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Collison, Gary. Shadrach Minkins: From Fugitive Slave to Citizen. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Franklin, John Hope and Genna Rae McNeil, eds. African Americans and the Living Constitution. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1995.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. and Anthony Appiah, eds. Encarta Africana. Redmond WA: Microsoft Corp., 1999.

Greene Lorenzo Johnston. The Negro in Colonial New England. New York: Atheneum, 1969.

Greene, Robert Ewell. Black Courage, 1775-1783: Documentation of Black Participation in the American Revolution. Washington: National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, 1984.

Hall, Robert L. and Michael, M. Harvey, eds. Making a Living: The Work Experience of African Americans in New England. Boston: New England Foundation for the Humanities, 1995.

Hamilton, Virginia. Anthony Burns: The Defeat and Triumph of a Fugitive. New York: Knopf, 1988.

Higginbotham, A. Leon, Jr. In the Matter of Race, Race & The American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. New York. Oxford University Press. 1978.

Horton, James Oliver and Lois E. Horton. Black Bostonians: Family Life and Community Struggle in the Antebellum North. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, Inc., 1979

Kaplan, Sidney and Emma Nogrady Kaplan. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1989

Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black American's Struggle for Equality. New York: Vintage Books, 1997.

Litwack, Leon. North of Slavery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Lukas, J. Anthony. Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families. New York: Vintage Books, 1986.

Parsons, William S. and Margaret A. Drew. The African Meeting House in Boston: A Sourcebook. Boston: Museum of Afro American History, 1990.

Piersen, William D. Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-century New England. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988.

Quarles, Benjamin. Black Abolitionists. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the Making of American. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.

Rothman, Ellen K. and Peter S. O'Connell. Making The World Better: The Struggle for Equality in Nineteenth-Century America. South Hadley, MA: Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities, 2000.

Schneider, Mark R. Boston Confronts Jim Crow, 1890-1920. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1997.

Von Frank, Albert J. The Trials of Anthony Burns: Freedom and Slavery in Emerson's Boston. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.