Diary of Charles Francis Adams, volume 1



li Guide to Editorial Apparatus Guide to Editorial Apparatus
Guide to Editorial Apparatus
Textual Devices

The following devices will be used throughout the Diary of Charles Francis Adams to clarify the presentation of the text.

[...], [....] One or two words missing or illegible and not conjecturable.
[...] 1, [....]1 More than two words missing or illegible and not conjecturable; subjoined footnote estimates amount of matter represented by suspension points.
[ ] Number or part of a number missing or illegible. Amount of blank space inside brackets approximates the number of missing or illegible digits.
[roman] Correction of names, places, or dates in text which are misleading or wrong. Also conjectural reading for missing or illegible matter. A question mark is inserted before the closing bracket if the conjectural reading is seriously doubtful.
<italic> Matter canceled in the manuscript but restored in our text.
[italic] Editorial insertion in the text.
Adams Family Code Names

In dealing with an assemblage of papers extending over several generations and written by so many members of a family who often bore the same or similar names, the editors have been obliged to devise short but unmistakable forms for the names of the persons principally concerned. They could not be forever adding dates and epithets to distinguish between the two or more Abigails, Charles Francises, Johns, John Quincys, and Louisa Catherines in the family. The following table lists the short forms that will be used in the annotation throughout The Adams Papers, together with their full equivalents and identifying dates. It includes the principal writing members of the “Presidential line” of the Adamses and certain others in that line (and their husbands and wives) who either appear frequently in the family story or have been important in the history of the family papers. Users liishould bear in mind that this table is highly selective, being a mere epitome of the Adams Genealogy (see p. liv, below).

First Generation
JA John Adams (1735–1826)
AA Abigail Smith (1744–1818), m. JA 1764
Second Generation
JQA John Quincy Adams (1767–1848), son of JA and AA
LCA Louisa Catherine Johnson (1775–1852), m. JQA 1797
CA Charles Adams (1770–1800), son of JA and AA
Mrs. CA Sarah Smith (1769–1828), sister of WSS, m. CA 1795
TBA Thomas Boylston Adams (1772–1832), son of JA and AA
Mrs. TBA Ann Harrod (1774–1846), m. TBA 1805
AA2 Abigail Adams (1765–1813), daughter of JA and AA, m. WSS 1786
WSS William Stephens Smith (1755–1816), brother of Mrs. CA
Third Generation
GWA George Washington Adams (1801–1829), son of JQA and LCA
JA2 John Adams (1803–1834), son of JQA and LCA
Mrs. JA2 Mary Catherine Hellen (1807–1870), m. JA2 1828
CFA Charles Francis Adams (1807–1886), son of JQA and LCA
ABA Abigail Brown Brooks (1808–1889), m. CFA 1829
ECA Elizabeth Coombs Adams (1808–1903), daughter of TBA and Mrs. TBA
Fourth Generation
JQA2 John Quincy Adams (1833–1894), son of CFA and ABA
CFA2 Charles Francis Adams (1835–1915), son of CFA and ABA
HA Henry Adams (1838–1918), son of CFA and ABA
MHA Marian Hooper (1842–1885), m. HA 1872
BA Brooks Adams (1848–1927), son of CFA and ABA
LCA2 Louisa Catherine Adams (1831–1870), daughter of CFA and ABA, m. Charles Kuhn 1854
MA Mary Adams (1845–1928), daughter of CFA and ABA, m. Henry Parker Quincy 1877
Fifth Generation
CFA3 Charles Francis Adams (1866–1954), son of JQA2
HA2 Henry Adams (1875–1951), son of CFA2
Descriptive Symbols

The following symbols will be employed throughout The Adams Papers to describe or identify in brief form the various kinds of manuscript originals.

D Diary (Used only to designate a diary written by a member of the Adams family and always in combination with the short form of the writer’s name and a serial number, as follows: D/CFA/5, i.e. the fifth volume of Charles Francis Adams’ manuscript Diary.)
Dft draft
Dupl duplicate
FC file copy (Ordinarily a copy of a letter retained by a correspondent other than an Adams, for example Jefferson’s press copies and polygraph copies, since all three of the Adams statesmen usually entered copies of their outgoing letters in letterbooks.)
Lb Letterbook (Used only to designate Adams letterbooks and always in combination with the short form of the writer’s name and a serial number, as follows: Lb/JQA/29, i.e. the twenty-ninth volume of John Quincy Adams’ Letterbooks.)
LbC letterbook copy (Letterbook copies are normally unsigned, but any such copy is assumed to be in the hand of the person responsible for the text unless it is otherwise described.)
M Miscellany (Used only to designate materials in the section of the Adams Papers known as the “Miscellany” and always in combination with the short form of the writer’s name and a serial number, as follows: M/CFA/32, i.e. the thirty-second volume of the Charles Francis Adams Miscellany—a ledger volume mainly containing transcripts made by CFA in 1833 of selections from the family papers.)
MS, MSS manuscript, manuscripts
RC recipient’s copy (A recipient’s copy is assumed to be in the hand of the signer unless it is otherwise described.)
Tr transcript (A copy, handwritten or typewritten, made substantially later than the original or than other copies—such as duplicates, file copies, letterbook copies—that were made contemporaneously.)
Tripl triplicate
Location Symbols

The originals of most of the letters and other manuscript documents to be printed, quoted, and cited in this edition are in the Adams Papers in the Massachusetts Historical Society. But the originals of the Adamses’ outgoing letters and dispatches and of many other papers by them, not to mention papers pertaining to them, are preserved in numerous public and private archives and collections in this country and elsewhere.

Usually the editors have fully cited the institutions owning originals drawn upon in the present volumes. The following short list gives the symbols and their expanded equivalents of libraries whose materials were most frequently used. A similar listing, appropriate to the volume (or volumes) concerned, will appear in the Guide to Editorial Apparatus prefixed to succeeding volumes of the Diary of Charles Francis Adams.

MBU Boston University Library
MdHi Maryland Historical Society
MHi Massachusetts Historical Society
Other Abbreviations and Conventional Terms
A set of genealogical charts and a concise biographical register of the Adams family in the Presidential line and of closely connected families from the 17th through the 19th century. The Adams Genealogy is now (1964) in preparation and will shortly be issued in preliminary form. An enlarged and corrected version of this editorial aid will, it is hoped, be published with, or as part of, the last volume of the Adams Family Correspondence. lv Manuscripts and other materials, 1639–1889, in the Adams Manuscript Trust collection given to the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1956 and enlarged by a few additions of family papers since then. Citations in the present edition are usually by date of the original document if the original is in the main chronological series of the Papers and therefore readily found in the microfilm edition of the Adams Papers (see below). When the original document is not easily located in the main chronological series of the Papers, the microfilm reel number is given. Most often the location of materials in the Letterbooks and the Miscellany is given more fully, but documents in a diary series are also cited by microfilm reel number when they appear in odd volumes. An example of the latter case is John Quincy Adams’ “Rubbish” Diary which, for certain periods in his life, is one of three simultaneously kept diaries. Other materials in the Adams Papers editorial office, Massachusetts Historical Society. These include photoduplicated documents (normally cited by the location of the originals), photographs, correspondence, and bibliographical and other aids compiled and accumulated by the editorial staff. Adams manuscripts dating 1890 or later, now separated from the Trust collection and administered by the Massachusetts Historical Society on the same footing with its other manuscript collections. The corpus of the Adams Papers, 1639–1889, as published on microfilm by the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1954–1959, in 608 reels. Cited in the present work, when necessary, by reel number. Available in research libraries throughout the United States and in a few libraries in Europe. The present edition in letterpress, published by The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. References between volumes of any given unit will take this form: vol. 3:171. Since there will be no over-all volume numbering for the edition, references from lvione series, or unit of a series, to another will be by title, volume, and page; for example, JQA, Papers, 4:205. (For the same reason, references by scholars citing this edition should not be to The Adams Papers as a whole but to the particular series or subseries concerned; for example, John Adams, Diary and Autobiography, 3:145; Adams Family Correspondence, 6:167.) First Church of Quincy, Mass., MS Records, 1639–1854; transcript in possession of William C. Edwards, city historian. Annie Haven Thwing, comp., Inhabitants and Estates of the Town of Boston, 1630–1800; typed card catalogue, with supplementary bound typescripts, in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Short Titles of Works Frequently Cited

When a book is cited only two or three times in these volumes, the complete publication data are supplied at the first reference, and in subsequent notes only the last name of the author and an abbreviated title are given, and the place and date of publication are omitted. Works more frequently cited are referred to by the following short titles.

Letters of Mrs. Adams, the Wife of John Adams. With an Introductory Memoir by Her Grandson, Charles Francis Adams, Boston, 1840. Adams Family Correspondence, ed. L. H. Butterfield and others, Cambridge, 1963–. John Aikin, Select Works of the British Poets. With Biographical and Critical Prefaces, London, 1820. Almanach de Gotha: annuaire généalogique, diplomatique et statistique ..., Gotha, 1763–. lvii The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States [1789–1824], Washington, 1834–1856; 42 vols. James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, New York, 1887–1889; 6 vols. James T. Austin, The Life of Elbridge Gerry. With Contemporary Letters, Boston, 1828–1829; 2 vols. [Vol. 1:] To the Close of the American Revolution; [vol. 2:] From the Close of the American Revolution. [Edwin M. Bacon,] Bacon’s Dictionary of Boston, Boston, 1886. Samuel F. Batchelder, Bits of Harvard History, Cambridge, 1924. Samuel Flagg Bemis, A Diplomatic History of the United States, 3d edn., New York, 1950. Samuel Flagg Bemis, John Quincy Adams, New York, 1949–1956; 2 vols. [Vol. 1:] John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy; [vol. 2:] John Quincy Adams and the Union. Biographical Directory of the American Congress,1774–1949, Washington, 1950. The British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books,1881–1900, Ann Arbor, 1946; 58 vols. Supplement,1900–1905, Ann Arbor, 1950; 10 vols. Boston Directory, issued frequently between 1789 and 1825, and annually thereafter, with varying titles and imprints. At a Legal Meeting of the Freeholders and Other Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, Holden on the 14th Day of January, A.D. 1822: . . . A Correct List . . . of Real and Personal Estate ..., Boston, 1822. lviii Catalogue of the Boston Public Latin School, Established in 1635. With an Historical Sketch, Prepared by Henry F. Jenks, Boston, 1886. Charles Brooks, History of the Town of Medford, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, from Its First Settlement, in 1630, to the Present Time, 1855, Boston, 1855. Wilhelmus B. Bryan, A History of the National Capital, from Its Foundation through the Period of the Adoption of the Organic Act, New York, 1914; 2 vols. Edward W. Callahan, comp., List of Officers of the Navy of the United States and of the Marine Corps, from 1775 to 1900, New York, 1901. Catalogue of the John Adams Library in the Public Library of the City of Boston, Boston, 1917. Worthington C. Ford, ed., A Catalogue of the Books of John Quincy Adams Deposited in the Boston Athenaeum. With Notes on Books, Adams Seals and Book-Plates, by Henry Adams, Boston, 1938. The Papers of Henry Clay, ed. James F. Hopkins and Mary W. M. Hargreaves, Lexington, Ky., 1959– . Columbia Historical Society, Records, 1 (1894–1898)–, Washington, D.C. (vols. 51–52 published in 1 vol., 1955). Mary Caroline Crawford, Famous Families of Massachusetts, Boston, 1930; 2 vols. William Penn Cresson, James Monroe, Chapel Hill, 1946. Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, eds., Dictionary of American Biography, New York, 1928–1936; 20 vols. plus index and supplements. lix Desilver’s Philadelphia Directory and Stranger’s Guide ..., published very frequently between 1828 and 1837, by Robert Desilver. Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Biographical Notices of Graduates of Yale College including Those Graduated in Classes Later than 1815 Who are Not Commemorated in the Annual Obituary Records. Issued as a Supplement to the Obituary Record, New Haven, 1913. Mitford M. Mathews, ed., A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles, Chicago, 1951. Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, eds., The Dictionary of National Biography, New York and London, 1885–1900; 63 vols. plus supplements. Martin B. Duberman, Charles Francis Adams,1807–1886, Boston, 1961. Edward Everett, Synopsis of a Course of Lectures on the History of Greek Literature. (A pamphlet without date or place of publication.) Report of a Trial: Miles Farmer, versus Dr. David Humphreys Storer, Commenced in the Court of Common Pleas, April Term, 1830, from which it was Appealed to the Supreme Judicial Court, and by Consent of Parties, Referred to Referees, Relative to the Transactions between Miss Eliza Dolph and George Washington Adams, Esq. Son of the Late President of the United States, Boston, 1831. Peter Force, comp., The National Calendar, Washington, 1820–1836; 14 vols. Paul Revere Frothingham, Edward Everett: Orator and Statesman, Boston, 1925. Claude M. Fuess, Daniel Webster, Boston, 1930; 2 vols. lx Marian Gouverneur, As I Remember: Recollections of American Society during the Nineteenth Century, New York and London, 1911. James E. Greenleaf, Genealogy of the Greenleaf Family, Boston, 1896. George C. Groce and David H. Wallace, The New-York Historical Society’s Dictionary of American Artists, 1564–1860, New Haven and London, 1957. The Education of Henry Adams: An Autobiography, Boston and New York, 1918. Documents Relating to New-England Federalism, 1800–1815, ed. Henry Adams, Boston, 1877. Harry Thurston Peck, ed., Harper’s Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities, New York, 1898. Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the University in Cambridge, Cambridge, 1819– . Harvard University, Quinquennial Catalogue of the Officers and Graduates,1636–1930, Cambridge, 1930. Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, from Its Organization, September 29, 1789, to March 2, 1903, Washington, 1903; 2 vols. Arthur Hornblow, A History of the Theater in America, Philadelphia and London, 1919; 2 vols. Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield and others, Cambridge, 1961; 4 vols. lxi Letters of John Adams, Addressed to His Wife, ed. Charles Francis Adams, Boston, 1841; 2 vols. The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: with a Life of the Author, ed. Charles Francis Adams, Boston, 1850–1856; 10 vols. Andrew Jackson, Correspondence of Andrew Jackson, ed. John Spencer Bassett, Washington, 1926–1935; 7 vols. Joseph Jackson, Encyclopedia of Philadelphia, Harrisburg, 1931–1933; 4 vols. Marquis James, The Life of Andrew Jackson, Indianapolis and New York, 1938. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Paul Leicester Ford, New York and London, 1892–1899; 10 vols. Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Comprising Portions of His Diary from 1795 to 1848, ed. Charles Francis Adams, Philadelphia, 1874–1877; 12 vols. The Writings of John Quincy Adams, ed. Worthington C. Ford, New York, 1913–1917; 7 vols. Charles Lanman, Biographical Annals of the Civil Government of the United States, during its First Century, Washington, 1876. Longworth’s American Almanac, New-York Register, and City Directory, New York, 1797–1842. The Public Life and Diplomatic Correspondence of James M. Mason, ed. Virginia Mason, Roanoke, Va., 1903. lxii The Massachusetts Register and United States Calendar, Boston, 1801–1847; 47 vols. Matchett’s Baltimore Directory ..., published very frequently between 1824 and 1836, by Richard J. Matchett, with varying titles. Lawrence Shaw Mayo, The Winthrop Family in America, Boston, 1948. Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings. Samuel Eliot Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936, Cambridge, 1936. New England Historical and Genealogical Register. New-York Historical Society, Quarterly. George C. D. Odell, Annals of the New York Stage, New York, 1927–1949; 15 vols. The Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford, 1933; 12 vols. and supplement. Sir Paul Harvey, comp., The Oxford Companion to English Literature, Oxford, 1932 [and subsequent editions]. William S. Pattee, A History of Old Braintree and Quincy, with a Sketch of Randolph and Holbrook, Quincy, 1878. Theodore C. Pease, The Frontier State, 1818–1848, Springfield, Ill., 1918. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. lxiii Edmund Quincy, Life of Josiah Quincy of Massachusetts, Boston, 1868. Register of Debates in Congress, 1824–1837, Washington, 1825–1837; 14 vols. in 29 pts. James Daniel Richardson, ed., A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789–1897, Washington, 1896–1899; 10 vols. Sir John Edwin Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship ..., Cambridge [England], 1903–1908; 3 vols. Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, A Topographical and Historical Description of Boston, 3d edn., Boston, 1890. William B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit; or Commemorative Notices of Distinguished American Clergymen of Various Denominations, New York, 1857–1869; 9 vols. I. N. Phelps Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498–1919, New York, 1915–1928; 6 vols. William Tindall, Standard History of the City of Washington, Knoxville, 1914. U.S. Department of State, A Register of Officers and Agents, Civil, Military, and Naval, in the Service of the United States, Washington, 1816–1859; 23 vols. [Biennial]. Glyndon G. Van Deusen, The Life of Henry Clay, Boston, 1937. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. The Washington Directory ..., issued infrequently after 1822, under varying titles and imprints. lxiv The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1754–1799, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick, Washington, 1931–1944; 39 vols. Walter Muir Whitehill, Boston: A Topographical History, Cambridge, 1959. Charles M. Wiltse, John C. Calhoun, Indianapolis and New York, 1944–1951; 3 vols. [Vol. 1:] Nationalist, 1782–1828; [vol. 2:] Nullifier, 1829–1839; [vol. 3:] Sectionalist, 1840–1850. Justin Winsor, ed., The Memorial History of Boston, Including Suffolk County, 1630–1880, Boston, 1880–1881; 4 vols.