Papers of John Adams, volume 15

Henry Laurens to the American Peace Commissioners, 17 June 1783 Laurens, Henry American Peace Commissioners
Henry Laurens to the American Peace Commissioners
Gentlemen, London 17th. June 1783—

I had the honor of addressing you the 10th. immediately after my landing at Dover—1 As early as possible after my arrival here I obtained an Interview with Mr. Secretary Fox, who was pleased to read to me part of his latest Dispatches to Mr. Hartley which he supposed would reach Paris on the 14th. tis probable therefore that before this time, as much of the Contents as is proper for your Knowledge, has been communicated.2

“Reciprocity” since the 100th of April has undergone a certain Degree of Refinement; the definition of that term appears now to be, Possession of advantages on one side, and Restrictions on the other.3 “The Navigation Act is the vital of Great Britain, too delicate to bear a touch—” the sudden and unexpected, perhaps illicit arrival 41of Ships and Cargoes from America may have caused this change of Tone. But you have heard in detail & are more competent to Judge.

From a desire of forming an opinion I asked Mr. Fox whether he thought, I might venture for a few days to take the benefit of Bath, and yet be time enough at Paris for the intended commercial Agreement? he replied, “I rather think you may.” One need not be a Conjurer to draw an inference— You will either have finished the Business before I could travel to Paris; or without being missed there, I may go to Bath and repair my nerves.

In this state of uncertainty, when ’tis easy to percieve affections are not as We could wish them, nor quite so warm as We had been taught to believe, it would not be wise to commit the United States, wherefore I shall rest the Business till I hear from you, or until a more favorable prospect, flattering myself with hopes of your surmounting the late seeming Difficulties; an inconvenience on your side is preferable to the hazard of a disgrace.

I am with great Regard and Respect, / Gentlemen, / Your most obedient, and / most humble servant,

Henry Laurens,

RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “Their Excellencies. / The Ministers Plenepotentiary / from the United States of America / at / Paris.” LbC-Tr (Adams Papers); APM Reel 103.


In addition to announcing his arrival in England at four o’clock in the morning, Laurens’ letter of 10 June enclosed a copy of the 6 June “Proclamation”—Order in Council— permitting trade between the West Indies and the United States, but only in selected commodities and British ships (LbC-Tr, APM Reel 103).


For the substance of the dispatches David Hartley received from London, see his letter to the commissioners of 14 June, above.


Laurens’ reference to 10 April is probably to his conversations with Charles James Fox on that day and on 4 April, described in letters to Robert R. Livingston of 5 and 10 April (Laurens, Papers , 16:174–179, 182–184). In those conferences, which Laurens would have discussed with his colleagues in Paris, Fox seemed committed to forging an amicable agreement with the United States over trade, his views according with the original intent of the American Intercourse Bill—even in its then much-amended form. By June, with sentiment in Parliament favoring more restrictive measures, Fox was far less amenable to a settlement favorable to the United States.

To Robert Montgomery, 18 June 1783 Adams, John Montgomery, Robert
To Robert Montgomery
Sir, Paris June 18th. 1783

I have recd. the Letter you did me the honor of writing me on the 27th. of May, & the other mentioned in it.1

Letters of Recommendation or Introduction, in mercantile Affairs, are delicate & dangerous things, and they lie so far out of my 42road, that I meddle in them as little as possible. Isaac Smith Esqr., of Boston has heretofore carried on the Fishery at Cape Ann, to a great Extent, and Elbridge Gerry Esqr. of Marblehead, is a Merchant of Character there. These Gentlemen, if you write them, will be able to give you any Information you desire.

Your Letter to the Emperor of Morocco has given me great Uneasiness.— How you could venture to write such a Letter I cannot concieve, and what will be the consequence of it to yourself or the Public, I know not. It is the Custom among the African & Asiatic Nations to send and recieve Presents with Ambassadors, and Congress has never to my knowledge made Provision for any Presents, or given Authority to any Man to go to the Emperor or write to him. Mr. Jay has a similar Letter from you—and I can do nothing in the Business without his Concurrence & that of my other Colleagues. I can only recommend to you more Discretion for the future.2

I am, Sir, your respectful hble Servant.

LbC in John Thaxter’s hand (Adams Papers); internal address: “Mr. Robert Montgomery / Alicante.”; APM Reel 108.


Vol. 14:501–502. The enclosure was Montgomery’s 4 Jan. letter to Sultan Sidi Muhammad ibn Abdallah of Morocco.


For Montgomery’s explanation of his indiscretion in initiating treaty negotiations with Morocco, see his reply of 2 Aug., below, but see also note 1 to his 27 May letter, vol. 14:502. For JA’s additional comments on Montgomery’s letter to the sultan, see JA’s 12 July letter to Robert R. Livingston, below.