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Browsing: Papers of John Adams, Volume 12


Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0255

Author: Digges, Thomas
Author: JW
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-09

From Thomas Digges

[salute] Dear Sir

I have not yet been able to see Mr L, he having left Town just before my return to it and not having got back till yesterday. Without my urging to Lord S–ne the propriety of immediately speaking to Mr L on the matter of my message to You and for releasing him from every tye here, I found His Lordship had concluded to make his approaches to that quarter, for most assuredly it is the right one, and I beleive He was purposely calld to Town about it.1 If they mean any thing sincere and direct that is the road and I hope they are about it. I could wish however I had it more in my power than I now have to say I had clearly discoverd the intentions of the new set, at least those I have conversd with viz Lord S–ne, Lord C–d–n, Genl Conway and Lord K– to be that of going to Peace with America on the avowd basis of Independence. Every voice pronounces it to be their intention, but I like a little more open declaration for so doing. Time will shew what is meant, but I own appearances at present do not please me.
There is a universal conversation and opinion got forth for a seperate peace with Holland built intirely upon the re-opening the Empress the mediation for Peace; and the new ministers have got credit with the publick for the active manner they went to work to renew it. The whole of the Cabinet seem to be well likd by the People and much praises are forth, for their vigorous exertions in the naval line in particular. America seems to be forgot, for one never { 399 } hears now about Her, save when some blunderhead holds forth for seperate Peace with America and Holland and a hearty drubbing to the French. John Bull will keep up this sort of language as long I beleive as He can roar out anything.
I have had every indulgence shewn me toward the recovery of my papers;2 but altho I have a Chart Blanch to search in the office, things are not yet so entrain in the new offices as to have things in proper order for looking over. Notwithstanding the savage practice of every Minister when he goes out of office making a sweep and taking all papers he likes with Him, I have yet the hopes of soon getting the material part of mine; and if ever after that I am a supplicant for any favour in England I hope I shall be foild. I have been more than commonly lucky with the Admy Departmt for I have with very little or no trouble got the prisoners who were brot from Mill Prison by Habeas Corpus as evidences in the case of Luke Rian and Captain McCator releasd from going back to Confinement, and got passes for the two who were tryed for their Lives and acquitted. These, together with 7 or 8 arrivd to day from the West will shortly move over, and one of them will see You.
If there are any papers in the Request or Memorial way come forth since I got the last, please to Send them by a Young Man I recommended to You from Ostend3—They are all translating and will be put into the Remembrancer with any preface or other additions You may think fit. Any thing for news paper publication will be immideately attended to if sent according to the direction left.

[salute] I am with great respect yrs

[signed] JW
1. At Plymouth on 2 April, Laurens received a 30 March letter from Benjamin Vaughan informing him that Lord Shelburne wished to see him “without delay” (Laurens, Papers, 15:475–476). In the wake of the Shelburne-Laurens meeting on 4 April rumors regarding peace were rife in the London press. For example, the Morning Herald of 10 April reported conversations between Laurens, Rockingham, Shelburne, and Fox over the terms for re-establishing the peace that included acceptance of the Declaration of Independence; an American minister at London; the evacuation of New York and Charleston; the restoration of Georgia; British retention of Florida, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Canada; a commercial treaty; Britain's admission to the American market as a most favored nation; and finally, and contradictorily, “The King of England to cede Canada and Florida to the Congress, and to pay all their debts, and they in return to recognize his writ in America and let him be thier nominal Sovereign. His Majesty to be King of America; but the purse, the sword, and the appointment to all offices, to be in Congress." Another report appeared in various newspapers, including the Morning Herald of 17 April, that Benjamin Franklin, JA, and Henry Laurens were in London negotiating a peace treaty. This led the General Advertiser and Morning Intelligencer of 17 April to declare that the report was not only false, Laurens having left London, but { 400 } that "our readers may rely on the following assurance, that without admitting the Independency of America, the Commissioners from Congress in Europe cannot even open a negociation.”
2. Digges was arrested and his papers seized in May 1781, presumably as a consequence of his known service to the American cause and his association with John Trumbull who was arrested in Nov. 1780 (vol. 10: 366; Digges, Letters, p. li-lii).
3. Probably Jacob Sarley.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0256

Author: Johnson, Joshua
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-09

From Joshua Johnson

[salute] Sir

My last was on the 30th. October; Two Days ago I received by the hands of Mr. George Harrison your introductory Letter,1 to which every respect shall be paid, and attention shewn this Young Gent. that is in my power. I am glad to hear from you as well as others that the Dutch are at length takeing steps to acknowledge the Independancy of America, it would be well that they were more active about it, if they are not perhaps the English will be beforehand with them.
I should not have troubled you at this time was it not to inform you that a Vessell has Just arrived from the Chesapeak who left York Town on the 18th Ultimo, nothing has happened there betwen the Armies and all was quiet, but the Trade which was as much interrupted as ever; the Chattam and several English Frigates being Cruzeing on the Coast prevented the French from shewing their Noses. One of the Latters Frigates were forced on Shore to the Southward of the Cape Henry and is intirely lost.2 Several of the New York Privateers have been up the Chesapeak as high as Patowmack and done a good deal of mischeif so that the Dutch will recieve but very little Tobacco this Year. I know of but one Ship bound to Amsterdam and she saild in Co. with this.
Should any steps be taken towards bringing about Peace you will confer an everlasting obligation on me to drop me any hints consistent with your Character and Office and which shall ever be acknowledged by, Sir Your most Obedt. Hbe. Serv
[signed] Joshua Johnson
P.S. Colo. Benjn. Harrison is appointed Governor of the State of Virginia and Arthur Lee Esqr. a Member in Congress.
1. Letter not found. For George Harrison, see Benjamin Rush’s letter of 23 June 1781, and note 1 (vol. 11:388).
2. Probably the 26-gun frigate Diligente, which was wrecked on 5 Feb. (Dull, French Navy and Amer. Independence, p. 356, 358).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0257-0001

Author: La Vauguyon, Paul François de Quélen de Stuer de Causade, Duc de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-09

From the Duc de La Vauguyon

Je me Suis empressé Monsieur de transmettre a Monsieur Le Comte de Vergennes Les temoignages de franchise et de loyauté que vous m’avez donné. Ce ministre me repond qu’ils confirment de plus en plus sa confiance dans votre attachement invariable aux principes de l’alliance et il me charge de vous Communiquer des Détails tres interessants dont j’aurai L’honneur de vous faire part incessamment s’il m’est possible d’aller passer quelques jours a amsterdam ainsi que je me le propose.

[salute] Recevez Monsieur une nouvelle assurance des Sentiments inviolables d’attachement et de consideration tres distinguee avec lesquels j’ai lhonneur d’etre votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur

[signed] Le Duc De La vauguyon

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0257-0002

Author: La Vauguyon, Paul François de Quélen de Stuer de Causade, Duc de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-09

The Duc de La Vauguyon to John Adams: A Translation

I was eager to convey the expressions of candor and loyalty you have given me to the Comte de Vergennes. The minister tells me that they more and more confirm his confidence in your unwavering attachment to the principles of the alliance, and that he is giving me the responsibility of communicating the very interesting details to you. I would have the honor of doing this very shortly if it is possible, as I propose, to spend a few days in Amsterdam.

[salute] Please receive, sir, renewed assurance of the inviolable sentiments of affection and of the very distinguished consideration with which I have the honor to be your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Le Duc De La vauguyon
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Le Duc de la Vauguion. 9. April 1782”; notation by CFA: “[The answer?] to this published—See Dip Corr. Vol. 6. p 329. but not this.” CFA’s reference is to The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, ed. Jared Sparks, 12 vols., Boston, 1829–1830, and JA’s reply to La Vauguyon of 10 April, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0258

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: La Vauguyon, Paul François de Quélen de Stuer de Causade, Duc de
Date: 1782-04-10

To the Duc de La Vauguyon

[salute] Monsieur Le Duc

I have this moment recd. the letter which You did me the honor to write me yesterday, with a letter inclosed from Mr. Franklin.1
{ 402 }
The Approbation of Monsieur Le Comte de Vergennes is a great satisfaction to me, and I shall be very happy to learn from You, Sir, at Amsterdam the details You allude to.
I have a Letter from Diggs at London 2d. April, informing me that he had communicated what had passed between him and me to the Earl of Shelburne, who did not like the Circumstance that every thing must be communicated to our Allies. He says that Lord Carmaerthen is to be sent to the Hague to negotiate a seperate Peace with Holland. But according to all appearances Holland as well as America will have too much Wit to enter into any seperate Negotiations.
I have the pleasure to inform You that Gillon has arrived at the Havanna with five rich Jamaica ships as Prizes. Mr. Le Roy writes that the English have evacuated Charlestown.2
The inclosed fresh Requete of Amsterdam will shew your Excellency, that there is little probability of the Dutchmen being decieved into seperate Conferences.3

[salute] With the most profound Respect, I have the honor to be, Sir, &c

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. Probably Franklin’s letter of 31 March, above.
2. Alexander Gillon and the South Carolina arrived in Havana on 13 Jan. with five prizes that he sold for £23,066, or approximately 150,000 Spanish milled dollars. Considerable controversy was generated by Gillon’s division of the proceeds from the sale, particularly the amount that he kept for himself and that which he alloted to the Chevalier de Luxembourg, the owner of the South Carolina. Not until 1854 did South Carolina reach a final settlement with Luxembourg’s heirs (Louis F. Middlebrook, The Frigate “South Carolina”: A Famous Revolutionary War Ship, Salem, 1929, p. 9; Laurens, Papers, 16:12–13). Herman Le Roy’s report of Charleston’s evacuation was erroneous.
3. This was the tenth document included by JA in his letter of 19 March to Robert R. Livingston, calendared above. In their petition, the merchants of Amsterdam opposed the British offer of an immediate peace and acceptance of the Russian mediation of the Anglo-Dutch war, calling it the proposal of an exhausted enemy. To accept such an offer would preclude the Netherlands from participating in a general peace at which the British would be forced to offer better terms. For the British offer, see JA to van der Capellen, 6 April, and note 1, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0259-0001

Author: Abbema, Balthasar Elias
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-11

From Balthasar Elias Abbema

[salute] Monsieur

Je Serois bien flatté, Si j’etois le premier a Vous informer, que les Etats de la Prove. d’Utrecht ont pris hier unanimement la Resolution de concourir avec les Autres Provinces à Votre admission, comme Ministre Plenipot. du Congres des Prov. Unies de l’Amer• { 403 } ique;1 Je viens d’en recevoir la nouvelle de Mon frere, Membre du Tiers Etat de la dite Province: Je profite toujours de cette occasion de Vous assurer, Monsieur, de l’estime particuliere et de la consideration distinguée, avec lesquels J’ai l’honneur d’etre, Monsieur, Votre tres humble et tres Obeissant Serviteur
[signed] B E Abbema

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0259-0002

Author: Abbema, Balthasar Elias
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-11

Balthasar Elias Abbema to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I will be very flattered if I am the first to inform you that the Provincial States of Utrecht yesterday adopted unanimously the resolution concurring with the other provinces for your admission as minister plenipotentiary of the Congress of the United Provinces of America.1 I received this news from my brother, a member of the third estate of the said province. I take advantage of this occasion as always to assure you, sir, of the particular esteem and the distinguished consideration with which I have the honor to be, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant,
[signed] B E Abbema
1. No copy of the Dutch text of the resolution adopted by Utrecht on 10 April is in the Adams Papers, but JA included an English translation in his letter of 19 April to Robert R. Livingston, below, and in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 88–89.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0260

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Abbema, Balthasar Elias
Date: 1782-04-11

To Balthasar Elias Abbema

[salute] Sir

Your favor of this morning, announcing the unanimous Resolution of the States of Utrecht taken yesterday in favor of American Independence, is just come to hand. I had recieved a few Minutes before a french Gazette of Utrecht, containing the same Article: but I am very happy to recieve it in a more authentick manner from a Gentleman of so distinguished a Reputation for Patriotism. The Unanimity and Ardor, with which this Measure is adopted by the whole Nation, is to me an affecting Circumstance, and an Augur of much Good to both Nations. With great Esteem and Consideration, I have the honor to be Sir, &c &c
LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0261

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Freeman, James
Date: 1782-04-11

To James Freeman

[salute] Sir

I have just now recd. your kind favor of the 9th. and thank You for the Communication of Dr. Waterhouse’s Letter, which has been a very agreable Entertainment to me.1 I am very glad of Gillon’s success, and that so candid and sensible a Judge as the Dr. still retains his Charity for him.
Am much obliged by your Congratulations on the prosperous Appearance of our affairs. I have just recd. authentic Information of the unanimous Resolution of the States of the Province of Utrecht, taken yesterday in favor of my Admission to an Audience. Guelderland and Groningen2 are all that remain, and I hope that ten or twelve days at furthest will produce a perfect Unanimity. I have the honor to be with great Esteem, Sir, your obliged & ob. Servt.
LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. Freeman wrote from Rotterdam on 9 April (Adams Papers), describing himself as “a Merchant and Citoyen du monde.” He enclosed a letter, apparently from Benjamin Waterhouse, and requested that it be returned after JA read it.
2. In fact, Groningen acted on 9 April and Gelderland would do so on the 17th. See JA to Robert R. Livingston, 19 April, below, and A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 86–87, 90–91.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0262

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Pauli, Johann Ulrich
Date: 1782-04-11

To Johann Ulrich Pauli

[salute] Sir

I am honored with your letter of the 5th. instant, and thank You for your polite Invitation to Hambourg, a Journey which it would give me pleasure to make, but which various Occupations will oblige me at least to postpone for sometime.
In Answer to your Inquiries, Sir, I have only to say that at present I have no Powers from the United States of America to treat with the Hanseatic Cities: but their Situation is such that there will be infallibly a considerable Trade between them and America, and therefore I know of no Objection against the Congress entering into Negotiations with them.
If any Gentleman authorized by them should have any Proposals to make, I will transmit them with Pleasure to Congress for their Consideration, only desiring that they may be either in the English or French Language, as the German is unknown to me and to most of the Members of Congress.1
{ 405 }

[salute] I have the honor to be, very respectfully, Sir, your most obedient & most humble Servant.

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. No proposals were submitted to JA for transmission to Congress.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0263

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Searle, James
Date: 1782-04-11

To James Searle

[salute] Dear Sir

I am long in your debt, and therefore must beg your Patience on Account of bad health and many Occupations. The rapid Revolution in the Minds of this Nation, and the unaccountable Ardor and Unanimity, which has at last seized upon them for connecting themselves with America have occasioned me so many Visits to recieve and return, and so many complimentary Letters to answer, as added to other more important Affairs have been more than I could perform. Five Provinces, Friesland, Holland, Zealand, Overyssell and Utrecht, have already decided with an Unanimity that is astonishing, and the two others, Guelderland and Groningen, it is supposed will determine as soon as they meet, which will be the 16. current: so that I suppose We shall have one Ally more in a short time.
I know not of how much Importance this Acquisition may be thought by others, but I have ever considered it as a leading Step, and hope it may be followed by other Nations; at least it will be a refutation of the many frivolous Arguments with which some People have been long employed in doing mischief.
Gillon has been fortunate at last. His Prizes at the Havanna it is said will sell for eighty thousand pounds sterling.
If the whole Body of Dutch Merchants do not understand their own Interest and the Nature and Connections of Commerce, it will not be easy to find any body who is Master of it. Their Requetes are a compleat Refutation of all the Anglomany in Europe, if sound Reason can refute it.

[salute] With great Esteem and Regard, I have the honor to be, Sir, &c

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0264

Author: Laurens, Henry
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-12

From Henry Laurens

[salute] Dear Sir

If you can recollect the hand writing of an old friend as it is presum’d you will, put full confidence in Mr William the bearer of this,1 and give him your direction without a moments delay for the further steps of—
[signed] Henry L.
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “The Honorable John Adams Esquire Hague.”; endorsed: “Henry L.”
1. William Vaughan, who delivered Henry Laurens’ first direct communication with JA since his release from the Tower of London, was the younger brother of Benjamin Vaughan, a protégé of Lord Shelburne. Benjamin Vaughan acted as an intermediary between Laurens and Shelburne (Laurens, Papers, 15:474–476, 482).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0265

Author: Bondfield, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-13

From John Bondfield

[salute] Sir

We have advices from Edenton in North Carolina so late as the 14th March brought by a vessel arrived at this port the 9th Instant one of my Letters contains “It is reported an attack against Charles Town is preparing by General green 2000 Militia of this State is orderd emidiately to join him and all the Troops from Virginia have marchd some time past.” By the Captain I learn a Number of Transports were arrived at Charles Town the English gave out they had Troops on board. They received certain advices to the contrary that they arrivd in Ballast and was there to wait the event that in case of Nessessity the British army might have the means to retreat to New York or Jamaica.
By a Packet arrived at Couronna from the Havannah we have advice of the arrival of Comre Gillon at that Port with five rich homewardbound Jamaica Men, a fortunate event as it will ease the State of South Carolina from the heavy expence of that outfit having we flatter ourselves werewith to reimburss the Engagements enterd into in Europe by Mr Gillon on that account.
We are at a loss to construe the Intentions of the British ministry in stoping the Issueing of Commissions against American Vessels and calling in them that are out. If under these circumstances a Vessel of mine should be carried into England by a Privateer or other Commissiond Vessel not having a Commission against amer• { 407 } ica only against France or other the Belegerant Powers in Europe is it your opinion that being reclaimd by my agent as my property she would be recoverd. I should be obliged to you for your sentiments being an object of the greatest Interest in a Commercial line.

[salute] Renewing my congratulation on your Progress I have the Honor to be with due respect Sir your most Obedient Humble Servant

[signed] John Bondfield
We have two Vessels for Philadelphia will sail in about 1 month.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0266

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-13

From Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

Inclosed with this I send to your Excellency the Pacquet of Correspondence between Mr Hartley and me which I promised in my last.1 You will see we have held nearly the same Language which gives me Pleasure.
While Mr Hartley was making Propositions to me, with the Approbation or Privity of Lord North, to treat separately from France, that Minister had an Emissary here, a Mr Forth, formerly a Secretary of Lord Stormonts, making Proposals to induce this Court to treat with us. I understand that several Sacrifices were offer’d to be made, and among the rest Canada to be given up to France. The Substance of the Answer appears in my last Letter to Mr Hartley. But there is a Sentence omitted in that Letter which I much liked, viz: “that whenever the two Crowns should come to treat, his most Christian Majesty would shew how much the Engagements he might enter into were to be rely’d on by his exact observance of those he already had with his present Allies.”2
If you have received anything in consequence of your Answer by Digges, you will oblige me by communicating it. The Ministers here were much pleased with the Account given them of your Interview, by the Ambassador.

[salute] With great Respect, I am, Sir, Your most obedient & most humble Servant.

[signed] B Franklin
You will be so good as to return me the Papers when you have a good Opportunity.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Dr Franklin. Ap. 13. 1782.”
{ 408 }
1. Of 31 March, above. The packet likely included David Hartley’s letters to Franklin of 2 and 24 Jan., 1 and 28 Feb., 11, 12, and 21 March; and Franklin’s replies of 15 Jan., 16 Feb., 31 March, 5 and 13 April (Franklin, Papers, 36:359–365, 472–476, 525–526, 623–624, 684–685, 688–689, 435–438, 583–585; 37:18–19, 78–79, 94–96, 143–144). Hartley’s letters centered on proposals for a separate peace, while Franklin’s replies sought to dispel any notion on the part of Hartley and the North or Rockingham ministries that such an outcome was possible.
2. The British emissary, Nathaniel Parker Forth, reportedly offered negotiations on the basis of a worldwide uti possidetis and concessions that included the restoration of full French sovereignty over Dunkerque (Morris, Peacemakers, p. 254). Such proposals might well have been acceptable to France in mid-1781, but by spring 1782 the war’s progress and the unsettled British political situation made negotiations as proposed by Forth and Hartley and implied by Digges as unacceptable to France as they were to the United States. Franklin reported to Hartley that France’s reply to Forth declared
“that the King of France is as desirous of peace as the King of England, and that he would accede to it as soon as he could with dignity and safety: but it is a matter of the last importance for his most Christian majesty to know whether the court of London is disposed to treat on equal terms with the allies of France” (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:304).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0267

Author: Brouwer, Hendrik, Chs. zoon
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-15

From Hendrik Brouwer Chs. zoon

[salute] Yoúr Excellencý

I foúnd mý Self Singúlerý honnerd with Yoúr most gracioús Oblidging Answer úpon my letter of 31 Marsch1 and I thank Yr Exc: Sincerelý for the news yoú gave me that Zeeland and Overyssel had followed the Exempel of Holland and Vriesland, two Other Provinces have Since Declared there Selfs upon the Same footing, onlý remains now Gelderland, and I am verý Certain they wil Conclúd next frydaý in the Assemble of oúr States General, becaúse theý are resolved likewise, as the other 6 proúvinces, I thank the Almightý God, this nessessarý work has been Crownd with oúr wishes, for the welfearth of America and oúr Coúntry, in Spyt of á Nation whose Ambition went So far to Predominate (if Possibel) the Whole worreld, God lives and does Jústice to Everý man, he is the Only Upon whom me múst trúst.
It is not happy for Yr Exc: yoú wil do any thing in Your Power to facilitate Commercial Connections, between the Merchants in America and my hoúse and those of mý friends, Your Goodnes and Good harth, Dicteted Your letter and by the Contrarý we find our Selfs happý Your Exc wil len us Yoúr Strong Arm to be needfúl both to the Merschants in America and Oúr Selvs; and bý Súcces en following times we Schal Schow Yoú that we are thankfully for a trúe friendschip.
I Congratulate Yr Exc: with the happý Passage of Commodore { 409 } Gillon (my Intime Old friend) and the prises he has made in his waý, verý lukky indeed, Inclosed Yoú find the list of my friends in my former neglated,2 which I hope Yoú’l Excuse, the first 6 Gentlemen Upon this list with foúr Other who are not in trade have resolved to fit Oút thrie Prevateers, One is Since three weeks at Zea, the Second wil Sail in 8 or 10 Days, and the thirth in 3 Weeks this last is a loúger3 who wil be Commanded bý oúr brother Charles Yoúng from Charles town, I hope theý maý have a little bit of Mr Gillon’s luk not for our Intrest, but Only that we Could Gratulate oúr Selfs that we have Punischd, So much in Oúr Power Oúr Eennemý.
A Certain Gentleman in partnership with an English hoúse here, born in America, Whose God father was general Gates and who’s Brother went in the Kings Service During the troúbles in America, Dyed with his Sword in his hand Against his American Brothers, against his fatherland, t’his Same Gentleman Showd his Self in Public Conversations always to be an Ennemý to his fatherland, America, and now because the Carts are Changed, he is of Intention to retúrn to America Certainly to make his fortune, with Ambition, to Come in Certain Degree or Emploý, I make no Doúbt or he has alreadý be low anoúgh, to Sollicitate Yr Exc– for this or other, which Can be him needfúl, my Intention is onlý to Prevent Yr Exc–s how he thoúgt before I woud Do the least Injustice to no man bút I Schould be Sorrý that a renegate Schoúld have the preferense of Aný honnest man in America.4 I beg Yoú’l Excúse that I write or Explain mý Self So badly in the Englisch Langúage, bút I flatter my Self it wil be Stil agreabler as Dutch.
I thank Yr Exc for my Schare for the Humbly Letter Yoú wrote to Mr Dubbeldemúts, in thanking us for oúr Actifity by Oúr reqúest, it was onlý Oúr Dutý for oúr Selfs welfearth and trade, I hope I Schal once be honoúred by Yoúr Exc presence, and that Yoú’l allow me to be with the Utmost Veneration respectfully Your Excellencý Most Humbly & Obedt Servt
[signed] Hendrik Brouwer Chs zoon
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed by John Thaxter: “Mr Brouwer Chs Z 15th. April 1782.”
1. The endorsement on Brouwer’s letter of 31 March, above, indicates that JA replied on 7 April, but that letter has not been found.
2. This enclosure has not been found.
3. Presumably a lugger, a small boat with two or three masts, each carrying a lugsail, hence its name.
4. This person remains unidentified.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0268

Author: Jay, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-15

From John Jay

[salute] Sir

Many weeks have elapsed since I recd. a Letter from our Country, but a Packet of News papers, which I think must have been sent from the office of the Secretary for foreign affairs, was brought to me by the last Post from Bilboa. They contain nothing very interesting. There is a Paragraph in one of them under the Boston Head which mentions the safe arrival of the Cicero Capt. Hill, and among other Passengers who came in her, I find your son is particularly named. As you might not have had any advices of this Circumstance, I take this first opportunity of communicating it, and sincerely congratulate you on the occasion.1
We hear that affairs with You are very promising and that the Dutch are on the point of acknowledging our Independence. Things here begin to look a little better, but as yet I dare not flatter myself or you.

[salute] With great Regard & Esteem, I am Sir your most obt Servt

[signed] John Jay
1. While the source of the news has not been determined, JA knew of CA’s arrival in Massachusetts by 28 April when he wrote to Francis Dana, below, and JQA (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:317). CA’s arrival at Beverly, Mass., on 21 Jan. was reported in the Boston newspapers, including the Independent Chronicle of 24 January.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0269

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Franklin, Benjamin
Date: 1782-04-16

To Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

Yesterday noon, Mr William Vaughan of London, came to my House, with Mr Laurens, the son of the President,1 and brought me a Line from the latter, and told me, that the President was at Harlem, and desired to see me. I went out to Haerlem and found, my old Friend at the golden Lyon.
He told me that he was come partly for his Health and the Pleasure of seeing me and partly, to converse with me and see if he had at present just Ideas and Views of Things, at least to see if We agreed in Sentiment, and having been desired by Several of the new Ministry to do so.2
{ 411 }
I asked him if he was at Liberty? He said no, that he was still under Palole but at Liberty to say what he pleased to me.
I told him that I could not communicate to him, being a Prisoner even his own Instructions, nor enter into any Consultation with him as one of our Colleagues in the Commission for Peace. That all I should Say to him would be as one private Citizen conversing with another. But that upon all such occasions I Should reserve a right to communicate whatever Should pass to our Colleagues and allies.
He Said that Lord shelburne and others of the new Ministers, were anxious to know whether, there was any authority to treat of a Seperate Peace, and whether there could be an accommodation, upon any Terms short of Independance. That he had ever answrd them, that nothing short of an express or tacit Acknowledgement of our Independence, in his opinion would ever be accepted, and that no Treaty ever would or could be made Seperate from France. He asked me if his answers had been right? I told him I was fully of that opinion.
He Said that the new Ministers had received Digges Report, but his Character was such that they did not choose to depend upon it. That a Person, by the Name of oswald I think set off for Paris to see you, about the same time, that he came away to see me.3
I desired him, between him and me to consider, without Saying any thing of it to the Ministry whether We could ever have a real Peace with Canada or Nova Scotia in the Hands of the English? and whether, We ought not to insist, at least upon a Stipulation that they should keep no standing army or regular Troops, nor erect any fortifications, upon the frontiers of either. That at present I saw no Motive that We had to be anxious for a Peace, and if this nation was not ripe for it, upon proper terms, We might wait patiently till they should be so.
I found the old Gentleman, perfectly sound in his system of Politiques. He has a very poor opinion both of the Integrity and abilities of the new Ministry as well as the old. He thinks they know not what they are about. That they are Spoiled by the same Insincerity, Duplicity Falshood, and Corruption, with the former. Ld shelburne still flatters the King with Ideas of Conciliation and seperate Peace &c. Yet the Nation and the best Men in it, are for an universal Peace and an express Acknowledgment of American Independence, and many of the best are for giving up Canada and Nova scotia.
{ 412 }
His Design seemed to be, solely, to know how far Diggs’s Report was true. After an hour or two of Conversation, I returned to Amsterdam and left him to return to London.4
These are all but Artifices to raise the Stocks, and if you think of any Method to put a stop to them, I will chearfully concur with you. They now know sufficiently, that our Commission is to treat of a general Peace, and with Persons vested with equal Powers. And if you agree to it, I will never to see another Messenger that is not a Plenipotentiary.
It is expected that the Seventh Province, Guelderland will this day Acknowledge American Independence. I think, We are in such a Situation now that We ought not, upon any Consideration to think of a Truce, or any Thing short of an express Acknowledgement of the Souvereignty of the United States. I should be glad however to know your sentiments upon this Point.

[salute] I have the Honour to be

1. Henry Laurens Jr.
2. For the origins of Henry Laurens’ mission, undertaken at the urging of Lord Shelburne, see Thomas Digges to JA, 2 April, note 1, above.
3. Laurens sailed from Margate to Ostend in company with Richard Oswald. Upon landing, Oswald proceeded to Paris to meet with Franklin (Laurens, Papers, 15:401–402, 478–479).
4. JA’s comments on his discussion with Henry Laurens on 15 April and his meeting with Thomas Digges on 21 March are crucial to understanding his position in the spring of 1782 regarding Anglo-American peace negotiations. Compare JA’s account of the meeting at Haarlem, with Laurens’ memorandum, [post 18 April], below. For JA’s conversation with Thomas Digges, see JA to Franklin, 26 March, and Digges to JA, 2 April, note 1, both above.
In the Boston Patriot of 20 April 1811, in the midst of publishing many of his letters written in the spring and summer of 1782, JA decided to include “a few miscellaneous anecdotes omitted in their order, because I cannot ascertain their precise dates.” There he wrote that
“after Diggs’ visit and Mr. Laurens’ visit, a third was sent over to me, in the person of Mr. S. Hartley, a respectable character, brother of Mr. D. Hartley. He brought me a letter from the latter couched in a mysterious kind of language with which that of the former concurred. The sense of both, as far as I could comprehend or conjecture, was to find out whether there was any hopes of obtaining a separate peace with America and whether we could be induced to wave our treaty with France. I was very explicit with Mr. Samuel Hartley and declared to him from first to last, that the United States would never be guilty of such a breach of faith and violation of honor; and that as far as my vote and voice could go, I would advise perpetual war, rather than stain our character with any such foul imputation. Mr. David Hartley’s letter I answered only in these words—‘Peace can never come but in company with Faith and Honor; when these three can unite, let Friendship join the amiable and venerable choir.’ Mr. D. Hartley wrote me in answer, ‘that the sentiments in my letter were eternal and unchangeable,’ and when I afterwards met him at Paris, he told me that he never meant that we should break our faith with France, but hoped that France would consent to wave her treaty with us, and that we should treat separately from her. This convinced me that Mr. Hartley knew little of the policy of France or America.”
JA’s conversation with Samuel Hartley in { 413 } fact occurred in Sept. 1780, not in the wake of the visits by Digges and Laurens as JA suggests, and the discussions were centered on David Hartley’s letter of 14 Aug. 1780, which Samuel carried and to which JA responded, using almost the same words as here, on 12 Sept. (vol. 10:74, 143–144). Hartley’s reply, from which JA also quotes, is dated 19 Feb. 1782, above. Since JA presumably quoted from the Letterbook copy of his letter to Hartley and from the recipient’s copy of Hartley’s letter to him, both of which are clearly dated, it is unclear why he chose to set his meeting with Samuel Hartley in 1782.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0270

Author: Digges, Thomas
Author: JW
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-16

From Thomas Digges

[salute] Dr Sir

Since my last there has been no material occurrence but what will be announced in the Papers save the arrival in Scotland of two vessels one from N York the 5 mar and the other from Chas Town the 24th Feby. the letters by the latter is not yet out nor is there any particular accots given out but those of the old kind that the Garrison were chearful healthy and in no fears &ca. &ca. Those letters from N York are full of complainings and uneasiness’s, such as no trade nor bills or money to remitt, constant uneasiness’s between the Civil and military Commissioners and People, the garrison much harrassd in erecting new batterys and defences, and fears of a vigorous attack in the Spring. The winter has been remarkably mild, yet there was no depradatory Expeditions or any Skermeshing between the armys. The Garrison is about 8,000 men and washingtons quarters in the jerseys abo 20 miles from N York of wch they had little information in N York as to force and no kind of intercourse.
There has been a deputation of the Principal merchts in London trading to and having Effects in N York to wait on the minister to know what was to become of their property and Effects, if an Evacuation of that place was meant, and if the ministers woud encourage their sending out more goods provisions or stores; and they got the answer wch You may expect being that their Effects would be taken as much care of as possible and that the Ministry could not advise the sending out more goods or stores.
Genl Carlton saild 4 or 5 days ago and has certainly some direct profer to make to Congress;1 similar I suppose to what is meant to be made to the Commissioners in Europe, and of which you are better informd than I can be, for communications will soon be (if not already) made thro Mr. L–ns. I am sorry to say it, but appearances do not indicate to me that the new men mean to make any { 414 } direct offer of Independence, and without it nothing can be done. A Treaty for Truce, sending Commissioners to you to treat, making profers to Holland and Ama. for seperate Peace, and at any rate getting a seperate Peace with Holland, is very much the subject of present Conversation, and the People seem mad in their expectations and quite forget the situation in which their own Country now stands. The cry still is that a seperate Peace with Holland will certainly take place; and a man who attempts to controvert the opinion from reason and observation on the political state of that Country with the other Belligerent Powers is lookd upon as a fool.
The new Rulers are popular yet, but not so much so as they were a week ago; John Bull seldom looks for a week together towards one point, and in his veerings about He is apt to go to the Extreems. There is certainly disunion among these new men as well on the score of America and what is to be offerd Her, as on the score of appointing friends to the Loaves and fishes: I know most of them and tho they formerly professd great predilection for America, its libertys, and privileges, I see so great an alteration in conversations now that I dispondingly wait to see their actions and cannot take the words or pretences of those even who speak favourably for avowd Independence to America. I wish they fully knew the situation of America and how little She cares about it.
The Prisoners are likely all to be Shippd off very Shortly. In consequence of the late Bill2 Ships are getting ready to take them away and I hope none will remain in a week or two.
The Requests and Memorials &ca. of the different Towns wch I brought are translating and will be in the Remembrancer, they would Cost too much to translate to make them servicable to a news Paper. I hope to see one from the States General soon and that the holding-out States of Groningen and Guilderland will soon acceed. I should be very glad to be instrumental in getting publishd, for the reading of this deluded People, any other memorials or Requests; but I beleive nothing will open the Eyes of some men.

[salute] I am with very great Respect Yr oblgd & ob servt

[signed] JW
RC (Adams Papers); addressed: “His Excellency John Adams Esqr Lieden” and “For Mr J.A.”; endorsed: “Diggs April 16. 1782.”
1. Sir Guy Carleton was appointed on 23 Feb. to replace Sir Henry Clinton as commander in chief in America and arrived at New York on 5 May (DNB). His orders were to evacuate New York, Charleston, and Savannah and to use those troops to reinforce the West Indies. Should the Americans prevent the evacuation by military action, he was authorized to arrange a capitulation so as to avoid a defense to no purpose. He was empowered to inform the Americans of his intentions and on 25 March received a joint { 415 } peace commission with Adm. Robert Digby in order to conduct negotiations for a peace treaty if that proved necessary to achieve his objectives (Mackesy, War for America, p. 474). For reaction to his arrival, see Robert R. Livingston to JA, 22 May (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:433–434).
2. See Benjamin Franklin’s letter of 21 April, and note 1, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0271

Author: Luzac, Jean
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-16

From Jean Luzac

[salute] Honorable Sir

The corporate Body of Manufacturers and Merchants of this City having presented yesterday to the Honorable Great-Council of Leyden an Address of thanksgiving and further prayer, concerning the future Commerce of our Republic with the United-States of America, I find myself honored with their orders to present Your Excellency with some printed Copies of it.1 This epoch, Sir, is one of the most desirable I could ever wish: Zealous for the good of my Country, and rejoicing in the noble exertions of my Fellow-Citizens for its prosperity, by a mutual friendship and intercourse with our Sister-Republic, it is a peculiar satisfaction to me, that those very circumstances afford me an opportunity of testifying to Your Excellency their ardent wishes for our common Cause, the Cause of Liberty and Mankind, and their sincere regard for a Minister, who by his personal talents and character inspires them with a true esteem and affection for those he represents.

[salute] I am with deep respect, Honorable Sir, Your Excellency’s Most obedient and very humble Servant

[signed] J. Luzac
1. On 15 April Leyden merchants adopted an address to the States of the province of Holland and West Friesland in gratitude for the resolution of 18 March to recognize the United States and admit JA as minister plenipotentiary. The address of thanks prefaced a second petition, asking the provincial states to ensure that the States General expedited the conclusion of a Dutch-American commercial treaty so that the Netherlands could accrue the advantages from such an agreement in advance of a general peace. A copy of the printed petition, which bears the names of 91 merchants, is in the Adams Papers and JA included an English translation in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 35–44.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0272

Author: Neufville, Leendert de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-17

From Leendert de Neufville

[salute] Sir

I was Sorry to learn from Mr Chauquet that Some motives Seemed to hinder Your Excellency from granting a pass to the Robin Izaak Cozneau1 which makes me Suppose that Some misunder• { 416 } standing must have taken place respecting the motives of the pass. They are only that She may throw of her mask occasionally and enjoy under American Colours the protection of the Dutch Cannen which She could not as a Dane. Any thing under your Excellencys hand to that purpose will fully answer my request not pretending to interfere with any thing relative to her Cargo. But I confess that I wished to get the brig safe to America and can apply no where for the above paper but to Your Excellency who will find I hope no motives to deny a pass upon that fantesy. I am Sorry that my Yellow [ . . . ] prevent me fm making the request personally and have the honour to be with great respect Sir Your Excellencys Most Obedient Very humble Servant
[signed] L: de Neufville Son of J
PS: Your Excellency will seurly imagine that I have Some expectation of getting the above Ship under a Convoy but this I must beg to be kept as a Secret.
1. Isaac Cazneau of Boston. See JA to Laurent Bérenger, 7 June 1781, vol. 11:362–363.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0273-0001

Author: Gyselaar, Cornelis de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-17

From Cornelis de Gyselaar

[salute] Monsieur

Je dois voús Commúniqúer, qúe Monsieúr v: d: Capellen dú Mars me marqúe, qúe la Province de Geldre a prise úne Resolútion1 poúr votre admission conforme a celle de La Hollande mecredi passé.2

[salute] Je Súis avec des Sentiments inviolables Votre Tres húmble & obeïssant Serviteúr.

[signed] C: de Gyselaar

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0273-0002

Author: Gyselaar, Cornelis de
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-17

Cornelis de Gyselaar to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I am obliged to inform you, at the behest of Mr. van der Capellen tot den Marsch, that the province of Gelderland adopted a resolution1 for your admission conformable to that of Holland on this past Wednesday.2

[salute] I am with the inviolable sentiments, your very humble & obedient servant,

[signed] C: de Gyselaar
RC (Adams Papers). Filmed under ([1782], Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 359.)
1. No copy of the Dutch text of Gelderland’s resolution is in the Adams Papers, but JA included an English translation in his letter of 19 April to Robert R. Livingston, below, and in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 90–91.
2. 17 April.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0274

Author: Jenings, Edmund
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-18

From Edmund Jenings

[salute] Sir

I had the Honor of receiving your Excellencys Letter of the 3d Instant at Paris, where I had gone in Company with Mr De Neufville.1 I paid my respects to his Excellency at Passy, and was invited to dine with Him on Sunday last, after He Was informed that I proposed quitting Paris on that Day.
I have long paid a particular Attention to your Excellencys Movements in Holland, and it is with the greatest pleasure, that I observe they are likely to be crowned with the fullest Success your Excellencys Sagacity, Activity and Firmness must meet with the Applause of your Country but they will meet with too, and that with reason, as the world goes, the Envy of those, who want those Qualities. Your Excellency has all the merit of disposing the people of Holland in favor of the American Cause, The Work is entirely your Own. You will have the greatest Honor from it and I trust our Country will recieve the Benefit, you have in View to Obtain for Her.
I am pleased to find, that the King of Englands late Proposal to the States is considered in its true light. The folly and the Insidiousness of it are Obvious and is a proof that the present Ministry are not a Jot Wiser or better than their Predecessors. I Know many of them; I Know their Principles are base, there are but few, who have any Liberallity of Sentiment and they will not be Suffered to Act as the Times require.
I should think, Sir, that the Principles of the intended Motion, which turned out the late Ministry2 might be discanted on with great Use at this Time in Holland, or at least if any opposition is given from a Certain Quarter to your Excellencys Measures the Principle was that a people, a free people I mean, have a right to withdraw their Confidence from their Servants, and who ought therefore to retire, altho no Proofs can be produced of their Knavery.
I have had late Letters from England, I am indeed Ashamd of the best people in that infatuated Country. Your Excellency I beleive dispises them.
The Ship that arrived in 17 Days from the Chesapeak says that the English have taken a most extraordinary number of Vessels in those Quarters in a short Time, that their Cruisers mind not the two french frigates Stationed in the Bay because perhaps the french frigates mind not them. One of them is lost off Cape Henry.
{ 418 }

[salute] I am with the greatest Consideration Sir your Excellencys Most Obedient Humble Servant

[signed] Edm: Jenings
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Jennings. 18. ans 28 April 1782.”
1. Jean de Neufville also wrote to JA on this date from Amsterdam (Adams Papers), enclosing an act of Parliament that Jenings had requested him to deliver to JA. The enclosure has not been found, but see note 2.
2. Probably the motion to censure the North ministry and thereby force its resignation that Charles Howard, later earl of Surrey, rose to offer on 20 March. It was rendered moot, however, since Lord North and his ministers resigned the same day (Alan Valentine, Lord North, 2 vols., Norman, Okla., 1967, 2:315–316).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0275

Author: Laurens, Henry
Date: 1781-04-18

Henry Laurens’ Memorandum of a Conversation with John Adams

Arrived Sunday 14th. April 1782. late in the afternoon at Leyden, lodged at the Golden Lion.
15th. at 5 oClock am. sent Mr. V2 by the Trekschoat to Amsterdam with a Message to Mr. A. “That I should be at Harlem where I requested he would meet me that day at the Golden Lyon, my business was of importance and respected a Treaty for Peace that being a Prisoner upon Parole I did not think it would be proper to go to Amsterdam lest I should be discovered there by people who knew my person, who would be asking questions which I could not answer and who would thence raise conjectures and possible be detained longer than I meant to stay in Holland” &ca. I immediately set out for Harlem by Land and arrived there before 9 oClock am.
About 6 oClock pm. Mr. A arrived at Harlem.
Without delay I communicated my business and shewed him the Bill entitled3 he said he had seen it already in substance in the English Papers, and agreed in opinion with me that it was not applicable or, of no importance to the United States of America.
He desired to premise, having understood that I was a Prisoner, that he should converse with me as a fellow Citizen but not as a Commissioner or Colleague altho my Name was in the Commission together with Doctor Franklin’s Mr. Jay’s Mr. Jefferson’s and his own for treating with Great Britain—that Mr. Jefferson was not arrived in Europe and he supposed did not mean to come. And that he thought himself not at liberty to communicate to me the particular Instructions of Congress respecting the Commission while I remained a Prisoner or under any restraint. Mr. A then proceeded and { 419 } said, “conversing with you in a private Character or as one Citizen with another, the Commissioners cannot receive any propositions from the Court of Great Britain or enter upon any Treaty with that Court until the Independence of the United States of America shall have been acknowledged nor will they receive any propositions but from persons properly authorized to Treat, nor Treat without first communicating such propositions to the Court of France. And if propositions are delayed longer than next Monday, they will not be at liberty to treat without the consent of the States General of the United Provinces of the Low Countries or Netherlands—six in seven of those Provinces have already agreed to acknowledge the Independence of the United States of America, Guelderland alone and that not from aversion but unavoidable delay has not formally consented but will do so on Monday next when I shall be received at the Hague in the Character of Minister from our United States, and this will be, even should Guelderland, further delay or refuse, but there is not the least doubt of the consent of that Province as soon as the States shall meet and they are to meet to morrow.
“America is at this time in perfect harmony with her Allies the French, her Trade is really flourishing, her whole debt does not amount to one half of the annual expence of Great Britain for carrying on the War, her resources are great, already acknowledged as an Independent Nation by one powerful Kingdom and on the Eve of being acknowledged by the first Republic in Europe, what should tempt her to recede from her former Resolutions? ’Tis vain and fruitless tis wasting time to talk of any thing short of Independence.”
I observed to Mr. A that my declarations in England to such of its Ministers as I had conversed with had uniformly gone to the same Point.
I then laid before Mr. A. the Paper put into my hand by Lord S. entitled “Mr. Digg’s Account of what passed between him and Mr. A 30 March 1782.” The third and sixth articles he positively denied, “I said no such thing to Mr. Digges.” “Part of the 5th. is a misrepresentation or not fully represented, I said if the Ministers of Great Britain by whom you say you are sent mean any thing honorable let them release Mr. Laurens and communicate to him what they have to propose and he will join his Colleagues.” “In short I paid very little attention to Mr. Digges or to any thing he said.4 I have since he was in Holland received two Letters from him but have thought it proper to return no answer.”
Took leave of Mr. A about 1/2 p. 8 oClock p.m and at 5 oClock am { 420 } the 16th. took Chaise at Harlem and began my return to England. Thursday late at Night arrived at Ostend.5
MS (NN:Emmet Coll.)); endorsed: “Conversation with Mr. Adams 14th. April 1782. at Haerlem concerng Peace.”
1. For the origins of Laurens’ mission, undertaken at the urging of Lord Shelburne, see Thomas Digges to JA, 2 April, note 1, above. Laurens’ account of his conversation with JA on 15 April should be compared with JA’s report in his letter of 16 April to Benjamin Franklin, above.
2. William Vaughan.
3. For an account of the bill “to enable his Majesty to make Peace or Truce with America,” see Edmund Jenings’ letter of 7 March, and notes 1 and 2, above.
4. Matthew Ridley noted on 20 May that Digges had proposed opening a correspondence with JA. JA responded that he would not reply and that everything he received from Digges would be disclosed to Franklin and Vergennes (MHi:Matthew Ridley Journal).
5. Following his return to London, Laurens met with Lord Shelburne on 24 April and informed the minister that JA denied Digges’ assertions and insisted that Britain must recognize U.S. independence prior to any negotiations. Laurens wrote that Shelburne then declared, “if it must be so . . . I shall be sorry for it for your sakes” (Laurens, Papers, 15:402). For a longer, more detailed account of the 24 April meeting, see Laurens’ memorandum of 24 April regarding his conversation with Shelburne (same, 15:491–493).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0276

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1782-04-19

To Robert R. Livingston

[salute]

I have the Honour to transmit, the following Resolutions of the respective Provinces, relative to my Admission in Quality of Minister Plenipotentiary, together with two Resolutions of their High Mightinesses upon the Same Subject, all in the order in which they were taken.
Friesland.
Extract from the Register Book of the Lords the States of Friesland.
“The Requisition of Mr Adams, for presenting his Letters of Credence, from the United States of North America, to their High Mightinesses, having been brought in to the Assembly and put into deliberation, as also the Ulteriour Address to the Same Purpose, with a demand of a Categorical Answer made by him, as is more amply mentioned in the Minutes of their High Mightinesses of the 4. May 1781 and 9. Janry 1782,2 Whereupon it having been taken into Consideration, that the Said Mr Adams would probably have Some Propositions to make to their High Mightinesses, and to present to them the principal Articles and Foundations upon which the Congress on their Part, would enter into a Treaty of Commerce and Friendship, or other affairs to propose, in regard to which Dispatch would be requisite.
{ 421 } | view { 422 }
It has been thought fit and resolved, to authorize the Gentlemen the Deputies of this Province, at the Generality, and to instruct them to direct Things, at the Table of their High Mightinesses in such a manner, that the Said Mr Adams, be admitted forthwith as Minister of the Congress of North America with further order to the Said Deputies, that if there Should be made any Similar Propositions by the Same, to inform immediately their noble Mightinesses of them. And an Extract of the present Resolution Shall be Sent them for their Information, that they may conduct themselves conformably. Thus resolved, at the Province House the 26. February 1782.”3
Compared with the aforesaid Book to my Knowledge
[signed] Signed A J. V. Sminia
Holland and West Friesland.
Extract of the Resolutions of the Lords the States of Holland and West Friesland taken in the assembly of their noble and grand Mightinesses Thursday 28 March 1782.
Deliberated by Resumption upon the Address, and the Ulteriour Address of Mr Adams made the 4. May 1781, and the 9. January 1782 to the President of the States General, communicated to the Assembly, 9 May 1781 and the 22d of last Month, to present his Letters of Credence, in the Name of the United States of America to their High Mightinesses, by which ulteriour Address the Said Mr Adams hath demanded a categorical answer, that he may acquaint his Constituents thereof: deliberated also upon the Petitions of a great Number of Merchants, Manufacturers and others Inhabitants of this Province, interested in Commerce, to Support their request, presented to the States General, the 20th. curant, to the End that efficacious Measures might be taken to establish a Commerce between this Country and North America, Copy of which Petitions have been given to the Members, the 21: it hath been thought fit and resolved, that affairs shall be directed on the Part of their noble and grand Mightinesses at the assembly of the States General, and there Shall be there made the Strongest Instances, that Mr Adams be admitted and acknowledged as soon as possible, by their High Mightinesses, in Quality of Ambassador of the United States of America, and the Councillor Pensionary hath been charged to inform under Hand, the Said Mr Adams of this Resolution of their noble and grand Mightinesses.4
Zealand
Extract of the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses the states General of the United Provinces Monday 8. April 1782.
The Deputies of the Province of Zealand, have brought to the assembly and have caused to be read there, the Resolution of the States of the Said Province, their Principals to cause to be admitted, as soon as possible Mr Adams in Quality of Envoy of the Congress of North America, according to the following Resolution.
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the Lords the States of Zealand 4. April 1782.
It hath been thought fit and ordered, that the Gentlemen, the ordinary Deputies of this Province, at the Generality shall be convoked and authorized, as it is done by the present to assist in the direction of Affairs at the Assembly of their High Mightinesses in Such a manner, that Mr Adams may be acknowledged as soon as possible, as Envoy of the Congress of North America that his Letters of Credence be accepted, and that he be admitted in that quality, according to the ordinary Form enjoining further upon the Said Lords the ordinary Deputies, to take such Propositions as should be made to the Republick by the Said Mr Adams for the Information and Deliberation of their High Mightinesses, to the End to transmit them here as soon as possible. And an Extract of this Resolution of their noble Mightinesses shall be sent to the Gentlemen their ordinary Deputies, to serve them as an Instruction.
[signed] Signed. J. M. Chalmers
Upon which, having deliberated, it hath been thought fit and resolved to pray by the present the Gentlemen the Deputies of the Provinces of Guelderland, Utrecht, and Groningen and Ommelanden, who have not as yet explained themselves upon this subject, to be pleased to do it as soon as possible.
Overyssell.
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the Equestrian order and of the Cities, composing the States of Overyssell Zwoll 5. April 1782.
Mr the Grand Bailiff de Sallande, and the other Commissioners of their Noble Mightinesses for the Affairs of Finance having examined, conformably to their Commissorial Resolution of the third of this month, the Addresses of Mr Adams, communicated to the Assembly the 4 May 1781 and the 22 February 1782 to present his Letters of Credence to their High Mightinesses in the Name of the { 424 } United States of North America; as well as the Resolution of the Lords the States of Holland and West Friesland dated the 28 of March 1782, carried the 29 of the Same month to the assembly of their High Mightinesses, for the Admission and Acknowledgment of Mr Adams, have reported to the assembly, that they Should be of opinion, that the Gentlemen the Deputies of this Province, in the States General, ought to be authorised and charged to declare in the assembly of their High Mightinesses, that the equestrian order and the Cities judge, that it is proper to acknowledge as Soon as possible, Mr Adams, in Quality of Minister of the United States of North America, to their High Mightinesses, Upon which, having deliberated, the Equestrian order, and the Cities, have conformed themselves to the Said Report.
Compared with the aforesaid Register
[signed] Signed Derk Dumbar
Groningen
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of their noble Mightinesses, the States of Groningen and ommelanden Tuesday 9 April 1782.
The Lords the States of Groningen and ommelanden having heard the Report of the Gentlemen the Commissioners for the Petitions of the Council of State and the Finances of the Provinces, and having carefully examined the demand of Mr Adams, to present his Letters of Credence, from the United States of North America to their High Mightinesses, have, after deliberation upon the Subject, declared themselves of opinion, that in the critical Circumstances in which the Republick finds itself at present, it is proper to take without Loss of Time, Such efficacious Measures, as may not only repair the Losses and Damages that the Kingdom of Great Britain hath caused, in a manner So unjust and against every Shadow of Right, to the Commerce of the Republick, as well before as after the War, but particularly Such as may establish the free navigation, and the Commerce of the Republick for the future, upon the most Solid Foundations as may confirm and reassure it, by the Strongest Bonds of reciprocal Interest, and that, in Consequence, the Gentlemen the Deputies at the assembly of their High Mightinesses, ought to be authorized on the Part of the Province, as they are by the present, to admit Mr Adams, to present his Letters of Credence from the United States of North America, and to receive the Propositions which he shall make, to make report of them to Lords the States of this Province.
[signed] Signed E. Lewe Secretary
{ 425 }
The States General having deliberated the Same day upon this Resolution have resolved that the Deputies of the Province of guelderland, which has not yet declared itself, upon the same subject should be requested to be pleased to do it, as soon as possible.
Utrecht
Extract of the Resolutions of their noble Mightinesses the States of the Province of Utrecht. April 10 1782.
Heard the Report of Mr de Westerveld, and other Deputies of their noble Mightinesses, for the Department of War who, in Virtue of the commissorial Resolutions of the 9 May 1781 16 January and 20 March of the present Year 1782, have examined the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses of the 4 May 1781 containing an overture, that Mr the President of the assembly of their High Mightinesses, had made “that a Person Stiling himself J. Adams, had been with him, and had given him to Understand, that he had received Letters of Credence, for their High Mightinesses, from the United States of North America, with a Request that he would be pleased to communicate them to their High Mightinesses,” as well as the Resolution of their High Mightinesses of the 9 of January containing an Ulteriour overture of Mr the President “that the Said Mr Adams had been with him, and had insisted upon a categorical answer, whether his Said Letters of Credence would be accepted or not,” finally the Resolution of their High Mightinesses of the 5 of March last, with the Insertion of the Resolution of Friesland, containing a Proposition “to admit Mr Adams in quality of Minister of the Congress of North America.”
Upon which, having deliberated, and remarked, that the Lords the states of Holland and West Friesland, by their Resolution carried the 29 March to the States General, had also consented to the Admission of Mr Adams in quality of Minister of the Congress of North America, it hath been thought fit and resolved, that the Gentlemen the Deputies of this Province in the States General Should be authorized, as their noble Mightinesses authorise them by the present to conform themselves, in the name of this Province, to the Resolution of the Lords the States of Holland and West Friesland, and of Friesland, and to consent by Consequence, that Mr Adams be acknowledged and admitted as Minister of the United States of America; their noble Mightinesses being at the Same time of opinion, that it would be necessary to acquaint her Majesty the Empress of Russia and the other Neutral Powers with the Resolution to be { 426 } taken by their High Mightinesses, upon this Subject, in communicating to them (as much as shall be necessary) the Reasons which have induced their High Mightinesses to it, and in giving them the Strongest assurances, that the Intention of their High Mightinesses is by no means to prolong thereby the War, which they would have willingly prevented, and terminated long Since; but on the Contrary, that their High Mightinesses wish nothing with more ardour than a prompt Re Establishment of Peace, and they shall be always ready on their Part to co-operate in it, in all possible Ways, and with a Suitable Readiness, So far as that shall be any Way compatible, with their Honour and their Dignity. And for this End an Extract of this Shall be carried by Missive to the Gentlemen the Deputies at the Generality.
Guelderland
Extract from the Precès, of the ordinary Diet held in the City of Nimeguen in the month of April 1782. Wednesday 17, April 1782.
The Requisition of Mr Adams, to present his Letters of Credence to their High Mightinesses in the name of the United States of North America having been brought to the Assembly and read as well as an Ulteriour Address made upon this subject, with a Demand of a categorical answer, by the Said Mr Adams, more amply mentioned in the Registers of their High Mightinesses of the date of the 4 May 1781 and of the 9 January 1782; moreover the Resolutions of the Lords the States of the Six other Provinces, carried Successively to the assembly of their High Mightinesses, and all tending to admit Mr Adams in quality of Envoy of the United States of North America, to this Republick. Upon which their noble Mightinesses, after deliberation, have resolved to authorize the Deputies of this Province at the States General, as they authorize them by the present, to conform themselves in the name of this Province, to the Resolution of the Lords the States of Holland and West Friesland, and to consent by consequence that Mr Adams may be acknowledged and admitted in quality of Envoy of the United States of North America to this Republick. In Consequence an Extract of the present Shall be Sent to the Said Deputies, to make as Soon as possible the Requisite Overture of it, to the assembly of their High Mightinesses. In fidem Extracti
[signed] Signed J. In de Betoun
This Resolution of Guelderland was no Sooner remitted, on the 19 of April to their High Mightinesses, than they took immediately a { 427 } Resolution conformable to the Unanimous Wish of the Seven Provinces, conceived in the following Terms.
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Provinces. Fryday 19. April. 1782.
Deliberated by Resumption, upon the Address and the Ulteriour Address made by Mr Adams, the 4. May 1781, and the 9. January of the currant year, to Mr the President of the Assembly of their High Mightinesses to present to their High Mightinesses, his Letters of Credence, in the Name of the United States of North America; and by which ulteriour Address the Said Mr Adams hath demanded a categorical Answer, to the End to be able to acquaint his Constituents thereof: it hath been thought fit and resolved that Mr. Adams Shall be admitted and acknowledged in quality of Envoy of the United States of North America to their High Mightinesses, as he is admitted and acknowledged by the present.5
[signed] Signed W. Boreel
compared with the aforesaid Register
[signed] Signed H. Fagel
The formal Resolution of their High Mightinesses.
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Provinces. Monday 22. April 1782.
Mr Boreel, who presided in the assembly, the last Week, hath reported to their High Mightinesses and notified them, that Mr John Adams Envoy of the United States of America, had been with him last Saturday and presented to him a Letter from the assembly of Congress, written at Philadelphia the first of January 1781 containing a Credence for the Said Mr Adams,6 to the End to reside in quality of its Minister Plenipotentiary near their High Mightinesses: upon which, having deliberated, it hath been thought fit and resolved “to declare by the present, that the Said Mr Adams is agreable to their High Mightinesses; that he Shall be acknowledged in quality of Minister Plenipotentiary, and that there shall be granted to him an Audience, or assigned Commissioners, when he shall demand it.” Information of the above, Shall be given to the Said Mr Adams by the Agent, Van der Burch de Spieringshoek.7
[signed] Signed W. Van Citters
compared with the aforesaid Register
[signed] Signed H. Fagel
{ 428 }

[salute] I have the Honour to be, with great Respect Sir your most obedient & humble sert

[signed] J. Adams
RC (PCC, Misc. Papers, Reel No. 1, f. 551–562); endorsed: “A Letter from Mr Adams 19th april 1782.” LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. Although dated 19 April, the day on which the States General resolved to recognize the United States and admit JA as minister plenipotentiary, this letter was not completed and sent until at least the 22d, the day on which it was resolved to give JA a formal audience and open negotiations for a Dutch-American treaty. The Continental Congress received this letter on or about 14 Sept., and resolved that it should be published. It appeared in various newspapers throughout the United States, including the Pennsylvania Gazette of 18 Sept., the Boston Gazette of 7 Oct., the Massachusetts Spy of 17 Oct., and the New Hampshire Gazette of 9 November. JA later included all of the documents in this letter, their text presumably derived from the Letterbook, in A Collection of State-Papers, 1782, p. 79–93. For the most important of the resolutions—those adopted on 26 Feb. by Friesland, the first province to act; on 28 March by Holland and West Friesland, the most influential of the provinces; and on 19 and 22 April by the States General—see the Descriptive List of Illustrations, Nos. Resolution by the States of Friesland to Recognize the United States and Admit John Adams as Minister Plenipotentiary, 26 February 1782 2765, Resolution by the States of Holland and West Friesland to recognize the United States and admit John Adams as minister plenipotentiary, 28 March 1782 3566, and Resolution by the States General of the United Provinces of the Low Countries to Recognize the United States and Admit John Adams as Minister Plenipotentiary, 19 April 1782 4218, above.
2. In most of the resolutions, JA’s memorials are referred to as being of 4 May 1781 and 9 Jan. 1782, the dates on which he presented them to the States General. The 1781 memorial, however, was dated 19 April 1781 by JA and is printed under that date (vol. 11:272–282). The later address is printed at [ante 9 Jan.], above.
3. Closing quotation marks supplied.
4. See the letter from Pieter van Bleiswyck, the grand pensionary, transmitting the resolution, 30 March, above. For the negotiations over the means by which he would execute the commission, see C. W. F. Dumas’ letter of 30 March, above.
5. At 11:00 on the morning of 20 April, JA met with Willem Boreel, the president of the States General for the week, to present his letter of credence as minister plenipotentiary (Dumas to Livingston, 10 May, Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:408–410; London Morning Herald and Daily Advertiser, 29 April).
6. JA’s letter of credence to the States General, 1 Jan. 1781 (vol. 11:1).
7. For JA’s meeting on 23 April with Willem van Citters, president of the States General for the week, see JA’s first letter of that date to Livingston, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0277

Author: Alvarez & Havart (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1781-04-19

From Alvarez & Havart

[salute] Sir

The known Caracter of Your Excellency dispenses us with making any apology for the liberty we take to Address your Excellency with the present, but the happy turn circumstances have lately taken in this Republicq must naturally make to great an impression upon every free born Man, especially upon such a one, who from the beginning of the American troubles with England has consider’d their Cause to be his own, that he should not seek every means to express the satisfaction of his heart; and how should it be possible for him to find any way more proper to fulfill those wishes, then that of bringing them directly to Your Excellency? Give us leave then Sir to congratulate Your Excellence, whole America and whole this Republicq, with the most favourable revolution which has newly taken { 429 } place here, and has been just now Compleated by the full acknowledgment of the freedom of the United States of America by all our Provinces; an Event brought by upon such an unexpected and singular way that who ever acknowledge a divine Providence, will find her finger upon every Step! How happy shall we then not be if this beginning of confidence between both nations will be productive of the nearest intelligence and uninterrupted connections, so that they may never be separated in future, but their mutual intrest always consider’d as the same! and with how much pleasure will we not contribute all what’s in our power to form and cultivate those happy connexions! May it not be disagreeable then to Your Excellency, that we implore Her protection and Assistance in order to form such connexions! already we have had the Advantage of providing Your Country with some necessary’s by the Way of St: Eustache and through the hands of our unfortunate Friends Messrs: Curson & Gouverneur, with who we have been in a very intimate correspondance, and even when the Island has been taken by our treacherous Ennemies they had a good parcell of our goods under their care through wich means we are very well acquainted with those Merchandises which are most essentially wanted in America, and have no other desire then to find out a sure way to send them thither again the sooner the better; and if even Your Excellence would encourage or Approve of this resolution, a Brother of our last subscriber, should have no objection to go over himself to any Part of America, either to settle there entirely, or att least to make such engagements as will be necessary to drive a Solid and mutual advantageous trade upon in the future, now Your Excellency may easely conceive, from what Use any recommendations of your hand and a few intimations how to behave would be to him, if this plan Shoul’d be entirely resolved upon!
We beg to be excused for having taken so many of Your Excellency’s very precious moments in the Actuall circumstances; the only request we have yet to make, is to may be favoured with a single line in Answer, whither it will not be disagreeable to Your Excellency, that we may have the honour to wait upon her, any day which will be the most convenient to Her, for to insinuate ourselves personally in Her favour, and to Assure Her that nobody can be with more Esteem then Sir Your Excellency’s Most Obedient and devoted Servts:
[signed] Alvarez & Havart
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Alvarez & Havart Rotterdam”; notation by CFA: “April 19th 1782.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0278-0001

Author: Nolet, Jacobus
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-19

From Jacobus Nolet

[salute] Monsieúr

Le corps des Negotiants de cette Ville, Soúhaitant Joindre leúrs Acclamations a ceúx de toúte la Nation, au Sujet de L’independance des Etats unis de L’Ameriqúe Septentrionale, públiqúement reconnúe par nos Augúste Soúverains, m’a Chargé de m’informer aúpres de Votre Excellence dú Joúr, de l’heúre, et dú lieú, qú’il lúi Conviendra d’accorder aúdience a Six depútés dú dit Corps de nos Negotiants, Chargés d’Exprimer en leúr nom, les Vifs Sentiments de Joïe et de Satisfaction Sincere, qu’ils ressentent de cet heùreux Evenement, Comme aússy de L’avantage de poùvoir Voús presenter leurs Respects en qúalité de Ministre des dits Etats!
Voús Comblerez les Voeúx et les Esperances de nos Negotiants, Si Voús daignez accorder a leúrs Deputés L’honneúr de S’entretenir quelqúes Instants avec Votre Excellence, Súr les Interêts dú Commerce de Notre Ville!
Oserois Je me promettre Monsieur! qùe Voús daignerez condescendre a nos desirs!
Une Reponce favorable de Votre Part noús honorera Infinement Dans cette flatteuse attente, et en Implorant Súr Votre Personne et qúalites respectables la Protection dú Toút Puissant, J’ai l’honneúr d’Etre avec les Sentiments de la plús haúte Estime, et dú Respect le plús profond Monsieúr! Votre tres Húmb: & Tres Obeissant Serviteúr
[signed] Jacobs: Nolet

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0278-0002

Author: Nolet, Jacobus
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-19

Jacobus Nolet to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

The merchants of this city, wishing to add their acclamation to those of the rest of the country regarding the public recognition of the independence of the United States of North America by our August sovereigns, have asked me to inquire of your Excellency as to the day, time and place that would be convenient for you to receive six deputies of this said group of merchants. These merchants, who wish to express in their name, the lively sentiments of joy and sincere satisfaction that they feel at this happy event, as well as having the advantage of being able to present their respects to your in your capacity as minister of the said States
You will fulfill our merchants’ wishes and hopes if you would agree to give their deputies the honor of a short meeting with your Excellency regarding the commercial interests of our city!
{ 431 }
Would I dare promise myself, sir, that you would condescend to our desires!
A favorable reply from you will honor us immensely, and in the hope of hearing from you and by imploring the protection of the all powerful for you and your respectable position, I have the honor to be with the highest esteem and the deepest respect, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Jacobs: Nolet

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0279

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Nolet, Jacobus
Date: 1782-04-20

To Jacobus Nolet

[salute] Sir

I received, to day the Letter you did me the honor to write to me yesterday, and am exceedingly obliged to you for your cordial congratulations, on the great Event which was yesterday finally concluded by their High Mightinesses. The Favour of Providence, has been remarkably manifested in the progress of this Negociation, hitherto, that I very sincerely join with you in imploring its continuance, to the mutual prosperity, and the permanent establishment of the liberties of both Nations.
I have small pretensions to an accurate Knowledge of the Commerce of either Country; but such general notions of it as have fallen to my share, I shall ever esteem it a pleasure and an honor to communicate.
I should be sorry however, to give the trouble of coming to the Hague to so respectable a number of the Merchants of your City; but as I do not propose to return to Amsterdam before Thursday, I shall be happy to receive them, or any of them at the Mareschall de Turenne at the Hague, on any day before that time; and if the hour of twelve on Wednesday next should suit your convenience none will be more agreeable to me.1

[salute] With great Respect, I have the honour to be Sir your most obedt and most humle.

[signed] Servt. J Adams
Tr (Adams Papers); copied by LCA into Lb/JA/26 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 114).
1. C. W. F. Dumas indicates in his letter of 10 May to Robert R. Livingston that the delegation led by Nolet met with JA on Monday, 22 April. In their address, the town’s merchants noted the common love of liberty in the Netherlands and the United States arising from their birth in revolutions against despotic powers. They expressed their joy at the States General’s providential decision to recognize American independence and ac• { 432 } knowledge JA as minister plenipotentiary. The address ended with a plea for the free admittance of their city’s produce into the United States. JA enclosed the address with a letter of 5 July to Livingston (||available in Papers of John Adams, vol. 13; ||Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:408–410, 595–597). For an invitation to dine with the merchants of Schiedam, see Dumas’ letter of 30 April to JA, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0280

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-20

From Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

I hope your Excellency received the Copy of our Instructions which I sent by the Courier from Versailles some Weeks since. I wrote to you on the 13th. to go by Capt. Smedly and sent a Pacquet of Correspondence with Mr. Hartley. Smedly did not leave Paris so soon as I expected; but you should have it by this time.1 With this I send a fresh Correspondence which I have been drawn into, viz: 1. A Letter I sent to Lord Shelburne before he was Minister. 2. His Ansr. since he was Minister by Mr Oswald. 3. A Letter from Mr Lawrens. 4. My Letter to M. de Vergennes. 5 My Ansr to Lord Shelburne. 6. My Answer to Mr Lawrens, 7th Copy of Digges’s Report.2 These Papers will inform you pretty well of what pass’d between me and Mr Oswald, except that in a Conversation at parting I mention’d to him, that I observed they spoke much in England of obtaining a Reconciliation with the Colonies; that this was more than a mere Peace; that the latter might possiby be obtained without the former; that the cruel Injuries wantonly done us by burning our Towns &ca. had made deep Impressions of Resentment which would long remain; that much of the Advantage to the Commerce of England from a Peace Would depend on a Reconciliation; that the Peace without a Reconciliation would probably not be durable; that after a Quarrel between Friends, nothing tended so much to conciliate, as Offers made by the Aggressor, of Reparation for Injuries done by him in his Passion. And I hinted that if England should make us a Voluntary Offer of Canada expressly for that purpose it migh have a good Effect. Mr Oswald liked much the Idea, said they were too much straiten’d for Money to make us pecuniary Reparation, but he should endeavour to persuade their doing it in this Way.3 He is furnish’d with a Passport to go and return by Calais, and I expect him back in ten or twelve Days.4 I wish you and Mr Lawrens could be here when he arrives; for I shall much want your Advice, and cannot act without your Concurrence. If the present Crisis of your Affairs prevents your coming, I hope at least Mr Lawrens will be here,5 and { 433 } we must communicate with you by Expresses, for your Letters to me per Post are generally open’d. I shall write pr. next Post requesting Mr Jay to be here also as soon as possible.6
I received your Letter advising of your Draft on me for a Quarter’s Salary, which will be duly honour’d.7

[salute] With great Esteem, I have the honour to be, Sir, Your Excellency’s most obedient & most humble Sert.

[signed] B Franklin
If Mr Laurens has left Holland, please to seal his Letter with a Wafer and let it follow him.8
I shall be glad to have again all the Papers of this and the former Packet; but you can keep Copies of any you may think worth the Trouble.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Dr Franklin. 20. April 1782 ansd May 2. recd May 1.”
1. JA acknowledged receiving the instructions and the packet containing Franklin’s correspondence with David Hartley in his reply of 2 May (LbC, Adams Papers; Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:545–546).
2. Nos. 1–6—Franklin to Lord Shelburne, 22 March; Shelburne’s reply of 6 April; Henry Laurens to Franklin, 7 April; Franklin to the Comte de Vergennes, 15 April; Franklin to Shelburne, 18 April; and Franklin to Laurens, 20 April—are entered in Franklin’s journal in which he chronicled his participation in preliminary discussions of peace initiated by the new British ministry (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:535–543). The final item on Franklin’s list presumably is Thomas Digges’ memorandum to Lord Shelburne, for which see Digges to JA, 2 April, note 1, above.
3. Franklin’s account of this conversation with Richard Oswald agrees substantially with the account in his journal (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:540–542).
4. Richard Oswald returned on 4 May (same, 5:547).
5. In his letter to Shelburne of 18 April, Franklin specifically requested that the charges against Laurens be dropped so that he could participate in peace negotiations (same, 5:539). Shelburne notified Laurens on 26 April that he was free (Laurens, Papers, 15:494).
6. Franklin wrote to Jay on 22 April (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:320–321).
7. Not found.
8. JA gave Franklin’s letter to Laurens of 20 April to Henry Laurens Jr. to deliver to his father (to Franklin, 2 May, same, 5:545–546).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0281

Author: Hodshon, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-20

From John Hodshon

[salute] His Excellency

It is with an Infinite Satisfaction I presúme To Take The Liberty to adres yoúr Excellency These Few Lines as a duty Imposed on me, to congratulate yoúr Excellency on The most Happy resolution Taken by their H: M: to acknowledge the Independence of the united States of North America in So open and Respectable manner and to Receive yoúr Excellency as Minister Plenepotentiary from congres. Sincerely wish it may Tend to the Intrest and Prosperity of { 434 } both nations and be The means of a Trúe and permanent Friendship being Establishd, and Welfare of both countrys, and your Excellencys name who laid The Foundation To this great and Important matter may be ever preserved in The annales to The Latest posterity.
Permit me Sir to assure yoú Shal ever Think my self happy to be usefull to contribute any Thing For The advantage of the common wealth and recomend my Self in yoúr Excellencys respectable benevolence and believe me to be unalterable and most devotedly His Excellency Yoúr Excellencys most obedient & much obliged Servant
[signed] John Hodshon2
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr John Hodshon ansd 22d April 1782.” Filed with this letter are three documents in the same hand. A comparison of the paper on which they were written and their fold lines with Hodshon’s letter of 20 April indicates, however, that they were not enclosures. One appears to be an extract from a letter Hodshon received from an American correspondent commenting on the U.S. economy and the progress of the war. The other two resemble the first and second parts of the draft loan contract with Hodshon & Zoon, 25 April, below, and are likely early drafts of that contract. There is no indication as to when or how JA received the three documents.
1. JA also received a letter of this date from John Hodshon Jr. who, like his father, congratulated JA on the recognition of U.S. independence and his admission as minister plenipotentiary (Adams Papers).
2. Dutch recognition of the United States dramatically improved prospects for an American loan and JA quickly entered into negotiations with the Amsterdam mercantile firm of John Hodshon & Zoon to raise the loan (see Hodshon’s proposal for a loan, 25 April, below). Hodshon, whom JA first met in 1780, was deeply involved in trade with America and was known to AA’s cousin Isaac Smith (JA, Diary and Autobiography, 2:444; Adams Family Correspondence, 3:285, 349; 4:84–85). JA’s choice was greeted with a storm of protest by merchants of the Patriot party, the people most supportive of JA’s efforts in the Netherlands, who accused Hodshon of being pro-British and wanting to undermine the loan. See for example, John Thaxter to JA, 22 April, below. While Hodshon was an Orangist, he had always been apolitical in his commercial dealings (Pieter J. van Winter, American Finance and Dutch Investment, 1780–1805, With an Epilogue to 1840, transl. James C. Riley, 2 vols., N.Y., 1977, p. 82–83).
The Adams Papers contain a substantial documentary record of JA’s successful effort to raise a Dutch loan in 1782. But it is necessarily incomplete because JA’s negotiations with John Hodshon, and then with the consortium of bankers that replaced him, occurred during face-to-face meetings of which no record was kept. Missing is any contemporary account by JA of the reasons that made Hodshon & Zoon his first choice or how he resolved the resulting controversy. Almost thirty years passed before he offered an explanation and then it was in a letter dated 24 Sept. 1810 that appeared in the Boston Patriot of 20 and 24 April 1811.
According to these reminiscences, JA was prompted to approach Hodshon when
“an American captain of a ship by the name of Grinnel happened to dine with me, and conversing on our want of a loan, he asked me if I had consulted Mr John Hodshon? The answer was in the negative. I had not supposed that Mr Hodshon, so easy as he was, and such a millionary, would be willing to accept it, or even to advise me in it. Grinnel replied that Mr. Hodshon had been so long and so extensively engaged in American commerce, had so many correspondents in America and so general an acquaintance with Americans in Europe, that he thought it very probable he would assist me, at least with his advice. He added, that if I would give him leave he would converse with Mr. { 435 } Hodshon upon the subject. He did so, and brought so favorable an answer that I agreed to meet Mr. Hodshon. In several interviews, he entered very freely and candidly into conversation; said that as our Independence was now acknowledged, a loan was an object of importance and might be of utility to both countries. He doubted not that the most substantial houses in the republic might be induced to favor it, even the house of Hope. If Mr Hope would undertake it or countenance it, success would be certain. No opposition would be made to it from any quarter. I thought Mr Hodshon knew less than I did concerning Mr Hope’s sentiments of American affairs. However, I have reason to think he did sound Mr Hope and received from him only such observations as I had heard reported from him several times before, viz: That America was too young to expect to borrow money at any ordinary interest, or at any interest less than the Batavian republic had been obliged in her infancy to give: i.e. ten or twelve per cent. However this might be, Mr Hodshon said no more about Mr Hope’s assistance or countenance. He undertook the loan himself, and after adjusting all the terms, we mutually executed a contract in form, and the plan was made public” (Boston Patriot, 24 April 1811).
For more of JA’s reminiscences about negotiating the loan, see tofrom Franklin, 21 April, note 2; and to Hodshon, 26 April, note 1, both below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0282-0001

Author: Lousyssen, Johannes, & Zoon (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-20

From Johannes Lousyssen & Zoon

[salute] Hoog Edele Gebore Heer

Wy hebben het genoegen van met Gantsch Nederland in de Blydschap te deelen, welke de aanneming van U Exellentie S Perzoon als Minister Plenipotentiaris der dertien Vereenigde Staten van Noord America by deze Republicq veroorzaakt—En willen—Hartelyk hoopen dat tot het volle beslag van dit heugelyk evenement wel vas by de Hooge Bondgenooten zal GeConcludeert worden.
In Avance nemen wy de Vryheid wegens de dusverre door alle de Provintien aan uwe Exellentie toegekende Eminente Charge (hier boven genoemt) Uwe Exellentie te congratuleeren.
Eene Geduurige Satisfactie verzelle Steeds Uwe Exellentie s Gewigtige bediening! en worde tot een werktuyg gestelt om de Banden Van waare Vriendschap in alle betrekking tusschen de beyde Republicquen Vast en bestendig toe tehalen wanneer dit de uitslag van Uwe Exellentie eerste zending moge zyn; dan voorzeker! kan er geen aangenamer loon op eene voorafgaanden Arbeid Gevonden worden.
By deze Gelegenheid, nemen wy met den gepasten eerbied voor ons zelven de vryheid onze Perzoonen in U Exellentie Hooge gunst aan tebieden; en als commercieerende Inwoonders dezer Republicq; Imploreeren wy ten Allen tyde by voorkomende. Omstandigheden Uwe Exellentie Veel vermogende Apui; by de Hooge vergadering der dertien Vereenigde Staten van noord America.
Niets zal intusschen Ons aangenamer Zyn dan wanneer wy ge• { 436 } legenheid mogen hebben Uwe Exellentie in deze quartieren van eenigen dienst te mogen wesen.

[salute] Hier mede hebben wy deer Ons met Hoog Achting en alle Veneratie te noemen Hoog Edele Gebore Heer! UE Hoog Edele Gebore DW ond Dienaere

[signed] Johannes Lousyssen & zoon

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0282-0002

Author: Lousyssen, Johannes, & Zoon (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-20

Johannes Lousyssen & Zoon to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] High Nobly-born Sir

We have the pleasure, with the entire Netherlands to share in the joy which has been caused by the acceptance by this republic of your excellency’s person as minister plenipotentiary of the thirteen United States of North America and would like to hope cordially that the honorable allies will conclude to the full consequence of this encouraging event.
In advance we take the liberty to congratulate your excellency on the eminent commission, mentioned above, granted to you thus far by all the provinces.
May an ongoing satisfaction accompany your excellency’s important service! and be made a vehicle to cement firmly and enduringly the bonds of true friendship in all the relations between both the republics if this be the result of your excellency’s first mission then—for certain! no more pleasant payment for the preliminary work can be found.
At this opportunity we take the liberty for ourselves, with appropriate respect, to offer our persons to your excellency’s high favor, and as inhabitants of this republic engaged in commerce; we request at all times your excellency’s powerful assistance whenever opportunities arise in the high meetings [of Congress] of the thirteen United States of North America.
In the meantime, nothing would please us more than if we might have the opportunity to be of any service to your excellency in these quarters.

[salute] Herewith we have the honor to call ourselves, with respect and all veneration, highly nobly-born sir! your excellency’s nobly-born, obedient, humble servant,

[signed] Johannes Lousyssen & zoon
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Lousyen & zooon Middlebourg”; docketed by CFA: “April 20. 1782.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0283-0001

Author: Felix, Jacques, & Fils (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-21

From Jacques Felix & Fils

[salute] Monsieur

Quioque Je n’aïe Eu qu’une Seule fois L’honneur de Rencontrer votre Exelence chés Monsieur Luzac (Redacteur de La Gazette françoise de cette ville), que j’ay celui davoir pour ami depuis 38 ans.
Je prie votre Exelence d’avoir pour agreable que je prene La Lib• { 437 } erté de Vous adresser La presente pour Temoigner a Votre Ex: La Satisfaction particuliere que Jai Ressentie come Habitant Né a Amsterdam et Libre des 7. Provinces unies de voir que LObjet et Le Desir de votre Mission dans ce païs, a Eté a La fin Rempli, Selon Les Desirs de votre Exelence, que jay Lhonneur d’en feliciter avec tous Les Bons Citoïens de ce Païs.
Et Comme demain suivant que je Lapris hier ches Messr. Luzac Votre Exelence doit Etre Reconnu par Leurs Haute Puissance Messeigneur Les Etats Genereaux Comme envoïe ou Ministre Plenipotentiere des Etats Unis de L’Amerique et quil y a S.C.1 une Analogie Particuliere entre Eux et notre Republique a plusieurs Egards. Jay fabriqué expres par pure Satisfaction pour moi même dans ma Fabrique (que jexerce sous Le nom de la Maison Sousignée), quelque peu de paires de Gants Fabriques de Laine de L’Amerique et de celle de Ces Provinces, Lesquelles travaillées Separement Jusqu’a certain Point de parfaite Perfection, n’ont Ete nulement mellées ensemble, jusqualors mais ont Etés unies après Intimement. Ensemble, par la suite de La Fabrique, Lune avec Lautre, de Façon quil ni a plus moïen de Les Separer, et que Chacune moins Fortes travaillées apart ou separement Se Sont Renforcées mutuelement dans Leur fabrication par une union Intime, Je prens La liberte d’Envoïer a Votre Exelence La paire ci Jointe de 4. que j’en ai fabriqués où jay fait travailles dans La fabrique ou dedans de La main Gauche Le nom de V. Exc. come cette Union aïant assés faite Sous Son Auspice.2
Heureux Serions nous si V. Ex vouloit bien Les accepter et Si dans La Ceremonie de demain ils pouvoient vous Servir alors nous pourions ajouter a La devise de notre cachet Felix per Deum et Adams Felix.
Puisse L’Ambassade de votre Exelence Tourner a votre Satisfaction Particuliere alors elle Le sera pour Les Etats unis de LAmerique et pour Ceux de Ces Provinces alors Les Bons Patriotes se crieront Felix per Deum Felix Hollandia et America.
Nous Esperons que votre Exelence Voudra bien Excuser La Liberté que nous avons Prise et quelle Voudra bien avoir Seul ou plus dEgard a Lintention qu’a La Chose même que nous osions La Prier daccepter.

[salute] Permetés qu’en nous Recomandant a La Bienveillance de votre Exelence nous avons Lhonneur dEtre avec un Profond Respect Monsieur de Votre Exellence des Tres Humble & tres Obbeissants Serviteurs

[signed] Jacques Felix et fils

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0283-0002

Author: Felix, Jacques, & Fils (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-21

Jacques Felix & Fils to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

I write to you as a friend of Mr. Luzac (editor of the French gazette in this town), who I have known for the past thirty-eight years.
I hope that your Excellency is pleased with the liberty I have taken in addressing you to express my particular satisfaction, as a native and free citizen of Amsterdam and the seven united provinces, to see that the objective and intent of your mission in this country has finally been fulfilled according to your desires. I have the honor to congratulate you along with the good citizens of this country.
I also learned yesterday at Mr. Luzac’s, that tomorrow you will be recognized by their high mightinesses the States General as envoy or minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America, and that there S.C.1 is a specific analogy between them and our republic in many respects. Purely for my own satisfaction, I made several pairs of gloves at my factory (which I operate under the name signed below), some with American wool and some with wool from these provinces. They were manufactured separately up until a certain point of perfection, never mixing the wools, and then they were joined together. Together, one with the other, a fabric that can never more be separated, each one weaker when made separately, but reinforced by manufacturing them together in this close union. I am taking the liberty of sending your Excellency the enclosed pairs that I have made from this fabric with the name of your Excellency on the left hand, since this union was made under your auspices.2
How happy we would be if your Excellency would accept them and if they could be of use to you during the ceremony tomorrow, then we could add the motto to our seal Joy unto God and Adams.
Let us hope that your Excellency’s mission is satisfactory, for then it will be for the United States of America and for the good patriots of these provinces to cry out Joy unto God and to Holland and America.
We hope that your Excellency will excuse the liberty we have taken and that you would give any consideration to what we dare propose to you to accept.

[salute] Permit that by placing ourselves in your favor we have the honor to be with deep respect, sir, your excellency’s very humble and very obedient servants

[signed] Jacques Felix et fils
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Jacques Felix & Son ansd 30. April. 1782.”
1. The editors have been unable to determine the meaning of this abbreviation.
2. In his reply of 30 April (LbC, Adams Papers), JA thanked Felix for the gloves and expressed his hope “that the new Alliance represented by the Present may be indissoluble and perpetual.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0284

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-21

From Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

I have just received the Honour of yours dated the 16th. Instant, acquainting me with the Interview between your Excellency and Mr Lawrens. I am glad to learn that his political Sentiments coincide with ours; and that there is a Disposition in England to give us up Canada and Nova Scotia.
I like your Idea of seeing no more Messengers that are not Plenipotentiaries; But I cannot refuse seeing again Mr. Oswald, as the Minister here consider’d the Letter to me from Lord Shelburne as a kind of Authentication given that Messenger, and expects his Return with some explicit Propositions. I shall keep you advised of whatever passes.
The late Act of Parliament for Exchanging American Prisoners as Prisoners of War according to the Law of Nations, any thing in their Commitments notwithstanding,1 seems to me a Renunciation of the British Pretensions to try our People as Subjects guilty of High Treason, and to be a kind of tacit Acknowledgement of our Independency. Having taken this Step, it will be less difficult for them to acknowledge it expressly. They are now preparing Transports to send the Prisoners home. I yesterday sent the Pass-ports desir’d of me.
Sir George Grand shows me a Letter from Mr Fizeaux, in which he says, that if Advantage is taken of the present Enthusiasm in favour of America, a Loan might be obtained in Holland of Five or Six Millions of Florins for America, and if their House is impower’d to open it he has no doubt of Success; but that no time is to be lost. I earnestly recommend this Matter to you, as extreamly necessary to the Operations of our Financier Mr Morris, who not knowing that the greatest Part of the last Five Millions had been consumed by Purchases of Goods &ca in Europe, writes me Advice of large Drafts, that he shall be obliged to make upon me this Summer. This Court has granted us six Millions of Livres for the current Year; but it will fall vastly short of our Occasions, there being large Orders to fulfill, and near two Millions and an half to pay M. Beaumarchais, besides the Interest Bills &ca. The House of Fizeaux & Grand is now appointed Banker for France by a special Commission from the King, and will on that as well as on other Accounts be in my Opinion the fitter for this Operation.2 Your Excellency being on the Spot can better judge of the Terms, &ca. and manage with that House { 440 } the whole Business, in which I should be glad to have no other Concern, than that of receiving Assistance from it when press’d by the dreaded Drafts.

[salute] With great Respect, I am, Sir, Your Excellency’s most obedient and most humble Sert.

[signed] B Franklin
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Dr Franklin April 21 1782.”
1. Franklin cites 22 Geo. III, ch. 10, entitled “An Act for the Better Detaining, and More Easy Exchange, of American Prisoners brought into Great Britain” (Marion and Jack Kaminkow, Mariners of the American Revolution, Baltimore, 1967, p. 243–244). Proposed by Edmund Burke on 26 Feb., the bill was passed by the House of Commons on 19 March and approved by the House of Lords and George III on 25 March (Journals of the House of Commons, London, 38:859, 866, 900, 904, 907). This act made exchanges much easier by acknowledging American prisoners to be prisoners of war rather than rebels. Its effect was immediate and by July over 1,000 Americans had sailed for home from Portsmouth and Plymouth (Catherine M. Prelinger, “Benjamin Franklin and the American Prisoners of War in England During the American Revolution,” WMQ, 3d ser., 32:261–294 [April 1975]).
2. Almost thirty years later, in his reminiscences to the Boston Patriot, JA explained the difficulties he had in deciding what firms to approach for a loan. When compared with the extant documents from 1782, JA’s account does not always proceed in a strictly chronological fashion, but it does offer detailed reasons for how he selected a firm.
“The loan! When the prospect of my public reception and a treaty of friendship began to dawn and brighten, the loan of money began to be seriously meditated. I had tryed the house of De Neufville and found it wanting. I had learned enough of its real circumstances and distresses to know that if I opened a new loan with them alone, I should ruin the credit of the U. States. Though the house had money, many friends, and many instruments, among Americans as well as others, to raise a clamor, I was determined at all risques, not to commit myself entirely to them. I received offers and solicitations which I need not name. But the house of Nicholas and Jacob Van Staphorst, and the house of De la Lande and Fynje, were the most importunate, next to the De Neufvilles. Both as far as I had been then informed, were respectable, but neither was considered as a great house, neither was an ancient house, and antiquity among mercantile houses and houses of capitalists, is in Amsterdam a distinction as much regarded as it is among princes and nobles in France or England. In the midst of all these solicitations, I received a letter from Dr. Franklin, at Passy, and another from the Duke de la Vauguion, at the Hague, most earnestly recommending to me the house of Fizeau and Grand. Sir George Grand as we called him, because he was a knight of St. Louis, was a brother of Mr Ferdinand Grand of Paris, our American banker, both of them gentlemen from Switzerland. Sir George had lived in Sweden, and kept a public house in Stockholm, at which the compte De Vergenes had met the leaders of the Revolution in 1770, and had acquired the friendship of that minister to such a degree as to obtain the cross of St. Louis, and favor as a banker. I knew very well that Dr Franklin’s letter and the duke de la Vauguion’s, originated in the same source, the compte de Vergennes’ recommendation. What should I do? Disoblige Dr Franklin? Disoblige the duke de la Vauguion? Disoblige the comte de Vergennes? Disoblige the two Grands? Disoblige the De Neufvilles, the Van Staphorsts and de la Lande & Fynje, as well as several other houses? After long deliberation, I wrote a letter to four houses, Fizeau & Grand, De Neufville, Van Staphorsts, and de la Lande & Fynje, offering to associate all of them in a joint company. Every one of them refused to unite with Mr. De Neufville” (Boston Patriot, 20 April 1811).
This is probably a reference to JA’s letter to Fizeaux, Grand & Co., Jean de Neufville & Fils, Nicolaas & Jacob van Staphorst, De la Lande & Fynje, John Hodshon & Zoon, and Daniel Crommelin & Son, 30 April, below. Before he sent this letter JA had already pursued detailed negotiations with John Hodshon; see Hodshon’s proposal for a loan, 25 April, below.
{ 441 }
In a second installment in the Boston Patriot, JA continued his comments on Fizeaux, Grand & Co.:
“To open a loan in the French house of Fizeau & Grand, though it was very respectable, and had always behaved towards me and all Americans with unexceptionable civility; I knew would furnish Versailles and Passy with information of every guilder I might from time to time obtain; and I had seen enough of the intrigues and waste from that quarter, to be determined at all risques not to open a loan in that house singly. Moreover all my most faithful and intelligent Dutch friends had uniformly warned me against opening my loan in a French house. They said it would lessen my reputation and materially injure the credit of the United States. If I wished a solid and lasting credit for my country, in Holland, I must select a house or houses, purely Dutch” (Boston Patriot, 24 April 1811).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0285

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1782-04-22

To Robert R. Livingston

No. 7

[salute] Sir

On the twenty second day of April I was introduced by the Chamberlain to his most Serene Highness the Prince of Orange.
Knowing that his Highness spoke English, I asked his Permission to speak to him in that Language, to which he answered smiling, “if You please Sir.” Altho’ French is the Language of the Court, he seemed to be pleased and to recieve as a Compliment my Request to speak to him in English.
I told him, “I2 was happy to have the Honor of presenting the Respects of the United States of America and a Letter of Credence from them to his most Serene Highness, and to assure him of the profound Veneration in which the House of Orange had been held in America even from its first settlement; and that I should be happier still, to be the Instrument of further cementing the new Connections between two Nations professing the same Religion, animated by the same Spirit of Liberty, and having reciprocal Interests both political and commercial so extensive and important; and that in the faithful and diligent Discharge of the Duties of my Mission, I flattered myself with Hopes of the Approbation of his most Serene Highness.”
His Highness recieved the Letter of Credence which he opened and read.3 The Answer that he made to me was in a Voice so low and so indistinctly pronounced, that I comprehended only the Conclusion of it, which was that “he had made no Difficulty against my Reception.” He then fell into familiar Conversation with me and asked me many Questions about indifferent things, as is the Custom of Princes and Princesses upon such Occasions. “How long I had been in Europe? How long I had been in this Country? { 442 } | view { 443 } Whether I had purchased an House at the Hague? Whether I hadnot lived sometime at Leyden? How long I had lived at Amsterdam? How I liked this Country &ca.?”
This Conference passed in the Prince’s Chamber of Audience with his Highness alone. I had waited sometime in the Anti-Chamber as the Duke de la Vauguyon was in Conference with the Prince. The Duke, on his Return through the Anti Chamber, meeting me unexpectedly, presented me his Hand with an Air of Cordiality, which was remarked by every Courtier and had a very good Effect.
The Prince has since said to the Duke de la Vauguyon that he was obliged to me for not having pressed him upon the Affair of my Reception in the Beginning. He had Reason; for if I had, and he had said or done any thing offensive to the United States or disagreable to me, it would now be remembered much to the Disadvantage of the Court.

[salute] I have the Honor to be,4 with great Esteem and Respect, sir your most obedient and most humble servant

[signed] J. Adams
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 71–72). LbC (Adams Papers).
1. In the Letterbook copy, JA left a blank space for the date in both the dateline and the first sentence that John Thaxter filled in later. Dumas’ 10 May letter to Livingston indicates that on the 22d he requested an audience for JA with William V and that it was granted immediately (Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev., 5:408). It seems likely, therefore, that JA started this letter prior to knowing that the audience would take place on the 22d. He may have felt the need to compose an address to William V in advance of his audience.
2. Quotation marks supplied here and at the close of the following paragraph.
3. See JA’s letter of credence, 1 Jan. 1781 (vol. 11:2).
4. The remainder of the closing and the signature are in JA’s hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0286

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Rush, Benjamin
Date: 1782-04-22

To Benjamin Rush

[salute] My dear Sir

Mr Peter Paulus,1 is seized with an enthusiasm to go to Philadelphia, with his Journeymen.
I Should be much obliged to you, for any Advice or Civility you may Show him.
The Batavian Spirit is at last arroused, and has uttered its Voice, with Majesty, for the Souvereignty of the United States of America. The 19 of April, was the memorable day, when their High Mightinesses took, the Resolution. You will see in the Gazettes, the Petitions and Maneuvres, which ushered in this Event with Such So• { 444 } | view { 445 } lemnity, as to make it the most Signal Epocha, in the History of a Century. We shall have in this Nation, if I am not infinitely mistaken a faithfull and affectionate and most usefull Ally.
In order to be Steady and persevering in my known Character for Vanity which however I have acquired Since I came to Europe, by the Help of Friends I must tell you that Don Liano, the Spanish Minister has this Moment gone out of my appartment, after having Said to me, “You have made Sir, the grandest Step that has ever yet been taken. It is you, who have filled this Nation with Enthusiasm for your Cause and turned their Heads. It is a most important, and a most decisive Measure, and it is due, to you.”
Voila! a flour of diplomatick Rhetorick, enough to turn my Head, whether I have turned those of the Dutchmen or not.

[salute] Yours Affectionately

[signed] J. Adams
RC (CtY:Van Sinderen Coll.); endorsed: “Hague april 22 1782.”
1. Paulus also carried a letter of introduction of this date from JA to Robert Morris (not found). In his reply of 25 Sept. (Adams Papers), Morris complained that Paulus requested money “to set up his Trade.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0287

Author: Barclay, Thomas
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Thomas Barclay

[salute] Dear Sir

I most heartily and sincerely Congratulate your Excellency on the Events of Friday and saturday last, and I rejoice the more because you are destined to reap the fruits of what you have sown with so much industry and attention.
I am persuaded you are now rewarded for the Exercise of patience which you have Exhibited on this occasion, and I hope an agreeable prospect is now opened for the adjusting those very important points that are before you.
I had a letter a few days ago from Germany, requesting that I wou’d hint to you the necessity of some stipulation being made with the States General, for using the River Rhine in the Transportation of the German Manufactures for the Consumption of America, and that the Transit duties shou’d be settled on as favourable terms as possible. I am not sufficiently a Judge of the matter to say more of it, but I am sure you will excuse any thing that occurs on this subject. Mr. Bromefield told me you shew’d him a letter relative to the American Trade from the Directors of the East India Company under the Emperor.1 If there is nothing improper in the request, I shall { 446 } be much obliged to you for a sight of it—and for permission to write to the Gentlemen. It might turn out an advantage to my House at Philadelphia, and if any good plan of business can be struck out, I will do every thing in my power to incourage it. I beg leave to assure your Excellency of my being most sincerely, Dear Sir your [Affect.] & obed Servant
[signed] Thos Barclay
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Barclay”; docketed in an unknown hand: “April 22nd 1782.”
1. From M. Baraux, 21 March, above. See also JA’s reply of 7 April, above.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0288-0001

Author: Bicker, Hendrik
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Hendrik Bicker

[salute] Monsieur & tres honore Ami

Vous aves vú chez Moi il y a quelques sepmaines Le Courtier Saportas,1 a la vive sollicitation je n’ai pú lui refuser un mot de Lettre en sa faveur pour vous repetter que je Le reconnois poúr un parfait honnet Homme et qui pourra contribuer en bien, si tot ou tard vous charger quelque Maison ici de faire pour vos Souverains une devis d’argent et que vous voudres faire a cette Maison mention de Lui.

[salute] J’ai l’honneúr d’etre avec la plus haute estime Monsieur Votre tres humb & tres obeiss:

[signed] Serviteur H: Bicker

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0288-0002

Author: Bicker, Hendrik
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

Hendrik Bicker to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir and very honored friend

A few weeks ago you met Mr. Saportas,1 the broker, at my house. I could not refuse writing to you on his behalf and telling you again that I have come to know him as an honest man who could contribute in helping you secure a loan for your country, and who would like you to keep him in mind when you decide on a brokerage house here.

[salute] I have the honor to be with the highest esteem, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] H: Bicker
1. Samuel Saportas, an Amsterdam broker. At some point JA and Saportas apparently discussed his firm’s participation in the loan, but on 5 May Saportas wrote to JA that “a Conference with Sundry Gentlemen” about the loan had “not been attended with the desired success” (Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0289

Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Benjamin Franklin

[salute] Sir

Messrs. Fizeaux and Grand have lately sent me two Accounts of which they desire my Approbation. As they relate to Payments made by those Gentlemen of your acceptances of Bills of Exchange, your approbation must be of more Importance than mine, you having more certain Knowledge of the affair. I therefore send them enclos’d to you, and request you would be pleas’d to compare them with your List of Acceptations, and return them to me with your Opinion, as they will be my Justification for advancing the money.1
I am very happy to hear of the rapid Progress of your Affairs. They fear in England that the States will make with us an alliance offensive and deffensive, and the public Funds which they had puff’d up 4 or 5 per Cent, by the Hope of a separate Peace with Holland, are falling again. They fill their Papers continually with Lies to raise and fall the Stocks. It is not amiss that they should thus be left to ruin one another, for they have been very mischievous to the Rest of Mankind. I send enclosed a Paper, of the Veracity of which I have some doubt, as to the Form, but none as to the Substance, for I believe the Number of People actually scalp’d in this murdering War by the Indians to exceed what is mention’d in the Invoice, and that Muley Istmael (a happy Name for a Prince as obstinate as a Mule) is full as black a Tyrant as he is represented in Paul Jones’s pretended Letter: These being substantial Truths, the Form is to be considered as Paper and Packthread.2 If it were re-publish’d in England it might make them a little asham’d of themselves. I am, very respectfully Your Excellency’s most obedient and most humble Servant
[signed] B Franklin
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Dr Franklin Ap. 22 ansd July 23. 1782.”
1. The enclosed accounts were returned to Franklin with JA’s reply of 23 July. JA expressed regret that he had not answered Franklin sooner, but attributed the delay to the prolonged illness of John Thaxter, “who keeps the Account of those Affairs,” but see also JA to Franklin, 24 May (both LbC’s, Adams Papers).
2. The enclosure, which is not in the Adams Papers, was a fictitious piece printed by Franklin at Passy purported to be taken from the Boston Independent Chronicle of 12 March (Franklin, Papers, 37:184–196). It consisted of two letters, dated 7 March 1782 and 7 March 1781, respectively. The first, from a Capt. Gerrish of the New England militia, described the contents of eight packages of scalps, totaling 954, taken from American men, women, and children on the western frontier. The Seneca Indians intended the scalps for the governor of Canada, but they had been captured in transit by an American expedition. It was ultimately decided that the scalps should be sent in small packets to George III, Queen Charlotte, and members of the government. The { 448 } second letter was from John Paul Jones to Sir Joseph Yorke, the British ambassador to the Netherlands, protesting the British diplomat’s memorial to the States General in which Jones was designated a pirate. Jones argued that he in no way met the definition of a pirate because he was acting in the cause of liberty in defense of his fellow citizens against British tyranny. No comment by JA regarding Franklin’s fabrication has been found.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0290

Author: Luzac, Jean
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Jean Luzac

[salute] Honorable Sir

Altho’ the early part, I have taken in the struggles of America for the rights of Liberty and Mankind, would be a silent witness of my particular happiness at the present moment, when Your Excellency’s steady and prudent conduct in our Republic is crowned with the most glorious success, I should deem myself wanting in my duty, if I did not congratulate Your Excellency most sincerely in the public character, wherein You have now been publicly acknowledged by our Government; an event, Sir, that will be, (if my most ardent wishes are fulfilled) the forerunner of many happy consequences to both Countries. May Your Excellency long enjoy that heart-felt satisfaction, which is the best reward of a life spent to public good. I am with the sincerest regard and deep respect, Honorable Sir, Your Excellency’s Most obedient and very humble Servant
[signed] J. Luzac

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0291

Author: Neufville, Jean de, & Fils (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From Jean de Neufville & Fils

[salute] Sir

Although indisposition and absence may have frustrated our wishes of being first in paying Your Excellency an homage in which our Country partakes so much of, by the success of your negotiations we trust to your Excellencys indulgence for being Satisfied with this apology, and tho’ late, that you will accept of this tribute which yeilds to none in sincerity. Our wishes are in nothing more earnest than that your Excy: may long Contribute to preserve that harmony which we hope will result without interuption from that union you have had so much share informing between both Republicks, and as a reward to your Labours may you from this time see daily accrue that advantage to each, which so natural a connection gives the best reason to expect.
{ 449 }

[salute] These are our Sentiments, to which we can only add those of respect, and perfect regard, with which we have the honor to be Your Excelly. Most Obdt & humbl Servts

[signed] John de Neufville & Son

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0292

Author: Thaxter, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-22

From John Thaxter

[salute] Sir

I was duly honor’d with your favor of the 20th,1 and its Contents gave me sincere pleasure, and its Injunctions shall be observed.
Mr. J. Van Staphorst has called upon me this Afternoon, and acquainted me with his great distress respecting the House engaged for the Loan:2 that the Man is an Anglomane or at least very lately converted: that he has within these six Weeks indulged himself in very indecent Expressions against America: that it makes a Noise in the American Society and upon the Exchange, that a Man of his Character should be preferred to old experienced Friends—that it will do much Injury on both Sides, and be a disservice to the Cause: that if it is possible, he hopes that House may be prevented from opening it: that many well-wishers and Friends are astonished and could hardly have believed it: that he has recieved a Letter from the Baron3 upon the Subject, who would not write his Opinion to You unasked: that it gives great Uneasiness to several of the—&ca &ca &ca. I observed to him, I could make no Answer, having nothing to do in the Business, and prayed him to communicate his sentiments to You. He declined and requested me to mention them to You, which I have done in substance. He would esteem it an Honor most certainly to be employed, but would never open his Lips if a House was engaged which was known to have been uniformly friendly to America. He hinted as if Messr. Hope might be behind the Curtain—it was a Conjecture only. He thinks the Loan will not succeed with honor and Reputation, as it now stands, and that You will find his Sentiments as I have given them above to be well grounded upon Enquiry.
It is not my Business to make any Comment, nor express any Sentiment but Sorrow if all this is true, as I must believe.

[salute] With a Respectful & an invariable Attachment, I have the honor to be &c

{ 450 }
1. Not found.
2. Jacob and Nicolaas van Staphorst repeated their complaints about John Hodshon and JA’s initial decision to place the loan with his firm in a letter to John Jay dated 24 Nov. 1785 (PCC, Misc. Papers, Reel No. 4, f. 684–699). In their letter, which indicates they met personally with JA, the van Staphorsts wrote that they informed JA that conditions favored opening a loan, to which JA replied that he was negotiating with John Hodshon on the matter. The van Staphorsts continued, “We took the Liberty to tell him, this was another impolitic Measure; as this Gentleman altho’ a Rich and able Merchant and a Person well qualified for the Direction of a Loan, was not looked upon in a good Light by this Nation and especially by the Patriotic Part to whom this Loan was to owe its Support and Success. This had no Weight with Mr. Adams, and while he pretended to believe Our Counsel proceeded from Self-Interest, We had the Mortification to hear from him, that in his Opinion John Hodshon was as good a Republican and as great a Lover of Freedom as ourselves.” JA obstinately “thought fit in spite of the Counsel of his best Friends, and among others of the Pensionary Van Berckel, to have the Loan opened publicly by Mr. Hodshon, With no other Effect than that he raised from the Well Affected to the American Cause great Complaints against his Proceedings, And finally after the Loss of a great deal of precious time, he was forced to withdraw the Order from Mr. Hodshon.” For more comments by the van Staphorsts, see JA to Fizeaux, Grand & Co., 30 April, note 1, below. See also vol. 11:103, note 4, for the van Staphorsts’ criticism of JA’s attempt in 1781 to raise a loan through Jean de Neufville & Fils.
3. Since Thaxter refers only to “the Baron,” he probably means Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol. The editors have no evidence, however, that van der Capellen opposed Hodshon’s role in raising the loan. Indeed, on 2 May he wrote to JA of his intention to subscribe to Hodshon’s loan (Adams Papers). This may have reflected his desire to support the American cause, regardless of who was raising the loan.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0293

Author: Livingston, Robert R.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

To Robert R. Livingston

No. 9

[salute] Sir

On the 23d. of April I had the Honor of a Conference with Mr. Van Citters, President of their High Mightinesses, to whom I presented the following Memorial.1

[salute] Hauts & Puissants Seigneur

Le Soussigné, Ministre Plenipotentiaire des Etats Unis d’Amerique a l’honneur d’informer Vos Hautes Puissances, qu’il est chargé par les Instructions de son Souverain, de proposer aux Etats Généraux des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, un Traité d’Amitié et de Commerce, entre les deux Républiques, fondé sur le Principe d’un Avantage égal et reciproque, et compatible avec les Engagemens déjà pris par les Etats Unis avec leurs Alliés, ainsi qu’avec tels autres Traités qu’ils ont l’intention de former avec d’autres Puissances. En Consequence, le Soussigné a l’honneur de proposer à Vos Hautes Puissances de nommer quelque Personne ou Personnes, avec pleins pouvoirs de conferer et traiter avec lui sur cet important Sujet.2
{ 451 }
Their High Mightinesses on the same day appointed a grand Committee to treat, to whom I was introduced with great Formality by two Noblemen,3 and before whom I laid a Project of a Treaty, which I had drawn up conformable to the Instructions of Congress. I prayed the Gentlemen to examine it, and propose to me their Objections, if they should have any, and to propose any further Articles, which they should think proper. It has been examined, translated, printed and sent to the Members of the Sovereignty.4
The greatest Part of my Time for several Days has been taken up in recieving and paying of Visits, from all the Members and Officers of Government, and of the Court, to the Amount of one hundred and fifty or more.5

[salute] I have the Honor to be,6 with great Respect, sir your most obedient & most humble servant

[signed] J. Adams
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 75–76).
1. There is no copy of the memorial that JA presented to the States General in the Adams Papers nor is it certain that the copy that JA handed to Willem van Citters is extant. In the archives of Hendrik Fagel, griffier or clerk of the States General, there is a “Copie” in C. W. F. Dumas’ hand that is signed by JA (Algemeen Rijksarchief). The address is printed in the Resolutiën van de Hoogh Mogende Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlandsche Provinciën, 129 vols., The Hague, 1677–1796, vol. 1782, p. 362–363.
Lb/JA/16 contains what may be an untitled and undated draft of this address (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 104, f. 353–354). While substantively the same, the draft is more flowery than the address. JA wrote the draft in French, except one canceled passage in English that is followed by a French translation.
2. When JA published this letter in the Boston Patriot of 6 April 1811, he provided the following translation: “The undersigned minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America, has the honor to inform your high mightinesses that he is charged by the instructions of his sovereign, to propose to the States General of the United Provinces of the low countries, a treaty of amity and commerce between the two republics, founded on a principle of equal and reciprocal advantage, and compatible with the engagements already taken by the United States with their allies, as well as with such other treaties as they have an intention to form with other powers. In consequence, the undersigned has the honor to propose to your high mightinesses to name some person or persons with full powers to confer and treat with him upon this important subject.”
3. Baron Derk Jan van Heeckeren van Brandsenburg and Baron Charles Bigot, deputies to the States General from Utrecht and Friesland respectively (Gazette de Leyde, 30 April).
4. No copy of the English text of the treaty JA presented to the committee of the States General has been found, although research in the Algemeen Rijksarchief at The Hague indicates that the States General received an English version. A printed extract of the draft treaty in Dutch, dated 26 April, from the Resolutiën van de Hoogh Mogende Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlandsche Provinciën, in broadside form, is in the Fagel Coll. (Algemeen Rijksarchief). Since no further action regarding the treaty took place in April, it will be dealt with in detail in vol. 13 at 22 Aug. when the Dutch formally presented JA with the changes that they desired in the treaty’s text and substantive negotiations began. The treaty was signed on 8 Oct. (Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:59–88).
5. For JA’s memorandum of visits made and received during this period, see Diary and Autobiography, 3:1–3.
6. The remainder of the closing and the signature are in JA’s hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0294

Author: Livingston, Robert R.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

To Robert R. Livingston

No. 10

[salute] Sir

I ought not to omit to inform Congress, that on the 23d. of April the French Ambassador made an Entertainment for the whole Corps Diplomatick, in Honor of the United States, at which he introduced their Minister to all the foreign Ministers at this Court.1
There is nothing I suppose in the whole voluminous Ceremonial, nor in the idle Farce of Etiquette, which should hinder a Minister from making a good Dinner in good Company; and therefore I believe they were all present, and I assure You I was myself as happy as I should have been, if I had been publickly acknowledged a Minister by every one of them: and the Duke de la Vauguyon more than compensated for all the Stiffness of some others, by paying more Attention to the new Brother, than to all the old Fraternity.
Etiquette, when it becomes too glaringly Affectation, imposes no longer neither upon the Populace nor upon the Courtiers, but becomes ridiculous to all. This will soon be the Case every where with Respect to American Ministers.
To see a Minister of such a State as blank and blank assume a distant misterious Air towards a Minister of the United States, because his Court has not yet acknowledged their Independence, when his Nation is not half equal to America in any one Attribute of Sovereignty, is a Spectacle of Ridicule to any Man who sees it.
I have had the honor of making and recieving Visits in a private Character from the Spanish Minister here, whose Behavior has been polite enough. He was pleased to make me some very high Compliments upon our Success here, which he considers as the most important and decisive Stroke which could have been struck in Europe.

[salute] I have the Honor to be,2 Sir your most obedient and most humble Servant

[signed] J. Adams
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 77–78).
1. The dinner hosted by the Duc de La Vauguyon was widely reported. See, for example, the Gazette de Leyde of 26 April and the Whitehall Evening Post of 27–30 April.
2. The remainder of the closing and the signature are in JA’s hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0295-0001

Author: Chalut, Abbé
Author: Arnoux, Abbé
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

From the Abbés Chalut and Arnoux

Vous Sçavez, notre Cher Monsieur, que l’interest de l’amerique a toujours été le notre; nous n’avons jamais perdu de vue cet heureux pais depuis la glorieuse époque de sa revolution, le premier motif de ce Sentiment est la justice que la nature reclame Contre l’oppression et la tirannèe. Nous ne voyions que des hommes malheureux. Des hommes libres qu’en vouloit soumettre à la honte de l’esclavage, leur bonheur et leur liberté etoient toute notre Satisfaction. Nous faisions des voeux pour des Secours dont ils avoient besoin, nous accusions injustamens la lenteur de notre gouvernement qui les faisoit attendre; depuis le moment que la france a deployé sa puissance pour soutenir la justice de votre cause, et qu’elle S’est liée avec votre republique par des traités qui assurent une éternelle amitié entre les deux nations; vos droits nous sont devenus plus chers, nous avons partagé avec vous toute la gloire et tous les maux d’une guerre juste que le Ciel a approuvée en humiliant nos ennemis Communs. Il nous reste maintenant à vous feliciter et à nous rejouir avec vous de votre heureux negociation auprès d’une republique qui vient de reconnoitre votre souveraineté pour se lier avec vous par des traités qui donneront plus de Consistance à sa liberté et à son Commerce. Toute l’Europe a été indignée de voir l’angleterre lui declarer la guerre Sans motif de justice. Cette puissance voudroit aujourdhui arreter vos liaisons avec Cette republique et faire une paix particuliere avec elle. La hollande a Connu Ses veritables interests. La France est son alliée naturelle, l’interest de l’angleterre, n’avoit cessé de lui Crier que nous ne pouvions étre que ses ennemis afin de lui cacher les veritables, ils sont enfin reconnus et tout va Concourir a leur oter les moyens de troubler la tranquilité de tout le globe et à Contenir cette Cupidité qui leur a fait Commettre tant d’injustices. Nous pouvons maintenant esperer que la paix generale va l’approcher de nous. L’impuissance de nos ennemis et notre moderation en hateront la marche. Nous faisons des voeux pour cet heureux evenement.
[Ecri?]vez-nous de vos nouvelles, Conservez-nous votre amitié la notre vous est requise ainsi que notre estime nous avons l’honneur d’étre avec les Sentiments notre cher Monsieur Vos très humbles et très obeissants serviteurs
[signed] les abbés de chalut et Arnoux
{ 454 }
Vous n’avez pas fait valoir l’amitié que nous avons pour vous, quand nous pourrons vous servir dans la personne de vos amis, disposez de notre empressement à faire tout ce qui pourra vous étre agreable, nous ferons pour les amis que vous nous adresserez ce que nous ferions pour vous meme.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0295-0002

Author: Chalut, Abbé
Author: Arnoux, Abbé
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

Abbé Chalut to John Adams: A Translation

You know, dear sir, that the interests of America have been ours as well, ever since the start of its glorious revolutionary era. The foremost reason for this sentiment is the natural demand of wanting justice to prevail over oppression and tyranny. We see only unhappy men. Our satisfaction is the happiness and liberty of free men, men that they wanted to subject to the shame of slavery. We prayed that the necessary aid would come and we unjustly accused our government of moving too slowly in this regard. From the moment that France committed its power to support your cause, and joined with your republic through treaties assuring an eternal bond of friendship between the two nations, your rights have become dearer to us. We have shared with you in all the glory and all the evils of a just war that god has approved by humiliating our common enemies. We now wish to congratulate you and rejoice with you on your successful negotiation with a republic that has recognized your sovereignty, and who will join with you in treaties that will benefit their liberty and commerce. All of Europe was indignant to see England declare war without justification. This power would have liked to stop your liaisons with this republic now, so that they could make a specific peace with them. Holland knew its true interests. France is its natural ally. England’s interest, which had them continually declaring that we could never be anything except enemies in order to hide the real truth, was finally recognized, and everything is going to work toward preventing them from disrupting the tranquility of the entire globe and to contain their avarice which made them commit all these injustices. We can now hope that a general peace is getting closer for us all. Our enemies’ ineffectiveness and our moderation will hasten its progress. We pray for this happy occasion.
Write us with your news; keep us in your friendship, as we keep you in ours, as well as our esteem with which we have the honor to be, our dear sir, your very humble and very obedient servants
[signed] les abbés de chalut et Arnoux
You have not taken advantage of the friendship we feel for you and our capacity to act on your behalf. We are eager to assist you in any suitable way, and we will do for your friends just as we would do for you.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Les Abbeés Chalut & Arnoux”; docketed by CFA: “April 23d 1782.” Some text is lost where the seal was removed.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0296

Author: Dana, Francis
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

From Francis Dana

[salute] My dear Sir

I see with infinite satisfaction the progress our affairs have made in Holland within a short time, and that you will soon be able to [pu]t the finishing hand to your business. No one can more sincerely rejoice in [t]he honour you will merit and acquire by it, than I shall. That Nation, after much internal struggling, seems at last to have adopted an almost universal sentiment upon the propriety, or rather necessity of forming an intimate commercial connection with us, and this, without loss of time. They have been doubtless justly alarmed by the late important change in the Councils, and the system of Great Britain; and have wisely resolved not to suffer her to get the start of them, by adjusting her commercial connections with America, before they have concluded their Treaty with us. They well know how much is risqued by any further delay. Hence their present zeal to acknowledge our Independence. I wish others saw their Interest to do the same thing, in as clear a light, and did not longer think of the glory of mediating a peace, which in the end they may miss of; for it is evident to every one, who will attentively consider the late measures of Britain, that She means to settle her peace with America, without the participation of any Mediators, well knowing the great danger to which her most important commercial Interests will be exposed if they pass through such [a] Medium. Her aim will be to exclude the other Maritime Powers, as far as [po]ssible from the benefits of our Commerce. To effect this, She will make [gr]eat sacrifices in some respects. You know what I allude to—The critical moment for the Maritime Powers of Europe has already arrived. They may never, or at least for a long time to come, again see so fair an occasion to promote their essential Interests, if they suffer this moment to slip by without fixing their connections with America. It must be apparent to them all, the Neutral Powers I mean, that no just objections can now be made to a measure of this sort, since the British themselves have felt the necessity of publickly proclaiming to the World their utter inability to obtain the great object of their war, the subjugation of the United States, or of any one of them; and even made the attempt to do this, criminal—With what face can they pretend to claim any dominion over that Country, or to require the Neutral Powers to forbear the acknowledgment of our Indendence, till they themselves shall have ac• { 456 } knowledged it? Or in other words, to rest idle Sp[ec]tators, as I have before said, till Britain has adjusted all her commercia[l] Interests with America, as far as possible to their exclusion—Do you ask whether this will probably be the case here, I can’t say that it will not. For besides that I have some reason to suppose this Government not yet properly informed, I may say, of the immense Interest it has at stake relative to the Commerce of our Country, I know the British will not fail constantly to hold up to Her Imperial Majesty the glory of mediating a Peace between the great belligerant Powers, while they are secretly carrying on a Negociation as above with the United States—Shou’d you ask me if it is not practicable to give those in Government just Ideas upon the nature of the commerce of the two Countries, I must say I have taken such measures to this end, as the peculiar state of things will admit of. I dare not yet expose the dignity of the United States by making any official advances—They may be rejected—I am not yet satisfied that they wou’d not be. The cry of Mediation I know wou’d open upon me. It is necessary therefore first to do away all errors upon [this] subject of commerce, to establish the great mutual Interest the two Na[tions] have in a close and intimate connection with each other—to point out [the] danger this Interest is exposed to in the present critical state of affairs, by delay. When this is done (and I flatter myself the task is very easy, if the door is open to me) I shall have nothing to apprehend from mere sounds or words. Her Majesty wou’d most certainly pursue the great Interests of her Empire, and not suffer herself to be diverted from that pursuit by any dazling prospects of glory which the British, or any others, might hold out. She too much wisdom not to change her system when affairs have changed their Face, and not to improve every favourable occasion which the course of events may present to her, for the benefit of her Empire—I agree with you that glory and interest are both united in our Case—that her Majesty cou’d [no]t by any line of conduct more effectually promote both, than by stepping forth at this moment and acknowledging the Independence of the United States, and forming a commercial Treaty with them—that there is nothing to fear from any quarter—that the example of so illustrious a Sovereign wou’d probably be followed by the other Neutral Maritime Powers, and wou’d infallibly restore peace and tranquility to both Worlds; and that all Europe wou’d partake equally in the benefits of our commerce, or at least, wou’d enjoy an equal freedom in it. But, my dear { 457 } Sir, if instead of this, America cannot obtain a hearing, which is all she wants to ensure her success, where ever national Counsels are influenced by national Interests, and Her Majesty shou’d persevere in her system of Mediation, notwithstanding the change in affairs, is not the consequence plain: America will make the best bargain in her power with Britain, and She can now clearly make an advantageous one. When this is done Her Majesty, and the other Neutral Powers will certainly see, though too late, the importance of the [pr]esent moment while all is open between Britain and America, to the [In]terests of their respective Empires. I will only add May they be wise [in] season—may they follow the example which Holland is setting them, and which She wou’d have set them at this moment, had she been in profound peace with Britain, even at the hazard of a War little as she delights in it, rather suffer herself to be foreclosed in her great commercial Schemes—Pray give me the earliest possible intelligence, if only in a single line, of your entering upon your negotiation, of its progress and conclusion—whether your last business will be taken up &c.

[salute] Adieu, my dear Sir, believe me to remain with much respect and the most sincere friendship Yours &c

RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Dana 12/23 April 1782 ansd. 13 May.”LbC (MHi:Dana Family Papers, Francis Dana Letterbook, St. Petersburg, 1782–1784); notation: “N.B. This letter was written with a view of its being open’d at the Post-Office here, and accordingly was sent there under certain special circumstances.” Damage to the RC has resulted in the loss of portions of several words, which have been supplied from the LbC.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0297

Author: Digges, Thomas
Author: Russell, William
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-23

From Thomas Digges

[salute] Dr sir

Since the sailing of Adml Barrington there has been much surprise and speculation as to His destination, and an express just arrivd from Plymouth announces that a few days ago and not many leagues off Brest one of His look out frigates the Artois Cap McBride fell in with an outward Bound India Fleet of 4 line of Battle ships (two armed en flute) and about 20 sail of Transports, four of which were taken by Capt McBride and brought into Plymo. and the fleet under Adml Barrington left in chase in such a position as to make it morally certain He would capture the whole. Report at first said it was the homeward bound Domingo fleet and that Adml { 458 } Barrington had taken 23 merchantmen and two men of War; but the above seems to be the nearest accot to truth.1 As this accot came too late for the Gazette, without its publication is purposely kept back, I give it You in a hurry just at the period of the post setting out.
No other news. The idea of Peace with Holland or Ama seperately has pretty well blown over; and as a substitute in conversation the cry now is that Genl Carlton carrys over such profers as will assuredly be accepted of. Mr. L— too is very shortly to return from the Continent with such an assent to the proposals He carryd to His Colleagues as will insure a Peace!!!

[salute] I am with high Esteem Sir Your ob H. Sert

[signed] W R
1. Adm. Samuel Barrington sailed in early April to patrol off Brest. On the 20th one of his frigates sighted a convoy bound for the East Indies accompanied by three 64-gun ships of the line, one of them serving as a troop transport armed en flûte: that is, with its armament removed. In the ensuing engagement the troop transport and another ship of the line were taken together with twelve other vessels from the convoy. By 26 April, Barrington was back at Spithead, having struck a heavy blow against the French in the East Indies (Mackesy, War for America, p. 478; W. M. James, The British Navy in Adversity: A Study of the War of American Independence, London and N.Y., 1926, p. 366–367).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0298

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Livingston, Robert R.
Date: 1782-04-24

To Robert R. Livingston

No. 8.1

[salute] Sir

On the 24th. day of April I had the Honor to be introduced to the Princess, from whom I met a very gracious Reception. As it is necessary to say something upon these Occasions, I could think of nothing better than what follows:3

[salute] Madame

Je suis ravi d’avoir l’honneur de presenter une Republique Vierge, un Monde Enfant à la Bienveillance et à la Protection de votre Altesse Royale; d’une Princesse aussi illustre par ses Perfections et Vertus personnelles, que par Sa Connection avec la Maison d’Orange, si révérée en Amerique, et avec l’un de ces grands Monarques4 dans le Siecle desquels on se fait un honneur de vivre.
Votre Altesse Royale me permettra de faire des Vaux, pour que ses { 459 } serenissimes Enfans et leur Postérité, puissant jouir parmi les Generations les plus reculées de l’Amerique, de la même Vénération profonde, qui y a toujours été entretenue pour leurs Ancêtres.
Her Royal Highness thanked me for the Compliment, and promised to do what depended upon her to render my Residence at the Hague agreable to me, and then asked me several Questions similar to those of his most Serene Highness.

[salute] I have the Honor to be,5 Sir your most obedient servant

[signed] J. Adams
RC in John Thaxter’s hand (PCC, No. 84, IV, f. 73–74).
1. The numbers JA and Thaxter assigned JA’s letters to Livingston correspond to the order in which they were entered in the Letterbook. Letter No. 8 was entered immediately following letter No. 7 of 232 April, above, in Lb/JA/18 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 106).
2. In the Letterbook copy, JA left a blank space for the date in both the dateline and the first sentence that John Thaxter filled in later.
3. When JA published this letter in the Boston Patriot of 10 April 1811, he included the following English translation of his conversation with Wilhelmina, princess of Orange:
“Madame—I am happy to have the honor of presenting a virgin republic and an infant world, to the benevolence and protection of your royal highness; a princess as illustrious for her perfections and personal virtues, as by her connection with the house of Orange, so much revered in America, and with one of those great monarchs, with whom it is esteemed an honor to live in the same century.
“Your royal highness will permit me to pray that your most serene children and their posterity, may enjoy to the latest generations in America, the same profound veneration, which has always been entertained there for their ancestors.”
4. Wilhelmina was the niece of Frederick the Great.
5. The remainder of the closing and the signature are in JA’s hand.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0299

Author: Jenings, Edmund
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-24

From Edmund Jenings

[salute] Sir

I Assure myself, that your Excellency will permit me to offer my Congratulations to you on your Excellencys being publickly Acknowledged Minister of the United States. I am rejoiced at this Event for your Excellencys Honor, as well as for the Interest of our Country—you will believe me, I am Confident, when I say I feel for both, and both are in good Hands. Go on in your Noble Career; I Know you will, and may God Almighty bless you.

[salute] I am with the Greatest Respect Sir your Excellencys Most Obedient Humble Servt

[signed] Edm: Jenings

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0300

Author: Hodshon, John, & Zoon (business)
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-25

John Hodshon & Zoon’s Proposals for a Loan

Mess John Hodshon & son yoú are hereby desired to open a loan In my name for The use of the 13 united States of America agreable to my commission from Them dated The 20th june 17802 For Foúr or Five Million guilders current at 5 pc Intrest per annúm for the space of Ten years redeemable In The Five next Following years In equal Five parts with Intrest Fl payd of For which The obligation and coupons are to be signd by me, and the obligations contrasigned by yoú,3 and Enregistred by a notary For the Repayment of capital and Intrest the united states shll bind themself Jointly and seperatly, their Lands Income and prodúce revenus and Taxes Laid and to be Laid as wil be more fully explained In The obligations to be signd by me and of which an authentick copy to be sent to congres for Their confirmation And ratification on Their returning The Same To be drawn for the Súm to be borrowed as They shal be adresed by yoú.
Mess John Hodshon & son In order To Facilitate The Negotiation of Four or Five Million of guilders currant, yoú are permitted to allow to the undertakers a premiúm or discoúnt of Two procent and agree to allow or pay yoú one pc for your commission on the summ negotiated with one procent for The payment of the annúal Intrest which congres wil provide for In Such a manner as is most agreable, Further yoú are to be paid one half pc for the repayment of the capital besides one half procent for Brokeridge on The summ negotiated, with the cost of the obligations and advertisements and In order to prevent any prejudice to be done to the present negotiation Thereby oblige myself that such obligations as are not allready disposed of the loan of messs John de Neufville & son on the 1st March 1781 shal not be disposed of directly or Indirectly.
MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Hodshon”; docketed by CFA: “April 25th 1782.” Dft? (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Mr Hodshon”; in another hand: “Mr Hodshon.”; filmed at 20 April 1782 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 356).
1. No final notarized copies of the two proposed contracts between JA and John Hodshon & Zoon printed here have been found. From JA’s letter of 26 April to Hodshon, below, however, it appears that the terms given here may have been the final ones. If official notarized copies of the contract ever existed, they may have been destroyed when the Hodshon agreement was superseded. The terms of these proposed contracts should be compared with that of [11 June] (Adams Papers) between JA and the firms of Wilhem & Jan Willink, Nicolaas & Jacob van Staphorst, and De la Lande & { 461 } Fynje. They should also be compared with the apparent Dft of the proposals printed here that may or may not have been enclosed with Hodshon’s letter of 20 April, above.
2. The Dft does not refer to Hodshon & Zoon by name and does not mention JA’s commission.
3. The Dft indicates only that Hodshon & Zoon would countersign the obligations; there is no mention of coupons. The remainder of this paragraph does not appear in the Dft.
4. This proposal is virtually identical to the corresponding Dft.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0301

Author: Van der Kemp, François Adriaan
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-25

From François Adriaan Van der Kemp

[salute] Sir

Althoug I am not So happÿ to be the first in making mÿ Compliments to your Excellencÿ; I am however persuaded that not one of mÿ countrÿmen is more addicted to the cause of America and more attached to your Excellencÿ than I am.
I congratulate mÿself with the favour of your Excellency’s acquaintance—with a part of the friendship of your Excellencÿ, and I flatter mÿself, that the aknowledgment of your High Rank wil not chance ÿour character. The eminent qualities of your heart remove the Shadow of fear, in this respect, and the knowledge, that I am a man, a Republican, do me think, that I Shal have a rigth to your good opinion.
In one of other case, perhaps I maÿ be to your Excellencÿ of the American States of anÿ Service; this Shal me given a great Satisfaction. In this city there are Members of Regencÿ, who, in the regulation of a treatise of commerce Should be able to give anÿ elucidations. Moondaÿ I Shal part to Nÿmegen in Gelderland—to consommate my marriage,1 and the month of Juin I hope to be in Friesland. Recommending mÿ in Your Excellency’s good opinion, I am with the highest esteem Sir! Your Excellency’s much addicted and Obliged Servant Fr.
[signed] Ad van der Kemp
1. On 20 May, Van der Kemp married Reinira Engelbartha Johanna Vos, daughter of Jacob Vos, burgomaster of Nijmegen (Harry F. Jackson, Scholar in the Wilderness, Francis Adrian Van der Kemp, Syracuse, 1963, p. 48; Francis Adrian Van der Kemp, 1752–1829, An Autobiography, Together with Extracts from His Correspondence, ed. Helen Lincklaen Fairchild, N.Y., 1903, p. 61).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0302

Author: Hodshon, John
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-26

To John Hodshon

Mr. Hodshon is desired to make the necessary Enquiries, and as soon as he will give me under his hand his Engagement to furnish { 462 } Congress with four or five Millions of Guilders, by the last day of July next, so that I may write forthwith to Congress that they may draw for that Sum, I will agree to his Opening the Loan upon the Terms, We have agreed on.1
[signed] J. Adams
LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. For the terms to which JA and John Hodshon & Zoon agreed, see Hodshon & Zoon’s proposal, 25 April, above. Hodshon acted immediately by announcing the terms of the loan and soliciting investors (Pieter J. van Winter, American Finance and Dutch Investment, 1780–1805, With an Epilogue to 1840, transl. James C. Riley, 2 vols., N.Y., 1977, 1:84–85).
Years later, JA recalled that the announcement of the loan initially was well received, but soon criticism of Hodshon led JA to try to form a consortium of firms, including Hodshon’s, to participate in the loan. In a letter to the Boston Patriot, JA wrote that the day after the loan was announced, Hodshon “received the customary congratulations from the principal merchants and capitalists, and I thought I was very happy in so solid a connection. Mr. Hodshon undertook to remove my family and furniture from Amsterdam to the Hague, and every thing was done with an order, punctuality and exactness that could not be exceeded; and his charges for every thing he did and furnished were extremely moderate” (Boston Patriot, 24 April 1811). JA’s household goods were moved to The Hague in early May. He took up residence in the Hôtel des Etats Unis on 12 May (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:321, 322, 323–324).
The letter to the Boston Patriot continues,
“Mr. Hodson had visited me from the beginning and had uniformly treated me with as much repect and civility as any of the other gentlemen who had traded to America. Neither myself nor my country were under any obligations to any other house that I know of, more than to his. He was very rich, worth many millions, entirely free from debt, his credit equal to any house unless that of Hope, was to be excepted, and even that, though possessed of immense resources, was much in debt and lately in the great turn of affairs much embarrassed. Mr. Hodshon had several brothers and many other relations in various parts of the republic who were very rich capitalists; so that he could have commanded a very respectable loan in spite of all the opposition that could have been made.
“Not many days passed however, before a clamour arose upon change in the city and pretty extensively in various parts of the republic. Mr. Van Berckel told me Mr. Hodshon was envied. There seemed to be a conspiracy of English and French emissaries, of Stadtholderians and patriots, of the friends and connections of Mr. De Neufville, Fizeau & Grand, Van Staphorts, De la Lande & Fynje and many others, to raise a cry against Mr. Hodshon. He was ‘anglomane;’ he ‘was a Stadtholderian;’ he ‘was an enemy to America,’ &c. &c.—not one word of which was sufficiently well founded to make any reasonable objections against his employment in this service. However, I saw that there was a settled plan to make it a party affair, if not an engine of faction. I said nothing, but determined to let the bubble burst of itself. When I was attacked, as I sometimes was, pretty severely, in company, for the choice I had made of an house for my loan, I justified every step of my conduct in it, by such facts and reasons as not one man ever attempted to contradict or confute.
“Nevertheless, in a few days Mr. Hodshon came to me and said, ‘You cannot be ignorant sir, that an uneasiness has been excited in the city and country against yourself and me, on account of the American loan.’ I answered, that I had heard and felt enough of it, but that having experienced much more formidable popular clamours in my own country, and seen that they soon subsided, I had not laid this much to heart. It had not shaken my confidence in him or in his contract. Mr. Hodshon said ‘the opposition that was made, could not prevent him from obtaining a considerable sum of money; but it might prevent so large a loan as he and I wished, and as congress expected, and that it might expose me to reflections and misrepresentations in America, as well as in Holland, and even in England as well as France;’ and { 463 } added, ‘if you have the least inclination to be disengaged, or if you have the smallest probablility of doing better for your consituents, I will readily release you from your contract.’ I thanked him for his generosity, and added, that I was very willing to risque all the consequences of perseverance, and had no doubt we should succeed as well at least as I could hope to do, in any other connection I could form. But if he pleased, I would make some further enquiries. He wished I would—he was advanced in years, was infirm in his health, easy in his circumstances, perfectly clear and unembarrassed in his business and wished for repose rather than to engage in squabbles: but he would not forsake me. If I could not do better, he would proceed. We agreed to consider and enquire” (Boston Patriot, 24 April 1811).
It was probably at this point that JA wrote his letter to Fizeaux, Grand & Co. and others, 30 April, below.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0303

Author: Vernon, William Sr.
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-26

From William Vernon Sr.

[salute] Sir

You have long since known, that the American Navy is reduced to Two Ships only, viz The Alliance John Barry Commander, now in France and the Deane Samll Nicholson Comr. that sailed on a Cruise to the Southward, about seven weeks past, no intelligence from her since her departure.1
This low state of our Navy, has caused the dissolution of the Admiralty and Navy boards, by resolve of Congress on the 7th of Sepr. last,2 devolving the whole business of the Marine department upon the Honorable Robt. Morris Esqr., until an Agent shall be appointed for that purpose, by Congress. All those boards, was immediatly closed, except ours, which was continued, until the above Ships (then in this Harbour) were compleated for Sea, then to terminate and finally end, with the delivery of all the remaining Stores, Papers, Books &c &c, in the possession of the Navy Board Eastn Dept. to the Order of the Superintendant of Finances.
This requisition has been made by John Brown Esqr. late Clerk to the Admiralty Board appointed by Mr M— to receive the same, leaving our numerous Debts unpaid, subjecting us to litigious Law suits and perplexities, disgraceful to the Office, and highly degradeing to the Servants of the Public, conceiveing ourselves subjected to reproach and every evil, that injured Creditors are but too apt to through out, we have refused to comply with, until Congress shall point out the mode of exonerating our Office with honor, and reputation, thereby freeing us from the perplexities that we must unavoidably be involved in. It is uncertain wheather my Son, returns to America this Year, or remains in Europe,3 I am perswaded Sir, in every instance he will receive such favors from you, as his conduct { 464 } and behavior may merit, more I would not wish to ask. I am with perfect esteem, The honor to be Sr. Your most Obedt. Humble servt.
[signed] Wm Vernon
1. The Boston Independent Chronicle of 23 May reported the return of the Deane from a nine week cruise, during which it had taken five prizes. Shortly thereafter, because of Silas Deane’s apparent treachery, the Deane’s name was changed to the Hague, presumably in honor of Dutch recognition of American independence (Morris, Papers, 5:337–338).
2. JCC, 21:943.
3. Despite the efforts of his father, who ultimately disowned him, William Vernon Jr. did not return to America until 1797 (Richard A. Harrison and others, eds., Princetonians: A Biographical Dictionary, 5 vols., Princeton, 1976–1991, 3:120–126).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0304-0001

Author: Wynzouw, Jan
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-26

From Jan Wynzouw

Geeft Te kennen Jan Wynzouw, Burger en Ingebooren in deeze Provintie, Thans Schoolmeester alhier Voorheen By de ningotie,1 hebbende eene Goede kennis Van Laakenen en Stoffen ook Van Boekhouden en een nauwkeurige Trant Van Reekenen, zoo in France als Engelsche Goederen, maar kan niet dan Hollandsche Taal Spreeken, Waardoor ik Geen affaire Veel heb konne Slaage, en nu Wel Gaarne Wilde iets anders by de hand neemen het Zoude mijn ’t Zelve zyn Waar het ook Was indien ik met al myn Vleyd vroeg of Laat maar een ordentelyk bestaan met myn vrouw en 4 kinderen mogte hebben daar Van myn oudste zoon Reeds een bekwaam Chergyn knegt is, maar de 3 andere nog tot myne Last in Eenen benauwden Tyd, en Waar in ik niet anders als ziektens en Teegenheeden Gehad heb maar nu alle Gezond, maar nu is er byna Voor myn niet te Verdienen—Zoude UWE: Exelentie my Gunstig Ergens in het een of ander ook konnen Plaatzen Waar het ook zy al Was het in America. Wy Willen ons Vaderland onder Gods bewaaring Wel vaarwel Zeggen, ik heb Gehoord UWE: Exelentie Zulke Lieden Wel aan een Zaak Zoude konne helpen.
Het is myn niet te doen om een Groot man te zyn maar een Stuk broot Voor myn en myn kinderen ben ik ook nooyd te traag Geweest om Zulks te Verdienen als ik in omstandigheeden Was, heb ik myn Leeven niets Verzuymt, en zoude Gaarne al myn Vleyd aan Legge indien ik iets bestending konde bekomen Waar toe ik myn op het { 465 } nedrigst in UW Hoog Wel Edle geboore Gunst Recommandere en naar Needere aanbieding. Myner Dienst noeme ik myn en ben met alle Hoogagting Geboore Heer UWE Exelentie Ootmoedige Dienaar
[signed] J: Wynzouw
Schoolmeester onder de uylebomen
NB Zal de vryheyd nemen om Eens om bescheyd te komen.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0304-0002

Author: Wynzouw, Jan
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-26

Jan Wynzouw to John Adams: A Translation

Jan Wynzouw, citizen and native to this province, presently schoolmaster here, formerly in trade,1 informs you that he, having a good knowledge of draperies and fabrics, as well as of bookkeeping and a precise sort of accounting, both in French and English goods, but who can speak nothing but the Dutch language, because of which I have not been able to succeed in any business, now really would like to try out something else. It would not matter to me where it would be if with all my diligence I could sooner or later achieve a decent living with my wife and four children, of whom my eldest son is already a competent surgeon’s assistant, but the other three are still my responsibility in hard times, and who have had nothing but illnesses and setbacks, but who now are all healthy, but now there is almost nothing for me to earn—Would your excellency be able to place me somewhere favorable wherever it would be even if it were in America. Under God’s protection we want to say farewell to our fatherland; I have heard that your Excellency would be able to help such folk in such a matter.
I do not intend to be a great man, but I have never been too slow to earn a piece of bread for my family and children when I had the chance, I have never been neglectful and would gladly and with diligence apply myself if I could get something permanent, for which I most humbly recommend myself to your honor’s favor, and further offering my service I call myself and am, with all respect, your honorable, nobly-born excellency’s humble servant,
[signed] J: Wynzouw
Schoolmaster under the Owl Trees
N.B. Will take the liberty to come sometime for an answer.
RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “not to [be ansd?]”; docketed by CFA: “26. April 1782.”
1. Possibly a mispelling of negotie, or trade, and translated as such.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0305-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-27

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Depuis votre Départ d’ici il ne s’est rien passé, sinon qu’hier la Province d’Hollde prit la Résolution d’une Missive à la Cour de Russie, pour décliner la Paix particuliere avec celle de Londres,1 laquelle Résolution a été communiquée aux Etats-Généraux hier, après quoi les Etats d’Hollde se séparerent pour jusqu’à Mercredi prochain.
Voici diverses Lettres qui m’ont été apportées de l’Auberge. J’ai offert d’en payer le Port. Mais l’Hôte m’a fait entendre que vous l’aviez chargé de le payer et de m’apporter les Lettres qui arriveroient pour vous.
Occupés, comme nous le sommes tous les deux à déménager, Je crois devoir ménager votre temps comme le mien, et par conséquent, être court.
Mr. Geyzelaer est parti pour Gorcum,2 voir Made. sa mere, qui est malade.
Je salue bien cordialement Mr. Thaxter; ma femme et ma fille font de-même, et vous présentent leurs respects avec celui, Monsieur, de Votre très-humble & très-obéissant serviteur
[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0305-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-27

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

Since your departure from here, nothing has happened except that yesterday the province of Holland made a resolution to the Russian court refusing the peace proposal from London.1 The resolution was communicated to the states general yesterday, after which the states of Holland adjourned until next Wednesday.
Here are several letters that were brought to me from the inn. I offered to pay the postage for them, but the innkeeper told me that you had instructed him to pay it and to bring me the letters that arrive for you.
Since we are both busy with moving, I believe I must be as considerate of your time as I am of my own and, as a result, be short.
Mr. Gyselaar left for Gorkum2 to visit his ill mother.
I send my cordial regards to Mr. Thaxter; my wife and daughter do as well, and pay their respects to you with those, sir, of your very humble and very obedient servant
[signed] Dumas
1. For the British peace proposal and its rejection by the States General, see JA to Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol, 6 April, and note 1, above.
2. Gorkum or Gorinchem, about fifteen miles east of Dordrecht.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0306

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Dana, Francis
Date: 1782-04-28

To Francis Dana

[salute] Dear Sir

Yours of 28 March is this day recd1—the other Paper you mentioned I also recd, but after my Letter was written. Your other Letters are also recd.
You will have Seen by the Papers, that the great Point is gained here with much Unanimity, and many indifferent People think it a great Point. I may think more highly of it, than it deserves, but it has ever appeared to me, the turning Point. Be this as it will, I think all will allow that it is better to have this nation for Us than against us—this has been the question—and that question is now certainly decided. If the War continues, there will be found in this nation a Strong Spirit of Liberty, and a great deal of obstinate Valour.
It is to no Purpose to entertain you with Relations of Visits and Ceremonies, which are all finished. The Prince and Princess of orange have acknowledged American Independance as well as their H.M. The P. has recd a Letter of Credence. It was pretty to present a beautifull young Virgin World, to the Acquaintance of a fine figure of a Princess, whose Countenance showed an Understanding capable of judging and an Heart capable of feeling.
We have no News from America, a long time excepting a Line notifying the arrival of your son Charles. I am rejoiced that my dear John, pursues his studies so well. Let him pursue Cicero. But I regret extreamly his absence from Leyden, where there are such noble Advantages. I am So uneasy about this that I wish he could find a good Passage in a neutral Vessell, and return to me.2 I feel more lonely, than I used as my Health is not so good, and my Spirits still worse. I want my Wife and my Children, about me. I must go home. I cant live so—it is too much. If I should go home it would give great Pleasure to Some who dont love me. And I really feel Benevolence enough to give them this satisfaction. I am weary my Friend, of the dastardly Meannesses of Jealousy and Envy. It is mortifying, it is humiliating to me to the last degree, to see such Proofs of it, as degrade human nature.
If I should get a Treaty made I have a great Mind to go home and carry it for Ratification.
I will write to my dear Boy soon,3 I have rcd his Letters, and would have him write me as often as he can. Dont mind Postage.
{ 468 }
RC (MHi:Dana Family Papers); endorsed: “Mr: J. Adams’s Letter Dated April 28th 1782 Recd. May 11th O.S.”
1. 8 April N.S., above.
2. In his reply of 23 May (Adams Papers), Dana agreed that JQA should join JA in the Netherlands.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0307

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Jenings, Edmund
Date: 1782-04-28

To Edmund Jenings

[salute] Sir

Your favour of the 24, is just come to Hand. Your Congratulations on the publick acknowledgment of the United States do me great Honour.
I received in its Time, your favour of 18. The Compliments you make me upon this occasion, are greater than I deserve, though they are not greater than were made me last Week, by one of the most respectable foreign Ministers at the Hague.
“Vous avez, frappé, Mosieur, (Said he to me) le plus grand Coup de tout L’Europe. C’est le plus grand Coup, qui a jamais été frappé dans la Cause Americain. C’est Vous qui a effrayé et terrassée Les Anglomanes. C’est Vous qui a rempli cette nation d’Enthousiasme. C’est Vous, qui a tournée leurs Tetes.” Then turning to another Gentleman present (Says he) “Ce n’est pas pour faire Compliment a Monsieur Adams que Je dis cela—C’est parce que, en Verité, Je crois que c’est Sa duë.”1 Such was the Diplomatique Compliment of the grave Spaniard.
Think of me, however as they will, I am not easily touched with Such Compliments. They will never turn my Head I assure you.
The Revolution which has taken Place in this nation, is the Result of a vast number and Variety of great Events, composing a great Scheme of Providence, which comprized a great part of the Earth and the nations on it, which I could no more influence, than the fly upon the Chariot Wheel could raise the Cloud of Dust.
When I recollect the Circumstances, I am amazed, and I feel, that it is no Work of mine. Mr Laurens was to be taken—Congres were to foresee it, so far as to send me a Commission to borrow Money. I was to come to Holland to see the Country and my friend Laurens. Congress were to send me full Powers. These were to be lost on the Way from Paris, and to run the Gantlet through Dilligences, Post offices and Treck schuits, and at last reach me Safe by an unknown Hand. I was to be Seized with a Fit of obstinacy and go { 469 } to the Hague, with a Memorial, in opposition to Advices, Remonstrances, and almost Menaces. Mr Van Berckel was to come forward next—then the Burgomaster of Amsterdam, the Battle of Doggersbank. France was to retake statia &c. The Barrier Towns were to be evacuated—The Emperors Toleration was to allarm the Dutch further about their Commerce. Cornwallis, Minorca st Kits were to be taken. Congress was to prohibit the Importation of British Manufactures. The Revolution was to take Place in England. What a Chain! and what Link in it, did I forge? none at all but the stubborn Memorial. All that I have done was just to throw out a few Hints for the Contemplation of the People. I need not be envyed for this—My Fevers and Swollen Legs and feeble Knees, are not envyed I dare say.
However, I had Seen and felt before So much of the Smart arising from a sordid Jealeusy and Envy, that I never can see or feel more of it—I despise it all and am determined to brave it. All their dastardly assassinations, their secret Whispers, their vile slanders, I hold in as much Contempt as I do their Persons and Characters. I disdain to Say or write a Word in my own Vindication. Let them go to the End of their Rope. I confess, I have tolerated several Things which gave me Pain and which I never suffered in any former Part of my Life on Purpose to show them how much I hold them in Contempt, and at Defyance. I am much afraid, that the dirty disagreable office of Stripping the Gilding off of one more Knave, is destined for me. I hope not—and will avoid it if I can.
But, dont believe me dazzled with my Glory—I should Embark tomorrow for the blue Hills there to live and die with more Pleasure, than I had in making fine Speeches to the Prince or Princess of orange, or the Grand Committee of their High Mightinesses. There is one Thing, I should be glad to do, if it were in my Power, which however it never will be.2

[salute] Adieu.

RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “His Excellency Mr Adams April 28 1782.”
1. Translation: You have struck, sir, the greatest blow in all Europe. It is the greatest blow yet struck in the American cause. It is you who have terrified and vanquished the Anglomanes. It is you who have filled this nation with enthusiasm. It is you who have turned their heads. It is not just to make a compliment to Mr. Adams that I say this, it is because it is true and I know that it is his due.
2. One can only conjecture about JA’s meaning here. In his reply of 6 May (Adams Papers), Jenings referred specifically to this sentence, but JA did not respond with a clarification.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0308

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Lacoste, Jn. Pas., & Courtiau (business)
Date: 1782-04-29

To Jn. Pas. Lacoste & Courtiau

[salute] Gentlemen

I have recd. the polite Letter, which You did me the honor to write me on the 26th with the Letter from St. Petersbourg.1 Let me beg of You to give me a minute of the Postage of this and any other Letter You may recieve for me, that I may repay You.
You do me too much honor in ascribing the late glorious Event to me.2 It is the Result of a vast Combination of Causes which have been operating in several Nations and various Quarters of the Globe, in which I had very little more Influence than the Fly upon the Chariot Wheel in raising the Dust.
I do not however rejoice in it the less. It appears to me a foundation for Prosperity and Security to both Nations, whom may God bless.

[salute] I have the honor to be, Gentlemen, your obliged and obedient humble Servant

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers).
1. The letter enclosed with Lacoste & Courtiau’s of 26 April (Adams Papers) may have been that of 8 April from Francis Dana, above. The Amsterdam firm forwarded letters from St. Petersburg on several occasions; see its letters of [18] and 22 July (Adams Papers) and JA’s reply of 14 Oct. (LbC, Adams Papers).
2. In their letter Lacoste & Courtiau congratulated JA on the glorious event, which they attributed to his sublime genius and profound wisdom.

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0309

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Bondfield, John
Date: 1782-04-30

To John Bondfield

[salute] Sir

Yours of 13 is duely recd: I congratulate you, on Gillons Success and hope that his Prizes, and those he may make hereafter will defray the enormous Expence of that outfit. All his Patience Activity and Perseverance, were necessary, to carry that affair through: and the Cost was immense.
I am not able to answer your Question, concerning the fate of a Vessell of yours, which should be carried into England by a Privateer: because I am not able to comprehend nor to penetrate the System of the New Ministry. Perhaps it may, devellope itself, soon.
It is with Pleasure I am able to inform you, that, the Sovereignty of the United States of America has been Acknowledged, in the most Solemn, unanimous and glorious manner, by the Bodies of Artisans, Merchants, Professions Citizens, and Colledges by the Cities { 471 } Provinces, States General, Prince and Princess of orange. A more manly and decided Honour has never yet been done to our Country. I need not entertain you with a detail, of the Difficulties, Discouragements, and Mortifications, through which We have had the good Fortune to arrive at this honourable Result. I should be Sorry to tell them to the present Age, and think it almost a Pity they should be known to Posterity.
Whatever the World may Say, this nation has great Qualities. They lie deep it is true: but when an occasion presents which calls them forth, they show themselves with great Eclat.

[salute] With much Esteem, I have the Honour to be Sir your most obedient humble sert

[signed] J. Adams
RC (private owner, 1963).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0310

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Fizeaux, Grand & Co. (business)
Recipient: Hodshon, John, & Son (business)
Recipient: Crommelin, Daniel, & Son (business)
Recipient: Staphorst, Nicolaas & Jacob van (business)
Recipient: Neufville, Jean de, & Fils (business)
Date: 1782-04-30

To Fizeaux, Grand & Co. and Others

1. If the Houses of Fizeaux Grand & Co. John Hodshon & Son Mess. Crommelin, Mess. Van Staphorst, Mess. De la Lande & Fynje and Mr. John de Neufville & Son, will all join together in an American Loan, Mr. Adams will open it without demanding any Stipulations for any certain Sum.
2d. If the first Proposition is not agreed to, Mr. Adams will open a Loan with as many of these Houses as will agree together, and enter into a Stipulation with him to furnish the sum of Five Millions by the Month of August.
3d. If no Number of Houses will join, Mr. Adams will open the Loan with any One that will first undertake and contract to furnish that Sum.
4d. Mr. Adams proposes that all those Gentlemen should meet and consult upon the Matter and propose their Thoughts.1
Tr (PCC, Misc. Papers, Reel No. 4, f. 700). This copy was enclosed by Nicolaas and Jacob van Staphorst in their letter of 24 Nov. 1785 to John Jay, for which see note 1.
1. With this letter JA sought to bring banking firms allied to the Patriot party into the effort to raise an American loan. His intention was to increase the loan’s chances for success by appeasing those critical of his choice of John Hodshon & Zoon for the task, most notably Nicolaas and Jacob van Staphorst, for which see John Thaxter’s letter of 22 April, and note 2, above. This letter, however, did not achieve JA’s purpose. In their letter of 24 Nov. 1785 to Jay the van Staphorsts offered a critical assessment of JA’s financial dealings in the Netherlands: “We received a Note from him, a Copy whereof { 472 } We take the Liberty to inclose you [see descriptive note], proposing a Junction of Houses, the like of which was never known here, and that was therefore refused by all solid Persons. We at this time waited upon him, and presumed to call to His Remembrance all what we had told him, which had been confirmed by the Event; But as we spoke the Language of Men accustomed to Truth, and not as insinuating Flatterers, We met with no success, We were on the contrary treated as People, who had occasioned the Miscarriage of his inconsiderate Efforts with Mr. Hodshon, and were shewn the door with Rudeness. From which time We should not have waited any more upon Mr. Adams. Had we not been intreated to it by a Person of great Consideration since dead, Who promised us that in this Conjuncture Mr. Adams would in a proper Manner, propose to employ us in the Negotiation of a Loan. Hereupon We returned to him, when he proposed to us the Junction, which was afterwards fixed upon.” On 11 June 1782JA received a letter from the firms of Wilhem & Jan Willink, Nicolaas & Jacob van Staphorst, and De la Lande & Fynje discussing the loan’s terms (Adams Papers). The names of the firms are given here in the order of their signatures on the letter, which presumably reflected their standing within the consortium.
Although John Hodshon was displaced from the American loan his relationship with JA continued. Hodshon assisted JA in the move from his residence in Amsterdam to the Hôtel des Etats Unis at The Hague (Adams Family Correspondence, 4:321). And on 13 June (LbC, Adams Papers) JA wrote that “Justice and Gratitude will forever oblige me to Say, that your Conduct through the whole affair [the loan], was that of a Man of Honour, a Gentleman and a true Friend of the United States of America.”

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0311

Author: Adams, John
Recipient: Luzac, Jean
Date: 1782-04-30

To Jean Luzac

[salute] Sir

I ought to make an apology, for delaying So long to answer your Favour of the Sixteenth accompanied with Some printed Copies, of the Address of Thanks from the Body of Merchants and Manufacturers of the City of Leyden, to the great Council.
The great Qualities, which this Nation has always displayed upon occasions proper to call them Forth, appear with too much Splendour upon this occasion to be mistaken.
Dft? (Adams Papers); docketed in an unidentified hand: “John Adams 1782.”
1. The next extant letter from JA to Luzac is 18 Feb. 1783 (LbC, Adams Papers).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0312

Author: Bracht, Herman van
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-30

From Herman van Bracht

[salute] Sir

I have the honour to return you, with many thanks the collection of the constitutions of America, which you was So obliging as lend me, the translation of the pieces I wanted to compleat the whole, is finishd, and the printer Mr. F wanner of this city, is making all possible diligence with the Impression, So that I hope it will be publish’d in a month or two.1
The readiness and politeness with which you acquiesed to my { 473 } former request encourages me to ask Some more favours from you. It appears to me that the Treaty of commerce now on the carpet between the States of America (and which I presume will be Soon concluded) and this Republic, would form a very proper appendix to the present publication, if it Strikes you in the Same light, and you Should think it Sufficiently advanced to insert it, I would request a copy of it as Soon as possible. But This I must leave intirely to your discretion—but another request I have to make, in the printers name as well as my own, as it depends intirely upon your Self, I hope you will not refuse: as the first part of the work was dedicated (I think with great propriety) to the pensionary Van Berkel and with his permission, it Will afford the printer and me great Satisfaction, if he may be allowd to dedicate this part to you.2
I observe by the 11 Article of the Treaty of commerce with France that the plenipitentiaries have taken care that the Americans Should not become liable to the Droit daubaine and Droit le Detraction. This induces me to take the liberty of informing you that a Similar unjust Law prevails in the cities of Holland, by which they have a right to demand (and this not less than 10 perCt) upon all heritages, as well abintestato as extestamento which, fall within and are carried out of their Jurisdictions, an act of Injustice founded upon a remnant of that enormous power possess’d by the old Courts of Holland, and however adapted it may have been to those feudal times, I am persuaded it is at present impolitic; Indeed most of the cities are So Sensible of this, that they have mutually desisted from this right upon each other, but Foreigners are Still liable to it, It is calld het regt van Exu or Exu geld.3
Congratulating you Sir on your admission as Envoy plenipitentiary by the States, assuring you of my constant esteem en Sincere offers of my Service I remain Sir Your Most obed: Servt.
[signed] Herman van Bracht
1. Van Bracht returned The Constitutions of the Several Independent States of America; . . . , Phila., 1781, that JA lent him in February (to van Bracht, 1 Feb., above). Translated into Dutch, it formed the second volume of Verzameling van de Constitutien . . . van Amerika, . . . , 2 vols., Dordrecht, 1781–1782, which appeared in August (from van Bracht, 12 Aug., Adams Papers). Two sets of the edition are in JA’s library at MB (Catalogue of JA’s Library).
2. JA replied on 3 May (LbC, Adams Papers), indicating that he thought it inappropriate to publish the Dutch-American treaty prior to its ratification, but consenting to the proposed dedication so long as “nothing be said offensive to any one.”
3. The droit d’aubain was the right of the French king to seize the property of deceased foreigners. The droit de detraction was a tax paid on property moved out of France. Americans were exempted from both by Art. 11 of { 474 } the Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:10–11). An exemption, similar to that in the Franco-American treaty and presumably intended to cope with such laws as mentioned by van Bracht, was included as Art. 6 of Congress’ plan of [29 Dec. 1780] for a treaty with the Netherlands (vol. 10:452), and was included as Art. 6 in the Dutch-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce concluded on 8 Oct. 1782 (Miller, ed., Treaties, 2:65–66).

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0313-0001

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-30

From C. W. F. Dumas

[salute] Monsieur

Dans l’embarras de notre déménagement, qui aura lieu demain, je n’ai plus qu’un coffre sur lequel je puisse vous écrire la présente. Vous verrez par l’incluse de Mr. Nolet de Schiedam, et par la copie de ma réponse provisionnelle, ce que vous jugerez à propos de leur répondre Vous-même.1 En vous souvenant cependant, que vous avez accepté un Déjeuner chez Mr. et Made. Boreel ici, le 6e de May. On m’a dit, que ces Messieurs de Schiedam donneront un repas de 100 couverts, et qu’il y aura beaucoup de personnes de Rotterdam. Je dois vous faire souvenir aussi, que ces Messieurs voudroient savoir le jour une semaine d’avance, à cause des préparatifs. Si vous pouviez donc, dès à présent, leur fixer un jour de la 2e semaine du mois de may, vous leur feriez grand plaisir. Je pense que le meilleur seroit, Monsieur, que vous leur indiquassiez l’heure où vous serez à Delft dans votre voiture, afin que vous puissiez entrer là dans leur Yacht, si vous ne voulez pas qu’il vienne vous prendre ici; ce qui, selon moi vaudroit encore mieux. Vous prendrez après cela le parti qui Sera le plus de votre goût. Quant à moi, je n’ai pas la moindre objection ni repugnance à rester ici ce jour-là, et tenir compagnie à ma femme et à ma fille, pendant la fête, à laquelle nous serons charmés d’apprendre la satisfaction que vous y aurez eue, ainsi que Mr. Thaxter que nous saluons cordialement.

[salute] Je suis avec un grand respect, Monsieur Votre très-humble et très-obéissant serviteur

[signed] Dumas

Docno: ADMS-06-12-02-0313-0002

Author: Dumas, Charles William Frederic
Recipient: Adams, John
Date: 1782-04-30

C. W. F. Dumas to John Adams: A Translation

[salute] Sir

With all the commotion of moving tomorrow, I have only a trunk on which to write this letter to you. You will see from the enclosed letter from Mr. Nolet of Schiedam, and from the copy of my provisional reply, what will be necessary in your own response.1 Meantime, I would like to remind you that you have accepted a dinner invitation at Mr. and Mrs. Boreel’s home here on the 6th of May. I was told that the people from Schiedam { 475 } are preparing a meal composed of 100 dishes, and that there will be many people from Rotterdam there. I must also remind you that you need to choose a date one week in advance, because of all the necessary preparations. Now, if you could choose a date during the second week of May, they would be greatly pleased. I think it would be best, sir, if you indicate the time that you will be in Delft in your carriage, so you can continue on in their yacht if you do not want them to come here to get you. I think this would be better. You can decide, after that, to do whatever pleases you. As for me, I do not have the least objection or reluctance to stay here on that day, in the company of my wife and daughter, during the celebration. We will be delighted to learn of the pleasant time you will have had there, as well as Mr. Thaxter, to whom we send our cordial regards.

[salute] I am with great respect, sir, your very humble and very obedient servant

[signed] Dumas
RC and two enclosures (Adams Papers). Filmed at (3 April 1782 (Adams Papers, Microfilms, Reel No. 356).
1. In a letter of 29 April addressed to Dumas as JA’s secretary (JA, Works, 7:577–578), Jacobus Nolet invited JA to a dinner in his honor to be given by the merchants of Schiedam in the first or second week of May. Dumas replied on 30 April (Adams Papers) that he was an American agent in correspondence with Congress and that John Thaxter was JA’s secretary. Thaxter was thus the proper person to apply to with regard to the proposed dinner. Nonetheless Dumas indicated that the pressure of events and business would likely prevent JA’s attendance. JA replied to Dumas on 2 May (||available in Papers of John Adams, vol. 13; ||Works, 7:578–579), indicating his desire to be excused from the “affectionate, as well as polite invitation do dine at Schiedam,” but he left the matter in Dumas’ hands. On 8 May, Dumas informed the city of Schiedam that JA would be unable to attend but that he was fully sensible of the honor and friendship for himself and the United States manifested by the invitation (PCC, Misc. Papers, Reel No. 2, f. 470).
Cite web page as: Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses, ed.C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2014.
http://www.masshist.org/apde2/