him and the premier Lord R–m, but I cannot tell where the disunion lays. If the whole of them do not pull together it will not be long a popular ministry. My Communication and interest wth Lord Sh–ne has procurd me a promise of a Chart blanche to look for any of my papers that may be transfered from Lord Hillsboroughs office to His, but this cannot be done till some consequent arrangments take place and indeed I am rather chagrind and His telling me that it never happens that the whole of papers are turnd over from one to the other office when a minister retires for the Custom is to make a sweep of office as they term it and to destroy every paper that the retiring minister does not chuse to take away with Him. I fear in this way Mr. L–ns is likely to loose His or a chief part of them. Mr. Galloway had the Examination of them and not longer ago than 6 months, a considerable part of them and extracts of them were arrangd for publication for the virtuous and honest purpose to gull John Bull into a belief that there yet remaind a chance from the vast numbers of fds to Government in America their distresss, want of resources &c. &c. gave every hope of success to his majestys arms from another vigorous Campaign!!! Strange as this may appear, I had it from such authority as I cannot doubt. { 379 } When Lord G. Germain walkd out of office he took the most of Mr L–ns’s papers with Him.2
I have been very busy for a day or two in the business of Capt Luke Ryan and Captain MaCator both Condemnd and likely to suffer.3 There were some prisoners brought up from Mill Prison by Habeas Corpus as Evidence to prove american property and Commission in the last mentiond Ship, McCators, and I have obtaind from the now Admiralty a promise that these witness’s shall not be remanded to prison but left on Parole. There is a Young man soon going to his home by way of Amsterm in one or some Amn vessel that may be going from thence provided He can obtain a passage, He has been a hostage and now set at large so that likely in a day or two I may give You a line by Him.

[salute] I am with very great respect Sir Yr obligd & ob servant

[signed] TD
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “J. Adams Esqr.”; endorsed: “Diggs Ap. 2. 1782.”
1. Digges’ report to Lord Shelburne regarding his meeting with JA on 21 March differs significantly from JA’s account of their conversation. Compare JA’s comments to Benjamin Franklin (26 March, above) with the following memorandum Digges submitted to Shelburne:
“Mr. Adams, Dr Franklin, Mr Jay, Mr Laurens and Mr Jefferson are the Commissioners in urope to treat for Peace.
“Their Powers are to treat and conclude with the Ambassadors, Plenipotentiarys or Commissioners of the States with whom it may concern.
“Each of them are vested with equal powers relative to the Establishment of Peace and a majority of them, or any one (the others not being able to attend) can treat and conclude.
“Mr. Adams cannot speak to any proposition of a direct tendency to Truce or Peace from England without consulting His Colleagues, and from them it must be expected to go to the French minister; The other Belligerent powers having as yet no right to expect information about any propositions for Peace.
“There may however questions be askd Mr Adams and His Colleagues that they may not think essentially necessary to communicate to the French Court. And any proper messenger sent to ask such questions will be answerd with confidential Secrecy.
“Mr. Digges read over Mr Adams’s Commission; It is dated the 15th. June 1781, and His Powers (wch are exactly the same as the other four) are as full as possible, and go to conclude as well as treat for peace.
“Mr. Adams’s first Commission appointed Him to the Court of Great Britain; and this was in force until abot the beginning of Sepr 1781 when the above Commission conjointly with the other four was received in Europe; And it was so alterd by Congress for no other reason than some ill treatment of the Americans by the British Army in South Carolina and from the unfavorable treatment shewn Mr Laurens in the Tower.
“Mr. Digges has Mr Adams’s assurance that any questions put to Him as to further consulting upon the mode of opening a parley or entering into a treaty shall be confidentially and secretly answerd. And altho His, Mr As name, stands first in the Commission any direct propositions made to Dr. Franklin will be equaly attended to.
“Mr Digges leaves these memorandas with Lord Shelburne for the purpose of His Lordships communicating them to any other of the present administration whom Mr D has not the honor to know” (MiU-C:Shelburne Papers).
The most controversial points in Digges’ report are the fifth and eighth paragraphs, which insinuate that JA and his colleagues { 380 } would be willing to negotiate a separate peace—a flat contradiction of Congress’ instructions (vol. 11:375–377) and of every letter JA had written since the beginning of 1782 regarding the possibility of peace negotiations. In fact, when Shelburne met with Henry Laurens on 4 April, he stated that Digges assured him that JA said “the American Ministers can treat for Peace with Great Britain, Independent of France” (Laurens, Papers, 15:400–401). Laurens’ skepticism that JA would make such a statement, and Shelburne’s desire to confirm it, resulted in Laurens’ undertaking a mission to the Netherlands to meet with JA. See Laurens’ memorandum, [post 18 April], below.
Digges also misrepresented the reasons why the U.S. peace commission was expanded. See Commissions and Instructions for Mediation and Peace, 15 June 1781 (vol. 11:368–370).
2. Digges was mistaken. Shelburne returned Laurens’ papers in twenty bound volumes (Laurens, Papers, 15:513).
3. Luke Ryan and Edward McCarty (or Macatter), of the vessels Cologne and Black Princess respectively, were Irish smugglers with commissions as privateers from both Benjamin Franklin and the French government. On 30 March they were sentenced to death for committing acts of piracy “under color of commission from the French king although natural born subjects of this kingdom.” The trials of the two men before the High Court of Admiralty received comprehensive coverage in the London newspapers, including the General Advertiser and Morning Intelligencer of 1 April and the London Chronicle of 30 March – 2 April. Digges testified on behalf of the two men who, following the intercession of the French government, were pardoned (Sheldon S. Cohen, Yankee Sailors in British Gaols: Prisoners of War at Forton and Mill, 1777–1783, Newark, Del., 1995, p. 195, 257).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0237-0001

Author: La Vauguyon, Paul François de Quélen de Stuer de Causade, Duc de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-02

From the Duc de La Vauguyon

Je me proposois Monsieur d’aller passer quelques jours a amsterdam a la fin de Cette Semaine, mais je suis absolument obligé de rester icy et j’aurai l’honneur de vous en dire Les raisons. Je Desirerois bien cependant m’entretenir avec vous; et je vous prierois de venir a La haye si vous n’etes pas indispensablement retenu a amsterdam.1

[salute] Receves Monsieur une nouvelle assurance Des Sentiments Inviolables d’attachement et de consideration avec les quels j’ay L’honneur d’etre Votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur

[signed] Le Duc De La vauguyon

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0237-0002

Author: La Vauguyon, Paul François de Quélen de Stuer de Causade, Duc de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-02

The Duc de La Vauguyon to John Adams: A Translation

I had proposed, sir, to spend a few days in Amsterdam at the end of this week, but I am absolutely obliged to remain here and will have the honor of informing you of the reasons. In the meantime, I want very much to speak with you and pray that you would come to The Hague unless you are indispensibly detained at Amsterdam.1
{ 381 }

[salute] Receive, sir, a new assurance of the inviolable sentiments of attachment and consideration with which I have the honor of being your very humble and very obedient servant.

[signed] Le Duc De La vauguyon
1. JA went to The Hague on the morning of 4 April and returned on the 6th (Dumas to Robert R. Livingston, 4 April, Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:292–293).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0238-0001

Author: Low, Herr von
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-02

From Herr von Low

[salute] Hochwohlgebohrner Herr Insonders Höchstzuverehrender Herr Ministre!

Nachdem man vor kurzer Zeit in verschiedenen öffentlichen deutschen Blättern zu wiederholtenmalen die Bekanntmachung gelesen, daß die vereinigten Staaten von Nord-America erfahrene Ingenieure in ihre Dienste zu engagieren suchen, und selbigen vorzüglich gute Conditiones vorlegen würden; So habe dem Verlangen eines meiner Freunde, welcher als practischer Ingenieur in französischen Diensten gestanden, ein Genüge leisten, und Ew. Hochwohlgebohrn um nähere Bestimmung obgedachter Conditionen gehorsamst ersuchen, allem voraus als dem mein Freund, welcher gegenwärtig in Geschäften verreist ist, selbst schriftlich weiter in dieser Sache zu tractiren und sich Ew. Hochwohlgebohrn’ hohen protection zu empfehlen nicht verfehlen wird. Indeßen habe ich vor meine Person die Ehre Dieselben um geneigteste Rück-Antwort auf gegenwärtiges gehorsamst zu ersuchen,1 mit allem Respect beharrend Ew. Hochwohlgebohrn Gehorsamster Diener
[signed] von Low
Directorial Secretair beym Westphälischen Reichs Grafen-Collegio

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0238-0002

Author: Low, Herr von
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-02

Herr von Low to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Right Honorable Sir and Minister!

Since the repeated announcement in public German newspapers of the fact that the United States of North America is trying to find and hire experienced engineers and would guarantee them excellent and good conditions, so I have wished to do a favor for one of my friends, who as a practical engineer has worked for the French, and thus I have wanted, most { 382 } obediently, to ask your right honorable sir for further information about the abovementioned conditions, before my friend, who is traveling for business at the moment, negotiates this matter further in writing and will not fail to recommend himself under your right honorable sir’s protection. In the meantime I have the honor to obediently request a reply to this inquiry,1 remaining with all respect, your right honorable sir’s obedient servant
[signed] von Low
Directorial Secretair at the Westphälischen Reichs Grafen-Collegio
1. There is no indication that JA replied to either this letter or a second of 16 May that is in French (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0239

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Jenings, Edmund
Date: 1782-04-03

To Edmund Jenings

[salute] Sir

Last night I recd yours of March 31. inclosing a Receipt from some American Prisoners for Money advanced them. Let me beg of you sir to Point out, in what Way, I may remit this Money. I am ready to pay a Bill upon Sight, or to purchase a Bill here and transmit it, whichever is most agreable.
The new British Ministry will only, plunge their Country into deeper Misfortunes if they Spend time to negotiate a seperate Peace. It is not less extravagant and insolent than the Project of Conquest entertaind by their Predecessors. America Stands, at present upon so high Ground, that even the Continuance of the War, will be a Blessing to her, if War can ever be called a Blessing. It will be a constant Source of Wealth and Power. It cannot therefore be expected of her that she should abate an Iota of her Pretensions.
Pray how do you like the Petitions from the Dutch Merchants and Manufacturers. They appear to me to have given a Reputation to the American Cause, which will be an Increase of strength and Power, equal to a great army or Navy. For one need not read Hobbes to learn that Reputation is Power.
The Amsterdam Requite was drawn by my Friend Calkoen, tho he has admitted into it, some Mistakes that of Leyden by My Friend Luzac, that of Rotterdam by my Acquaintance Van Zoon of the Hague.1 But there is scarcly a City in the Republick which has not followed the Example. You know Some of the Ploughing and hoeing and harrowing, which has prepared the Ground you know Some of the seed that has been sown, and that it was Humphry Ploughjog• { 383 } ger2 who sowed it. But the Crop has exceeded Humphrys most Sanguine Expectations. Nature almost allways has occasion for a Midwife you know. I wonder what may be the sentiments of some People against whose Judgments, Exhortations and Warnings all this Mischeif has been done. Will they deny, Sentiments which can be produced under their Hands?

[salute] With great Esteem I have the Honour to be &c

[signed] J. Adams
1. For Hendrik Calkoen, an Amsterdam lawyer, see vol. 10:196–199. Van Zoon has not been identified.
2. A pseudonym used by JA for contributions to the Boston Gazette between 1763 and 1767, for which see vol. 1:58–66, 90–94.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0240

Author: Andrews, Samuel
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-03

From Samuel Andrews

[salute] Sir

I wrote your Excellency per the last post respecting my business in this City. I now take the Liberty by my worthy and good Friend Mr Texier to send you the Memore of this business which I declare to your Excellency upon my honour is the truth on my part And by which you will see how Cruelly I have been treated in Martinieque as also in this City. Had I have Lost my Intrest by shipwreck or have been taken by the English I should not have thought so much of it But to loose it And to be taken from me by those who I would sopose ware my friends it is Cruel to the last degree. I am fully perswaded from your Excellencys Goodness you will due every thing for me in your Power to retrieve this Intrest which if Lost I am fully runie’d as will also hurt the Estate very much of deseased friend Mr Gray.

[salute] I have the Honour to be with due Respect your Excellency most Obedent & very Humble Sert

[signed] Sam Andrews
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Andrews. Ap. 3. 1782.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0241-0001

Author: Capellen tot den Pol, Joan Derk, Baron van der
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-05

From Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol

[salute] Monsieur

J’ai écrit amplement au Bourguemaitre Hooft1 touchant la Situation des affaires dans cette Province, avec priere de Vous en donner { 384 } Communication. Les Villes ont pris de bonnes Resolutions. Mais je Suis encore incertain au Sujet des Nobles. Mecredi, a eu juger par les apparences et quelques informations, ils etoient peu disposés a reconnoitre L’independance. Mais il ÿ eu qui croient quils ont reçu Mecredi au Soir des ordres de la Haÿe: Du moins l’on S’imaginoit hier de remarquer quelque changement dans les discours de quelques uns. C’est, a ce que je m’attends, aujourdhui que l’affaire Sera decidée; du moins la grande Besoigne Se tiendra ce matin. Mais il ÿ pourtant encore moien de deliberer et de dilaier.2
J’ai reçu une lettre de Mon Ami Valk. Quoique je me Suis fait une loi de n’importuner personne par des Sollicitations, je ne Saurois cependant me refuser a la demande de ce digne Ami. Il a eu le malheur de Se voir ruiné de fond en comble par cette guerre inopinée. Il a resolu de Se transporter en Amerique. Mais Sa digne epouse Souhaiteroit beaucoup de pouvoir rester dans Sa Ville natale Rotterdam. N ÿ auroit il pas moien que le Congress emploiat ce brave homme en quelque qualité—par exemple d’Agent—qui put lui donner l’occasion de Subsister honnetement, et de recommencer quelque affaire? Je prie Votre Excellence dÿ Songer. Je puis recommander mon Ami comme un patriote zélé et éclairé et comme un negociant qui a etudié Son metier. Je puis d’ailleurs assurer Votre Excellence que les deux peuples lui ont de l’obligation. Je ne Saurois en dire d’avantage.3 J’ai lhonneur detre en grande hate de Votre Excellence le tres humble et tres obeissant Serviteur
[signed] Capellen de Poll

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0241-0002

Author: Capellen tot den Pol, Joan Derk, Baron van der
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-05

Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I wrote to Burgomaster Hooft,1 fully explaining the situation here in this province, and asked him to write to you. The cities made good resolutions. But I am still uncertain about the nobility. Wednesday, by all appearances and some information, they were hardly disposed to recognize independence. But some believed that they received orders from The Hague on Wednesday evening, and at the very least it was said that yesterday there was some change in their rhetoric. I expect the matter will be decided today, at least the great work will happen this morning. But there are still ways to deliberate and postpone.2 I received a letter from my friend Valk. Although I make it a habit not to bother anyone with solicitations, I do not know how I could refuse a request from my deserving friend. He had the misfortune to be completely ruined by this unexpected war. He resolved to go to America. But his wor• { 385 } thy wife hoped very much to remain in her native city of Rotterdam. Couldn’t there be some way that Congress could employ this courageous man in some capacity? For example, as an agent he could have the chance to earn an honest living and could start some new business. I ask your Excellency to think about it. I recommend my friend as a zealous and enlightened patriot and as a merchant who has studied his craft. I can also assure your Excellency that both countries are obliged to him. I cannot say more about him.3 I have the honor to be, in great haste, your Excellency, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Capellen de Poll
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “The Baron de Poll. 5. April. ansd. 6. 1782.”
1. JA met Henrik Hooft, a pro-Patriot burgomaster of Amsterdam and ally of van der Capellen, in 1780, soon after his arrival at Amsterdam (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:445–446, 448–449; Schulte Nordholt, Dutch Republic and Amer. Independence, p. 107, 113–114, 207, 210).
2. In fact, the States of Overijssel voted on 5 April to admit JA as minister plenipotentiary and recognize U.S. independence, for which see van der Capellen’s letter of 6 April and JA’s of 19 April to Robert R. Livingston, both below.
3. In 1783, Adriaan Valck emigrated to the United States where, in 1784, the States General appointed him Dutch consul for Maryland and Virginia (Schulte Nordholt, Dutch Republic and Amer. Independence, p. 255–256; PCC, No. 128, f. 75).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0242-0001

Author: Pauli, Johann Ulrich
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-05

From Johann Ulrich Pauli

[salute] Hoch-Wohlgebohrner, Hochgeehrtester Herr

Wenn ihr hanseatische Charge d. affaires Monsieur Martens1 bei Euro Hochwohlgebohrn die Anfrage bald thun sollte, ob Sie bereits bevollmächtiget wären mit denen Hansen-Städten einen Freundschaft und Handlungs-Verein zu treffen, so ist dieses keine bloße Frage der Neugierde. Die Hansenstädte kommen und werden verhältnismäßig weit größeren Nutzen und Vortheile Dero Amerikanischen zu leisten vermögen, als dieses die Herren Holländer je zu thun vermögend sein werden. Auf dem Fall Dero wircklichen Bevollmächtigung wünsche Ihnen einen Vorschlag einer den Hansen-Städten und Dero Amerikanischen Staaten gleich gemeinschaftlichen Banck zu thun, die beiden so sehr vortheilhafft sein wird, daß von selbst Dero Mitbürger und die unsrigen mit keinem so gerne und willig handeln werden als mit sich unter einander. Die Sache ist von einem erstaunenden Umfange, und wie ich glaube und hoffe von einer sehr zuversichtlichen Gewisheit. Die Grundsätze, worauf sie gebauet werden wird, sind die einfachsten. Es sind Grundsätze der Freiheit und Gerechtigkeit selbst. Aber in ihren Folgen gehen sie bis ins unendliche. Ich muß aber nohtwendig Ihnen { 386 } mündlich davon erst die erforderliche Nachricht gäben. Vorläufig dürfte ich Ihnen so viel sagen können, daß wenn Sie sich ausbitten sollten, mit mir über den Traktat zu seiner Zeit vorzüglich zu negotiiren, die Hansen-Städte wohl aber kein sonderliches Bedenken machen dürften, mir diesen Auftrag mit anderen zu ertheilen. Ob nun ihre General Vollmacht zur Handels Traktats Schliessung sich bis so weit erstrecke, daß Sie solche von selbst auf die Hansen-Städte ausdehnen oder nicht ausdehnen können, davon bitte ich mir eine offenherzige baldige Antwort, die keine andere Absicht haben soll, als beiden Theilen auf alle Zukunfft die ersprieslichsten Aussichten und Dienste leisten zu wollen. Wenigstens dürften sie erforderlichenfalles die weitere Vollmacht leichte vom Congres aus erhalten und doch schon das vorläuffige nohtwendige von jetzt an vorbereiten können. Sollten Euro Hochwohlgebohrn sich bei dieser schönen Jahreszeit und guten Wegen sich endschliessen eine Reise nach die Hansen Städte zu thun, so2 erbiete ich mein Haus. Ich wohne in der schönen Vorstadt zu St. Georg. Sie können erst so lange wie sie wollen, incognito bei mir sich aufhalten, um das vorläuffige erforderliche gehörig befordern zu mögen. Ich bin Euro Hochwohlgebohrn ergebenster und verpflichtetster Diener
[signed] Joh: Ulr: Pauli Dr.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0242-0002

Author: Pauli, Johann Ulrich
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-05

Johann Ulrich Pauli to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Right Honorable Sir

If your Hanseatic Charge d’Affaires Monsieur Martens1 were soon to inquire whether your honor would be ready to authorize the settling of a Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the Hanseatic Cities, then this is not a mere question of curiosity. The Hanseatic Cities would offer relatively bigger gains and advantages to the Americans, than the Dutch gentlemen would ever be able to offer them. In case of actual authorization, I would like to make you a proposal of the same mutual bank between the Hanseatic cities and the American states, which would be advantageous to both, so that your fellow citizens and ours can trade pleasantly and willingly as they would trade amongst themselves. This is a great and important matter and, as I hope and believe, one of great trust and assurance. The principles on which this matter would be founded are most simple. They are the principles of freedom and justice themselves. These principles would never expire. But first I would have to give you the necessary information about this verbally. In the meantime I could tell you this, namely, if you will authorize this, and when the authorization has been made you would like to deal with me especially, then the Hanseatic Cities would not want me to have any other special considerations for other par• { 387 } ties. I would like to have a candid and quick reply as to whether your present authority for concluding commercial treaties is sufficient that you could or could not extend such treaties to the Hanseatic Cities, which serves no other purpose than that both parties would have the most advantageous prospects and services in the future. At least you could, in case it might be necessary, easily obtain further authorization from Congress and in the meantime you could make the current necessary preparations. Should your honor decide to make the journey to the Hanseatic Cities at this pretty season and on good roads, then2 I would offer you my house. I live in the beautiful suburb of St. George. You can stay with me, incognito, as long as you would like to be able to further the necessary preparations, in the meantime, I remain your honor’s most humble and most obliged servant,
[signed] Joh: Ulr: Pauli Dr.
1. Karl Wilhelm Martens, chargé d’affaires from the Hanseatic towns (Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, 3:557). In the wake of his recognition as minister to the Netherlands, JA left his card at Martens’ residence (Diary and Autobiography, 3:3).
2. At this point in the left margin is the fragmentary passage: “[ . . . ] alle in meinen [ . . . ] Kräfften sei. [ . . . ] ende Dienstleistungen.” Translated literally this reads, “[ . . . ] all in my [ . . . ] powers [ . . . ] and services.” It may have been intended for insertion in the body of the text, but the location cannot be determined.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0243-0001

Author: Quadt Wykeradt, Comtesse de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-05

From the Comtesse de Quadt Wykeradt

[salute] Monsieur

Comme votre excellance, a asschetté notre Maison au fruell-Burgwal, ou je demeure le-quèl je dois sedder et transporter le premier de maÿ, et qu’ils me sont [aux]-vennée des affaires, qui demende ma pressence ici plus longtems, je vien La Prier, de voulloir maccorder d’y rèster un mois, ou quinzaine de jours plus-tar, et joffre, en mème temps d’y donner des chambres pour ÿ plasser des Meubles d’abors, commes aussi, de souffrir qu’on mette le gardin, et Maison en ordre d’an ce qu’a, en Esperent par un mot de lettre, une favorable reponce, j’ay L’honneur d’etre Monsieur De votre Excellance la tres humble servante
[signed] W: F: comtesse De Quadt Wykeradt nèe Baronne De Wyhe

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0243-0002

Author: Quadt Wykeradt, Comtesse de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-05

The Comtesse de Quadt Wykeradt to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Monsieur

Since your Excellency has purchased our house in Fluwelen Burgwal where I am residing until May 1st, and where I must continue to be present in order to attend to my business affairs, I ask you permission to stay on for { 388 } a month longer, or at least two weeks. In exchange, I offer to put the rooms and garden in order before your arrival and while hoping for a favorable reply, I have the honor to be, sir, your Excellency’s very humble servant
[signed] W: F: comtesse De Quadt Wykeradt nèe Baronne De Wyhe
RC (Adams Papers). The draft of JA’s reply, also of 5 April, below, is written on the reverse of this letter.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0244

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Quadt Wykeradt, Comtesse de
Date: 1782-04-05

To the Comtesse de Quadt Wykeradt

[salute] Madam

I am sorry it is not in my Power to agree to your Request in your Letter of this Days Date. But it is absolutely out of my Power, as I am obliged to remove from my House at Amsterdam, on the first of May. I have the Honour to be very respectfully Madam your most obedient and humble servant
[signed] J. Adams
Dft (Adams Papers). The draft is written on the reverse of the Comtesse’s letter of 5 April, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0245

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Andrews, Samuel
Date: 1782-04-06

To Samuel Andrews

[salute] Sir

I have recd your two Letters,1 and Should be glad to do you any Service in my Power. I will endeavour to Speak to the Nobleman you mention upon the Subject. But as I know nothing of the merits of your Cause, you must be Sensible that there is little Prospect of Succeeding. He is a very good Character and I flatter myself is disposed to oblige me: But it will Seem odd to him to write to Versailles at my desire, about a subject that I understand not. He is, besides at present very full of Cares publick and private. I will endeavour however to do you, all the Service I can, being with respect, your most obedient and humble servant
1. Of 12 and 31 March, both above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0246

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Capellen tot den Pol, Joan Derk, Baron van der
Date: 1782-04-06

To Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol

[salute] Monsieur Le Baron

Upon my Return to Town, to day I found your Favour of the 5th. instant: that of 31. Ult I had recd before.
{ 389 }
Am curious to know what Use will be made in the States of overyssell of the Memorial of the Russian Ministers. Will it be used as a Pretext for delay? It is really a Serious Thing, that great affairs should be thus obstructed by little ones. This Memorial promises more than Mr Fox’s Letter authorizes. The armistice proposed is but a proposal of a Breach of Faith already pledged to France.1
Will this Republick abandon France and america, and throw themselves alone upon the Mercy of England? Is there one Regent in the Republick that would advise it?
As to the affair of your Friend Valk, I can only Say that I should be happy to have it in my Power to serve, any Man upon your Recommendation: but in this Case I have no Power.
If a Treaty should be made, I presume Congress will send a Consul to this Republick: but that Consul will be an american. This I take to be the fixed Resolution of Congress, to Send as Ministers and Consuls abroad her own Sons and she expects to receive from her allies as Ministers and Consuls, their own native Citizens. This, you will readily agree is the best Policy on both Sides, and indeed the only Policy that can give mutual Satisfaction. Congress will not certainly multiply Agents, and will have no occasion, probably for more than one Consul, in this Republick. This Consul may have occasion for a correspondent in each maritime City, but the Choice will lie with him, and it will necessarily be Sometime before he is appointed and can arrive. But alass are We not Speculating before the Time. An Ecclesiastical order, which is a Non Entity, can delay the Measures that are judged necessary by the Cities and Nobles in Utrecht. The Nobles, perhaps in overyssell may delay matters there. A Single City, or a first Noble in Zealand, may obstruct the Decision of that Province. And of Groningen We hear nothing at all.
Patience upon Patience is necessary. When a Resolution appears upon the Point of being taken, Some new Device appears to throw all aback. But when one Magazine of Patience is exhausted We must open a new one, untill the last fails.2

[salute] With great Respect I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient and most humble servant

[signed] J. Adams
RC (Algemeen Rijksarchief, Papers of van der Capellen, No. 29A, p. 278).
1. On 29 March, Charles James Fox informed the Russian ambassador at London that Britain was willing to agree “to an immediate cessation of hostilities” with the Netherlands and negotiate a peace treaty based “on free navigation according to the treaty of 1674.” This effort to separate the Dutch from the French represented a reversal of the British policy toward the League of Armed Neutrality. The Russian ambassador immediately wrote to Gallitzin and Markov, his colleagues at The Hague, and on 3 April { 390 } the two men submitted a memorial to the States General that contained the new British offer. Fox’s proposal failed because the French opposed a separate Anglo-Dutch peace and because the offer was made on the day the States of Holland voted to recognize the United States. By the time Fox renewed the offer in May, the States General had made the recognition official (De Madariaga, Armed Neutrality of 1780, p. 387–388, 396–397; Edler, Dutch Republic and Amer. Rev., p. 200; Dumas to Robert R. Livingston, 10 May, Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:408–410).
2. When JA published this letter in the Boston Patriot of 13 March 1811, he inserted the following note:
“N. B. in 1810. I heard a gentleman in the Senate Chamber ask my friend Mr. Izzard, who upon some occasion was somewhat impetuous, ‘have you no patience?’ Izzard replied, very quickly, “I believe I have a great deal for I have never used any of it.”
“I am somewhat apprehensive that posterity will think the reverse of this true with regard to me: and that I had occasion for so long a course of years to draw so largely on my magazine, that in the latter part of my public life it became scarce and almost exhausted.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0247

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Lafayette, Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de
Date: 1782-04-06

To the Marquis de Lafayette

[salute] My dear General

I am just honored now with your’s of 27th. March. All things were working rapidly together for our good, untill on the 3d. instant, the Russian Ministers at the Hague presented the Memorial which You have seen in the Gazettes. This will set twenty little Engines to work, to embroil and delay: but I believe that in the Course of four or five Weeks We shall triumph over this which I take to be the last hope of the Anglomanes. The Voice of this Nation was never upon any occasion declared with more Unanimity, and the numerous Petitions have already done an honor and a Service to the American Cause, that no Artifice can retract or diminish.
As to the Visit, Mr. Franklin is informed of the whole.1 It is nothing. The new British Ministry are in a curious Situation. There is but one sensible Course for them to take, and that is to make the best Peace they can with all <Europe> their Enemies. We shall see whether they have Resolution and Influence enough to do it.
As to Credit here, I am flattered with hopes of it, provided a Treaty is made, not otherwise. Whether that will be done and when I know not. I can never foresee any thing in this Country, no not for one day, and I dare not give the smallest hopes.
Your confidential Letter had better be sent by the Comte de Vergennes’s Express to the Duke de la Vauguyon. I hope We shall have a good Account soon of Jamaica.
I am extreamly sorry, that Mr. Jay meets with so much delay in Spain. The Policy of it is totally incomprehensible.2
Am happy to find that your Sentiments correspond with mine, { 391 } concerning what We ought to do, and have no doubt that all will be well done in time. What is there to resist the French and Spanish Force in the West Indies? or in the Channel? or in N. America? or in the E. Indies? If my Dutchmen fairly concert Operations with France and Spain, and the Seas are kept with any Perseverance, all the Commerce of G. Britain is at stake. Yet your Caution not to be too sanguine is very good. Spain does not yet seem to be sufficiently awake, and the English Admirals under the new Ministry will do all they can.
I fancy they will try the last Efforts of Despair this Summer, but their Cause is desperate indeed. Never was an Empire ruined in so short a time, and so masterly a manner. Their Affairs are in such a state, that even Victories would only make their final Ruin the more compleat.

[salute] With great Affection & Esteem, I have the honor to be &ca3

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. For Thomas Digges’ visit, see JA to Franklin, 26 March, above.
2. When JA published this letter in the Boston Patriot of 13 March 1811, he inserted the following note at this point: “N.B. In 1810—i.e. ‘Incomprehensible,’ upon any equitable, candid and honorable principles of a common interest among the allies—but very comprehensible upon the principles of pedlars and jockeys, on which the Comte de Vergennes too often acted in American affairs.”
3. In the Boston Patriot, JA inserted the following note at this point: “N.B. in 1810—The affection and esteem expressed in this letter to the marquis were sincere. I believed him to be a gallant and honorable youth, sincerely attached to America. I knew his connections, the Duke de Mouchy, the Duke de Ayen, the Prince de Poix, the Viscount de Noailles, and in short the whole family of Noailles, which contained six Marshals of France, as I was told: in a few words the whole family of Bourbon had not so much real influence in France as this family of Noailles. I was then fully convinced that this letter would be communicated to the court. I have reason to believe it was communicated to the King in person, for the Marquis wrote me, that the king had expressed to him a high esteem of me.” On 7 May, Lafayette wrote to JA that “I was the other day, pleased to Hear the king of france Speack of You to me in terms of the Highest Regard” (Lafayette in the Age of the American Revolution: Selected Letters and Papers, 1776–1790, ed. Stanley J. Idzerda and others, Ithaca, N.Y., 5 vols., 1977–1984, 5:36–37).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0248-0001

Author: Capellen tot den Pol, Joan Derk, Baron van der
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-06

Capellen tot den Pol, Joan Derk, Baron van der

[salute] Monsieur

J’ai la Satisfaction de communiquer à Votre Excell: que les Etats d’Overÿssel ont resolu hier nemine contradicente,1 de reconnoitre Votre Excell: comme Ministre des Etats Unis de l’Amerique Septentrionale. Dieu en Soit beni!

[salute] J’ai l’honneur d’etre avec un profond respect De Votre Excellence le tres humble et tres obeissant Serviteur

[signed] J D van der Capellen

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0248-0002

Author: Capellen tot den Pol, Joan Derk, Baron van der
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-06

Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I have the satisfaction to communicate to Your Excellency that the States of Overijssel resolved yesterday, nemine contradicente,1 to recognize Your Excellency as minister of the United States of North America. Blessed be God.

[salute] I have the honor to be, with a profound respect for Your Excellency, your most humble and most obedient servant.

[signed] J D van der Capellen
1. Without opposition.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0249

Author: Dubbeldemuts, Adrianus
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-06

From Adrianus Dubbeldemuts

[salute] Sir

The letter which your Excellencÿ has done me the honour of writing me the 22d. past reached me in Course. Since the Copy of the petition of the Merchants of this place to their Magistrates, which Covered my last, has been So acceptable to your Excellencÿ, I take the libertÿ to add here the Rotterdam Gazette of this daÿ,1 Containing Chiefly an adress to our Said Magistrates which I had the honour not only to offer them yesterday by writing, but to pronounce before them, with all that emphasis, which fear for being lulled a Sleep bÿ a treacherous Ennemÿ, and on the other hand a prospect of being restored in ancient Rights, Could even inspire to a lover of libertÿ: I took the freedom to declare our present Committees that, in order to Shew posterity what we had done to employ well the present favourable Circumstances, we would place the Said adress in the gazette of this daÿ: maÿ this have the desired effect, and our adhérency to the intrest of America produce those great ends, the liberty of that So long oppressed Country, the blessings of trade without limitation, and a general Peace, the best of earthly happiness, provided it be not the fruit of low and Creeping Submission. I Need not to Say how much it will add to my real Satisfaction when your Excellencÿ will favour me with his aprobation of the Step I took; but still more when you’ll be pleased to give me two minutes of that precious time which you So nobly employ in the Case of your Country and your bretheren; any time Your Excellencÿ Shall be { 393 } pleased to fix for a Short interview, will be acceptable to Your Excellencys Most Obedient humble Servant
[signed] A Dubbeldemuts
1. Enclosure not found.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0250

Author: Mylius, Anthony
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-06

From Anthony Mylius

Whereas the happy Moment is arrived that the united States of America are or in Short shall be acknowledged as Free and Independent by the States of these United Provinces, and that in Consequence thereof a Treaty of Commerce, Trade and Navigation is to be made between the aforesaid States, by which the Commerce, Trade and Navigation shall increase and florish more and more, And as different Sorts of Acts, deeds and Instruments will be required to be made for or between Merchants, Masters of vessels and other Persons, to serve and to be made Use off in the aforesaid states of America; And whereas all Affidavits, Protests or Instruments which must be Sworn, first must be drawn and Sworn in Dutch, according to the Customs of these Lands, and afterwards translated and made Authentick by two or three Publick Persons to great Inconveniency and Charges of the Concerned Persons; And as the Underwritten is acquainted with the Principal Languages of the United states of America, And hath yet had the Honour to employed as Notary and Translator by Your Excellency, and is still employed by several Houses of this City, trading and dealing with the Inhabitants of the aforesaid States of America; Therefore the Underwritten do take the Liberty by these Presents, to make his Application to Your Excellency, in Case it may be tought proper by the Free and Independent states of America to appoint and nominate any Person in this City to administer the Oath of all such Affidavits or Protests and to make Authentick all such deeds or Instruments as in Commerce, Trade or Navigation may be required to serve and to be made Use off in the States of America aforesaid, to recommand his Person to your Excellency, and that all Upon reasonable and ordinarÿ Terms or Fees to be paid by the Concerned Persons, in Support of the Underwritten and his Familÿ as he sustained Several dammages and losses in the last Year by the Unjust war of Great Brittain as otherwise.
[signed] Anthony Mylius

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0251

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Baraux, M.
Date: 1782-04-07

To M. Baraux

[salute] Sir

I have communicated your Letter, which You did me the honor to write me on the 21st. Ulto., to Messs. Ingraham & Bromfield of this City, who have furnished in the inclosed Letter a List of Merchants as You desired, to which I beg leave to add Richard Cranch Esqr of Boston.
There will probably be, after a Peace, a considerable Trade between the several Ports of the United States of America and Trieste, thro’ which place I fancy several American Productions will find their Way into the Interior of the Austrian Dominions. I should be obliged to You for your Sentiments of this Trade, and what Commodities Americans may dispose of in that quarter, and what they may recieve in return.

[salute] I have the honor to be, Sir, &c

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0252

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Dubbeldemuts, Adrianus
Date: 1782-04-07

To Adrianus Dubbeldemuts

[salute] Sir

I have recd. your favor of yesterday inclosing a Gazette with a new Petition or Address to the Magistrates of the City of Rotterdam.
While the People entertain such sentiments and hold such a language their Liberties and Prosperity can never be essentially in danger.
I should be very happy to see You at any time while I stay in Amsterdam, or after my Removal to the Hague. If I should come to the Hague the latter end of this week or the beginning of next, I should be glad to recieve You there; but I cannot at present indicate the day. With much Respect, I have the honor to be, Sir, &ca
LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0253

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Hodinpyl, P.
Date: 1782-04-07

To P. Hodinpyl

[salute] Sir

I have recd. your favor of the 30th. of March,1 and am much obliged to You for your kind Congratulations on the flattering prospect of public affairs.
{ 395 }
The formation of commercial and political Connections between our Countries is ushered in with so much solemnity, it is accompanied by such elaborate discussions of the Prosperity of the Measure, and triumphs at last in such an Unanimity, as will form an Epocha in the History of both Republicks. It must have a striking effect, and make a deep Impression upon all Europe. If it produces a universal Peace, it will be glorious: but if the War continues, the two Republicks will cement their commercial and political Connections by it, and increase their naval Power, and make themselves mutually more respected and courted by all other Nations.
I expect every hour the Arrival of some Vessels, which may bring Us News of your Brother Commodore Gillon:2 as soon as I recieve any, I will send it You with pleasure.

[salute] With much Esteem, I have the honor to be, Sir, &ca

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. In his letter of 30 March from Rotterdam (Adams Papers), Hodinpyl congratulated JA on the action taken by the States of Holland on the 28th and then launched into a lengthy paean to the forthcoming Dutch-American alliance and the benefits to both nations from such a union. He offered his services to JA, but there is no extant response.
2. JQA identifies Hodinpyl as a brother-in-law of Alexander Gillon (JQA, Diary, 1:53).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0254

Author: Dana, Francis
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-08

From Francis Dana

[salute] My dear Sir

I had the pleasure of your favour of the 15th March this morning, in which you acknowledge the receipt of mine of Feby 10/21 and of the paper enclosed; but you say nothing of another paper which I sent you by the same post, enclosed in blank, relative to the same subject: I hope it has safely reached you notwithstanding. I have wrote to you since, on Feby. 21. O.S. And to Mr: T. on the 5/16 inst: by a private hand.1 Besides I have sent to your care by the last post but one, through different hands, three letters for our new correspondent; all of which I wou’d wish to be sent by the same opportunity. One of them you will find is marked duplicate: it is the duplicate of that which you had received before.2
The change of System in Britain (all the particulars of which I have seen as published in the English Papers) must it wou’d seem have its consequences, beneficial to that Nation, unless the folly of the leaders in the new majority shou’d prevent it, by pursuing a { 396 } course in fact not less extravagant and absurd than that of conquest. You will at once perceive that I allude to the plan of the bill proposed by the Attorny Genl: which seems to reach the professed intentions of those leaders, at least, though it is calculated to dupe them and to keep matters in the same hands.3 I have said this change might be attended with beneficial consequences, because if the wisest improvement is not made of it, the Nation cannot fail of soon experiencing the most dreadful calamities. Her distresses it is no longer possible to conceal; and these have wrought out the present change. However it may turn for them, will it not greatly advance our Interests? The whole world must now see that Nation itself proclaiming its utter despair of obtaining the great object of the war. And after this, will they think they ought to wait till Britain has acknowledged in form the Independence of the United-States, before they venture to enter into any political connections with us? Or in other words, will they risk their exclusion from great commercial benefits, by neglecting to accept of them when tendered by the United-States? The close of the War, may close these offers in some parts at least.
I am glad to hear some folks are at last occupied in very serious thoughts of doing that which they ought to have done long ago. This late change, I fancy, will spur them on. I shall readily excuse your not writing me while your time is taken up in the manner you mention. I hope you will not forget me in your leisure hours. Be not discouraged about your health. When your affairs go right it will, I presume, mend fast, especially if you will frequently ride on horseback, as you have been accustomed to do. I flatter myself I shall yet see you in all your glory at the Hotel des Etats-Unis, for I wont talk of laying my bones in this Country. I thank you for your opinion upon my proposed attempt. The difference between our situations which you have pointed out, is most certainly just. I have all along been sensible of it, and my conduct has been influenced by it.
To your question what is the reason a certain event does not take place? I can give at least one reason, a want of a proper connection. Of this I have said something in my letter No. 1. to our new Correspondent, which passes through your hands open.4 Others may be given, but I shall say nothing about them here. I agree with you that we have no particular reason to wish for Peace. I have always hoped to see this war end in a maritime war on our part: that is, that it shou’d continue for some time after the British were driven completely out of our Territories. And I have seen no reason to change { 397 } this sentiment. Of course I do not wish to see any negotiations for a Peace going on while the British possess an Inch of our Country. You may be right in your conjecture that they will evacuate it, if they are not prevented by being made prisoners in their garrisons; yet I have some doubt of this, not because I do not think it the wisest measure they cou’d take, but because, I beleive, they imagine that holding some possession there they will be enabled to acquire more favourable Terms or to negotiate with less disadvantage, and perhaps a seperate Peace. This seems now to be the object which fascinates the present Majority or its leaders, and that may bring on the surrender of the residue of their Troops. What can save them from this fate, if they are shut in by a naval superiority? France is by this time convinced that the British Barbarities have thoroughly wean’d us, and I trust will again give us that superiority, which alone we want to rid ourselves entirely of our Enemies. Her late system of war I am charmed with, not only where it immediately affects us, but elsewhere. She has deffered her conquests, except of such territories as were ravished from her last War, till the moment when no one can justly accuse her of making them with any other view than to compel a haughty and an obstinate Enemy to submit to reasonable terms of peace. If she preserves her moderation in the season of negotiation, her glory will be established on the surest foundation. I fear the affair of St: Kitts is not finished in the manner you suppose. A little time will give us the Issue of that Expedition. I am, my dear Sir, with the warmest wishes for your health and success, your much obliged Friend & humble Servt:
P.S. Please to give directions for the copy of Genl: Washingtons Miniature, and to desire Mr: T. to send on my Maps of the Low-Countries, with my others things. Master John is in high health. He does not study the language of this Country, but he is learning German which, I believe, you wou’d prefer before Russian. He says he will write you soon and give some account of his doings.5 He is still engaged with Cicero but if you think it best he will lay him aside and take up Sallust. Point de Grecs ici.6
RC (Adams Papers); docketed by CFA: “Dana Fr. 28 March OS. 1782.”; filmed at 28 March 1782, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 356.
1. Dana refers to his letter of 4 March, above. For his letter of 16 March to John Thaxter, see note 3 to the letter of the 4th.
2. In a note to JA dated 2 April (filmed at 22 March 1782, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 356), Dana most probably enclosed two copies of a letter dated 30 March and a duplicate of one dated 5 March for Robert R. Livingston (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:223–225, 280–283). Dana had written { 398 } to JA on 15 March (filmed at 4 March, Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 356) asking him to forward a letter, which was probably the 5 March letter to Livingston.
3. For Henry Seymour Conway’s motion to end the offensive war in North America and the motion for an Anglo-American truce proposed by the attorney general in the course of the debate, see Edmund Jenings’ letter of 7 March, note 1, above. Dana would not yet have learned of the fall of the North ministry on 20 March, official news of which reached the British ambassador at St. Petersburg on 25 April (De Madariaga, Armed Neutrality of 1780, p. 388).
4. In his letter to Dana of 15 March, above, JA asked why the armed neutrality could not recognize the United States and allow its accession to the confederation. In his letter of 5 March to Livingston, Dana wrote that the lack of co-ordination between the members of the armed neutrality was due to its division into three parts: Russia, Denmark, Sweden, and Holland; Russia and Prussia; and Russia and Austria (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:223–225).
5. In a letter to JA of 31 March, JQA wrote that he had begun to study German. Replying on [28 April], JA approved “because I am told that Science and Literature flourish more at present in Germany than any where” (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:302–303, 317).
6. No Greek here.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0255

Author: Digges, Thomas
Author: JW
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-09

From Thomas Digges

[salute] Dear Sir

I have not yet been able to see Mr L, he having left Town just before my return to it and not having got back till yesterday. Without my urging to Lord S–ne the propriety of immediately speaking to Mr L on the matter of my message to You and for releasing him from every tye here, I found His Lordship had concluded to make his approaches to that quarter, for most assuredly it is the right one, and I beleive He was purposely calld to Town about it.1 If they mean any thing sincere and direct that is the road and I hope they are about it. I could wish however I had it more in my power than I now have to say I had clearly discoverd the intentions of the new set, at least those I have conversd with viz Lord S–ne, Lord C–d–n, Genl Conway and Lord K– to be that of going to Peace with America on the avowd basis of Independence. Every voice pronounces it to be their intention, but I like a little more open declaration for so doing. Time will shew what is meant, but I own appearances at present do not please me.
There is a universal conversation and opinion got forth for a seperate peace with Holland built intirely upon the re-opening the Empress the mediation for Peace; and the new ministers have got credit with the publick for the active manner they went to work to renew it. The whole of the Cabinet seem to be well likd by the People and much praises are forth, for their vigorous exertions in the naval line in particular. America seems to be forgot, for one never { 399 } hears now about Her, save when some blunderhead holds forth for seperate Peace with America and Holland and a hearty drubbing to the French. John Bull will keep up this sort of language as long I beleive as He can roar out anything.
I have had every indulgence shewn me toward the recovery of my papers;2 but altho I have a Chart Blanch to search in the office, things are not yet so entrain in the new offices as to have things in proper order for looking over. Notwithstanding the savage practice of every Minister when he goes out of office making a sweep and taking all papers he likes with Him, I have yet the hopes of soon getting the material part of mine; and if ever after that I am a supplicant for any favour in England I hope I shall be foild. I have been more than commonly lucky with the Admy Departmt for I have with very little or no trouble got the prisoners who were brot from Mill Prison by Habeas Corpus as evidences in the case of Luke Rian and Captain McCator releasd from going back to Confinement, and got passes for the two who were tryed for their Lives and acquitted. These, together with 7 or 8 arrivd to day from the West will shortly move over, and one of them will see You.
If there are any papers in the Request or Memorial way come forth since I got the last, please to Send them by a Young Man I recommended to You from Ostend3—They are all translating and will be put into the Remembrancer with any preface or other additions You may think fit. Any thing for news paper publication will be immideately attended to if sent according to the direction left.

[salute] I am with great respect yrs

[signed] JW
1. At Plymouth on 2 April, Laurens received a 30 March letter from Benjamin Vaughan informing him that Lord Shelburne wished to see him “without delay” (Laurens, Papers, 15:475–476). In the wake of the Shelburne-Laurens meeting on 4 April rumors regarding peace were rife in the London press. For example, the Morning Herald of 10 April reported conversations between Laurens, Rockingham, Shelburne, and Fox over the terms for re-establishing the peace that included acceptance of the Declaration of Independence; an American minister at London; the evacuation of New York and Charleston; the restoration of Georgia; British retention of Florida, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Canada; a commercial treaty; Britain's admission to the American market as a most favored nation; and finally, and contradictorily, “The King of England to cede Canada and Florida to the Congress, and to pay all their debts, and they in return to recognize his writ in America and let him be thier nominal Sovereign. His Majesty to be King of America; but the purse, the sword, and the appointment to all offices, to be in Congress." Another report appeared in various newspapers, including the Morning Herald of 17 April, that Benjamin Franklin, JA, and Henry Laurens were in London negotiating a peace treaty. This led the General Advertiser and Morning Intelligencer of 17 April to declare that the report was not only false, Laurens having left London, but { 400 } that "our readers may rely on the following assurance, that without admitting the Independency of America, the Commissioners from Congress in Europe cannot even open a negociation.”
2. Digges was arrested and his papers seized in May 1781, presumably as a consequence of his known service to the American cause and his association with John Trumbull who was arrested in Nov. 1780 (vol. 10: 366; Digges, Letters, p. li-lii).
3. Probably Jacob Sarley.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0256

Author: Johnson, Joshua
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-09

From Joshua Johnson

[salute] Sir

My last was on the 30th. October; Two Days ago I received by the hands of Mr. George Harrison your introductory Letter,1 to which every respect shall be paid, and attention shewn this Young Gent. that is in my power. I am glad to hear from you as well as others that the Dutch are at length takeing steps to acknowledge the Independancy of America, it would be well that they were more active about it, if they are not perhaps the English will be beforehand with them.
I should not have troubled you at this time was it not to inform you that a Vessell has Just arrived from the Chesapeak who left York Town on the 18th Ultimo, nothing has happened there betwen the Armies and all was quiet, but the Trade which was as much interrupted as ever; the Chattam and several English Frigates being Cruzeing on the Coast prevented the French from shewing their Noses. One of the Latters Frigates were forced on Shore to the Southward of the Cape Henry and is intirely lost.2 Several of the New York Privateers have been up the Chesapeak as high as Patowmack and done a good deal of mischeif so that the Dutch will recieve but very little Tobacco this Year. I know of but one Ship bound to Amsterdam and she saild in Co. with this.
Should any steps be taken towards bringing about Peace you will confer an everlasting obligation on me to drop me any hints consistent with your Character and Office and which shall ever be acknowledged by, Sir Your most Obedt. Hbe. Serv
[signed] Joshua Johnson
P.S. Colo. Benjn. Harrison is appointed Governor of the State of Virginia and Arthur Lee Esqr. a Member in Congress.
1. Letter not found. For George Harrison, see Benjamin Rush’s letter of 23 June 1781, and note 1 (vol. 11:388).
2. Probably the 26-gun frigate Diligente, which was wrecked on 5 Feb. (Dull, French Navy and Amer. Independence, p. 356, 358).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0257-0001

Author: La Vauguyon, Paul François de Quélen de Stuer de Causade, Duc de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-09

From the Duc de La Vauguyon

Je me Suis empressé Monsieur de transmettre a Monsieur Le Comte de Vergennes Les temoignages de franchise et de loyauté que vous m’avez donné. Ce ministre me repond qu’ils confirment de plus en plus sa confiance dans votre attachement invariable aux principes de l’alliance et il me charge de vous Communiquer des Détails tres interessants dont j’aurai L’honneur de vous faire part incessamment s’il m’est possible d’aller passer quelques jours a amsterdam ainsi que je me le propose.

[salute] Recevez Monsieur une nouvelle assurance des Sentiments inviolables d’attachement et de consideration tres distinguee avec lesquels j’ai lhonneur d’etre votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur

[signed] Le Duc De La vauguyon

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0257-0002

Author: La Vauguyon, Paul François de Quélen de Stuer de Causade, Duc de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-09

The Duc de La Vauguyon to John Adams: A Translation

I was eager to convey the expressions of candor and loyalty you have given me to the Comte de Vergennes. The minister tells me that they more and more confirm his confidence in your unwavering attachment to the principles of the alliance, and that he is giving me the responsibility of communicating the very interesting details to you. I would have the honor of doing this very shortly if it is possible, as I propose, to spend a few days in Amsterdam.

[salute] Please receive, sir, renewed assurance of the inviolable sentiments of affection and of the very distinguished consideration with which I have the honor to be your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Le Duc De La vauguyon
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Le Duc de la Vauguion. 9. April 1782”; notation by CFA: “[The answer?] to this published—See Dip Corr. Vol. 6. p 329. but not this.” CFA’s reference is to The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, ed. Jared Sparks, 12 vols., Boston, 1829–1830, and JA’s reply to La Vauguyon of 10 April, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0258

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: La Vauguyon, Paul François de Quélen de Stuer de Causade, Duc de
Date: 1782-04-10

To the Duc de La Vauguyon

[salute] Monsieur Le Duc

I have this moment recd. the letter which You did me the honor to write me yesterday, with a letter inclosed from Mr. Franklin.1
{ 402 }
The Approbation of Monsieur Le Comte de Vergennes is a great satisfaction to me, and I shall be very happy to learn from You, Sir, at Amsterdam the details You allude to.
I have a Letter from Diggs at London 2d. April, informing me that he had communicated what had passed between him and me to the Earl of Shelburne, who did not like the Circumstance that every thing must be communicated to our Allies. He says that Lord Carmaerthen is to be sent to the Hague to negotiate a seperate Peace with Holland. But according to all appearances Holland as well as America will have too much Wit to enter into any seperate Negotiations.
I have the pleasure to inform You that Gillon has arrived at the Havanna with five rich Jamaica ships as Prizes. Mr. Le Roy writes that the English have evacuated Charlestown.2
The inclosed fresh Requete of Amsterdam will shew your Excellency, that there is little probability of the Dutchmen being decieved into seperate Conferences.3

[salute] With the most profound Respect, I have the honor to be, Sir, &c

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. Probably Franklin’s letter of 31 March, above.
2. Alexander Gillon and the South Carolina arrived in Havana on 13 Jan. with five prizes that he sold for £23,066, or approximately 150,000 Spanish milled dollars. Considerable controversy was generated by Gillon’s division of the proceeds from the sale, particularly the amount that he kept for himself and that which he alloted to the Chevalier de Luxembourg, the owner of the South Carolina. Not until 1854 did South Carolina reach a final settlement with Luxembourg’s heirs (Louis F. Middlebrook, The Frigate “South Carolina”: A Famous Revolutionary War Ship, Salem, 1929, p. 9; Laurens, Papers, 16:12–13). Herman Le Roy’s report of Charleston’s evacuation was erroneous.
3. This was the tenth document included by JA in his letter of 19 March to Robert R. Livingston, calendared above. In their petition, the merchants of Amsterdam opposed the British offer of an immediate peace and acceptance of the Russian mediation of the Anglo-Dutch war, calling it the proposal of an exhausted enemy. To accept such an offer would preclude the Netherlands from participating in a general peace at which the British would be forced to offer better terms. For the British offer, see JA to van der Capellen, 6 April, and note 1, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0259-0001

Author: Abbema, Balthasar Elias
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-11

From Balthasar Elias Abbema

[salute] Monsieur

Je Serois bien flatté, Si j’etois le premier a Vous informer, que les Etats de la Prove. d’Utrecht ont pris hier unanimement la Resolution de concourir avec les Autres Provinces à Votre admission, comme Ministre Plenipot. du Congres des Prov. Unies de l’Amer• { 403 } ique;1 Je viens d’en recevoir la nouvelle de Mon frere, Membre du Tiers Etat de la dite Province: Je profite toujours de cette occasion de Vous assurer, Monsieur, de l’estime particuliere et de la consideration distinguée, avec lesquels J’ai l’honneur d’etre, Monsieur, Votre tres humble et tres Obeissant Serviteur
[signed] B E Abbema

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0259-0002

Author: Abbema, Balthasar Elias
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-11

Balthasar Elias Abbema to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I will be very flattered if I am the first to inform you that the Provincial States of Utrecht yesterday adopted unanimously the resolution concurring with the other provinces for your admission as minister plenipotentiary of the Congress of the United Provinces of America.1 I received this news from my brother, a member of the third estate of the said province. I take advantage of this occasion as always to assure you, sir, of the particular esteem and the distinguished consideration with which I have the honor to be, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant,
[signed] B E Abbema
1. No copy of the Dutch text of the resolution adopted by Utrecht on 10 April is in the Adams Papers, but JA included an English translation in his letter of 19 April to Robert R. Livingston, below, and in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 88–89.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0260

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Abbema, Balthasar Elias
Date: 1782-04-11

To Balthasar Elias Abbema

[salute] Sir

Your favor of this morning, announcing the unanimous Resolution of the States of Utrecht taken yesterday in favor of American Independence, is just come to hand. I had recieved a few Minutes before a french Gazette of Utrecht, containing the same Article: but I am very happy to recieve it in a more authentick manner from a Gentleman of so distinguished a Reputation for Patriotism. The Unanimity and Ardor, with which this Measure is adopted by the whole Nation, is to me an affecting Circumstance, and an Augur of much Good to both Nations. With great Esteem and Consideration, I have the honor to be Sir, &c &c
LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0261

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Freeman, James
Date: 1782-04-11

To James Freeman

[salute] Sir

I have just now recd. your kind favor of the 9th. and thank You for the Communication of Dr. Waterhouse’s Letter, which has been a very agreable Entertainment to me.1 I am very glad of Gillon’s success, and that so candid and sensible a Judge as the Dr. still retains his Charity for him.
Am much obliged by your Congratulations on the prosperous Appearance of our affairs. I have just recd. authentic Information of the unanimous Resolution of the States of the Province of Utrecht, taken yesterday in favor of my Admission to an Audience. Guelderland and Groningen2 are all that remain, and I hope that ten or twelve days at furthest will produce a perfect Unanimity. I have the honor to be with great Esteem, Sir, your obliged & ob. Servt.
LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. Freeman wrote from Rotterdam on 9 April (Adams Papers), describing himself as “a Merchant and Citoyen du monde.” He enclosed a letter, apparently from Benjamin Waterhouse, and requested that it be returned after JA read it.
2. In fact, Groningen acted on 9 April and Gelderland would do so on the 17th. See JA to Robert R. Livingston, 19 April, below, and A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 86–87, 90–91.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0262

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Pauli, Johann Ulrich
Date: 1782-04-11

To Johann Ulrich Pauli

[salute] Sir

I am honored with your letter of the 5th. instant, and thank You for your polite Invitation to Hambourg, a Journey which it would give me pleasure to make, but which various Occupations will oblige me at least to postpone for sometime.
In Answer to your Inquiries, Sir, I have only to say that at present I have no Powers from the United States of America to treat with the Hanseatic Cities: but their Situation is such that there will be infallibly a considerable Trade between them and America, and therefore I know of no Objection against the Congress entering into Negotiations with them.
If any Gentleman authorized by them should have any Proposals to make, I will transmit them with Pleasure to Congress for their Consideration, only desiring that they may be either in the English or French Language, as the German is unknown to me and to most of the Members of Congress.1
{ 405 }

[salute] I have the honor to be, very respectfully, Sir, your most obedient & most humble Servant.

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. No proposals were submitted to JA for transmission to Congress.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0263

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Searle, James
Date: 1782-04-11

To James Searle

[salute] Dear Sir

I am long in your debt, and therefore must beg your Patience on Account of bad health and many Occupations. The rapid Revolution in the Minds of this Nation, and the unaccountable Ardor and Unanimity, which has at last seized upon them for connecting themselves with America have occasioned me so many Visits to recieve and return, and so many complimentary Letters to answer, as added to other more important Affairs have been more than I could perform. Five Provinces, Friesland, Holland, Zealand, Overyssell and Utrecht, have already decided with an Unanimity that is astonishing, and the two others, Guelderland and Groningen, it is supposed will determine as soon as they meet, which will be the 16. current: so that I suppose We shall have one Ally more in a short time.
I know not of how much Importance this Acquisition may be thought by others, but I have ever considered it as a leading Step, and hope it may be followed by other Nations; at least it will be a refutation of the many frivolous Arguments with which some People have been long employed in doing mischief.
Gillon has been fortunate at last. His Prizes at the Havanna it is said will sell for eighty thousand pounds sterling.
If the whole Body of Dutch Merchants do not understand their own Interest and the Nature and Connections of Commerce, it will not be easy to find any body who is Master of it. Their Requetes are a compleat Refutation of all the Anglomany in Europe, if sound Reason can refute it.

[salute] With great Esteem and Regard, I have the honor to be, Sir, &c

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0264

Author: Laurens, Henry
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-12

From Henry Laurens

[salute] Dear Sir

If you can recollect the hand writing of an old friend as it is presum’d you will, put full confidence in Mr William the bearer of this,1 and give him your direction without a moments delay for the further steps of—
[signed] Henry L.
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “The Honorable John Adams Esquire Hague.”; endorsed: “Henry L.”
1. William Vaughan, who delivered Henry Laurens’ first direct communication with JA since his release from the Tower of London, was the younger brother of Benjamin Vaughan, a protégé of Lord Shelburne. Benjamin Vaughan acted as an intermediary between Laurens and Shelburne (Laurens, Papers, 15:474–476, 482).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0265

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-13

From John Bondfield

[salute] Sir

We have advices from Edenton in North Carolina so late as the 14th March brought by a vessel arrived at this port the 9th Instant one of my Letters contains “It is reported an attack against Charles Town is preparing by General green 2000 Militia of this State is orderd emidiately to join him and all the Troops from Virginia have marchd some time past.” By the Captain I learn a Number of Transports were arrived at Charles Town the English gave out they had Troops on board. They received certain advices to the contrary that they arrivd in Ballast and was there to wait the event that in case of Nessessity the British army might have the means to retreat to New York or Jamaica.
By a Packet arrived at Couronna from the Havannah we have advice of the arrival of Comre Gillon at that Port with five rich homewardbound Jamaica Men, a fortunate event as it will ease the State of South Carolina from the heavy expence of that outfit having we flatter ourselves werewith to reimburss the Engagements enterd into in Europe by Mr Gillon on that account.
We are at a loss to construe the Intentions of the British ministry in stoping the Issueing of Commissions against American Vessels and calling in them that are out. If under these circumstances a Vessel of mine should be carried into England by a Privateer or other Commissiond Vessel not having a Commission against amer• { 407 } ica only against France or other the Belegerant Powers in Europe is it your opinion that being reclaimd by my agent as my property she would be recoverd. I should be obliged to you for your sentiments being an object of the greatest Interest in a Commercial line.

[salute] Renewing my congratulation on your Progress I have the Honor to be with due respect Sir your most Obedient Humble Servant

[signed] John Bondfield
We have two Vessels for Philadelphia will sail in about 1 month.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0266

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-13

From Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

Inclosed with this I send to your Excellency the Pacquet of Correspondence between Mr Hartley and me which I promised in my last.1 You will see we have held nearly the same Language which gives me Pleasure.
While Mr Hartley was making Propositions to me, with the Approbation or Privity of Lord North, to treat separately from France, that Minister had an Emissary here, a Mr Forth, formerly a Secretary of Lord Stormonts, making Proposals to induce this Court to treat with us. I understand that several Sacrifices were offer’d to be made, and among the rest Canada to be given up to France. The Substance of the Answer appears in my last Letter to Mr Hartley. But there is a Sentence omitted in that Letter which I much liked, viz: “that whenever the two Crowns should come to treat, his most Christian Majesty would shew how much the Engagements he might enter into were to be rely’d on by his exact observance of those he already had with his present Allies.”2
If you have received anything in consequence of your Answer by Digges, you will oblige me by communicating it. The Ministers here were much pleased with the Account given them of your Interview, by the Ambassador.

[salute] With great Respect, I am, Sir, Your most obedient & most humble Servant.

[signed] B Franklin
You will be so good as to return me the Papers when you have a good Opportunity.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Dr Franklin. Ap. 13. 1782.”
{ 408 }
1. Of 31 March, above. The packet likely included David Hartley’s letters to Franklin of 2 and 24 Jan., 1 and 28 Feb., 11, 12, and 21 March; and Franklin’s replies of 15 Jan., 16 Feb., 31 March, 5 and 13 April (Franklin, Papers, 36:359–365, 472–476, 525–526, 623–624, 684–685, 688–689, 435–438, 583–585; 37:18–19, 78–79, 94–96, 143–144). Hartley’s letters centered on proposals for a separate peace, while Franklin’s replies sought to dispel any notion on the part of Hartley and the North or Rockingham ministries that such an outcome was possible.
2. The British emissary, Nathaniel Parker Forth, reportedly offered negotiations on the basis of a worldwide uti possidetis and concessions that included the restoration of full French sovereignty over Dunkerque (Morris, Peacemakers, p. 254). Such proposals might well have been acceptable to France in mid-1781, but by spring 1782 the war’s progress and the unsettled British political situation made negotiations as proposed by Forth and Hartley and implied by Digges as unacceptable to France as they were to the United States. Franklin reported to Hartley that France’s reply to Forth declared
“that the King of France is as desirous of peace as the King of England, and that he would accede to it as soon as he could with dignity and safety: but it is a matter of the last importance for his most Christian majesty to know whether the court of London is disposed to treat on equal terms with the allies of France” (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:304).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0267

Author: Brouwer, Hendrik, Chs. zoon
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-15

From Hendrik Brouwer Chs. zoon

[salute] Yoúr Excellencý

I foúnd mý Self Singúlerý honnerd with Yoúr most gracioús Oblidging Answer úpon my letter of 31 Marsch1 and I thank Yr Exc: Sincerelý for the news yoú gave me that Zeeland and Overyssel had followed the Exempel of Holland and Vriesland, two Other Provinces have Since Declared there Selfs upon the Same footing, onlý remains now Gelderland, and I am verý Certain they wil Conclúd next frydaý in the Assemble of oúr States General, becaúse theý are resolved likewise, as the other 6 proúvinces, I thank the Almightý God, this nessessarý work has been Crownd with oúr wishes, for the welfearth of America and oúr Coúntry, in Spyt of á Nation whose Ambition went So far to Predominate (if Possibel) the Whole worreld, God lives and does Jústice to Everý man, he is the Only Upon whom me múst trúst.
It is not happy for Yr Exc: yoú wil do any thing in Your Power to facilitate Commercial Connections, between the Merchants in America and my hoúse and those of mý friends, Your Goodnes and Good harth, Dicteted Your letter and by the Contrarý we find our Selfs happý Your Exc wil len us Yoúr Strong Arm to be needfúl both to the Merschants in America and Oúr Selvs; and bý Súcces en following times we Schal Schow Yoú that we are thankfully for a trúe friendschip.
I Congratulate Yr Exc: with the happý Passage of Commodore { 409 } Gillon (my Intime Old friend) and the prises he has made in his waý, verý lukky indeed, Inclosed Yoú find the list of my friends in my former neglated,2 which I hope Yoú’l Excuse, the first 6 Gentlemen Upon this list with foúr Other who are not in trade have resolved to fit Oút thrie Prevateers, One is Since three weeks at Zea, the Second wil Sail in 8 or 10 Days, and the thirth in 3 Weeks this last is a loúger3 who wil be Commanded bý oúr brother Charles Yoúng from Charles town, I hope theý maý have a little bit of Mr Gillon’s luk not for our Intrest, but Only that we Could Gratulate oúr Selfs that we have Punischd, So much in Oúr Power Oúr Eennemý.
A Certain Gentleman in partnership with an English hoúse here, born in America, Whose God father was general Gates and who’s Brother went in the Kings Service During the troúbles in America, Dyed with his Sword in his hand Against his American Brothers, against his fatherland, t’his Same Gentleman Showd his Self in Public Conversations always to be an Ennemý to his fatherland, America, and now because the Carts are Changed, he is of Intention to retúrn to America Certainly to make his fortune, with Ambition, to Come in Certain Degree or Emploý, I make no Doúbt or he has alreadý be low anoúgh, to Sollicitate Yr Exc– for this or other, which Can be him needfúl, my Intention is onlý to Prevent Yr Exc–s how he thoúgt before I woud Do the least Injustice to no man bút I Schould be Sorrý that a renegate Schoúld have the preferense of Aný honnest man in America.4 I beg Yoú’l Excúse that I write or Explain mý Self So badly in the Englisch Langúage, bút I flatter my Self it wil be Stil agreabler as Dutch.
I thank Yr Exc for my Schare for the Humbly Letter Yoú wrote to Mr Dubbeldemúts, in thanking us for oúr Actifity by Oúr reqúest, it was onlý Oúr Dutý for oúr Selfs welfearth and trade, I hope I Schal once be honoúred by Yoúr Exc presence, and that Yoú’l allow me to be with the Utmost Veneration respectfully Your Excellencý Most Humbly & Obedt Servt
[signed] Hendrik Brouwer Chs zoon
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed by John Thaxter: “Mr Brouwer Chs Z 15th. April 1782.”
1. The endorsement on Brouwer’s letter of 31 March, above, indicates that JA replied on 7 April, but that letter has not been found.
2. This enclosure has not been found.
3. Presumably a lugger, a small boat with two or three masts, each carrying a lugsail, hence its name.
4. This person remains unidentified.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0268

Author: Jay, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-15

From John Jay

[salute] Sir

Many weeks have elapsed since I recd. a Letter from our Country, but a Packet of News papers, which I think must have been sent from the office of the Secretary for foreign affairs, was brought to me by the last Post from Bilboa. They contain nothing very interesting. There is a Paragraph in one of them under the Boston Head which mentions the safe arrival of the Cicero Capt. Hill, and among other Passengers who came in her, I find your son is particularly named. As you might not have had any advices of this Circumstance, I take this first opportunity of communicating it, and sincerely congratulate you on the occasion.1
We hear that affairs with You are very promising and that the Dutch are on the point of acknowledging our Independence. Things here begin to look a little better, but as yet I dare not flatter myself or you.

[salute] With great Regard & Esteem, I am Sir your most obt Servt

[signed] John Jay
1. While the source of the news has not been determined, JA knew of CA’s arrival in Massachusetts by 28 April when he wrote to Francis Dana, below, and JQA (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:317). CA’s arrival at Beverly, Mass., on 21 Jan. was reported in the Boston newspapers, including the Independent Chronicle of 24 January.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0269

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Franklin, Benjamin
Date: 1782-04-16

To Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

Yesterday noon, Mr William Vaughan of London, came to my House, with Mr Laurens, the son of the President,1 and brought me a Line from the latter, and told me, that the President was at Harlem, and desired to see me. I went out to Haerlem and found, my old Friend at the golden Lyon.
He told me that he was come partly for his Health and the Pleasure of seeing me and partly, to converse with me and see if he had at present just Ideas and Views of Things, at least to see if We agreed in Sentiment, and having been desired by Several of the new Ministry to do so.2
{ 411 }
I asked him if he was at Liberty? He said no, that he was still under Palole but at Liberty to say what he pleased to me.
I told him that I could not communicate to him, being a Prisoner even his own Instructions, nor enter into any Consultation with him as one of our Colleagues in the Commission for Peace. That all I should Say to him would be as one private Citizen conversing with another. But that upon all such occasions I Should reserve a right to communicate whatever Should pass to our Colleagues and allies.
He Said that Lord shelburne and others of the new Ministers, were anxious to know whether, there was any authority to treat of a Seperate Peace, and whether there could be an accommodation, upon any Terms short of Independance. That he had ever answrd them, that nothing short of an express or tacit Acknowledgement of our Independence, in his opinion would ever be accepted, and that no Treaty ever would or could be made Seperate from France. He asked me if his answers had been right? I told him I was fully of that opinion.
He Said that the new Ministers had received Digges Report, but his Character was such that they did not choose to depend upon it. That a Person, by the Name of oswald I think set off for Paris to see you, about the same time, that he came away to see me.3
I desired him, between him and me to consider, without Saying any thing of it to the Ministry whether We could ever have a real Peace with Canada or Nova Scotia in the Hands of the English? and whether, We ought not to insist, at least upon a Stipulation that they should keep no standing army or regular Troops, nor erect any fortifications, upon the frontiers of either. That at present I saw no Motive that We had to be anxious for a Peace, and if this nation was not ripe for it, upon proper terms, We might wait patiently till they should be so.
I found the old Gentleman, perfectly sound in his system of Politiques. He has a very poor opinion both of the Integrity and abilities of the new Ministry as well as the old. He thinks they know not what they are about. That they are Spoiled by the same Insincerity, Duplicity Falshood, and Corruption, with the former. Ld shelburne still flatters the King with Ideas of Conciliation and seperate Peace &c. Yet the Nation and the best Men in it, are for an universal Peace and an express Acknowledgment of American Independence, and many of the best are for giving up Canada and Nova scotia.
{ 412 }
His Design seemed to be, solely, to know how far Diggs’s Report was true. After an hour or two of Conversation, I returned to Amsterdam and left him to return to London.4
These are all but Artifices to raise the Stocks, and if you think of any Method to put a stop to them, I will chearfully concur with you. They now know sufficiently, that our Commission is to treat of a general Peace, and with Persons vested with equal Powers. And if you agree to it, I will never to see another Messenger that is not a Plenipotentiary.
It is expected that the Seventh Province, Guelderland will this day Acknowledge American Independence. I think, We are in such a Situation now that We ought not, upon any Consideration to think of a Truce, or any Thing short of an express Acknowledgement of the Souvereignty of the United States. I should be glad however to know your sentiments upon this Point.

[salute] I have the Honour to be

1. Henry Laurens Jr.
2. For the origins of Henry Laurens’ mission, undertaken at the urging of Lord Shelburne, see Thomas Digges to JA, 2 April, note 1, above.
3. Laurens sailed from Margate to Ostend in company with Richard Oswald. Upon landing, Oswald proceeded to Paris to meet with Franklin (Laurens, Papers, 15:401–402, 478–479).
4. JA’s comments on his discussion with Henry Laurens on 15 April and his meeting with Thomas Digges on 21 March are crucial to understanding his position in the spring of 1782 regarding Anglo-American peace negotiations. Compare JA’s account of the meeting at Haarlem, with Laurens’ memorandum, [post 18 April], below. For JA’s conversation with Thomas Digges, see JA to Franklin, 26 March, and Digges to JA, 2 April, note 1, both above.
In the Boston Patriot of 20 April 1811, in the midst of publishing many of his letters written in the spring and summer of 1782, JA decided to include “a few miscellaneous anecdotes omitted in their order, because I cannot ascertain their precise dates.” There he wrote that
“after Diggs’ visit and Mr. Laurens’ visit, a third was sent over to me, in the person of Mr. S. Hartley, a respectable character, brother of Mr. D. Hartley. He brought me a letter from the latter couched in a mysterious kind of language with which that of the former concurred. The sense of both, as far as I could comprehend or conjecture, was to find out whether there was any hopes of obtaining a separate peace with America and whether we could be induced to wave our treaty with France. I was very explicit with Mr. Samuel Hartley and declared to him from first to last, that the United States would never be guilty of such a breach of faith and violation of honor; and that as far as my vote and voice could go, I would advise perpetual war, rather than stain our character with any such foul imputation. Mr. David Hartley’s letter I answered only in these words—‘Peace can never come but in company with Faith and Honor; when these three can unite, let Friendship join the amiable and venerable choir.’ Mr. D. Hartley wrote me in answer, ‘that the sentiments in my letter were eternal and unchangeable,’ and when I afterwards met him at Paris, he told me that he never meant that we should break our faith with France, but hoped that France would consent to wave her treaty with us, and that we should treat separately from her. This convinced me that Mr. Hartley knew little of the policy of France or America.”
JA’s conversation with Samuel Hartley in { 413 } fact occurred in Sept. 1780, not in the wake of the visits by Digges and Laurens as JA suggests, and the discussions were centered on David Hartley’s letter of 14 Aug. 1780, which Samuel carried and to which JA responded, using almost the same words as here, on 12 Sept. (vol. 10:74, 143–144). Hartley’s reply, from which JA also quotes, is dated 19 Feb. 1782, above. Since JA presumably quoted from the Letterbook copy of his letter to Hartley and from the recipient’s copy of Hartley’s letter to him, both of which are clearly dated, it is unclear why he chose to set his meeting with Samuel Hartley in 1782.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0270

Author: Digges, Thomas
Author: JW
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-16

From Thomas Digges

[salute] Dr Sir

Since my last there has been no material occurrence but what will be announced in the Papers save the arrival in Scotland of two vessels one from N York the 5 mar and the other from Chas Town the 24th Feby. the letters by the latter is not yet out nor is there any particular accots given out but those of the old kind that the Garrison were chearful healthy and in no fears &ca. &ca. Those letters from N York are full of complainings and uneasiness’s, such as no trade nor bills or money to remitt, constant uneasiness’s between the Civil and military Commissioners and People, the garrison much harrassd in erecting new batterys and defences, and fears of a vigorous attack in the Spring. The winter has been remarkably mild, yet there was no depradatory Expeditions or any Skermeshing between the armys. The Garrison is about 8,000 men and washingtons quarters in the jerseys abo 20 miles from N York of wch they had little information in N York as to force and no kind of intercourse.
There has been a deputation of the Principal merchts in London trading to and having Effects in N York to wait on the minister to know what was to become of their property and Effects, if an Evacuation of that place was meant, and if the ministers woud encourage their sending out more goods provisions or stores; and they got the answer wch You may expect being that their Effects would be taken as much care of as possible and that the Ministry could not advise the sending out more goods or stores.
Genl Carlton saild 4 or 5 days ago and has certainly some direct profer to make to Congress;1 similar I suppose to what is meant to be made to the Commissioners in Europe, and of which you are better informd than I can be, for communications will soon be (if not already) made thro Mr. L–ns. I am sorry to say it, but appearances do not indicate to me that the new men mean to make any { 414 } direct offer of Independence, and without it nothing can be done. A Treaty for Truce, sending Commissioners to you to treat, making profers to Holland and Ama. for seperate Peace, and at any rate getting a seperate Peace with Holland, is very much the subject of present Conversation, and the People seem mad in their expectations and quite forget the situation in which their own Country now stands. The cry still is that a seperate Peace with Holland will certainly take place; and a man who attempts to controvert the opinion from reason and observation on the political state of that Country with the other Belligerent Powers is lookd upon as a fool.
The new Rulers are popular yet, but not so much so as they were a week ago; John Bull seldom looks for a week together towards one point, and in his veerings about He is apt to go to the Extreems. There is certainly disunion among these new men as well on the score of America and what is to be offerd Her, as on the score of appointing friends to the Loaves and fishes: I know most of them and tho they formerly professd great predilection for America, its libertys, and privileges, I see so great an alteration in conversations now that I dispondingly wait to see their actions and cannot take the words or pretences of those even who speak favourably for avowd Independence to America. I wish they fully knew the situation of America and how little She cares about it.
The Prisoners are likely all to be Shippd off very Shortly. In consequence of the late Bill2 Ships are getting ready to take them away and I hope none will remain in a week or two.
The Requests and Memorials &ca. of the different Towns wch I brought are translating and will be in the Remembrancer, they would Cost too much to translate to make them servicable to a news Paper. I hope to see one from the States General soon and that the holding-out States of Groningen and Guilderland will soon acceed. I should be very glad to be instrumental in getting publishd, for the reading of this deluded People, any other memorials or Requests; but I beleive nothing will open the Eyes of some men.

[salute] I am with very great Respect Yr oblgd & ob servt

[signed] JW
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “His Excellency John Adams Esqr Lieden” and “For Mr J.A.”; endorsed: “Diggs April 16. 1782.”
1. Sir Guy Carleton was appointed on 23 Feb. to replace Sir Henry Clinton as commander in chief in America and arrived at New York on 5 May (DNB). His orders were to evacuate New York, Charleston, and Savannah and to use those troops to reinforce the West Indies. Should the Americans prevent the evacuation by military action, he was authorized to arrange a capitulation so as to avoid a defense to no purpose. He was empowered to inform the Americans of his intentions and on 25 March received a joint { 415 } peace commission with Adm. Robert Digby in order to conduct negotiations for a peace treaty if that proved necessary to achieve his objectives (Mackesy, War for America, p. 474). For reaction to his arrival, see Robert R. Livingston to JA, 22 May (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:433–434).
2. See Benjamin Franklin’s letter of 21 April, and note 1, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0271

Author: Luzac, Jean
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-16

From Jean Luzac

[salute] Honorable Sir

The corporate Body of Manufacturers and Merchants of this City having presented yesterday to the Honorable Great-Council of Leyden an Address of thanksgiving and further prayer, concerning the future Commerce of our Republic with the United-States of America, I find myself honored with their orders to present Your Excellency with some printed Copies of it.1 This epoch, Sir, is one of the most desirable I could ever wish: Zealous for the good of my Country, and rejoicing in the noble exertions of my Fellow-Citizens for its prosperity, by a mutual friendship and intercourse with our Sister-Republic, it is a peculiar satisfaction to me, that those very circumstances afford me an opportunity of testifying to Your Excellency their ardent wishes for our common Cause, the Cause of Liberty and Mankind, and their sincere regard for a Minister, who by his personal talents and character inspires them with a true esteem and affection for those he represents.

[salute] I am with deep respect, Honorable Sir, Your Excellency’s Most obedient and very humble Servant

[signed] J. Luzac
1. On 15 April Leyden merchants adopted an address to the States of the province of Holland and West Friesland in gratitude for the resolution of 18 March to recognize the United States and admit JA as minister plenipotentiary. The address of thanks prefaced a second petition, asking the provincial states to ensure that the States General expedited the conclusion of a Dutch-American commercial treaty so that the Netherlands could accrue the advantages from such an agreement in advance of a general peace. A copy of the printed petition, which bears the names of 91 merchants, is in the Adams Papers and JA included an English translation in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 35–44.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0272

Author: Neufville, Leendert de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-17

From Leendert de Neufville

[salute] Sir

I was Sorry to learn from Mr Chauquet that Some motives Seemed to hinder Your Excellency from granting a pass to the Robin Izaak Cozneau1 which makes me Suppose that Some misunder• { 416 } standing must have taken place respecting the motives of the pass. They are only that She may throw of her mask occasionally and enjoy under American Colours the protection of the Dutch Cannen which She could not as a Dane. Any thing under your Excellencys hand to that purpose will fully answer my request not pretending to interfere with any thing relative to her Cargo. But I confess that I wished to get the brig safe to America and can apply no where for the above paper but to Your Excellency who will find I hope no motives to deny a pass upon that fantesy. I am Sorry that my Yellow [ . . . ] prevent me fm making the request personally and have the honour to be with great respect Sir Your Excellencys Most Obedient Very humble Servant
[signed] L: de Neufville Son of J
PS: Your Excellency will seurly imagine that I have Some expectation of getting the above Ship under a Convoy but this I must beg to be kept as a Secret.
1. Isaac Cazneau of Boston. See JA to Laurent Bérenger, 7 June 1781, vol. 11:362–363.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0273-0001

Author: Gyselaar, Cornelis de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-17

From Cornelis de Gyselaar

[salute] Monsieur

Je dois voús Commúniqúer, qúe Monsieúr v: d: Capellen dú Mars me marqúe, qúe la Province de Geldre a prise úne Resolútion1 poúr votre admission conforme a celle de La Hollande mecredi passé.2

[salute] Je Súis avec des Sentiments inviolables Votre Tres húmble & obeïssant Serviteúr.

[signed] C: de Gyselaar

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0273-0002

Author: Gyselaar, Cornelis de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-17

Cornelis de Gyselaar to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I am obliged to inform you, at the behest of Mr. van der Capellen tot den Marsch, that the province of Gelderland adopted a resolution1 for your admission conformable to that of Holland on this past Wednesday.2

[salute] I am with the inviolable sentiments, your very humble & obedient servant,

[signed] C: de Gyselaar
RC (Adams Papers). Filmed under ([1782], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 359.)
1. No copy of the Dutch text of Gelderland’s resolution is in the Adams Papers, but JA included an English translation in his letter of 19 April to Robert R. Livingston, below, and in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 90–91.
2. 17 April.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0274

Author: Jenings, Edmund
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-18

From Edmund Jenings

[salute] Sir

I had the Honor of receiving your Excellencys Letter of the 3d Instant at Paris, where I had gone in Company with Mr De Neufville.1 I paid my respects to his Excellency at Passy, and was invited to dine with Him on Sunday last, after He Was informed that I proposed quitting Paris on that Day.
I have long paid a particular Attention to your Excellencys Movements in Holland, and it is with the greatest pleasure, that I observe they are likely to be crowned with the fullest Success your Excellencys Sagacity, Activity and Firmness must meet with the Applause of your Country but they will meet with too, and that with reason, as the world goes, the Envy of those, who want those Qualities. Your Excellency has all the merit of disposing the people of Holland in favor of the American Cause, The Work is entirely your Own. You will have the greatest Honor from it and I trust our Country will recieve the Benefit, you have in View to Obtain for Her.
I am pleased to find, that the King of Englands late Proposal to the States is considered in its true light. The folly and the Insidiousness of it are Obvious and is a proof that the present Ministry are not a Jot Wiser or better than their Predecessors. I Know many of them; I Know their Principles are base, there are but few, who have any Liberallity of Sentiment and they will not be Suffered to Act as the Times require.
I should think, Sir, that the Principles of the intended Motion, which turned out the late Ministry2 might be discanted on with great Use at this Time in Holland, or at least if any opposition is given from a Certain Quarter to your Excellencys Measures the Principle was that a people, a free people I mean, have a right to withdraw their Confidence from their Servants, and who ought therefore to retire, altho no Proofs can be produced of their Knavery.
I have had late Letters from England, I am indeed Ashamd of the best people in that infatuated Country. Your Excellency I beleive dispises them.
The Ship that arrived in 17 Days from the Chesapeak says that the English have taken a most extraordinary number of Vessels in those Quarters in a short Time, that their Cruisers mind not the two french frigates Stationed in the Bay because perhaps the french frigates mind not them. One of them is lost off Cape Henry.
{ 418 }

[salute] I am with the greatest Consideration Sir your Excellencys Most Obedient Humble Servant

[signed] Edm: Jenings
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Jennings. 18. ans 28 April 1782.”
1. Jean de Neufville also wrote to JA on this date from Amsterdam (Adams Papers), enclosing an act of Parliament that Jenings had requested him to deliver to JA. The enclosure has not been found, but see note 2.
2. Probably the motion to censure the North ministry and thereby force its resignation that Charles Howard, later earl of Surrey, rose to offer on 20 March. It was rendered moot, however, since Lord North and his ministers resigned the same day (Alan Valentine, Lord North, 2 vols., Norman, Okla., 1967, 2:315–316).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0275

Author: Laurens, Henry
Date: 1781-04-18

Henry Laurens’ Memorandum of a Conversation with John Adams

Arrived Sunday 14th. April 1782. late in the afternoon at Leyden, lodged at the Golden Lion.
15th. at 5 oClock am. sent Mr. V2 by the Trekschoat to Amsterdam with a Message to Mr. A. “That I should be at Harlem where I requested he would meet me that day at the Golden Lyon, my business was of importance and respected a Treaty for Peace that being a Prisoner upon Parole I did not think it would be proper to go to Amsterdam lest I should be discovered there by people who knew my person, who would be asking questions which I could not answer and who would thence raise conjectures and possible be detained longer than I meant to stay in Holland” &ca. I immediately set out for Harlem by Land and arrived there before 9 oClock am.
About 6 oClock pm. Mr. A arrived at Harlem.
Without delay I communicated my business and shewed him the Bill entitled3 he said he had seen it already in substance in the English Papers, and agreed in opinion with me that it was not applicable or, of no importance to the United States of America.
He desired to premise, having understood that I was a Prisoner, that he should converse with me as a fellow Citizen but not as a Commissioner or Colleague altho my Name was in the Commission together with Doctor Franklin’s Mr. Jay’s Mr. Jefferson’s and his own for treating with Great Britain—that Mr. Jefferson was not arrived in Europe and he supposed did not mean to come. And that he thought himself not at liberty to communicate to me the particular Instructions of Congress respecting the Commission while I remained a Prisoner or under any restraint. Mr. A then proceeded and { 419 } said, “conversing with you in a private Character or as one Citizen with another, the Commissioners cannot receive any propositions from the Court of Great Britain or enter upon any Treaty with that Court until the Independence of the United States of America shall have been acknowledged nor will they receive any propositions but from persons properly authorized to Treat, nor Treat without first communicating such propositions to the Court of France. And if propositions are delayed longer than next Monday, they will not be at liberty to treat without the consent of the States General of the United Provinces of the Low Countries or Netherlands—six in seven of those Provinces have already agreed to acknowledge the Independence of the United States of America, Guelderland alone and that not from aversion but unavoidable delay has not formally consented but will do so on Monday next when I shall be received at the Hague in the Character of Minister from our United States, and this will be, even should Guelderland, further delay or refuse, but there is not the least doubt of the consent of that Province as soon as the States shall meet and they are to meet to morrow.
“America is at this time in perfect harmony with her Allies the French, her Trade is really flourishing, her whole debt does not amount to one half of the annual expence of Great Britain for carrying on the War, her resources are great, already acknowledged as an Independent Nation by one powerful Kingdom and on the Eve of being acknowledged by the first Republic in Europe, what should tempt her to recede from her former Resolutions? ’Tis vain and fruitless tis wasting time to talk of any thing short of Independence.”
I observed to Mr. A that my declarations in England to such of its Ministers as I had conversed with had uniformly gone to the same Point.
I then laid before Mr. A. the Paper put into my hand by Lord S. entitled “Mr. Digg’s Account of what passed between him and Mr. A 30 March 1782.” The third and sixth articles he positively denied, “I said no such thing to Mr. Digges.” “Part of the 5th. is a misrepresentation or not fully represented, I said if the Ministers of Great Britain by whom you say you are sent mean any thing honorable let them release Mr. Laurens and communicate to him what they have to propose and he will join his Colleagues.” “In short I paid very little attention to Mr. Digges or to any thing he said.4 I have since he was in Holland received two Letters from him but have thought it proper to return no answer.”
Took leave of Mr. A about 1/2 p. 8 oClock p.m and at 5 oClock am { 420 } the 16th. took Chaise at Harlem and began my return to England. Thursday late at Night arrived at Ostend.5
MS (NN:Emmet Coll.)); endorsed: “Conversation with Mr. Adams 14th. April 1782. at Haerlem concerng Peace.”
1. For the origins of Laurens’ mission, undertaken at the urging of Lord Shelburne, see Thomas Digges to JA, 2 April, note 1, above. Laurens’ account of his conversation with JA on 15 April should be compared with JA’s report in his letter of 16 April to Benjamin Franklin, above.
2. William Vaughan.
3. For an account of the bill “to enable his Majesty to make Peace or Truce with America,” see Edmund Jenings’ letter of 7 March, and notes 1 and 2, above.
4. Matthew Ridley noted on 20 May that Digges had proposed opening a correspondence with JA. JA responded that he would not reply and that everything he received from Digges would be disclosed to Franklin and Vergennes (MHi:Matthew Ridley Journal).
5. Following his return to London, Laurens met with Lord Shelburne on 24 April and informed the minister that JA denied Digges’ assertions and insisted that Britain must recognize U.S. independence prior to any negotiations. Laurens wrote that Shelburne then declared, “if it must be so . . . I shall be sorry for it for your sakes” (Laurens, Papers, 15:402). For a longer, more detailed account of the 24 April meeting, see Laurens’ memorandum of 24 April regarding his conversation with Shelburne (same, 15:491–493).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0276

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1782-04-19

To Robert R. Livingston

[salute]

I have the Honour to transmit, the following Resolutions of the respective Provinces, relative to my Admission in Quality of Minister Plenipotentiary, together with two Resolutions of their High Mightinesses upon the Same Subject, all in the order in which they were taken.
Friesland.
Extract from the Register Book of the Lords the States of Friesland.
“The Requisition of Mr Adams, for presenting his Letters of Credence, from the United States of North America, to their High Mightinesses, having been brought in to the Assembly and put into deliberation, as also the Ulteriour Address to the Same Purpose, with a demand of a Categorical Answer made by him, as is more amply mentioned in the Minutes of their High Mightinesses of the 4. May 1781 and 9. Janry 1782,2 Whereupon it having been taken into Consideration, that the Said Mr Adams would probably have Some Propositions to make to their High Mightinesses, and to present to them the principal Articles and Foundations upon which the Congress on their Part, would enter into a Treaty of Commerce and Friendship, or other affairs to propose, in regard to which Dispatch would be requisite.
{ 421 } | view { 422 }
It has been thought fit and resolved, to authorize the Gentlemen the Deputies of this Province, at the Generality, and to instruct them to direct Things, at the Table of their High Mightinesses in such a manner, that the Said Mr Adams, be admitted forthwith as Minister of the Congress of North America with further order to the Said Deputies, that if there Should be made any Similar Propositions by the Same, to inform immediately their noble Mightinesses of them. And an Extract of the present Resolution Shall be Sent them for their Information, that they may conduct themselves conformably. Thus resolved, at the Province House the 26. February 1782.”3
Compared with the aforesaid Book to my Knowledge
[signed] Signed A J. V. Sminia
Holland and West Friesland.
Extract of the Resolutions of the Lords the States of Holland and West Friesland taken in the assembly of their noble and grand Mightinesses Thursday 28 March 1782.
Deliberated by Resumption upon the Address, and the Ulteriour Address of Mr Adams made the 4. May 1781, and the 9. January 1782 to the President of the States General, communicated to the Assembly, 9 May 1781 and the 22d of last Month, to present his Letters of Credence, in the Name of the United States of America to their High Mightinesses, by which ulteriour Address the Said Mr Adams hath demanded a categorical answer, that he may acquaint his Constituents thereof: deliberated also upon the Petitions of a great Number of Merchants, Manufacturers and others Inhabitants of this Province, interested in Commerce, to Support their request, presented to the States General, the 20th. curant, to the End that efficacious Measures might be taken to establish a Commerce between this Country and North America, Copy of which Petitions have been given to the Members, the 21: it hath been thought fit and resolved, that affairs shall be directed on the Part of their noble and grand Mightinesses at the assembly of the States General, and there Shall be there made the Strongest Instances, that Mr Adams be admitted and acknowledged as soon as possible, by their High Mightinesses, in Quality of Ambassador of the United States of America, and the Councillor Pensionary hath been charged to inform under Hand, the Said Mr Adams of this Resolution of their noble and grand Mightinesses.4
Zealand
Extract of the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses the states General of the United Provinces Monday 8. April 1782.
The Deputies of the Province of Zealand, have brought to the assembly and have caused to be read there, the Resolution of the States of the Said Province, their Principals to cause to be admitted, as soon as possible Mr Adams in Quality of Envoy of the Congress of North America, according to the following Resolution.
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the Lords the States of Zealand 4. April 1782.
It hath been thought fit and ordered, that the Gentlemen, the ordinary Deputies of this Province, at the Generality shall be convoked and authorized, as it is done by the present to assist in the direction of Affairs at the Assembly of their High Mightinesses in Such a manner, that Mr Adams may be acknowledged as soon as possible, as Envoy of the Congress of North America that his Letters of Credence be accepted, and that he be admitted in that quality, according to the ordinary Form enjoining further upon the Said Lords the ordinary Deputies, to take such Propositions as should be made to the Republick by the Said Mr Adams for the Information and Deliberation of their High Mightinesses, to the End to transmit them here as soon as possible. And an Extract of this Resolution of their noble Mightinesses shall be sent to the Gentlemen their ordinary Deputies, to serve them as an Instruction.
[signed] Signed. J. M. Chalmers
Upon which, having deliberated, it hath been thought fit and resolved to pray by the present the Gentlemen the Deputies of the Provinces of Guelderland, Utrecht, and Groningen and Ommelanden, who have not as yet explained themselves upon this subject, to be pleased to do it as soon as possible.
Overyssell.
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the Equestrian order and of the Cities, composing the States of Overyssell Zwoll 5. April 1782.
Mr the Grand Bailiff de Sallande, and the other Commissioners of their Noble Mightinesses for the Affairs of Finance having examined, conformably to their Commissorial Resolution of the third of this month, the Addresses of Mr Adams, communicated to the Assembly the 4 May 1781 and the 22 February 1782 to present his Letters of Credence to their High Mightinesses in the Name of the { 424 } United States of North America; as well as the Resolution of the Lords the States of Holland and West Friesland dated the 28 of March 1782, carried the 29 of the Same month to the assembly of their High Mightinesses, for the Admission and Acknowledgment of Mr Adams, have reported to the assembly, that they Should be of opinion, that the Gentlemen the Deputies of this Province, in the States General, ought to be authorised and charged to declare in the assembly of their High Mightinesses, that the equestrian order and the Cities judge, that it is proper to acknowledge as Soon as possible, Mr Adams, in Quality of Minister of the United States of North America, to their High Mightinesses, Upon which, having deliberated, the Equestrian order, and the Cities, have conformed themselves to the Said Report.
Compared with the aforesaid Register
[signed] Signed Derk Dumbar
Groningen
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of their noble Mightinesses, the States of Groningen and ommelanden Tuesday 9 April 1782.
The Lords the States of Groningen and ommelanden having heard the Report of the Gentlemen the Commissioners for the Petitions of the Council of State and the Finances of the Provinces, and having carefully examined the demand of Mr Adams, to present his Letters of Credence, from the United States of North America to their High Mightinesses, have, after deliberation upon the Subject, declared themselves of opinion, that in the critical Circumstances in which the Republick finds itself at present, it is proper to take without Loss of Time, Such efficacious Measures, as may not only repair the Losses and Damages that the Kingdom of Great Britain hath caused, in a manner So unjust and against every Shadow of Right, to the Commerce of the Republick, as well before as after the War, but particularly Such as may establish the free navigation, and the Commerce of the Republick for the future, upon the most Solid Foundations as may confirm and reassure it, by the Strongest Bonds of reciprocal Interest, and that, in Consequence, the Gentlemen the Deputies at the assembly of their High Mightinesses, ought to be authorized on the Part of the Province, as they are by the present, to admit Mr Adams, to present his Letters of Credence from the United States of North America, and to receive the Propositions which he shall make, to make report of them to Lords the States of this Province.
[signed] Signed E. Lewe Secretary
{ 425 }
The States General having deliberated the Same day upon this Resolution have resolved that the Deputies of the Province of guelderland, which has not yet declared itself, upon the same subject should be requested to be pleased to do it, as soon as possible.
Utrecht
Extract of the Resolutions of their noble Mightinesses the States of the Province of Utrecht. April 10 1782.
Heard the Report of Mr de Westerveld, and other Deputies of their noble Mightinesses, for the Department of War who, in Virtue of the commissorial Resolutions of the 9 May 1781 16 January and 20 March of the present Year 1782, have examined the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses of the 4 May 1781 containing an overture, that Mr the President of the assembly of their High Mightinesses, had made “that a Person Stiling himself J. Adams, had been with him, and had given him to Understand, that he had received Letters of Credence, for their High Mightinesses, from the United States of North America, with a Request that he would be pleased to communicate them to their High Mightinesses,” as well as the Resolution of their High Mightinesses of the 9 of January containing an Ulteriour overture of Mr the President “that the Said Mr Adams had been with him, and had insisted upon a categorical answer, whether his Said Letters of Credence would be accepted or not,” finally the Resolution of their High Mightinesses of the 5 of March last, with the Insertion of the Resolution of Friesland, containing a Proposition “to admit Mr Adams in quality of Minister of the Congress of North America.”
Upon which, having deliberated, and remarked, that the Lords the states of Holland and West Friesland, by their Resolution carried the 29 March to the States General, had also consented to the Admission of Mr Adams in quality of Minister of the Congress of North America, it hath been thought fit and resolved, that the Gentlemen the Deputies of this Province in the States General Should be authorized, as their noble Mightinesses authorise them by the present to conform themselves, in the name of this Province, to the Resolution of the Lords the States of Holland and West Friesland, and of Friesland, and to consent by Consequence, that Mr Adams be acknowledged and admitted as Minister of the United States of America; their noble Mightinesses being at the Same time of opinion, that it would be necessary to acquaint her Majesty the Empress of Russia and the other Neutral Powers with the Resolution to be { 426 } taken by their High Mightinesses, upon this Subject, in communicating to them (as much as shall be necessary) the Reasons which have induced their High Mightinesses to it, and in giving them the Strongest assurances, that the Intention of their High Mightinesses is by no means to prolong thereby the War, which they would have willingly prevented, and terminated long Since; but on the Contrary, that their High Mightinesses wish nothing with more ardour than a prompt Re Establishment of Peace, and they shall be always ready on their Part to co-operate in it, in all possible Ways, and with a Suitable Readiness, So far as that shall be any Way compatible, with their Honour and their Dignity. And for this End an Extract of this Shall be carried by Missive to the Gentlemen the Deputies at the Generality.
Guelderland
Extract from the Precès, of the ordinary Diet held in the City of Nimeguen in the month of April 1782. Wednesday 17, April 1782.
The Requisition of Mr Adams, to present his Letters of Credence to their High Mightinesses in the name of the United States of North America having been brought to the Assembly and read as well as an Ulteriour Address made upon this subject, with a Demand of a categorical answer, by the Said Mr Adams, more amply mentioned in the Registers of their High Mightinesses of the date of the 4 May 1781 and of the 9 January 1782; moreover the Resolutions of the Lords the States of the Six other Provinces, carried Successively to the assembly of their High Mightinesses, and all tending to admit Mr Adams in quality of Envoy of the United States of North America, to this Republick. Upon which their noble Mightinesses, after deliberation, have resolved to authorize the Deputies of this Province at the States General, as they authorize them by the present, to conform themselves in the name of this Province, to the Resolution of the Lords the States of Holland and West Friesland, and to consent by consequence that Mr Adams may be acknowledged and admitted in quality of Envoy of the United States of North America to this Republick. In Consequence an Extract of the present Shall be Sent to the Said Deputies, to make as Soon as possible the Requisite Overture of it, to the assembly of their High Mightinesses. In fidem Extracti
[signed] Signed J. In de Betoun
This Resolution of Guelderland was no Sooner remitted, on the 19 of April to their High Mightinesses, than they took immediately a { 427 } Resolution conformable to the Unanimous Wish of the Seven Provinces, conceived in the following Terms.
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Provinces. Fryday 19. April. 1782.
Deliberated by Resumption, upon the Address and the Ulteriour Address made by Mr Adams, the 4. May 1781, and the 9. January of the currant year, to Mr the President of the Assembly of their High Mightinesses to present to their High Mightinesses, his Letters of Credence, in the Name of the United States of North America; and by which ulteriour Address the Said Mr Adams hath demanded a categorical Answer, to the End to be able to acquaint his Constituents thereof: it hath been thought fit and resolved that Mr. Adams Shall be admitted and acknowledged in quality of Envoy of the United States of North America to their High Mightinesses, as he is admitted and acknowledged by the present.5
[signed] Signed W. Boreel
compared with the aforesaid Register
[signed] Signed H. Fagel
The formal Resolution of their High Mightinesses.
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Provinces. Monday 22. April 1782.
Mr Boreel, who presided in the assembly, the last Week, hath reported to their High Mightinesses and notified them, that Mr John Adams Envoy of the United States of America, had been with him last Saturday and presented to him a Letter from the assembly of Congress, written at Philadelphia the first of January 1781 containing a Credence for the Said Mr Adams,6 to the End to reside in quality of its Minister Plenipotentiary near their High Mightinesses: upon which, having deliberated, it hath been thought fit and resolved “to declare by the present, that the Said Mr Adams is agreable to their High Mightinesses; that he Shall be acknowledged in quality of Minister Plenipotentiary, and that there shall be granted to him an Audience, or assigned Commissioners, when he shall demand it.” Information of the above, Shall be given to the Said Mr Adams by the Agent, Van der Burch de Spieringshoek.7
[signed] Signed W. Van Citters
compared with the aforesaid Register
[signed] Signed H. Fagel
{ 428 }

[salute] I have the Honour to be, with great Respect Sir your most obedient & humble sert

[signed] J. Adams
RC (PCC, Misc. Papers, Reel No. 1, f. 551–562); endorsed: “A Letter from Mr Adams 19th april 1782.” LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. Although dated 19 April, the day on which the States General resolved to recognize the United States and admit JA as minister plenipotentiary, this letter was not completed and sent until at least the 22d, the day on which it was resolved to give JA a formal audience and open negotiations for a Dutch-American treaty. The Continental Congress received this letter on or about 14 Sept., and resolved that it should be published. It appeared in various newspapers throughout the United States, including the Pennsylvania Gazette of 18 Sept., the Boston Gazette of 7 Oct., the Massachusetts Spy of 17 Oct., and the New Hampshire Gazette of 9 November. JA later included all of the documents in this letter, their text presumably derived from the Letterbook, in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 79–93. For the most important of the resolutions—those adopted on 26 Feb. by Friesland, the first province to act; on 28 March by Holland and West Friesland, the most influential of the provinces; and on 19 and 22 April by the States General—see the Descriptive List of Illustrations, Nos. Resolution by the States of Friesland to Recognize the United States and Admit John Adams as Minister Plenipotentiary, 26 February 1782 2765, Resolution by the States of Holland and West Friesland to recognize the United States and admit John Adams as minister plenipotentiary, 28 March 1782 3566, and Resolution by the States General of the United Provinces of the Low Countries to Recognize the United States and Admit John Adams as Minister Plenipotentiary, 19 April 1782 4218, above.
2. In most of the resolutions, JA’s memorials are referred to as being of 4 May 1781 and 9 Jan. 1782, the dates on which he presented them to the States General. The 1781 memorial, however, was dated 19 April 1781 by JA and is printed under that date (vol. 11:272–282). The later address is printed at [ante 9 Jan.], above.
3. Closing quotation marks supplied.
4. See the letter from Pieter van Bleiswyck, the grand pensionary, transmitting the resolution, 30 March, above. For the negotiations over the means by which he would execute the commission, see C. W. F. Dumas’ letter of 30 March, above.
5. At 11:00 on the morning of 20 April, JA met with Willem Boreel, the president of the States General for the week, to present his letter of credence as minister plenipotentiary (Dumas to Livingston, 10 May, Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:408–410; London Morning Herald and Daily Advertiser, 29 April).
6. JA’s letter of credence to the States General, 1 Jan. 1781 (vol. 11:1).
7. For JA’s meeting on 23 April with Willem van Citters, president of the States General for the week, see JA’s first letter of that date to Livingston, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0277

Author: Alvarez & Havart (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1781-04-19

From Alvarez & Havart

[salute] Sir

The known Caracter of Your Excellency dispenses us with making any apology for the liberty we take to Address your Excellency with the present, but the happy turn circumstances have lately taken in this Republicq must naturally make to great an impression upon every free born Man, especially upon such a one, who from the beginning of the American troubles with England has consider’d their Cause to be his own, that he should not seek every means to express the satisfaction of his heart; and how should it be possible for him to find any way more proper to fulfill those wishes, then that of bringing them directly to Your Excellency? Give us leave then Sir to congratulate Your Excellence, whole America and whole this Republicq, with the most favourable revolution which has newly taken { 429 } place here, and has been just now Compleated by the full acknowledgment of the freedom of the United States of America by all our Provinces; an Event brought by upon such an unexpected and singular way that who ever acknowledge a divine Providence, will find her finger upon every Step! How happy shall we then not be if this beginning of confidence between both nations will be productive of the nearest intelligence and uninterrupted connections, so that they may never be separated in future, but their mutual intrest always consider’d as the same! and with how much pleasure will we not contribute all what’s in our power to form and cultivate those happy connexions! May it not be disagreeable then to Your Excellency, that we implore Her protection and Assistance in order to form such connexions! already we have had the Advantage of providing Your Country with some necessary’s by the Way of St: Eustache and through the hands of our unfortunate Friends Messrs: Curson & Gouverneur, with who we have been in a very intimate correspondance, and even when the Island has been taken by our treacherous Ennemies they had a good parcell of our goods under their care through wich means we are very well acquainted with those Merchandises which are most essentially wanted in America, and have no other desire then to find out a sure way to send them thither again the sooner the better; and if even Your Excellence would encourage or Approve of this resolution, a Brother of our last subscriber, should have no objection to go over himself to any Part of America, either to settle there entirely, or att least to make such engagements as will be necessary to drive a Solid and mutual advantageous trade upon in the future, now Your Excellency may easely conceive, from what Use any recommendations of your hand and a few intimations how to behave would be to him, if this plan Shoul’d be entirely resolved upon!
We beg to be excused for having taken so many of Your Excellency’s very precious moments in the Actuall circumstances; the only request we have yet to make, is to may be favoured with a single line in Answer, whither it will not be disagreeable to Your Excellency, that we may have the honour to wait upon her, any day which will be the most convenient to Her, for to insinuate ourselves personally in Her favour, and to Assure Her that nobody can be with more Esteem then Sir Your Excellency’s Most Obedient and devoted Servts:
[signed] Alvarez & Havart
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Alvarez & Havart Rotterdam”; notation by CFA: “April 19th 1782.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0278-0001

Author: Nolet, Jacobus
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-19

From Jacobus Nolet

[salute] Monsieúr

Le corps des Negotiants de cette Ville, Soúhaitant Joindre leúrs Acclamations a ceúx de toúte la Nation, au Sujet de L’independance des Etats unis de L’Ameriqúe Septentrionale, públiqúement reconnúe par nos Augúste Soúverains, m’a Chargé de m’informer aúpres de Votre Excellence dú Joúr, de l’heúre, et dú lieú, qú’il lúi Conviendra d’accorder aúdience a Six depútés dú dit Corps de nos Negotiants, Chargés d’Exprimer en leúr nom, les Vifs Sentiments de Joïe et de Satisfaction Sincere, qu’ils ressentent de cet heùreux Evenement, Comme aússy de L’avantage de poùvoir Voús presenter leurs Respects en qúalité de Ministre des dits Etats!
Voús Comblerez les Voeúx et les Esperances de nos Negotiants, Si Voús daignez accorder a leúrs Deputés L’honneúr de S’entretenir quelqúes Instants avec Votre Excellence, Súr les Interêts dú Commerce de Notre Ville!
Oserois Je me promettre Monsieur! qùe Voús daignerez condescendre a nos desirs!
Une Reponce favorable de Votre Part noús honorera Infinement Dans cette flatteuse attente, et en Implorant Súr Votre Personne et qúalites respectables la Protection dú Toút Puissant, J’ai l’honneúr d’Etre avec les Sentiments de la plús haúte Estime, et dú Respect le plús profond Monsieúr! Votre tres Húmb: & Tres Obeissant Serviteúr
[signed] Jacobs: Nolet

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0278-0002

Author: Nolet, Jacobus
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-19

Jacobus Nolet to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

The merchants of this city, wishing to add their acclamation to those of the rest of the country regarding the public recognition of the independence of the United States of North America by our August sovereigns, have asked me to inquire of your Excellency as to the day, time and place that would be convenient for you to receive six deputies of this said group of merchants. These merchants, who wish to express in their name, the lively sentiments of joy and sincere satisfaction that they feel at this happy event, as well as having the advantage of being able to present their respects to your in your capacity as minister of the said States
You will fulfill our merchants’ wishes and hopes if you would agree to give their deputies the honor of a short meeting with your Excellency regarding the commercial interests of our city!
{ 431 }
Would I dare promise myself, sir, that you would condescend to our desires!
A favorable reply from you will honor us immensely, and in the hope of hearing from you and by imploring the protection of the all powerful for you and your respectable position, I have the honor to be with the highest esteem and the deepest respect, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Jacobs: Nolet

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0279

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Nolet, Jacobus
Date: 1782-04-20

To Jacobus Nolet

[salute] Sir

I received, to day the Letter you did me the honor to write to me yesterday, and am exceedingly obliged to you for your cordial congratulations, on the great Event which was yesterday finally concluded by their High Mightinesses. The Favour of Providence, has been remarkably manifested in the progress of this Negociation, hitherto, that I very sincerely join with you in imploring its continuance, to the mutual prosperity, and the permanent establishment of the liberties of both Nations.
I have small pretensions to an accurate Knowledge of the Commerce of either Country; but such general notions of it as have fallen to my share, I shall ever esteem it a pleasure and an honor to communicate.
I should be sorry however, to give the trouble of coming to the Hague to so respectable a number of the Merchants of your City; but as I do not propose to return to Amsterdam before Thursday, I shall be happy to receive them, or any of them at the Mareschall de Turenne at the Hague, on any day before that time; and if the hour of twelve on Wednesday next should suit your convenience none will be more agreeable to me.1

[salute] With great Respect, I have the honour to be Sir your most obedt and most humle.

[signed] Servt. J Adams
Tr (Adams Papers); copied by LCA into Lb/JA/26 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 114).
1. C. W. F. Dumas indicates in his letter of 10 May to Robert R. Livingston that the delegation led by Nolet met with JA on Monday, 22 April. In their address, the town’s merchants noted the common love of liberty in the Netherlands and the United States arising from their birth in revolutions against despotic powers. They expressed their joy at the States General’s providential decision to recognize American independence and ac• { 432 } knowledge JA as minister plenipotentiary. The address ended with a plea for the free admittance of their city’s produce into the United States. JA enclosed the address with a letter of 5 July to Livingston (||available in Papers of John Adams, vol. 13; ||Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:408–410, 595–597). For an invitation to dine with the merchants of Schiedam, see Dumas’ letter of 30 April to JA, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0280

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-20

From Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

I hope your Excellency received the Copy of our Instructions which I sent by the Courier from Versailles some Weeks since. I wrote to you on the 13th. to go by Capt. Smedly and sent a Pacquet of Correspondence with Mr. Hartley. Smedly did not leave Paris so soon as I expected; but you should have it by this time.1 With this I send a fresh Correspondence which I have been drawn into, viz: 1. A Letter I sent to Lord Shelburne before he was Minister. 2. His Ansr. since he was Minister by Mr Oswald. 3. A Letter from Mr Lawrens. 4. My Letter to M. de Vergennes. 5 My Ansr to Lord Shelburne. 6. My Answer to Mr Lawrens, 7th Copy of Digges’s Report.2 These Papers will inform you pretty well of what pass’d between me and Mr Oswald, except that in a Conversation at parting I mention’d to him, that I observed they spoke much in England of obtaining a Reconciliation with the Colonies; that this was more than a mere Peace; that the latter might possiby be obtained without the former; that the cruel Injuries wantonly done us by burning our Towns &ca. had made deep Impressions of Resentment which would long remain; that much of the Advantage to the Commerce of England from a Peace Would depend on a Reconciliation; that the Peace without a Reconciliation would probably not be durable; that after a Quarrel between Friends, nothing tended so much to conciliate, as Offers made by the Aggressor, of Reparation for Injuries done by him in his Passion. And I hinted that if England should make us a Voluntary Offer of Canada expressly for that purpose it migh have a good Effect. Mr Oswald liked much the Idea, said they were too much straiten’d for Money to make us pecuniary Reparation, but he should endeavour to persuade their doing it in this Way.3 He is furnish’d with a Passport to go and return by Calais, and I expect him back in ten or twelve Days.4 I wish you and Mr Lawrens could be here when he arrives; for I shall much want your Advice, and cannot act without your Concurrence. If the present Crisis of your Affairs prevents your coming, I hope at least Mr Lawrens will be here,5 and { 433 } we must communicate with you by Expresses, for your Letters to me per Post are generally open’d. I shall write pr. next Post requesting Mr Jay to be here also as soon as possible.6
I received your Letter advising of your Draft on me for a Quarter’s Salary, which will be duly honour’d.7

[salute] With great Esteem, I have the honour to be, Sir, Your Excellency’s most obedient & most humble Sert.

[signed] B Franklin
If Mr Laurens has left Holland, please to seal his Letter with a Wafer and let it follow him.8
I shall be glad to have again all the Papers of this and the former Packet; but you can keep Copies of any you may think worth the Trouble.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Dr Franklin. 20. April 1782 ansd May 2. recd May 1.”
1. JA acknowledged receiving the instructions and the packet containing Franklin’s correspondence with David Hartley in his reply of 2 May (LbC, Adams Papers; Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:545–546).
2. Nos. 1–6—Franklin to Lord Shelburne, 22 March; Shelburne’s reply of 6 April; Henry Laurens to Franklin, 7 April; Franklin to the Comte de Vergennes, 15 April; Franklin to Shelburne, 18 April; and Franklin to Laurens, 20 April—are entered in Franklin’s journal in which he chronicled his participation in preliminary discussions of peace initiated by the new British ministry (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:535–543). The final item on Franklin’s list presumably is Thomas Digges’ memorandum to Lord Shelburne, for which see Digges to JA, 2 April, note 1, above.
3. Franklin’s account of this conversation with Richard Oswald agrees substantially with the account in his journal (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:540–542).
4. Richard Oswald returned on 4 May (same, 5:547).
5. In his letter to Shelburne of 18 April, Franklin specifically requested that the charges against Laurens be dropped so that he could participate in peace negotiations (same, 5:539). Shelburne notified Laurens on 26 April that he was free (Laurens, Papers, 15:494).
6. Franklin wrote to Jay on 22 April (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:320–321).
7. Not found.
8. JA gave Franklin’s letter to Laurens of 20 April to Henry Laurens Jr. to deliver to his father (to Franklin, 2 May, same, 5:545–546).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0281

Author: Hodshon, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-20

From John Hodshon

[salute] His Excellency

It is with an Infinite Satisfaction I presúme To Take The Liberty to adres yoúr Excellency These Few Lines as a duty Imposed on me, to congratulate yoúr Excellency on The most Happy resolution Taken by their H: M: to acknowledge the Independence of the united States of North America in So open and Respectable manner and to Receive yoúr Excellency as Minister Plenepotentiary from congres. Sincerely wish it may Tend to the Intrest and Prosperity of { 434 } both nations and be The means of a Trúe and permanent Friendship being Establishd, and Welfare of both countrys, and your Excellencys name who laid The Foundation To this great and Important matter may be ever preserved in The annales to The Latest posterity.
Permit me Sir to assure yoú Shal ever Think my self happy to be usefull to contribute any Thing For The advantage of the common wealth and recomend my Self in yoúr Excellencys respectable benevolence and believe me to be unalterable and most devotedly His Excellency Yoúr Excellencys most obedient & much obliged Servant
[signed] John Hodshon2
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr John Hodshon ansd 22d April 1782.” Filed with this letter are three documents in the same hand. A comparison of the paper on which they were written and their fold lines with Hodshon’s letter of 20 April indicates, however, that they were not enclosures. One appears to be an extract from a letter Hodshon received from an American correspondent commenting on the U.S. economy and the progress of the war. The other two resemble the first and second parts of the draft loan contract with Hodshon & Zoon, 25 April, below, and are likely early drafts of that contract. There is no indication as to when or how JA received the three documents.
1. JA also received a letter of this date from John Hodshon Jr. who, like his father, congratulated JA on the recognition of U.S. independence and his admission as minister plenipotentiary (Adams Papers).
2. Dutch recognition of the United States dramatically improved prospects for an American loan and JA quickly entered into negotiations with the Amsterdam mercantile firm of John Hodshon & Zoon to raise the loan (see Hodshon’s proposal for a loan, 25 April, below). Hodshon, whom JA first met in 1780, was deeply involved in trade with America and was known to AA’s cousin Isaac Smith (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:444; Adams Family Correspondence, 3:285, 349; 4:84–85). JA’s choice was greeted with a storm of protest by merchants of the Patriot party, the people most supportive of JA’s efforts in the Netherlands, who accused Hodshon of being pro-British and wanting to undermine the loan. See for example, John Thaxter to JA, 22 April, below. While Hodshon was an Orangist, he had always been apolitical in his commercial dealings (Pieter J. van Winter, American Finance and Dutch Investment, 1780–1805, With an Epilogue to 1840, transl. James C. Riley, 2 vols., N.Y., 1977, p. 82–83).
The Adams Papers contain a substantial documentary record of JA’s successful effort to raise a Dutch loan in 1782. But it is necessarily incomplete because JA’s negotiations with John Hodshon, and then with the consortium of bankers that replaced him, occurred during face-to-face meetings of which no record was kept. Missing is any contemporary account by JA of the reasons that made Hodshon & Zoon his first choice or how he resolved the resulting controversy. Almost thirty years passed before he offered an explanation and then it was in a letter dated 24 Sept. 1810 that appeared in the Boston Patriot of 20 and 24 April 1811.
According to these reminiscences, JA was prompted to approach Hodshon when
“an American captain of a ship by the name of Grinnel happened to dine with me, and conversing on our want of a loan, he asked me if I had consulted Mr John Hodshon? The answer was in the negative. I had not supposed that Mr Hodshon, so easy as he was, and such a millionary, would be willing to accept it, or even to advise me in it. Grinnel replied that Mr. Hodshon had been so long and so extensively engaged in American commerce, had so many correspondents in America and so general an acquaintance with Americans in Europe, that he thought it very probable he would assist me, at least with his advice. He added, that if I would give him leave he would converse with Mr. { 435 } Hodshon upon the subject. He did so, and brought so favorable an answer that I agreed to meet Mr. Hodshon. In several interviews, he entered very freely and candidly into conversation; said that as our Independence was now acknowledged, a loan was an object of importance and might be of utility to both countries. He doubted not that the most substantial houses in the republic might be induced to favor it, even the house of Hope. If Mr Hope would undertake it or countenance it, success would be certain. No opposition would be made to it from any quarter. I thought Mr Hodshon knew less than I did concerning Mr Hope’s sentiments of American affairs. However, I have reason to think he did sound Mr Hope and received from him only such observations as I had heard reported from him several times before, viz: That America was too young to expect to borrow money at any ordinary interest, or at any interest less than the Batavian republic had been obliged in her infancy to give: i.e. ten or twelve per cent. However this might be, Mr Hodshon said no more about Mr Hope’s assistance or countenance. He undertook the loan himself, and after adjusting all the terms, we mutually executed a contract in form, and the plan was made public” (Boston Patriot, 24 April 1811).
For more of JA’s reminiscences about negotiating the loan, see tofrom Franklin, 21 April, note 2; and to Hodshon, 26 April, note 1, both below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0282-0001

Author: Lousyssen, Johannes, & Zoon (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-20

From Johannes Lousyssen & Zoon

[salute] Hoog Edele Gebore Heer

Wy hebben het genoegen van met Gantsch Nederland in de Blydschap te deelen, welke de aanneming van U Exellentie S Perzoon als Minister Plenipotentiaris der dertien Vereenigde Staten van Noord America by deze Republicq veroorzaakt—En willen—Hartelyk hoopen dat tot het volle beslag van dit heugelyk evenement wel vas by de Hooge Bondgenooten zal GeConcludeert worden.
In Avance nemen wy de Vryheid wegens de dusverre door alle de Provintien aan uwe Exellentie toegekende Eminente Charge (hier boven genoemt) Uwe Exellentie te congratuleeren.
Eene Geduurige Satisfactie verzelle Steeds Uwe Exellentie s Gewigtige bediening! en worde tot een werktuyg gestelt om de Banden Van waare Vriendschap in alle betrekking tusschen de beyde Republicquen Vast en bestendig toe tehalen wanneer dit de uitslag van Uwe Exellentie eerste zending moge zyn; dan voorzeker! kan er geen aangenamer loon op eene voorafgaanden Arbeid Gevonden worden.
By deze Gelegenheid, nemen wy met den gepasten eerbied voor ons zelven de vryheid onze Perzoonen in U Exellentie Hooge gunst aan tebieden; en als commercieerende Inwoonders dezer Republicq; Imploreeren wy ten Allen tyde by voorkomende. Omstandigheden Uwe Exellentie Veel vermogende Apui; by de Hooge vergadering der dertien Vereenigde Staten van noord America.
Niets zal intusschen Ons aangenamer Zyn dan wanneer wy ge• { 436 } legenheid mogen hebben Uwe Exellentie in deze quartieren van eenigen dienst te mogen wesen.

[salute] Hier mede hebben wy deer Ons met Hoog Achting en alle Veneratie te noemen Hoog Edele Gebore Heer! UE Hoog Edele Gebore DW ond Dienaere

[signed] Johannes Lousyssen & zoon

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0282-0002

Author: Lousyssen, Johannes, & Zoon (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-20

Johannes Lousyssen & Zoon to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] High Nobly-born Sir

We have the pleasure, with the entire Netherlands to share in the joy which has been caused by the acceptance by this republic of your excellency’s person as minister plenipotentiary of the thirteen United States of North America and would like to hope cordially that the honorable allies will conclude to the full consequence of this encouraging event.
In advance we take the liberty to congratulate your excellency on the eminent commission, mentioned above, granted to you thus far by all the provinces.
May an ongoing satisfaction accompany your excellency’s important service! and be made a vehicle to cement firmly and enduringly the bonds of true friendship in all the relations between both the republics if this be the result of your excellency’s first mission then—for certain! no more pleasant payment for the preliminary work can be found.
At this opportunity we take the liberty for ourselves, with appropriate respect, to offer our persons to your excellency’s high favor, and as inhabitants of this republic engaged in commerce; we request at all times your excellency’s powerful assistance whenever opportunities arise in the high meetings [of Congress] of the thirteen United States of North America.
In the meantime, nothing would please us more than if we might have the opportunity to be of any service to your excellency in these quarters.

[salute] Herewith we have the honor to call ourselves, with respect and all veneration, highly nobly-born sir! your excellency’s nobly-born, obedient, humble servant,

[signed] Johannes Lousyssen & zoon
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Lousyen & zooon Middlebourg”; docketed by CFA: “April 20. 1782.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0283-0001

Author: Felix, Jacques, & Fils (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-21

From Jacques Felix & Fils

[salute] Monsieur

Quioque Je n’aïe Eu qu’une Seule fois L’honneur de Rencontrer votre Exelence chés Monsieur Luzac (Redacteur de La Gazette françoise de cette ville), que j’ay celui davoir pour ami depuis 38 ans.
Je prie votre Exelence d’avoir pour agreable que je prene La Lib• { 437 } erté de Vous adresser La presente pour Temoigner a Votre Ex: La Satisfaction particuliere que Jai Ressentie come Habitant Né a Amsterdam et Libre des 7. Provinces unies de voir que LObjet et Le Desir de votre Mission dans ce païs, a Eté a La fin Rempli, Selon Les Desirs de votre Exelence, que jay Lhonneur d’en feliciter avec tous Les Bons Citoïens de ce Païs.
Et Comme demain suivant que je Lapris hier ches Messr. Luzac Votre Exelence doit Etre Reconnu par Leurs Haute Puissance Messeigneur Les Etats Genereaux Comme envoïe ou Ministre Plenipotentiere des Etats Unis de L’Amerique et quil y a S.C.1 une Analogie Particuliere entre Eux et notre Republique a plusieurs Egards. Jay fabriqué expres par pure Satisfaction pour moi même dans ma Fabrique (que jexerce sous Le nom de la Maison Sousignée), quelque peu de paires de Gants Fabriques de Laine de L’Amerique et de celle de Ces Provinces, Lesquelles travaillées Separement Jusqu’a certain Point de parfaite Perfection, n’ont Ete nulement mellées ensemble, jusqualors mais ont Etés unies après Intimement. Ensemble, par la suite de La Fabrique, Lune avec Lautre, de Façon quil ni a plus moïen de Les Separer, et que Chacune moins Fortes travaillées apart ou separement Se Sont Renforcées mutuelement dans Leur fabrication par une union Intime, Je prens La liberte d’Envoïer a Votre Exelence La paire ci Jointe de 4. que j’en ai fabriqués où jay fait travailles dans La fabrique ou dedans de La main Gauche Le nom de V. Exc. come cette Union aïant assés faite Sous Son Auspice.2
Heureux Serions nous si V. Ex vouloit bien Les accepter et Si dans La Ceremonie de demain ils pouvoient vous Servir alors nous pourions ajouter a La devise de notre cachet Felix per Deum et Adams Felix.
Puisse L’Ambassade de votre Exelence Tourner a votre Satisfaction Particuliere alors elle Le sera pour Les Etats unis de LAmerique et pour Ceux de Ces Provinces alors Les Bons Patriotes se crieront Felix per Deum Felix Hollandia et America.
Nous Esperons que votre Exelence Voudra bien Excuser La Liberté que nous avons Prise et quelle Voudra bien avoir Seul ou plus dEgard a Lintention qu’a La Chose même que nous osions La Prier daccepter.

[salute] Permetés qu’en nous Recomandant a La Bienveillance de votre Exelence nous avons Lhonneur dEtre avec un Profond Respect Monsieur de Votre Exellence des Tres Humble & tres Obbeissants Serviteurs

[signed] Jacques Felix et fils

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0283-0002

Author: Felix, Jacques, & Fils (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-21

Jacques Felix & Fils to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I write to you as a friend of Mr. Luzac (editor of the French gazette in this town), who I have known for the past thirty-eight years.
I hope that your Excellency is pleased with the liberty I have taken in addressing you to express my particular satisfaction, as a native and free citizen of Amsterdam and the seven united provinces, to see that the objective and intent of your mission in this country has finally been fulfilled according to your desires. I have the honor to congratulate you along with the good citizens of this country.
I also learned yesterday at Mr. Luzac’s, that tomorrow you will be recognized by their high mightinesses the States General as envoy or minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America, and that there S.C.1 is a specific analogy between them and our republic in many respects. Purely for my own satisfaction, I made several pairs of gloves at my factory (which I operate under the name signed below), some with American wool and some with wool from these provinces. They were manufactured separately up until a certain point of perfection, never mixing the wools, and then they were joined together. Together, one with the other, a fabric that can never more be separated, each one weaker when made separately, but reinforced by manufacturing them together in this close union. I am taking the liberty of sending your Excellency the enclosed pairs that I have made from this fabric with the name of your Excellency on the left hand, since this union was made under your auspices.2
How happy we would be if your Excellency would accept them and if they could be of use to you during the ceremony tomorrow, then we could add the motto to our seal Joy unto God and Adams.
Let us hope that your Excellency’s mission is satisfactory, for then it will be for the United States of America and for the good patriots of these provinces to cry out Joy unto God and to Holland and America.
We hope that your Excellency will excuse the liberty we have taken and that you would give any consideration to what we dare propose to you to accept.

[salute] Permit that by placing ourselves in your favor we have the honor to be with deep respect, sir, your excellency’s very humble and very obedient servants

[signed] Jacques Felix et fils
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Jacques Felix & Son ansd 30. April. 1782.”
1. The editors have been unable to determine the meaning of this abbreviation.
2. In his reply of 30 April (LbC, Adams Papers), JA thanked Felix for the gloves and expressed his hope “that the new Alliance represented by the Present may be indissoluble and perpetual.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0284

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-21

From Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

I have just received the Honour of yours dated the 16th. Instant, acquainting me with the Interview between your Excellency and Mr Lawrens. I am glad to learn that his political Sentiments coincide with ours; and that there is a Disposition in England to give us up Canada and Nova Scotia.
I like your Idea of seeing no more Messengers that are not Plenipotentiaries; But I cannot refuse seeing again Mr. Oswald, as the Minister here consider’d the Letter to me from Lord Shelburne as a kind of Authentication given that Messenger, and expects his Return with some explicit Propositions. I shall keep you advised of whatever passes.
The late Act of Parliament for Exchanging American Prisoners as Prisoners of War according to the Law of Nations, any thing in their Commitments notwithstanding,1 seems to me a Renunciation of the British Pretensions to try our People as Subjects guilty of High Treason, and to be a kind of tacit Acknowledgement of our Independency. Having taken this Step, it will be less difficult for them to acknowledge it expressly. They are now preparing Transports to send the Prisoners home. I yesterday sent the Pass-ports desir’d of me.
Sir George Grand shows me a Letter from Mr Fizeaux, in which he says, that if Advantage is taken of the present Enthusiasm in favour of America, a Loan might be obtained in Holland of Five or Six Millions of Florins for America, and if their House is impower’d to open it he has no doubt of Success; but that no time is to be lost. I earnestly recommend this Matter to you, as extreamly necessary to the Operations of our Financier Mr Morris, who not knowing that the greatest Part of the last Five Millions had been consumed by Purchases of Goods &ca in Europe, writes me Advice of large Drafts, that he shall be obliged to make upon me this Summer. This Court has granted us six Millions of Livres for the current Year; but it will fall vastly short of our Occasions, there being large Orders to fulfill, and near two Millions and an half to pay M. Beaumarchais, besides the Interest Bills &ca. The House of Fizeaux & Grand is now appointed Banker for France by a special Commission from the King, and will on that as well as on other Accounts be in my Opinion the fitter for this Operation.2 Your Excellency being on the Spot can better judge of the Terms, &ca. and manage with that House { 440 } the whole Business, in which I should be glad to have no other Concern, than that of receiving Assistance from it when press’d by the dreaded Drafts.

[salute] With great Respect, I am, Sir, Your Excellency’s most obedient and most humble Sert.

[signed] B Franklin
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Dr Franklin April 21 1782.”
1. Franklin cites 22 Geo. III, ch. 10, entitled “An Act for the Better Detaining, and More Easy Exchange, of American Prisoners brought into Great Britain” (Marion and Jack Kaminkow, Mariners of the American Revolution, Baltimore, 1967, p. 243–244). Proposed by Edmund Burke on 26 Feb., the bill was passed by the House of Commons on 19 March and approved by the House of Lords and George III on 25 March (Journals of the House of Commons, London, 38:859, 866, 900, 904, 907). This act made exchanges much easier by acknowledging American prisoners to be prisoners of war rather than rebels. Its effect was immediate and by July over 1,000 Americans had sailed for home from Portsmouth and Plymouth (Catherine M. Prelinger, “Benjamin Franklin and the American Prisoners of War in England During the American Revolution,” WMQ, 3d ser., 32:261–294 [April 1975]).
2. Almost thirty years later, in his reminiscences to the Boston Patriot, JA explained the difficulties he had in deciding what firms to approach for a loan. When compared with the extant documents from 1782, JA’s account does not always proceed in a strictly chronological fashion, but it does offer detailed reasons for how he selected a firm.
“The loan! When the prospect of my public reception and a treaty of friendship began to dawn and brighten, the loan of money began to be seriously meditated. I had tryed the house of De Neufville and found it wanting. I had learned enough of its real circumstances and distresses to know that if I opened a new loan with them alone, I should ruin the credit of the U. States. Though the house had money, many friends, and many instruments, among Americans as well as others, to raise a clamor, I was determined at all risques, not to commit myself entirely to them. I received offers and solicitations which I need not name. But the house of Nicholas and Jacob Van Staphorst, and the house of De la Lande and Fynje, were the most importunate, next to the De Neufvilles. Both as far as I had been then informed, were respectable, but neither was considered as a great house, neither was an ancient house, and antiquity among mercantile houses and houses of capitalists, is in Amsterdam a distinction as much regarded as it is among princes and nobles in France or England. In the midst of all these solicitations, I received a letter from Dr. Franklin, at Passy, and another from the Duke de la Vauguion, at the Hague, most earnestly recommending to me the house of Fizeau and Grand. Sir George Grand as we called him, because he was a knight of St. Louis, was a brother of Mr Ferdinand Grand of Paris, our American banker, both of them gentlemen from Switzerland. Sir George had lived in Sweden, and kept a public house in Stockholm, at which the compte De Vergenes had met the leaders of the Revolution in 1770, and had acquired the friendship of that minister to such a degree as to obtain the cross of St. Louis, and favor as a banker. I knew very well that Dr Franklin’s letter and the duke de la Vauguion’s, originated in the same source, the compte de Vergennes’ recommendation. What should I do? Disoblige Dr Franklin? Disoblige the duke de la Vauguion? Disoblige the comte de Vergennes? Disoblige the two Grands? Disoblige the De Neufvilles, the Van Staphorsts and de la Lande & Fynje, as well as several other houses? After long deliberation, I wrote a letter to four houses, Fizeau & Grand, De Neufville, Van Staphorsts, and de la Lande & Fynje, offering to associate all of them in a joint company. Every one of them refused to unite with Mr. De Neufville” (Boston Patriot, 20 April 1811).
This is probably a reference to JA’s letter to Fizeaux, Grand & Co., Jean de Neufville & Fils, Nicolaas & Jacob van Staphorst, De la Lande & Fynje, John Hodshon & Zoon, and Daniel Crommelin & Son, 30 April, below. Before he sent this letter JA had already pursued detailed negotiations with John Hodshon; see Hodshon’s proposal for a loan, 25 April, below.
{ 441 }
In a second installment in the Boston Patriot, JA continued his comments on Fizeaux, Grand & Co.:
“To open a loan in the French house of Fizeau & Grand, though it was very respectable, and had always behaved towards me and all Americans with unexceptionable civility; I knew would furnish Versailles and Passy with information of every guilder I might from time to time obtain; and I had seen enough of the intrigues and waste from that quarter, to be determined at all risques not to open a loan in that house singly. Moreover all my most faithful and intelligent Dutch friends had uniformly warned me against opening my loan in a French house. They said it would lessen my reputation and materially injure the credit of the United States. If I wished a solid and lasting credit for my country, in Holland, I must select a house or houses, purely Dutch” (Boston Patriot, 24 April 1811).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0285

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1782-04-22

To Robert R. Livingston

No. 7

[salute] Sir

On the twenty second day of April I was introduced by the Chamberlain to his most Serene Highness the Prince of Orange.
Knowing that his Highness spoke English, I asked his Permission to speak to him in that Language, to which he answered smiling, “if You please Sir.” Altho’ French is the Language of the Court, he seemed to be pleased and to recieve as a Compliment my Request to speak to him in English.
I told him, “I2 was happy to have the Honor of presenting the Respects of the United States of America and a Letter of Credence from them to his most Serene Highness, and to assure him of the profound Veneration in which the House of Orange had been held in America even from its first settlement; and that I should be happier still, to be the Instrument of further cementing the new Connections between two Nations professing the same Religion, animated by the same Spirit of Liberty, and having reciprocal Interests both political and commercial so extensive and important; and that in the faithful and diligent Discharge of the Duties of my Mission, I flattered myself with Hopes of the Approbation of his most Serene Highness.”
His Highness recieved the Letter of Credence which he opened and read.3 The Answer that he made to me was in a Voice so low and so indistinctly pronounced, that I comprehended only the Conclusion of it, which was that “he had made no Difficulty against my Reception.” He then fell into familiar Conversation with me and asked me many Questions about indifferent things, as is the Custom of Princes and Princesses upon such Occasions. “How long I had been in Europe? How long I had been in this Country? { 442 } | view { 443 } Whether I had purchased an House at the Hague? Whether I hadnot lived sometime at Leyden? How long I had lived at Amsterdam? How I liked this Country &ca.?”
This Conference passed in the Prince’s Chamber of Audience with his Highness alone. I had waited sometime in the Anti-Chamber as the Duke de la Vauguyon was in Conference with the Prince. The Duke, on his Return through the Anti Chamber, meeting me unexpectedly, presented me his Hand with an Air of Cordiality, which was remarked by every Courtier and had a very good Effect.
The Prince has since said to the Duke de la Vauguyon that he was obliged to me for not having pressed him upon the Affair of my Reception in the Beginning. He had Reason; for if I had, and he had said or done any thing offensive to the United States or disagreable to me, it would now be remembered much to the Disadvantage of the Court.

[salute] I have the Honor to be,4 with great Esteem and Respect, sir your most obedient and most humble servant

[signed] J. Adams
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 71–72). LbC (Adams Papers).
1. In the Letterbook copy, JA left a blank space for the date in both the dateline and the first sentence that John Thaxter filled in later. Dumas’ 10 May letter to Livingston indicates that on the 22d he requested an audience for JA with William V and that it was granted immediately (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:408). It seems likely, therefore, that JA started this letter prior to knowing that the audience would take place on the 22d. He may have felt the need to compose an address to William V in advance of his audience.
2. Quotation marks supplied here and at the close of the following paragraph.
3. See JA’s letter of credence, 1 Jan. 1781 (vol. 11:2).
4. The remainder of the closing and the signature are in JA’s hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0286

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Rush, Benjamin
Date: 1782-04-22

To Benjamin Rush

[salute] My dear Sir

Mr Peter Paulus,1 is seized with an enthusiasm to go to Philadelphia, with his Journeymen.
I Should be much obliged to you, for any Advice or Civility you may Show him.
The Batavian Spirit is at last arroused, and has uttered its Voice, with Majesty, for the Souvereignty of the United States of America. The 19 of April, was the memorable day, when their High Mightinesses took, the Resolution. You will see in the Gazettes, the Petitions and Maneuvres, which ushered in this Event with Such So• { 444 } | view { 445 } lemnity, as to make it the most Signal Epocha, in the History of a Century. We shall have in this Nation, if I am not infinitely mistaken a faithfull and affectionate and most usefull Ally.
In order to be Steady and persevering in my known Character for Vanity which however I have acquired Since I came to Europe, by the Help of Friends I must tell you that Don Liano, the Spanish Minister has this Moment gone out of my appartment, after having Said to me, “You have made Sir, the grandest Step that has ever yet been taken. It is you, who have filled this Nation with Enthusiasm for your Cause and turned their Heads. It is a most important, and a most decisive Measure, and it is due, to you.”
Voila! a flour of diplomatick Rhetorick, enough to turn my Head, whether I have turned those of the Dutchmen or not.

[salute] Yours Affectionately

[signed] J. Adams
RC (CtY:Van Sinderen Coll.); endorsed: “Hague april 22 1782.”
1. Paulus also carried a letter of introduction of this date from JA to Robert Morris (not found). In his reply of 25 Sept. (Adams Papers), Morris complained that Paulus requested money “to set up his Trade.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0287

Author: Barclay, Thomas
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Thomas Barclay

[salute] Dear Sir

I most heartily and sincerely Congratulate your Excellency on the Events of Friday and saturday last, and I rejoice the more because you are destined to reap the fruits of what you have sown with so much industry and attention.
I am persuaded you are now rewarded for the Exercise of patience which you have Exhibited on this occasion, and I hope an agreeable prospect is now opened for the adjusting those very important points that are before you.
I had a letter a few days ago from Germany, requesting that I wou’d hint to you the necessity of some stipulation being made with the States General, for using the River Rhine in the Transportation of the German Manufactures for the Consumption of America, and that the Transit duties shou’d be settled on as favourable terms as possible. I am not sufficiently a Judge of the matter to say more of it, but I am sure you will excuse any thing that occurs on this subject. Mr. Bromefield told me you shew’d him a letter relative to the American Trade from the Directors of the East India Company under the Emperor.1 If there is nothing improper in the request, I shall { 446 } be much obliged to you for a sight of it—and for permission to write to the Gentlemen. It might turn out an advantage to my House at Philadelphia, and if any good plan of business can be struck out, I will do every thing in my power to incourage it. I beg leave to assure your Excellency of my being most sincerely, Dear Sir your [Affect.] & obed Servant
[signed] Thos Barclay
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Barclay”; docketed in an unknown hand: “April 22nd 1782.”
1. From M. Baraux, 21 March, above. See also JA’s reply of 7 April, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0288-0001

Author: Bicker, Hendrik
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Hendrik Bicker

[salute] Monsieur & tres honore Ami

Vous aves vú chez Moi il y a quelques sepmaines Le Courtier Saportas,1 a la vive sollicitation je n’ai pú lui refuser un mot de Lettre en sa faveur pour vous repetter que je Le reconnois poúr un parfait honnet Homme et qui pourra contribuer en bien, si tot ou tard vous charger quelque Maison ici de faire pour vos Souverains une devis d’argent et que vous voudres faire a cette Maison mention de Lui.

[salute] J’ai l’honneúr d’etre avec la plus haute estime Monsieur Votre tres humb & tres obeiss:

[signed] Serviteur H: Bicker

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0288-0002

Author: Bicker, Hendrik
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

Hendrik Bicker to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir and very honored friend

A few weeks ago you met Mr. Saportas,1 the broker, at my house. I could not refuse writing to you on his behalf and telling you again that I have come to know him as an honest man who could contribute in helping you secure a loan for your country, and who would like you to keep him in mind when you decide on a brokerage house here.

[salute] I have the honor to be with the highest esteem, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] H: Bicker
1. Samuel Saportas, an Amsterdam broker. At some point JA and Saportas apparently discussed his firm’s participation in the loan, but on 5 May Saportas wrote to JA that “a Conference with Sundry Gentlemen” about the loan had “not been attended with the desired success” (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0289

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

Messrs. Fizeaux and Grand have lately sent me two Accounts of which they desire my Approbation. As they relate to Payments made by those Gentlemen of your acceptances of Bills of Exchange, your approbation must be of more Importance than mine, you having more certain Knowledge of the affair. I therefore send them enclos’d to you, and request you would be pleas’d to compare them with your List of Acceptations, and return them to me with your Opinion, as they will be my Justification for advancing the money.1
I am very happy to hear of the rapid Progress of your Affairs. They fear in England that the States will make with us an alliance offensive and deffensive, and the public Funds which they had puff’d up 4 or 5 per Cent, by the Hope of a separate Peace with Holland, are falling again. They fill their Papers continually with Lies to raise and fall the Stocks. It is not amiss that they should thus be left to ruin one another, for they have been very mischievous to the Rest of Mankind. I send enclosed a Paper, of the Veracity of which I have some doubt, as to the Form, but none as to the Substance, for I believe the Number of People actually scalp’d in this murdering War by the Indians to exceed what is mention’d in the Invoice, and that Muley Istmael (a happy Name for a Prince as obstinate as a Mule) is full as black a Tyrant as he is represented in Paul Jones’s pretended Letter: These being substantial Truths, the Form is to be considered as Paper and Packthread.2 If it were re-publish’d in England it might make them a little asham’d of themselves. I am, very respectfully Your Excellency’s most obedient and most humble Servant
[signed] B Franklin
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Dr Franklin Ap. 22 ansd July 23. 1782.”
1. The enclosed accounts were returned to Franklin with JA’s reply of 23 July. JA expressed regret that he had not answered Franklin sooner, but attributed the delay to the prolonged illness of John Thaxter, “who keeps the Account of those Affairs,” but see also JA to Franklin, 24 May (both LbC’s, Adams Papers).
2. The enclosure, which is not in the Adams Papers, was a fictitious piece printed by Franklin at Passy purported to be taken from the Boston Independent Chronicle of 12 March (Franklin, Papers, 37:184–196). It consisted of two letters, dated 7 March 1782 and 7 March 1781, respectively. The first, from a Capt. Gerrish of the New England militia, described the contents of eight packages of scalps, totaling 954, taken from American men, women, and children on the western frontier. The Seneca Indians intended the scalps for the governor of Canada, but they had been captured in transit by an American expedition. It was ultimately decided that the scalps should be sent in small packets to George III, Queen Charlotte, and members of the government. The { 448 } second letter was from John Paul Jones to Sir Joseph Yorke, the British ambassador to the Netherlands, protesting the British diplomat’s memorial to the States General in which Jones was designated a pirate. Jones argued that he in no way met the definition of a pirate because he was acting in the cause of liberty in defense of his fellow citizens against British tyranny. No comment by JA regarding Franklin’s fabrication has been found.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0290

Author: Luzac, Jean
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Jean Luzac

[salute] Honorable Sir

Altho’ the early part, I have taken in the struggles of America for the rights of Liberty and Mankind, would be a silent witness of my particular happiness at the present moment, when Your Excellency’s steady and prudent conduct in our Republic is crowned with the most glorious success, I should deem myself wanting in my duty, if I did not congratulate Your Excellency most sincerely in the public character, wherein You have now been publicly acknowledged by our Government; an event, Sir, that will be, (if my most ardent wishes are fulfilled) the forerunner of many happy consequences to both Countries. May Your Excellency long enjoy that heart-felt satisfaction, which is the best reward of a life spent to public good. I am with the sincerest regard and deep respect, Honorable Sir, Your Excellency’s Most obedient and very humble Servant
[signed] J. Luzac

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0291

Author: Neufville, Jean de, & Fils (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Jean de Neufville & Fils

[salute] Sir

Although indisposition and absence may have frustrated our wishes of being first in paying Your Excellency an homage in which our Country partakes so much of, by the success of your negotiations we trust to your Excellencys indulgence for being Satisfied with this apology, and tho’ late, that you will accept of this tribute which yeilds to none in sincerity. Our wishes are in nothing more earnest than that your Excy: may long Contribute to preserve that harmony which we hope will result without interuption from that union you have had so much share informing between both Republicks, and as a reward to your Labours may you from this time see daily accrue that advantage to each, which so natural a connection gives the best reason to expect.
{ 449 }

[salute] These are our Sentiments, to which we can only add those of respect, and perfect regard, with which we have the honor to be Your Excelly. Most Obdt & humbl Servts

[signed] John de Neufville & Son

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0292

Author: Thaxter, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From John Thaxter

[salute] Sir

I was duly honor’d with your favor of the 20th,1 and its Contents gave me sincere pleasure, and its Injunctions shall be observed.
Mr. J. Van Staphorst has called upon me this Afternoon, and acquainted me with his great distress respecting the House engaged for the Loan:2 that the Man is an Anglomane or at least very lately converted: that he has within these six Weeks indulged himself in very indecent Expressions against America: that it makes a Noise in the American Society and upon the Exchange, that a Man of his Character should be preferred to old experienced Friends—that it will do much Injury on both Sides, and be a disservice to the Cause: that if it is possible, he hopes that House may be prevented from opening it: that many well-wishers and Friends are astonished and could hardly have believed it: that he has recieved a Letter from the Baron3 upon the Subject, who would not write his Opinion to You unasked: that it gives great Uneasiness to several of the—&ca &ca &ca. I observed to him, I could make no Answer, having nothing to do in the Business, and prayed him to communicate his sentiments to You. He declined and requested me to mention them to You, which I have done in substance. He would esteem it an Honor most certainly to be employed, but would never open his Lips if a House was engaged which was known to have been uniformly friendly to America. He hinted as if Messr. Hope might be behind the Curtain—it was a Conjecture only. He thinks the Loan will not succeed with honor and Reputation, as it now stands, and that You will find his Sentiments as I have given them above to be well grounded upon Enquiry.
It is not my Business to make any Comment, nor express any Sentiment but Sorrow if all this is true, as I must believe.

[salute] With a Respectful & an invariable Attachment, I have the honor to be &c

{ 450 }
1. Not found.
2. Jacob and Nicolaas van Staphorst repeated their complaints about John Hodshon and JA’s initial decision to place the loan with his firm in a letter to John Jay dated 24 Nov. 1785 (PCC, Misc. Papers, Reel No. 4, f. 684–699). In their letter, which indicates they met personally with JA, the van Staphorsts wrote that they informed JA that conditions favored opening a loan, to which JA replied that he was negotiating with John Hodshon on the matter. The van Staphorsts continued, “We took the Liberty to tell him, this was another impolitic Measure; as this Gentleman altho’ a Rich and able Merchant and a Person well qualified for the Direction of a Loan, was not looked upon in a good Light by this Nation and especially by the Patriotic Part to whom this Loan was to owe its Support and Success. This had no Weight with Mr. Adams, and while he pretended to believe Our Counsel proceeded from Self-Interest, We had the Mortification to hear from him, that in his Opinion John Hodshon was as good a Republican and as great a Lover of Freedom as ourselves.” JA obstinately “thought fit in spite of the Counsel of his best Friends, and among others of the Pensionary Van Berckel, to have the Loan opened publicly by Mr. Hodshon, With no other Effect than that he raised from the Well Affected to the American Cause great Complaints against his Proceedings, And finally after the Loss of a great deal of precious time, he was forced to withdraw the Order from Mr. Hodshon.” For more comments by the van Staphorsts, see JA to Fizeaux, Grand & Co., 30 April, note 1, below. See also vol. 11:103, note 4, for the van Staphorsts’ criticism of JA’s attempt in 1781 to raise a loan through Jean de Neufville & Fils.
3. Since Thaxter refers only to “the Baron,” he probably means Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol. The editors have no evidence, however, that van der Capellen opposed Hodshon’s role in raising the loan. Indeed, on 2 May he wrote to JA of his intention to subscribe to Hodshon’s loan (Adams Papers). This may have reflected his desire to support the American cause, regardless of who was raising the loan.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0293

Author: Livingston, Robert R.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

To Robert R. Livingston

No. 9

[salute] Sir

On the 23d. of April I had the Honor of a Conference with Mr. Van Citters, President of their High Mightinesses, to whom I presented the following Memorial.1

[salute] Hauts & Puissants Seigneur

Le Soussigné, Ministre Plenipotentiaire des Etats Unis d’Amerique a l’honneur d’informer Vos Hautes Puissances, qu’il est chargé par les Instructions de son Souverain, de proposer aux Etats Généraux des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, un Traité d’Amitié et de Commerce, entre les deux Républiques, fondé sur le Principe d’un Avantage égal et reciproque, et compatible avec les Engagemens déjà pris par les Etats Unis avec leurs Alliés, ainsi qu’avec tels autres Traités qu’ils ont l’intention de former avec d’autres Puissances. En Consequence, le Soussigné a l’honneur de proposer à Vos Hautes Puissances de nommer quelque Personne ou Personnes, avec pleins pouvoirs de conferer et traiter avec lui sur cet important Sujet.2
{ 451 }
Their High Mightinesses on the same day appointed a grand Committee to treat, to whom I was introduced with great Formality by two Noblemen,3 and before whom I laid a Project of a Treaty, which I had drawn up conformable to the Instructions of Congress. I prayed the Gentlemen to examine it, and propose to me their Objections, if they should have any, and to propose any further Articles, which they should think proper. It has been examined, translated, printed and sent to the Members of the Sovereignty.4
The greatest Part of my Time for several Days has been taken up in recieving and paying of Visits, from all the Members and Officers of Government, and of the Court, to the Amount of one hundred and fifty or more.5

[salute] I have the Honor to be,6 with great Respect, sir your most obedient & most humble servant

[signed] J. Adams
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 75–76).
1. There is no copy of the memorial that JA presented to the States General in the Adams Papers nor is it certain that the copy that JA handed to Willem van Citters is extant. In the archives of Hendrik Fagel, griffier or clerk of the States General, there is a “Copie” in C. W. F. Dumas’ hand that is signed by JA (Algemeen Rijksarchief). The address is printed in the Resolutiën van de Hoogh Mogende Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlandsche Provinciën, 129 vols., The Hague, 1677–1796, vol. 1782, p. 362–363.
Lb/JA/16 contains what may be an untitled and undated draft of this address (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 104, f. 353–354). While substantively the same, the draft is more flowery than the address. JA wrote the draft in French, except one canceled passage in English that is followed by a French translation.
2. When JA published this letter in the Boston Patriot of 6 April 1811, he provided the following translation: “The undersigned minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America, has the honor to inform your high mightinesses that he is charged by the instructions of his sovereign, to propose to the States General of the United Provinces of the low countries, a treaty of amity and commerce between the two republics, founded on a principle of equal and reciprocal advantage, and compatible with the engagements already taken by the United States with their allies, as well as with such other treaties as they have an intention to form with other powers. In consequence, the undersigned has the honor to propose to your high mightinesses to name some person or persons with full powers to confer and treat with him upon this important subject.”
3. Baron Derk Jan van Heeckeren van Brandsenburg and Baron Charles Bigot, deputies to the States General from Utrecht and Friesland respectively (Gazette de Leyde, 30 April).
4. No copy of the English text of the treaty JA presented to the committee of the States General has been found, although research in the Algemeen Rijksarchief at The Hague indicates that the States General received an English version. A printed extract of the draft treaty in Dutch, dated 26 April, from the Resolutiën van de Hoogh Mogende Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlandsche Provinciën, in broadside form, is in the Fagel Coll. (Algemeen Rijksarchief). Since no further action regarding the treaty took place in April, it will be dealt with in detail in vol. 13 at 22 Aug. when the Dutch formally presented JA with the changes that they desired in the treaty’s text and substantive negotiations began. The treaty was signed on 8 Oct. (Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:59–88).
5. For JA’s memorandum of visits made and received during this period, see Diary and Autobiography, 3:1–3.
6. The remainder of the closing and the signature are in JA’s hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0294

Author: Livingston, Robert R.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

To Robert R. Livingston

No. 10

[salute] Sir

I ought not to omit to inform Congress, that on the 23d. of April the French Ambassador made an Entertainment for the whole Corps Diplomatick, in Honor of the United States, at which he introduced their Minister to all the foreign Ministers at this Court.1
There is nothing I suppose in the whole voluminous Ceremonial, nor in the idle Farce of Etiquette, which should hinder a Minister from making a good Dinner in good Company; and therefore I believe they were all present, and I assure You I was myself as happy as I should have been, if I had been publickly acknowledged a Minister by every one of them: and the Duke de la Vauguyon more than compensated for all the Stiffness of some others, by paying more Attention to the new Brother, than to all the old Fraternity.
Etiquette, when it becomes too glaringly Affectation, imposes no longer neither upon the Populace nor upon the Courtiers, but becomes ridiculous to all. This will soon be the Case every where with Respect to American Ministers.
To see a Minister of such a State as blank and blank assume a distant misterious Air towards a Minister of the United States, because his Court has not yet acknowledged their Independence, when his Nation is not half equal to America in any one Attribute of Sovereignty, is a Spectacle of Ridicule to any Man who sees it.
I have had the honor of making and recieving Visits in a private Character from the Spanish Minister here, whose Behavior has been polite enough. He was pleased to make me some very high Compliments upon our Success here, which he considers as the most important and decisive Stroke which could have been struck in Europe.

[salute] I have the Honor to be,2 Sir your most obedient and most humble Servant

[signed] J. Adams
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 77–78).
1. The dinner hosted by the Duc de La Vauguyon was widely reported. See, for example, the Gazette de Leyde of 26 April and the Whitehall Evening Post of 27–30 April.
2. The remainder of the closing and the signature are in JA’s hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0295-0001

Author: Chalut, Abbé
Author: Arnoux, Abbé
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

From the Abbés Chalut and Arnoux

Vous Sçavez, notre Cher Monsieur, que l’interest de l’amerique a toujours été le notre; nous n’avons jamais perdu de vue cet heureux pais depuis la glorieuse époque de sa revolution, le premier motif de ce Sentiment est la justice que la nature reclame Contre l’oppression et la tirannèe. Nous ne voyions que des hommes malheureux. Des hommes libres qu’en vouloit soumettre à la honte de l’esclavage, leur bonheur et leur liberté etoient toute notre Satisfaction. Nous faisions des voeux pour des Secours dont ils avoient besoin, nous accusions injustamens la lenteur de notre gouvernement qui les faisoit attendre; depuis le moment que la france a deployé sa puissance pour soutenir la justice de votre cause, et qu’elle S’est liée avec votre republique par des traités qui assurent une éternelle amitié entre les deux nations; vos droits nous sont devenus plus chers, nous avons partagé avec vous toute la gloire et tous les maux d’une guerre juste que le Ciel a approuvée en humiliant nos ennemis Communs. Il nous reste maintenant à vous feliciter et à nous rejouir avec vous de votre heureux negociation auprès d’une republique qui vient de reconnoitre votre souveraineté pour se lier avec vous par des traités qui donneront plus de Consistance à sa liberté et à son Commerce. Toute l’Europe a été indignée de voir l’angleterre lui declarer la guerre Sans motif de justice. Cette puissance voudroit aujourdhui arreter vos liaisons avec Cette republique et faire une paix particuliere avec elle. La hollande a Connu Ses veritables interests. La France est son alliée naturelle, l’interest de l’angleterre, n’avoit cessé de lui Crier que nous ne pouvions étre que ses ennemis afin de lui cacher les veritables, ils sont enfin reconnus et tout va Concourir a leur oter les moyens de troubler la tranquilité de tout le globe et à Contenir cette Cupidité qui leur a fait Commettre tant d’injustices. Nous pouvons maintenant esperer que la paix generale va l’approcher de nous. L’impuissance de nos ennemis et notre moderation en hateront la marche. Nous faisons des voeux pour cet heureux evenement.
[Ecri?]vez-nous de vos nouvelles, Conservez-nous votre amitié la notre vous est requise ainsi que notre estime nous avons l’honneur d’étre avec les Sentiments notre cher Monsieur Vos très humbles et très obeissants serviteurs
[signed] les abbés de chalut et Arnoux
{ 454 }
Vous n’avez pas fait valoir l’amitié que nous avons pour vous, quand nous pourrons vous servir dans la personne de vos amis, disposez de notre empressement à faire tout ce qui pourra vous étre agreable, nous ferons pour les amis que vous nous adresserez ce que nous ferions pour vous meme.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0295-0002

Author: Chalut, Abbé
Author: Arnoux, Abbé
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

Abbé Chalut to John Adams: A Translation

You know, dear sir, that the interests of America have been ours as well, ever since the start of its glorious revolutionary era. The foremost reason for this sentiment is the natural demand of wanting justice to prevail over oppression and tyranny. We see only unhappy men. Our satisfaction is the happiness and liberty of free men, men that they wanted to subject to the shame of slavery. We prayed that the necessary aid would come and we unjustly accused our government of moving too slowly in this regard. From the moment that France committed its power to support your cause, and joined with your republic through treaties assuring an eternal bond of friendship between the two nations, your rights have become dearer to us. We have shared with you in all the glory and all the evils of a just war that god has approved by humiliating our common enemies. We now wish to congratulate you and rejoice with you on your successful negotiation with a republic that has recognized your sovereignty, and who will join with you in treaties that will benefit their liberty and commerce. All of Europe was indignant to see England declare war without justification. This power would have liked to stop your liaisons with this republic now, so that they could make a specific peace with them. Holland knew its true interests. France is its natural ally. England’s interest, which had them continually declaring that we could never be anything except enemies in order to hide the real truth, was finally recognized, and everything is going to work toward preventing them from disrupting the tranquility of the entire globe and to contain their avarice which made them commit all these injustices. We can now hope that a general peace is getting closer for us all. Our enemies’ ineffectiveness and our moderation will hasten its progress. We pray for this happy occasion.
Write us with your news; keep us in your friendship, as we keep you in ours, as well as our esteem with which we have the honor to be, our dear sir, your very humble and very obedient servants
[signed] les abbés de chalut et Arnoux
You have not taken advantage of the friendship we feel for you and our capacity to act on your behalf. We are eager to assist you in any suitable way, and we will do for your friends just as we would do for you.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Les Abbeés Chalut & Arnoux”; docketed by CFA: “April 23d 1782.” Some text is lost where the seal was removed.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0296

Author: Dana, Francis
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

From Francis Dana

[salute] My dear Sir

I see with infinite satisfaction the progress our affairs have made in Holland within a short time, and that you will soon be able to [pu]t the finishing hand to your business. No one can more sincerely rejoice in [t]he honour you will merit and acquire by it, than I shall. That Nation, after much internal struggling, seems at last to have adopted an almost universal sentiment upon the propriety, or rather necessity of forming an intimate commercial connection with us, and this, without loss of time. They have been doubtless justly alarmed by the late important change in the Councils, and the system of Great Britain; and have wisely resolved not to suffer her to get the start of them, by adjusting her commercial connections with America, before they have concluded their Treaty with us. They well know how much is risqued by any further delay. Hence their present zeal to acknowledge our Independence. I wish others saw their Interest to do the same thing, in as clear a light, and did not longer think of the glory of mediating a peace, which in the end they may miss of; for it is evident to every one, who will attentively consider the late measures of Britain, that She means to settle her peace with America, without the participation of any Mediators, well knowing the great danger to which her most important commercial Interests will be exposed if they pass through such [a] Medium. Her aim will be to exclude the other Maritime Powers, as far as [po]ssible from the benefits of our Commerce. To effect this, She will make [gr]eat sacrifices in some respects. You know what I allude to—The critical moment for the Maritime Powers of Europe has already arrived. They may never, or at least for a long time to come, again see so fair an occasion to promote their essential Interests, if they suffer this moment to slip by without fixing their connections with America. It must be apparent to them all, the Neutral Powers I mean, that no just objections can now be made to a measure of this sort, since the British themselves have felt the necessity of publickly proclaiming to the World their utter inability to obtain the great object of their war, the subjugation of the United States, or of any one of them; and even made the attempt to do this, criminal—With what face can they pretend to claim any dominion over that Country, or to require the Neutral Powers to forbear the acknowledgment of our Indendence, till they themselves shall have ac• { 456 } knowledged it? Or in other words, to rest idle Sp[ec]tators, as I have before said, till Britain has adjusted all her commercia[l] Interests with America, as far as possible to their exclusion—Do you ask whether this will probably be the case here, I can’t say that it will not. For besides that I have some reason to suppose this Government not yet properly informed, I may say, of the immense Interest it has at stake relative to the Commerce of our Country, I know the British will not fail constantly to hold up to Her Imperial Majesty the glory of mediating a Peace between the great belligerant Powers, while they are secretly carrying on a Negociation as above with the United States—Shou’d you ask me if it is not practicable to give those in Government just Ideas upon the nature of the commerce of the two Countries, I must say I have taken such measures to this end, as the peculiar state of things will admit of. I dare not yet expose the dignity of the United States by making any official advances—They may be rejected—I am not yet satisfied that they wou’d not be. The cry of Mediation I know wou’d open upon me. It is necessary therefore first to do away all errors upon [this] subject of commerce, to establish the great mutual Interest the two Na[tions] have in a close and intimate connection with each other—to point out [the] danger this Interest is exposed to in the present critical state of affairs, by delay. When this is done (and I flatter myself the task is very easy, if the door is open to me) I shall have nothing to apprehend from mere sounds or words. Her Majesty wou’d most certainly pursue the great Interests of her Empire, and not suffer herself to be diverted from that pursuit by any dazling prospects of glory which the British, or any others, might hold out. She too much wisdom not to change her system when affairs have changed their Face, and not to improve every favourable occasion which the course of events may present to her, for the benefit of her Empire—I agree with you that glory and interest are both united in our Case—that her Majesty cou’d [no]t by any line of conduct more effectually promote both, than by stepping forth at this moment and acknowledging the Independence of the United States, and forming a commercial Treaty with them—that there is nothing to fear from any quarter—that the example of so illustrious a Sovereign wou’d probably be followed by the other Neutral Maritime Powers, and wou’d infallibly restore peace and tranquility to both Worlds; and that all Europe wou’d partake equally in the benefits of our commerce, or at least, wou’d enjoy an equal freedom in it. But, my dear { 457 } Sir, if instead of this, America cannot obtain a hearing, which is all she wants to ensure her success, where ever national Counsels are influenced by national Interests, and Her Majesty shou’d persevere in her system of Mediation, notwithstanding the change in affairs, is not the consequence plain: America will make the best bargain in her power with Britain, and She can now clearly make an advantageous one. When this is done Her Majesty, and the other Neutral Powers will certainly see, though too late, the importance of the [pr]esent moment while all is open between Britain and America, to the [In]terests of their respective Empires. I will only add May they be wise [in] season—may they follow the example which Holland is setting them, and which She wou’d have set them at this moment, had she been in profound peace with Britain, even at the hazard of a War little as she delights in it, rather suffer herself to be foreclosed in her great commercial Schemes—Pray give me the earliest possible intelligence, if only in a single line, of your entering upon your negotiation, of its progress and conclusion—whether your last business will be taken up &c.

[salute] Adieu, my dear Sir, believe me to remain with much respect and the most sincere friendship Yours &c

RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Dana 12/23 April 1782 ansd. 13 May.”LbC (MHi:Dana Family Papers, Francis Dana Letterbook, St. Petersburg, 1782–1784); notation: “N.B. This letter was written with a view of its being open’d at the Post-Office here, and accordingly was sent there under certain special circumstances.” Damage to the RC has resulted in the loss of portions of several words, which have been supplied from the LbC.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0297

Author: Digges, Thomas
Author: Russell, William
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

From Thomas Digges

[salute] Dr sir

Since the sailing of Adml Barrington there has been much surprise and speculation as to His destination, and an express just arrivd from Plymouth announces that a few days ago and not many leagues off Brest one of His look out frigates the Artois Cap McBride fell in with an outward Bound India Fleet of 4 line of Battle ships (two armed en flute) and about 20 sail of Transports, four of which were taken by Capt McBride and brought into Plymo. and the fleet under Adml Barrington left in chase in such a position as to make it morally certain He would capture the whole. Report at first said it was the homeward bound Domingo fleet and that Adml { 458 } Barrington had taken 23 merchantmen and two men of War; but the above seems to be the nearest accot to truth.1 As this accot came too late for the Gazette, without its publication is purposely kept back, I give it You in a hurry just at the period of the post setting out.
No other news. The idea of Peace with Holland or Ama seperately has pretty well blown over; and as a substitute in conversation the cry now is that Genl Carlton carrys over such profers as will assuredly be accepted of. Mr. L— too is very shortly to return from the Continent with such an assent to the proposals He carryd to His Colleagues as will insure a Peace!!!

[salute] I am with high Esteem Sir Your ob H. Sert

[signed] W R
1. Adm. Samuel Barrington sailed in early April to patrol off Brest. On the 20th one of his frigates sighted a convoy bound for the East Indies accompanied by three 64-gun ships of the line, one of them serving as a troop transport armed en flûte: that is, with its armament removed. In the ensuing engagement the troop transport and another ship of the line were taken together with twelve other vessels from the convoy. By 26 April, Barrington was back at Spithead, having struck a heavy blow against the French in the East Indies (Mackesy, War for America, p. 478; W. M. James, The British Navy in Adversity: A Study of the War of American Independence, London and N.Y., 1926, p. 366–367).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0298

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1782-04-24

To Robert R. Livingston

No. 8.1

[salute] Sir

On the 24th. day of April I had the Honor to be introduced to the Princess, from whom I met a very gracious Reception. As it is necessary to say something upon these Occasions, I could think of nothing better than what follows:3

[salute] Madame

Je suis ravi d’avoir l’honneur de presenter une Republique Vierge, un Monde Enfant à la Bienveillance et à la Protection de votre Altesse Royale; d’une Princesse aussi illustre par ses Perfections et Vertus personnelles, que par Sa Connection avec la Maison d’Orange, si révérée en Amerique, et avec l’un de ces grands Monarques4 dans le Siecle desquels on se fait un honneur de vivre.
Votre Altesse Royale me permettra de faire des Vaux, pour que ses { 459 } serenissimes Enfans et leur Postérité, puissant jouir parmi les Generations les plus reculées de l’Amerique, de la même Vénération profonde, qui y a toujours été entretenue pour leurs Ancêtres.
Her Royal Highness thanked me for the Compliment, and promised to do what depended upon her to render my Residence at the Hague agreable to me, and then asked me several Questions similar to those of his most Serene Highness.

[salute] I have the Honor to be,5 Sir your most obedient servant

[signed] J. Adams
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 73–74).
1. The numbers JA and Thaxter assigned JA’s letters to Livingston correspond to the order in which they were entered in the Letterbook. Letter No. 8 was entered immediately following letter No. 7 of 232 April, above, in Lb/JA/18 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 106).
2. In the Letterbook copy, JA left a blank space for the date in both the dateline and the first sentence that John Thaxter filled in later.
3. When JA published this letter in the Boston Patriot of 10 April 1811, he included the following English translation of his conversation with Wilhelmina, princess of Orange:
“Madame—I am happy to have the honor of presenting a virgin republic and an infant world, to the benevolence and protection of your royal highness; a princess as illustrious for her perfections and personal virtues, as by her connection with the house of Orange, so much revered in America, and with one of those great monarchs, with whom it is esteemed an honor to live in the same century.
“Your royal highness will permit me to pray that your most serene children and their posterity, may enjoy to the latest generations in America, the same profound veneration, which has always been entertained there for their ancestors.”
4. Wilhelmina was the niece of Frederick the Great.
5. The remainder of the closing and the signature are in JA’s hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0299

Author: Jenings, Edmund
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-24

From Edmund Jenings

[salute] Sir

I Assure myself, that your Excellency will permit me to offer my Congratulations to you on your Excellencys being publickly Acknowledged Minister of the United States. I am rejoiced at this Event for your Excellencys Honor, as well as for the Interest of our Country—you will believe me, I am Confident, when I say I feel for both, and both are in good Hands. Go on in your Noble Career; I Know you will, and may God Almighty bless you.

[salute] I am with the Greatest Respect Sir your Excellencys Most Obedient Humble Servt

[signed] Edm: Jenings

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0300

Author: Hodshon, John, & Zoon (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-25

John Hodshon & Zoon’s Proposals for a Loan

Mess John Hodshon & son yoú are hereby desired to open a loan In my name for The use of the 13 united States of America agreable to my commission from Them dated The 20th june 17802 For Foúr or Five Million guilders current at 5 pc Intrest per annúm for the space of Ten years redeemable In The Five next Following years In equal Five parts with Intrest Fl payd of For which The obligation and coupons are to be signd by me, and the obligations contrasigned by yoú,3 and Enregistred by a notary For the Repayment of capital and Intrest the united states shll bind themself Jointly and seperatly, their Lands Income and prodúce revenus and Taxes Laid and to be Laid as wil be more fully explained In The obligations to be signd by me and of which an authentick copy to be sent to congres for Their confirmation And ratification on Their returning The Same To be drawn for the Súm to be borrowed as They shal be adresed by yoú.
Mess John Hodshon & son In order To Facilitate The Negotiation of Four or Five Million of guilders currant, yoú are permitted to allow to the undertakers a premiúm or discoúnt of Two procent and agree to allow or pay yoú one pc for your commission on the summ negotiated with one procent for The payment of the annúal Intrest which congres wil provide for In Such a manner as is most agreable, Further yoú are to be paid one half pc for the repayment of the capital besides one half procent for Brokeridge on The summ negotiated, with the cost of the obligations and advertisements and In order to prevent any prejudice to be done to the present negotiation Thereby oblige myself that such obligations as are not allready disposed of the loan of messs John de Neufville & son on the 1st March 1781 shal not be disposed of directly or Indirectly.
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Hodshon”; docketed by CFA: “April 25th 1782.” Dft? (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Hodshon”; in another hand: “Mr Hodshon.”; filmed at 20 April 1782 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 356).
1. No final notarized copies of the two proposed contracts between JA and John Hodshon & Zoon printed here have been found. From JA’s letter of 26 April to Hodshon, below, however, it appears that the terms given here may have been the final ones. If official notarized copies of the contract ever existed, they may have been destroyed when the Hodshon agreement was superseded. The terms of these proposed contracts should be compared with that of [11 June] (Adams Papers) between JA and the firms of Wilhem & Jan Willink, Nicolaas & Jacob van Staphorst, and De la Lande & { 461 } Fynje. They should also be compared with the apparent Dft of the proposals printed here that may or may not have been enclosed with Hodshon’s letter of 20 April, above.
2. The Dft does not refer to Hodshon & Zoon by name and does not mention JA’s commission.
3. The Dft indicates only that Hodshon & Zoon would countersign the obligations; there is no mention of coupons. The remainder of this paragraph does not appear in the Dft.
4. This proposal is virtually identical to the corresponding Dft.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0301

Author: Van der Kemp, François Adriaan
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-25

From François Adriaan Van der Kemp

[salute] Sir

Althoug I am not So happÿ to be the first in making mÿ Compliments to your Excellencÿ; I am however persuaded that not one of mÿ countrÿmen is more addicted to the cause of America and more attached to your Excellencÿ than I am.
I congratulate mÿself with the favour of your Excellency’s acquaintance—with a part of the friendship of your Excellencÿ, and I flatter mÿself, that the aknowledgment of your High Rank wil not chance ÿour character. The eminent qualities of your heart remove the Shadow of fear, in this respect, and the knowledge, that I am a man, a Republican, do me think, that I Shal have a rigth to your good opinion.
In one of other case, perhaps I maÿ be to your Excellencÿ of the American States of anÿ Service; this Shal me given a great Satisfaction. In this city there are Members of Regencÿ, who, in the regulation of a treatise of commerce Should be able to give anÿ elucidations. Moondaÿ I Shal part to Nÿmegen in Gelderland—to consommate my marriage,1 and the month of Juin I hope to be in Friesland. Recommending mÿ in Your Excellency’s good opinion, I am with the highest esteem Sir! Your Excellency’s much addicted and Obliged Servant Fr.
[signed] Ad van der Kemp
1. On 20 May, Van der Kemp married Reinira Engelbartha Johanna Vos, daughter of Jacob Vos, burgomaster of Nijmegen (Harry F. Jackson, Scholar in the Wilderness, Francis Adrian Van der Kemp, Syracuse, 1963, p. 48; Francis Adrian Van der Kemp, 1752–1829, An Autobiography, Together with Extracts from His Correspondence, ed. Helen Lincklaen Fairchild, N.Y., 1903, p. 61).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0302

Author: Hodshon, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-26

To John Hodshon

Mr. Hodshon is desired to make the necessary Enquiries, and as soon as he will give me under his hand his Engagement to furnish { 462 } Congress with four or five Millions of Guilders, by the last day of July next, so that I may write forthwith to Congress that they may draw for that Sum, I will agree to his Opening the Loan upon the Terms, We have agreed on.1
[signed] J. Adams
LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. For the terms to which JA and John Hodshon & Zoon agreed, see Hodshon & Zoon’s proposal, 25 April, above. Hodshon acted immediately by announcing the terms of the loan and soliciting investors (Pieter J. van Winter, American Finance and Dutch Investment, 1780–1805, With an Epilogue to 1840, transl. James C. Riley, 2 vols., N.Y., 1977, 1:84–85).
Years later, JA recalled that the announcement of the loan initially was well received, but soon criticism of Hodshon led JA to try to form a consortium of firms, including Hodshon’s, to participate in the loan. In a letter to the Boston Patriot, JA wrote that the day after the loan was announced, Hodshon “received the customary congratulations from the principal merchants and capitalists, and I thought I was very happy in so solid a connection. Mr. Hodshon undertook to remove my family and furniture from Amsterdam to the Hague, and every thing was done with an order, punctuality and exactness that could not be exceeded; and his charges for every thing he did and furnished were extremely moderate” (Boston Patriot, 24 April 1811). JA’s household goods were moved to The Hague in early May. He took up residence in the Hôtel des Etats Unis on 12 May (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:321, 322, 323–324).
The letter to the Boston Patriot continues,
“Mr. Hodson had visited me from the beginning and had uniformly treated me with as much repect and civility as any of the other gentlemen who had traded to America. Neither myself nor my country were under any obligations to any other house that I know of, more than to his. He was very rich, worth many millions, entirely free from debt, his credit equal to any house unless that of Hope, was to be excepted, and even that, though possessed of immense resources, was much in debt and lately in the great turn of affairs much embarrassed. Mr. Hodshon had several brothers and many other relations in various parts of the republic who were very rich capitalists; so that he could have commanded a very respectable loan in spite of all the opposition that could have been made.
“Not many days passed however, before a clamour arose upon change in the city and pretty extensively in various parts of the republic. Mr. Van Berckel told me Mr. Hodshon was envied. There seemed to be a conspiracy of English and French emissaries, of Stadtholderians and patriots, of the friends and connections of Mr. De Neufville, Fizeau & Grand, Van Staphorts, De la Lande & Fynje and many others, to raise a cry against Mr. Hodshon. He was ‘anglomane;’ he ‘was a Stadtholderian;’ he ‘was an enemy to America,’ &c. &c.—not one word of which was sufficiently well founded to make any reasonable objections against his employment in this service. However, I saw that there was a settled plan to make it a party affair, if not an engine of faction. I said nothing, but determined to let the bubble burst of itself. When I was attacked, as I sometimes was, pretty severely, in company, for the choice I had made of an house for my loan, I justified every step of my conduct in it, by such facts and reasons as not one man ever attempted to contradict or confute.
“Nevertheless, in a few days Mr. Hodshon came to me and said, ‘You cannot be ignorant sir, that an uneasiness has been excited in the city and country against yourself and me, on account of the American loan.’ I answered, that I had heard and felt enough of it, but that having experienced much more formidable popular clamours in my own country, and seen that they soon subsided, I had not laid this much to heart. It had not shaken my confidence in him or in his contract. Mr. Hodshon said ‘the opposition that was made, could not prevent him from obtaining a considerable sum of money; but it might prevent so large a loan as he and I wished, and as congress expected, and that it might expose me to reflections and misrepresentations in America, as well as in Holland, and even in England as well as France;’ and { 463 } added, ‘if you have the least inclination to be disengaged, or if you have the smallest probablility of doing better for your consituents, I will readily release you from your contract.’ I thanked him for his generosity, and added, that I was very willing to risque all the consequences of perseverance, and had no doubt we should succeed as well at least as I could hope to do, in any other connection I could form. But if he pleased, I would make some further enquiries. He wished I would—he was advanced in years, was infirm in his health, easy in his circumstances, perfectly clear and unembarrassed in his business and wished for repose rather than to engage in squabbles: but he would not forsake me. If I could not do better, he would proceed. We agreed to consider and enquire” (Boston Patriot, 24 April 1811).
It was probably at this point that JA wrote his letter to Fizeaux, Grand & Co. and others, 30 April, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0303

Author: Vernon, William Sr.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-26

From William Vernon Sr.

[salute] Sir

You have long since known, that the American Navy is reduced to Two Ships only, viz The Alliance John Barry Commander, now in France and the Deane Samll Nicholson Comr. that sailed on a Cruise to the Southward, about seven weeks past, no intelligence from her since her departure.1
This low state of our Navy, has caused the dissolution of the Admiralty and Navy boards, by resolve of Congress on the 7th of Sepr. last,2 devolving the whole business of the Marine department upon the Honorable Robt. Morris Esqr., until an Agent shall be appointed for that purpose, by Congress. All those boards, was immediatly closed, except ours, which was continued, until the above Ships (then in this Harbour) were compleated for Sea, then to terminate and finally end, with the delivery of all the remaining Stores, Papers, Books &c &c, in the possession of the Navy Board Eastn Dept. to the Order of the Superintendant of Finances.
This requisition has been made by John Brown Esqr. late Clerk to the Admiralty Board appointed by Mr M— to receive the same, leaving our numerous Debts unpaid, subjecting us to litigious Law suits and perplexities, disgraceful to the Office, and highly degradeing to the Servants of the Public, conceiveing ourselves subjected to reproach and every evil, that injured Creditors are but too apt to through out, we have refused to comply with, until Congress shall point out the mode of exonerating our Office with honor, and reputation, thereby freeing us from the perplexities that we must unavoidably be involved in. It is uncertain wheather my Son, returns to America this Year, or remains in Europe,3 I am perswaded Sir, in every instance he will receive such favors from you, as his conduct { 464 } and behavior may merit, more I would not wish to ask. I am with perfect esteem, The honor to be Sr. Your most Obedt. Humble servt.
[signed] Wm Vernon
1. The Boston Independent Chronicle of 23 May reported the return of the Deane from a nine week cruise, during which it had taken five prizes. Shortly thereafter, because of Silas Deane’s apparent treachery, the Deane’s name was changed to the Hague, presumably in honor of Dutch recognition of American independence (Morris, Papers, 5:337–338).
2. JCC, 21:943.
3. Despite the efforts of his father, who ultimately disowned him, William Vernon Jr. did not return to America until 1797 (Richard A. Harrison and others, eds., Princetonians: A Biographical Dictionary, 5 vols., Princeton, 1976–1991, 3:120–126).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0304-0001

Author: Wynzouw, Jan
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-26

From Jan Wynzouw

Geeft Te kennen Jan Wynzouw, Burger en Ingebooren in deeze Provintie, Thans Schoolmeester alhier Voorheen By de ningotie,1 hebbende eene Goede kennis Van Laakenen en Stoffen ook Van Boekhouden en een nauwkeurige Trant Van Reekenen, zoo in France als Engelsche Goederen, maar kan niet dan Hollandsche Taal Spreeken, Waardoor ik Geen affaire Veel heb konne Slaage, en nu Wel Gaarne Wilde iets anders by de hand neemen het Zoude mijn ’t Zelve zyn Waar het ook Was indien ik met al myn Vleyd vroeg of Laat maar een ordentelyk bestaan met myn vrouw en 4 kinderen mogte hebben daar Van myn oudste zoon Reeds een bekwaam Chergyn knegt is, maar de 3 andere nog tot myne Last in Eenen benauwden Tyd, en Waar in ik niet anders als ziektens en Teegenheeden Gehad heb maar nu alle Gezond, maar nu is er byna Voor myn niet te Verdienen—Zoude UWE: Exelentie my Gunstig Ergens in het een of ander ook konnen Plaatzen Waar het ook zy al Was het in America. Wy Willen ons Vaderland onder Gods bewaaring Wel vaarwel Zeggen, ik heb Gehoord UWE: Exelentie Zulke Lieden Wel aan een Zaak Zoude konne helpen.
Het is myn niet te doen om een Groot man te zyn maar een Stuk broot Voor myn en myn kinderen ben ik ook nooyd te traag Geweest om Zulks te Verdienen als ik in omstandigheeden Was, heb ik myn Leeven niets Verzuymt, en zoude Gaarne al myn Vleyd aan Legge indien ik iets bestending konde bekomen Waar toe ik myn op het { 465 } nedrigst in UW Hoog Wel Edle geboore Gunst Recommandere en naar Needere aanbieding. Myner Dienst noeme ik myn en ben met alle Hoogagting Geboore Heer UWE Exelentie Ootmoedige Dienaar
[signed] J: Wynzouw
Schoolmeester onder de uylebomen
NB Zal de vryheyd nemen om Eens om bescheyd te komen.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0304-0002

Author: Wynzouw, Jan
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-26

Jan Wynzouw to John Adams: A Translation

Jan Wynzouw, citizen and native to this province, presently schoolmaster here, formerly in trade,1 informs you that he, having a good knowledge of draperies and fabrics, as well as of bookkeeping and a precise sort of accounting, both in French and English goods, but who can speak nothing but the Dutch language, because of which I have not been able to succeed in any business, now really would like to try out something else. It would not matter to me where it would be if with all my diligence I could sooner or later achieve a decent living with my wife and four children, of whom my eldest son is already a competent surgeon’s assistant, but the other three are still my responsibility in hard times, and who have had nothing but illnesses and setbacks, but who now are all healthy, but now there is almost nothing for me to earn—Would your excellency be able to place me somewhere favorable wherever it would be even if it were in America. Under God’s protection we want to say farewell to our fatherland; I have heard that your Excellency would be able to help such folk in such a matter.
I do not intend to be a great man, but I have never been too slow to earn a piece of bread for my family and children when I had the chance, I have never been neglectful and would gladly and with diligence apply myself if I could get something permanent, for which I most humbly recommend myself to your honor’s favor, and further offering my service I call myself and am, with all respect, your honorable, nobly-born excellency’s humble servant,
[signed] J: Wynzouw
Schoolmaster under the Owl Trees
N.B. Will take the liberty to come sometime for an answer.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “not to [be ansd?]”; docketed by CFA: “26. April 1782.”
1. Possibly a mispelling of negotie, or trade, and translated as such.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0305-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-27

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Depuis votre Départ d’ici il ne s’est rien passé, sinon qu’hier la Province d’Hollde prit la Résolution d’une Missive à la Cour de Russie, pour décliner la Paix particuliere avec celle de Londres,1 laquelle Résolution a été communiquée aux Etats-Généraux hier, après quoi les Etats d’Hollde se séparerent pour jusqu’à Mercredi prochain.
Voici diverses Lettres qui m’ont été apportées de l’Auberge. J’ai offert d’en payer le Port. Mais l’Hôte m’a fait entendre que vous l’aviez chargé de le payer et de m’apporter les Lettres qui arriveroient pour vous.
Occupés, comme nous le sommes tous les deux à déménager, Je crois devoir ménager votre temps comme le mien, et par conséquent, être court.
Mr. Geyzelaer est parti pour Gorcum,2 voir Made. sa mere, qui est malade.
Je salue bien cordialement Mr. Thaxter; ma femme et ma fille font de-même, et vous présentent leurs respects avec celui, Monsieur, de Votre très-humble & très-obéissant serviteur
[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0305-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-27

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

Since your departure from here, nothing has happened except that yesterday the province of Holland made a resolution to the Russian court refusing the peace proposal from London.1 The resolution was communicated to the states general yesterday, after which the states of Holland adjourned until next Wednesday.
Here are several letters that were brought to me from the inn. I offered to pay the postage for them, but the innkeeper told me that you had instructed him to pay it and to bring me the letters that arrive for you.
Since we are both busy with moving, I believe I must be as considerate of your time as I am of my own and, as a result, be short.
Mr. Gyselaar left for Gorkum2 to visit his ill mother.
I send my cordial regards to Mr. Thaxter; my wife and daughter do as well, and pay their respects to you with those, sir, of your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Dumas
1. For the British peace proposal and its rejection by the States General, see JA to Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol, 6 April, and note 1, above.
2. Gorkum or Gorinchem, about fifteen miles east of Dordrecht.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0306

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Dana, Francis
Date: 1782-04-28

To Francis Dana

[salute] Dear Sir

Yours of 28 March is this day recd1—the other Paper you mentioned I also recd, but after my Letter was written. Your other Letters are also recd.
You will have Seen by the Papers, that the great Point is gained here with much Unanimity, and many indifferent People think it a great Point. I may think more highly of it, than it deserves, but it has ever appeared to me, the turning Point. Be this as it will, I think all will allow that it is better to have this nation for Us than against us—this has been the question—and that question is now certainly decided. If the War continues, there will be found in this nation a Strong Spirit of Liberty, and a great deal of obstinate Valour.
It is to no Purpose to entertain you with Relations of Visits and Ceremonies, which are all finished. The Prince and Princess of orange have acknowledged American Independance as well as their H.M. The P. has recd a Letter of Credence. It was pretty to present a beautifull young Virgin World, to the Acquaintance of a fine figure of a Princess, whose Countenance showed an Understanding capable of judging and an Heart capable of feeling.
We have no News from America, a long time excepting a Line notifying the arrival of your son Charles. I am rejoiced that my dear John, pursues his studies so well. Let him pursue Cicero. But I regret extreamly his absence from Leyden, where there are such noble Advantages. I am So uneasy about this that I wish he could find a good Passage in a neutral Vessell, and return to me.2 I feel more lonely, than I used as my Health is not so good, and my Spirits still worse. I want my Wife and my Children, about me. I must go home. I cant live so—it is too much. If I should go home it would give great Pleasure to Some who dont love me. And I really feel Benevolence enough to give them this satisfaction. I am weary my Friend, of the dastardly Meannesses of Jealousy and Envy. It is mortifying, it is humiliating to me to the last degree, to see such Proofs of it, as degrade human nature.
If I should get a Treaty made I have a great Mind to go home and carry it for Ratification.
I will write to my dear Boy soon,3 I have rcd his Letters, and would have him write me as often as he can. Dont mind Postage.
{ 468 }
RC (MHi:Dana Family Papers); endorsed: “Mr: J. Adams’s Letter Dated April 28th 1782 Recd. May 11th O.S.”
1. 8 April N.S., above.
2. In his reply of 23 May (Adams Papers), Dana agreed that JQA should join JA in the Netherlands.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0307

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Jenings, Edmund
Date: 1782-04-28

To Edmund Jenings

[salute] Sir

Your favour of the 24, is just come to Hand. Your Congratulations on the publick acknowledgment of the United States do me great Honour.
I received in its Time, your favour of 18. The Compliments you make me upon this occasion, are greater than I deserve, though they are not greater than were made me last Week, by one of the most respectable foreign Ministers at the Hague.
“Vous avez, frappé, Mosieur, (Said he to me) le plus grand Coup de tout L’Europe. C’est le plus grand Coup, qui a jamais été frappé dans la Cause Americain. C’est Vous qui a effrayé et terrassée Les Anglomanes. C’est Vous qui a rempli cette nation d’Enthousiasme. C’est Vous, qui a tournée leurs Tetes.” Then turning to another Gentleman present (Says he) “Ce n’est pas pour faire Compliment a Monsieur Adams que Je dis cela—C’est parce que, en Verité, Je crois que c’est Sa duë.”1 Such was the Diplomatique Compliment of the grave Spaniard.
Think of me, however as they will, I am not easily touched with Such Compliments. They will never turn my Head I assure you.
The Revolution which has taken Place in this nation, is the Result of a vast number and Variety of great Events, composing a great Scheme of Providence, which comprized a great part of the Earth and the nations on it, which I could no more influence, than the fly upon the Chariot Wheel could raise the Cloud of Dust.
When I recollect the Circumstances, I am amazed, and I feel, that it is no Work of mine. Mr Laurens was to be taken—Congres were to foresee it, so far as to send me a Commission to borrow Money. I was to come to Holland to see the Country and my friend Laurens. Congress were to send me full Powers. These were to be lost on the Way from Paris, and to run the Gantlet through Dilligences, Post offices and Treck schuits, and at last reach me Safe by an unknown Hand. I was to be Seized with a Fit of obstinacy and go { 469 } to the Hague, with a Memorial, in opposition to Advices, Remonstrances, and almost Menaces. Mr Van Berckel was to come forward next—then the Burgomaster of Amsterdam, the Battle of Doggersbank. France was to retake statia &c. The Barrier Towns were to be evacuated—The Emperors Toleration was to allarm the Dutch further about their Commerce. Cornwallis, Minorca st Kits were to be taken. Congress was to prohibit the Importation of British Manufactures. The Revolution was to take Place in England. What a Chain! and what Link in it, did I forge? none at all but the stubborn Memorial. All that I have done was just to throw out a few Hints for the Contemplation of the People. I need not be envyed for this—My Fevers and Swollen Legs and feeble Knees, are not envyed I dare say.
However, I had Seen and felt before So much of the Smart arising from a sordid Jealeusy and Envy, that I never can see or feel more of it—I despise it all and am determined to brave it. All their dastardly assassinations, their secret Whispers, their vile slanders, I hold in as much Contempt as I do their Persons and Characters. I disdain to Say or write a Word in my own Vindication. Let them go to the End of their Rope. I confess, I have tolerated several Things which gave me Pain and which I never suffered in any former Part of my Life on Purpose to show them how much I hold them in Contempt, and at Defyance. I am much afraid, that the dirty disagreable office of Stripping the Gilding off of one more Knave, is destined for me. I hope not—and will avoid it if I can.
But, dont believe me dazzled with my Glory—I should Embark tomorrow for the blue Hills there to live and die with more Pleasure, than I had in making fine Speeches to the Prince or Princess of orange, or the Grand Committee of their High Mightinesses. There is one Thing, I should be glad to do, if it were in my Power, which however it never will be.2

[salute] Adieu.

RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “His Excellency Mr Adams April 28 1782.”
1. Translation: You have struck, sir, the greatest blow in all Europe. It is the greatest blow yet struck in the American cause. It is you who have terrified and vanquished the Anglomanes. It is you who have filled this nation with enthusiasm. It is you who have turned their heads. It is not just to make a compliment to Mr. Adams that I say this, it is because it is true and I know that it is his due.
2. One can only conjecture about JA’s meaning here. In his reply of 6 May (Adams Papers), Jenings referred specifically to this sentence, but JA did not respond with a clarification.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0308

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Lacoste, Jn. Pas., & Courtiau (business)
Date: 1782-04-29

To Jn. Pas. Lacoste & Courtiau

[salute] Gentlemen

I have recd. the polite Letter, which You did me the honor to write me on the 26th with the Letter from St. Petersbourg.1 Let me beg of You to give me a minute of the Postage of this and any other Letter You may recieve for me, that I may repay You.
You do me too much honor in ascribing the late glorious Event to me.2 It is the Result of a vast Combination of Causes which have been operating in several Nations and various Quarters of the Globe, in which I had very little more Influence than the Fly upon the Chariot Wheel in raising the Dust.
I do not however rejoice in it the less. It appears to me a foundation for Prosperity and Security to both Nations, whom may God bless.

[salute] I have the honor to be, Gentlemen, your obliged and obedient humble Servant

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. The letter enclosed with Lacoste & Courtiau’s of 26 April (Adams Papers) may have been that of 8 April from Francis Dana, above. The Amsterdam firm forwarded letters from St. Petersburg on several occasions; see its letters of [18] and 22 July (Adams Papers) and JA’s reply of 14 Oct. (LbC, Adams Papers).
2. In their letter Lacoste & Courtiau congratulated JA on the glorious event, which they attributed to his sublime genius and profound wisdom.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0309

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Bondfield, John
Date: 1782-04-30

To John Bondfield

[salute] Sir

Yours of 13 is duely recd: I congratulate you, on Gillons Success and hope that his Prizes, and those he may make hereafter will defray the enormous Expence of that outfit. All his Patience Activity and Perseverance, were necessary, to carry that affair through: and the Cost was immense.
I am not able to answer your Question, concerning the fate of a Vessell of yours, which should be carried into England by a Privateer: because I am not able to comprehend nor to penetrate the System of the New Ministry. Perhaps it may, devellope itself, soon.
It is with Pleasure I am able to inform you, that, the Sovereignty of the United States of America has been Acknowledged, in the most Solemn, unanimous and glorious manner, by the Bodies of Artisans, Merchants, Professions Citizens, and Colledges by the Cities { 471 } Provinces, States General, Prince and Princess of orange. A more manly and decided Honour has never yet been done to our Country. I need not entertain you with a detail, of the Difficulties, Discouragements, and Mortifications, through which We have had the good Fortune to arrive at this honourable Result. I should be Sorry to tell them to the present Age, and think it almost a Pity they should be known to Posterity.
Whatever the World may Say, this nation has great Qualities. They lie deep it is true: but when an occasion presents which calls them forth, they show themselves with great Eclat.

[salute] With much Esteem, I have the Honour to be Sir your most obedient humble sert

[signed] J. Adams
RC (private owner, 1963).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0310

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Fizeaux, Grand & Co. (business)
Recipient: Hodshon, John, & Son (business)
Recipient: Crommelin, Daniel, & Son (business)
Recipient: Staphorst, Nicolaas & Jacob van (business)
Recipient: Neufville, Jean de, & Fils (business)
Date: 1782-04-30

To Fizeaux, Grand & Co. and Others

1. If the Houses of Fizeaux Grand & Co. John Hodshon & Son Mess. Crommelin, Mess. Van Staphorst, Mess. De la Lande & Fynje and Mr. John de Neufville & Son, will all join together in an American Loan, Mr. Adams will open it without demanding any Stipulations for any certain Sum.
2d. If the first Proposition is not agreed to, Mr. Adams will open a Loan with as many of these Houses as will agree together, and enter into a Stipulation with him to furnish the sum of Five Millions by the Month of August.
3d. If no Number of Houses will join, Mr. Adams will open the Loan with any One that will first undertake and contract to furnish that Sum.
4d. Mr. Adams proposes that all those Gentlemen should meet and consult upon the Matter and propose their Thoughts.1
Tr (PCC, Misc. Papers, Reel No. 4, f. 700). This copy was enclosed by Nicolaas and Jacob van Staphorst in their letter of 24 Nov. 1785 to John Jay, for which see note 1.
1. With this letter JA sought to bring banking firms allied to the Patriot party into the effort to raise an American loan. His intention was to increase the loan’s chances for success by appeasing those critical of his choice of John Hodshon & Zoon for the task, most notably Nicolaas and Jacob van Staphorst, for which see John Thaxter’s letter of 22 April, and note 2, above. This letter, however, did not achieve JA’s purpose. In their letter of 24 Nov. 1785 to Jay the van Staphorsts offered a critical assessment of JA’s financial dealings in the Netherlands: “We received a Note from him, a Copy whereof { 472 } We take the Liberty to inclose you [see descriptive note], proposing a Junction of Houses, the like of which was never known here, and that was therefore refused by all solid Persons. We at this time waited upon him, and presumed to call to His Remembrance all what we had told him, which had been confirmed by the Event; But as we spoke the Language of Men accustomed to Truth, and not as insinuating Flatterers, We met with no success, We were on the contrary treated as People, who had occasioned the Miscarriage of his inconsiderate Efforts with Mr. Hodshon, and were shewn the door with Rudeness. From which time We should not have waited any more upon Mr. Adams. Had we not been intreated to it by a Person of great Consideration since dead, Who promised us that in this Conjuncture Mr. Adams would in a proper Manner, propose to employ us in the Negotiation of a Loan. Hereupon We returned to him, when he proposed to us the Junction, which was afterwards fixed upon.” On 11 June 1782JA received a letter from the firms of Wilhem & Jan Willink, Nicolaas & Jacob van Staphorst, and De la Lande & Fynje discussing the loan’s terms (Adams Papers). The names of the firms are given here in the order of their signatures on the letter, which presumably reflected their standing within the consortium.
Although John Hodshon was displaced from the American loan his relationship with JA continued. Hodshon assisted JA in the move from his residence in Amsterdam to the Hôtel des Etats Unis at The Hague (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:321). And on 13 June (LbC, Adams Papers) JA wrote that “Justice and Gratitude will forever oblige me to Say, that your Conduct through the whole affair [the loan], was that of a Man of Honour, a Gentleman and a true Friend of the United States of America.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0311

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Luzac, Jean
Date: 1782-04-30

To Jean Luzac

[salute] Sir

I ought to make an apology, for delaying So long to answer your Favour of the Sixteenth accompanied with Some printed Copies, of the Address of Thanks from the Body of Merchants and Manufacturers of the City of Leyden, to the great Council.
The great Qualities, which this Nation has always displayed upon occasions proper to call them Forth, appear with too much Splendour upon this occasion to be mistaken.
Dft? (Adams Papers); docketed in an unidentified hand: “John Adams 1782.”
1. The next extant letter from JA to Luzac is 18 Feb. 1783 (LbC, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0312

Author: Bracht, Herman van
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-30

From Herman van Bracht

[salute] Sir

I have the honour to return you, with many thanks the collection of the constitutions of America, which you was So obliging as lend me, the translation of the pieces I wanted to compleat the whole, is finishd, and the printer Mr. F wanner of this city, is making all possible diligence with the Impression, So that I hope it will be publish’d in a month or two.1
The readiness and politeness with which you acquiesed to my { 473 } former request encourages me to ask Some more favours from you. It appears to me that the Treaty of commerce now on the carpet between the States of America (and which I presume will be Soon concluded) and this Republic, would form a very proper appendix to the present publication, if it Strikes you in the Same light, and you Should think it Sufficiently advanced to insert it, I would request a copy of it as Soon as possible. But This I must leave intirely to your discretion—but another request I have to make, in the printers name as well as my own, as it depends intirely upon your Self, I hope you will not refuse: as the first part of the work was dedicated (I think with great propriety) to the pensionary Van Berkel and with his permission, it Will afford the printer and me great Satisfaction, if he may be allowd to dedicate this part to you.2
I observe by the 11 Article of the Treaty of commerce with France that the plenipitentiaries have taken care that the Americans Should not become liable to the Droit daubaine and Droit le Detraction. This induces me to take the liberty of informing you that a Similar unjust Law prevails in the cities of Holland, by which they have a right to demand (and this not less than 10 perCt) upon all heritages, as well abintestato as extestamento which, fall within and are carried out of their Jurisdictions, an act of Injustice founded upon a remnant of that enormous power possess’d by the old Courts of Holland, and however adapted it may have been to those feudal times, I am persuaded it is at present impolitic; Indeed most of the cities are So Sensible of this, that they have mutually desisted from this right upon each other, but Foreigners are Still liable to it, It is calld het regt van Exu or Exu geld.3
Congratulating you Sir on your admission as Envoy plenipitentiary by the States, assuring you of my constant esteem en Sincere offers of my Service I remain Sir Your Most obed: Servt.
[signed] Herman van Bracht
1. Van Bracht returned The Constitutions of the Several Independent States of America; . . . , Phila., 1781, that JA lent him in February (to van Bracht, 1 Feb., above). Translated into Dutch, it formed the second volume of Verzameling van de Constitutien . . . van Amerika, . . . , 2 vols., Dordrecht, 1781–1782, which appeared in August (from van Bracht, 12 Aug., Adams Papers). Two sets of the edition are in JA’s library at MB (Catalogue of JA’s Library).
2. JA replied on 3 May (LbC, Adams Papers), indicating that he thought it inappropriate to publish the Dutch-American treaty prior to its ratification, but consenting to the proposed dedication so long as “nothing be said offensive to any one.”
3. The droit d’aubain was the right of the French king to seize the property of deceased foreigners. The droit de detraction was a tax paid on property moved out of France. Americans were exempted from both by Art. 11 of { 474 } the Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:10–11). An exemption, similar to that in the Franco-American treaty and presumably intended to cope with such laws as mentioned by van Bracht, was included as Art. 6 of Congress’ plan of [29 Dec. 1780] for a treaty with the Netherlands (vol. 10:452), and was included as Art. 6 in the Dutch-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce concluded on 8 Oct. 1782 (Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:65–66).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0313-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-30

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Dans l’embarras de notre déménagement, qui aura lieu demain, je n’ai plus qu’un coffre sur lequel je puisse vous écrire la présente. Vous verrez par l’incluse de Mr. Nolet de Schiedam, et par la copie de ma réponse provisionnelle, ce que vous jugerez à propos de leur répondre Vous-même.1 En vous souvenant cependant, que vous avez accepté un Déjeuner chez Mr. et Made. Boreel ici, le 6e de May. On m’a dit, que ces Messieurs de Schiedam donneront un repas de 100 couverts, et qu’il y aura beaucoup de personnes de Rotterdam. Je dois vous faire souvenir aussi, que ces Messieurs voudroient savoir le jour une semaine d’avance, à cause des préparatifs. Si vous pouviez donc, dès à présent, leur fixer un jour de la 2e semaine du mois de may, vous leur feriez grand plaisir. Je pense que le meilleur seroit, Monsieur, que vous leur indiquassiez l’heure où vous serez à Delft dans votre voiture, afin que vous puissiez entrer là dans leur Yacht, si vous ne voulez pas qu’il vienne vous prendre ici; ce qui, selon moi vaudroit encore mieux. Vous prendrez après cela le parti qui Sera le plus de votre goût. Quant à moi, je n’ai pas la moindre objection ni repugnance à rester ici ce jour-là, et tenir compagnie à ma femme et à ma fille, pendant la fête, à laquelle nous serons charmés d’apprendre la satisfaction que vous y aurez eue, ainsi que Mr. Thaxter que nous saluons cordialement.

[salute] Je suis avec un grand respect, Monsieur Votre très-humble et très-obéissant serviteur

[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0313-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-30

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

With all the commotion of moving tomorrow, I have only a trunk on which to write this letter to you. You will see from the enclosed letter from Mr. Nolet of Schiedam, and from the copy of my provisional reply, what will be necessary in your own response.1 Meantime, I would like to remind you that you have accepted a dinner invitation at Mr. and Mrs. Boreel’s home here on the 6th of May. I was told that the people from Schiedam { 475 } are preparing a meal composed of 100 dishes, and that there will be many people from Rotterdam there. I must also remind you that you need to choose a date one week in advance, because of all the necessary preparations. Now, if you could choose a date during the second week of May, they would be greatly pleased. I think it would be best, sir, if you indicate the time that you will be in Delft in your carriage, so you can continue on in their yacht if you do not want them to come here to get you. I think this would be better. You can decide, after that, to do whatever pleases you. As for me, I do not have the least objection or reluctance to stay here on that day, in the company of my wife and daughter, during the celebration. We will be delighted to learn of the pleasant time you will have had there, as well as Mr. Thaxter, to whom we send our cordial regards.

[salute] I am with great respect, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Dumas
RC and two enclosures (Adams Papers). Filmed at (3 April 1782 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 356).
1. In a letter of 29 April addressed to Dumas as JA’s secretary (JA, Works, 7:577–578), Jacobus Nolet invited JA to a dinner in his honor to be given by the merchants of Schiedam in the first or second week of May. Dumas replied on 30 April (Adams Papers) that he was an American agent in correspondence with Congress and that John Thaxter was JA’s secretary. Thaxter was thus the proper person to apply to with regard to the proposed dinner. Nonetheless Dumas indicated that the pressure of events and business would likely prevent JA’s attendance. JA replied to Dumas on 2 May (||available in Papers of John Adams, vol. 13; ||Works, 7:578–579), indicating his desire to be excused from the “affectionate, as well as polite invitation do dine at Schiedam,” but he left the matter in Dumas’ hands. On 8 May, Dumas informed the city of Schiedam that JA would be unable to attend but that he was fully sensible of the honor and friendship for himself and the United States manifested by the invitation (PCC, Misc. Papers, Reel No. 2, f. 470).
Cite web page as: Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses, ed.C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2014.
http://www.masshist.org/apde2/