Papers of John Adams, volume 15

From John Dudley, 2 November 1783 Dudley, John Adams, John
From John Dudley
sir poultry Compter Cheapside London 2nd. November 17831

With all due deference—I beg Leave to Lay before you the following facts— Necessity is the motive—that frequently obliges me to actions contrary to my Inclination—hope it will Be admited to pleade in Excuse for the Liberty I take in soliciting your Intrest in my Behalf—without previous Leave— my case is as follows) I am a native of America N Carolina—was an officer in the Service of the united States—and in may 1781 was on the Lines opposite New York—had my Retreat cut of by a party of Refugeas under the command of a Mr Blawvelt2—was wounded and taken prisnor—caried in to new York from thence Sent to England—and By my Arrival the wound I had Recieved togather with hard fare I met with had got so Bad that I was obliged to Suffer the Amputation of my Left Leg— which Rendered me Incapible of Returning to my native country till 340I was Entangled in Debt for common Necessaries of Life— Notwithstanding—I have made frequent applications—to this government— for that Releaf my unhappy situation had an immediate call for—and which I had Reson to Expect—and sorry I am to Say my applications—was of Little Effect— I waited in pirson on the Right Hble. Lord Sydney Late principal Secretary of State &c—and only obtained 10£ Bank Bill—and a passport to go from thence to france— which Sum would not Discharge my Board and Lodgings—my creditors finding that my Situation—immediately arrested me for a Ballence of 40£ and Being in a Strange country could not find Bail But was obliged to go to prison where I still Remain—in a State of missery and Distress—3 I have Been for three months past without one penney to Support me But Live Entirely on the prison Allowence which is only one penney Bread pr. Day—and have Been obliged to pledge Every Stich of cloathing But what is at present on my Back to Discharge my Lodgings on the Masters Side of the prison—or must Be turned on the common Side of the prison amongst the fellows where thier is no place to Ley Down on But the coald Boards I have Rote to Genl. Conway and was Honored with an Interview By his Aidecamp—and do Expect Something Done for me— But the immediate call I have for Some Assistence for present use Drive me to Look up to you for pity and commisseration—and if convenient to Honor me with an Intervew—that I may communicate the particulars of my unhappy Situation— I shall take it one of the greatest favours in Life—as I am—in prison Hungry without food (Naked without Raiment—and must Say I have not Language to Express my Sufferings— pray Dont fail—if you cannot conveniently Do me the Honor to call on me your Self—for gods sake consider my Distress and Send Some gentleman that will Be So friendly as to Attend to my case—as Speedy as possible—as term Begins this week and if I cannot find Some assistence Between this and tuesday I shall Be plunged further into Missery if possible it can Be So— the Barer of this will wait at the Doar for A verbal answer—and will Return again to me— I most Humbly pray you will Excuse my plain Language—as I can Assure you Distress Render me allmost incencible— your Humanity sir in considering my Distressed Situation—will Lay an Everlasting Obligation on me—and Shall Be most Gratfully Acknowledged—when Ever I can Effect that much wished for object of Returning to my Native country—By— / sir / Your Most Devoted / Much Distressed / Very Hble Servt. &c

John Dudley

RC (Adams Papers).


This is the first of four letters from Dudley recounting his harrowing experiences as a prisoner. The others are dated 14 Nov. (Adams Papers), and 19 Nov. and 30 Dec., both below. Dudley has not been identified beyond the information supplied in his letters and military records, for which see his 30 Dec. letter, and note 3, below. There are no extant replies by JA to Dudley’s appeals for assistance. This may be, as Dudley indicates in his 19 Nov. letter, because JA doubted whether he had served in the Continental Army. However, Dudley’s letter of 30 Dec. indicates that he likely met with JA, who advised him on the sorts of proofs necessary to authenticate his case. For Dudley’s most detailed account of his captivity, see the enclosure to his letter of 30 Dec., below.

For other appeals to JA by former prisoners, see those from Robert Ford and A. Moore of 10 and 11 Nov., respectively, both Adams Papers. Ford was captured in 1777 on board the Continental brigantine Lexington. In 1779 he apparently was pardoned for service in the Royal Navy, but in 1783 he sought JA’s assistance in being freed from the service (Marion and Jack Kaminkow, comps., Mariners of the American Revolution, Baltimore, 1967, p. 67). Moore, allegedly from Boston, had been captured by the British in command of a French privateer and imprisoned on suspicion of being English. He sought JA’s assistance in obtaining compensation for losses during his confinement and a berth in a new vessel.


Probably Tunis Blauvelt or Blanvelt, an active loyalist irregular (Sabine, Loyalists ), but see also the account enclosed with Dudley’s letter of 30 Dec., below.


That is, he was sent to Poultry Compter, a prison maintained by the sheriff of London ( London Past and Present , 3:117–118). Dudley, however, did not remain there much longer, for which see his letter of 19 Nov., note 1, below.

From Samuel Adams, 4 November 1783 Adams, Samuel Adams, John
From Samuel Adams
My dear Sir Boston Novr 4 1783

Colo John Trumbull, the Son of the worthy Governor of Connecticutt is the Bearer of this Letter.1 I give the Governor this Epithet, because I think his faithful Services to our Country intitle him to it. Yet even he has undergone the Suspicions of some, unsupported by any solid Reasons that I have heard of.2 We live in an Age of Jealousy, and it is well enough. I was led to beleive in early Life, that Jealousy is a political Virtue. It has long been an Aporism with me, that it is one of the greatest Securities of publick Liberty. Let the People keep a watchful Eye over the Conduct of their Rulers; for we are told that Great Men are not at all times wise. It would be indeed a Wonder if in any Age or Country they were always honest. There are however some Men among us, who under the Guise of watchful Patriots, are finding Fault with every publick Measure, with a Design to destroy that just Confidence in Government, which is necessary for the Support of those Liberties which we have so dearly purchas’d. Many of your Countrymen besides myself, feel very grateful to you and those of our Negociators who joynd you, in preventing the Tory Refugees from being obtruded upon us— These 342would certainly have increasd the Number of such Kind of Patriots as I have mentiond; and besides, their Return would have been attended with other mischeivous Effects. Mutual Hatred and Revenge would have occasiond perpetual Quarrels between them & the People & perhaps frequent Bloodshed. Some of them, by Art and Address might gradually recover a Character & in time an Influence, and so become the fittest Instruments in forming Factions either for one foreign Nation or another. We may be in Danger of such Factions, and should prudently expect them. One might venture to predict that they will sooner or later happen. We should therefore guard against the evil Effects of them. I deprecate the most favord Nation predominating in the Councils of America, for I do not beleive there is a Nation on Earth that wishes we should be more free or more powerful than is consistent with their Ideas of their own Interest. Such a disinterested Spirit is not to be found in National Bodies; The World would be more happy if it prevaild more in individual Persons. I will say it for my Countrymen, they are, or seem to be, very grateful. All are ready freely to acknowledge our Obligations to France for the Part she took in our late Contest. There are a few who consider the Advantage derivd to her, by a total Seperation of Britain & the Colonies, which so sagacious a Court doubtless foresaw & probably never lost Sight of. This Advantage was so glaring in the first Stages of our Controversy, that those who then ran the Risque of exciting even an Appeal to Heaven rather than a Submission to British Tyranny, were well perswaded that the Prospect of such an Seperation would induce France to interpose, and do more than she has done if necessary.— America with the Assistance of her faithful Ally has secured and establishd her Liberty & Independence. God be praisd! And some would think it too bold to assert, that France has thereby saved the Being of her great Importance.— But if it be true why may we not assert it? A punctual Fulfillment of Engagements solemnly enterd into by Treaty is the Justice, the Honor & Policy of Nations. If we, who have contracted Debts, were influenced only by Motives of sound Policy, we should pay them assoon as possible & provide sure & adequate Funds for the Payment of Interest in the mean time— When we have done this we shall have the Sense of Independence impressd on our Minds, no longer feeling that State of Inferiority which a wise King tells us the Borrower stands in to the Lender3

Your Negociation with Holland, as “my old Friend” observd, is all your own—4 The faithful Historian will do Justice to your Merits 343Perhaps not till you are dead. I would have you reconcile yourself to this Thought. While you live you will probably be the Object of Envy. The leading Characters in this great Revolution will not be fairly marked in the present Age. It will be well if the leading Principles are rememberd long. You, I am sure, have not the Vanity, which Cicero betrayed, when he even urged his Friend Licinius to publish the History of the Detection of Cataline in his Life Time that he might enjoy it. I am far from thinking that Part of History redounds so much to the Honor of the Roman Consul, as the Treaty of Holland does to its American Negociator

Decr 4th

I intended to have committed the Care of the foregoing Letter to Mr Trumbull, but when he called on me I was confind to my Chamber by severe bodily Indisposition unable to attend even to the lightest Business. I am still kept at home, but hope soon to be abroad. Mr Jonn Jackson will deliver this to you if he meets you in London, other wise he will convey it by some safe hand.5 When I shall be certain of your being appointed for London, I will write to you as often as I can.—6 May Heaven bless you My Friend as I am / affectionately yours

RC (Adams Papers); endorsed: “recd & ansd / 1. May 1784. / S Adams.”


Samuel Adams’ intention that Col. John Trumbull, the artist, would carry this letter was thwarted as the final paragraph dated 4 Dec. indicates. But Trumbull did carry other letters to JA, including AA’s of 11 Nov. ( AFC , 5:266–269), and enclosed them with a 27 Jan. 1784 letter from London, not found, to which JA replied on 9 Feb. (LbC, APM Reel 107). Trumbull’s father, Connecticut governor Jonathan Trumbull, may also have intended his son to carry a letter to JA. A copy of a letter from the elder Trumbull to JA dated 1 Oct. is in the Trumbull Family Papers at Ct. In his letter, the governor congratulates JA on the peace, notes that his son is going to England, and recommends him to JA’s attention. There is, however, no recipient’s copy of the letter in the Adams Papers nor any indication that JA replied to it, and given the apparent delay in John Trumbull’s departure for Europe, it seems unlikely that JA received the letter of 1 Oct. or, indeed, that it was ever sent.


Late in the Revolution, Gov. Jonathan Trumbull’s reputation suffered from rumors that he was trading with the British. Failing to win a majority of the popular vote and returned to office only by the ensuing vote in the General Assembly in the elections of 1780 and 1781, Trumbull requested that the legislature launch a formal investigation into his conduct, which ultimately exonerated him of any wrongdoing. The governor faced renewed opposition in May 1783, this time due to controversial political positions— particularly his commitment to strengthening the central government. Announcing in October that he would not run for reelection, Trumbull retired from public life in May 1784 ( DAB ).


Proverbs, 22:7. The full passage, in the words of King Solomon, reads “The rich ruleth over the poor, and the borrower is servant to the lender.”


Samuel Adams’ reference to “my old Friend” may be to JA. But it might also be to someone else who had commented on JA and the Dutch treaty or possibly shown Adams a letter from JA dealing with his negotiation of the treaty. Certainly Adams’ 344observation accurately reflects JA’s opinion of the credit due to him for the treaty, but it does not appear to respond to any specific assertion in a letter from JA. See, however, JA’s remarks on the Dutch treaty’s significance in his letters to Adams of 19 Aug. 1782 and to James Warren of 19 Aug. and 6 Sept. of the same year, vol. 13:252–253, 255–256, 439–440.


Jonathan Jackson wrote to JA from London on 27 April 1784, explaining that he had entrusted the delivery of Samuel Adams’ letter “to the care of Doctr Parker who I am told will be a safe conveyance, & who has promised to deliver ’em himself” (Adams Papers). JA received the letter the morning of 1 May, penning a reply later that day in which he responded to Adams’ comments about refugees, the United States’ relationship with France, and the way the Revolution would be characterized by historians (NN:Bancroft Coll.).


Samuel Adams would have a considerable wait before JA received any such appointment. Not until 7 May 1784 did Congress commission JA, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson to negotiate treaties with Britain and other nations, and it was only in Feb. 1785 that JA was appointed to the Court of St. James ( JCC , 26:362; 28:98).