Papers of John Adams, volume 14

455 To Thomas Mifflin, 28 April 1783 Adams, John Mifflin, Thomas
To Thomas Mifflin
Sir, Paris April 28th. 1783.

Mr. Boinod, a Gentleman of Letters, is recommended to me by Mr. Gyselaer of Dort, a manly Character, to whom We are greatly obliged, for a Letter of Introduction to Philadelphia, in so pressing a manner, that I cannot refuse him—1 And I know of no Man who can serve his Views in Philadelphia better than Genl. Mifflin, which is the best Excuse I have for introducing him to You.

There is a general Curiosity to see our Country at present, and I hope the Influx of Foreigners will not hurt us, but I am really at a Loss for Correspondents to whom I can with any Modesty introduce the Numbers who apply for Letters.

We are now talking about the Evacuation of N. York, opening Trade & preparing the definitive Treaty—Things which should have been all settled some Months ago. But the Distractions in England and the Delay of Intelligence from America have left Us in a painful Suspense.

I am weary of wrangling in Europe, and long to be disputing in Congress, which I understand better. I must take a little Repose first however, & recover a little Health & Spirits, if I can— I must learn a little English too, for French & Dutch have almost expelled the little I had.

God bless all your Labors pro Bono publico, and give me a pleasant Passage home.

With great Esteem, I have the honor &c

LbC in John Thaxter's hand (Adams Papers); internal address: “General Mifflin.—”; APM Reel 108.


For Cornelius de Gyselaar's request, see Dumas’ 24 April letter, above.

Proposed Article Regarding Article 7 of the Preliminary Peace Treaty, 28 April 1783 Adams, John Franklin, Benjamin Hartley, David Jay, John Laurens, Henry
Proposed Article Regarding Article 7 of the Preliminary Peace Treaty
[28 April 1783]1


His Britannic Majesty agrees, that within Months from this Date, and as much Sooner as may be, he will withdraw all his Armies, Garrisons and Fleets, from the Said United States, and from every Port Place and Harbour within the Same, and without causing 456any Destruction, or carrying away any Negroes, or other Property of the American Inhabitants, and leaving in all Fortifications the American Artillery that may be therein. and to forthwith order and cause all Archives, Records, Deeds and Papers, belonging to any of the Said States or their Citizens, which in the Course of the War, may have fallen into the Hands of his officers, to be immediately restored and delivered to the proper States and Persons to whom they belong, according to the true Intent and Meaning of the 7 Article of the Provisional Treaty of 30 Nov. 1782

And the United states agree that all Persons who may be resident in Places possessed by his said Majestys Arms, and shall choose to remain there after the Evacuation by his Forces shall have Liberty to do so for twelve Months, they conducting themselves peaceably according to the Laws of the state wherein they may be, and as much longer as they may obtain Permission for from the Legislature of Such state

And it is further agreed that so soon as his Britannic Majesty shall have withdrawn all his Armies Garrisons & Fleets, from the Said United States and from every Port Place & Harbour within the same, as above Stipulated, then and from thence forth, All Rivers Harbours Lakes Ports and Places, belonging to the United states or any of them shall be open and free to the Merchants and others subjects to the Crown of Great Britain and their Merchant Vessells, which Said Merchants and Merchant Vessells shall be received, treated and protected like the Merchants and Merchant ships of the state in which they shall be, and be liable to no other Charges or Duties.

And reciprocally all Rivers Harbours, Lakes Ports and Places under the Dominion of his Britannic Majesty Shall, thence forth be open and free to the Merchants and Merchants ships of the said United states and each and every of them, and of the Citizens and People of each and every of them, which Said Merchants and Merchant Vessells Shall be received treated and protected, like the Merchants and Merchant ships of Great Britain, and shall be liable to no other Charges or Duties.

Saving always to the Chartered trading Companies of Great Britain, Such exclusive Use and Trade of their respective Ports and Establishments as neither the subjects of Great Britain nor any the most favoured nation participates in.


MS (Adams Papers); endorsed: “Project. by A. & J.” and “Project of an / Article. made by A. & J.”; filmed at [Dec. 1782 – June 1783].


JA's Diary entry for 28 April indicates that John Jay came to JA's residence and they “drew together a Proposition, for withdrawing the Troops, opening the Ports and quieting the Tories” (JA, D&A , 3:113). The article formed the basis for the three articles agreed to by David Hartley and the commissioners on the 29th, calendared below.