Papers of John Adams, volume 12

Introduction Introduction
Minister to the Netherlands

On 19 April 1782, the seventh anniversary of “the shot heard round the world,” the States General of the Netherlands recognized the United States and admitted John Adams as minister from the United States. Adams, for whom it was a great personal triumph, wrote that it was “the most Signal Epocha, in the History of a Century.” 1 His diplomacy in the Netherlands since his arrival in August 1780 was vindicated.

Volume 12 opens in October 1781, as John Adams slowly regained his strength after a near-fatal illness struck him in August and left him unable to work for almost six weeks.2 His diplomacy apparently had reached a dead end. The States General and its constituent provincial states had not acted on his memorial of 19 April 1781,3 and seemed unlikely to do so in the near future. But the pace quickened when, after consulting with advisors, Adams visited the president of the States General on 9 January 1782 to demand a categorical reply to his memorial.4 A little over three months later, far sooner than Adams or anyone else expected, the States General recognized the United States. A selection of the many petitions from merchants and others supporting Adams’ request and all the resolutions by the provincial states and the States General to recognize the United States and admit Adams as minister appear in this volume.

While the primary focus of volume 12 is John Adams’ effort to convince the Dutch government and nation that their self-interest demanded recognition of the United States, other matters also required Adams’ attention—aid to American prisoners, Congress’ uncontrolled issuance of bills of exchange, the purchase of a building to house the American legation at The Hague, his first official meet-xviings with members of the Dutch government and the diplomatic corps, submission of a draft treaty of amity and commerce to the States General, renewed efforts to raise a Dutch loan, and a response to Britain’s first tentative inquiries about a peace settlement.

John Adams’ correspondence provides a clear, comprehensive record of his diplomacy in the Netherlands. Particularly important are the letters he exchanged with the newly appointed secretary for foreign affairs, Robert R. Livingston. Livingston’s first letter of 23 October 1781 signaled a decisive change in the conduct of American foreign policy. The new secretary was determined to be an active participant in the formulation and execution of foreign policy and to closely supervise the efforts of American diplomats in Europe. Livingston’s appointment meant that, for the first time, Adams received regular acknowledgments of his letters together with suggested courses of action. Livingston’s criticism of Adams’ seemingly unorthodox diplomacy prompted Adams to mount a spirited defense. From that defense is derived the sometimes pejorative term “militia diplomacy,” for Adams declared that “Your Veterans in Diplomaticks and in Affairs of State consider Us as a kind of Militia.”5 No less important are the letters exchanged by Adams and C. W. F. Dumas, who continued to act as Adams’ agent, translator, and advisor. French reservations about Adams’ diplomacy are brought into sharp focus in his correspondence with the French ambassador at The Hague, the Duc de La Vauguyon. Substantial portions of Adams’ commentary written years later when he published many of his letters in the Boston Patriot are included in the annotation and provide a valuable supplement to his correspondence.

John Adams’ major correspondents in this volume differ little from those in volumes 10 and 11, which also document his tenure in the Netherlands. Edmund Jenings in Brussels remained a source of intelligence on events in England and elsewhere. In the Netherlands, Adams continued to correspond with members of the Patriot or anti-stadholder party, such as François Adriaan Van der Kemp, Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol, Jean Luzac, and Antoine Marie Cerisier. They, together with bankers such as Hendrik Bicker, Nicolaas and Jacob van Staphorst, and Jean de Neufville, advised Adams on how to proceed in pursuit of recognition and a loan. Adams persevered in his efforts to win the hearts and minds of the British, Dutch, and other Europeans to the American cause through xviicontributions to various publications, most notably Le politique hollandais and the Gazette d’Amsterdam. Adams missed the presence of his friend and advisor Francis Dana, but Dana was a valuable source of intelligence from his post in St. Petersburg. Other familiar names among Adams’ correspondents are the Marquis de Lafayette, Samuel Adams, John Bondfield, Joshua Johnson, and John Jay.

Adams continued his extensive correspondence with Benjamin Franklin. As in the past, most of their letters dealt with the precarious financial position of the United States in Europe owing to the Continental Congress’ willingness to issue bills of exchange without considering how its diplomats would pay them and France’s increasing reluctance to supply additional funds. But after the North ministry’s fall in March 1782, the focus of their letters increasingly turned to the questions of when and under what conditions Anglo-American peace negotiations could take place. The ensuing correspondence between Adams and Franklin is notable for its forthrightness and makes it clear that the two men differed little regarding the prospects for peace negotiations and the basis upon which they would be undertaken.

In the crisis that followed the British defeat at Yorktown and fall of the North ministry, Thomas Digges and Henry Laurens were dispatched by the earl of Shelburne to the Netherlands to ascertain Adams’ position on negotiations. Adams told both men that he would not and could not act alone and that a negotiated peace was impossible without prior recognition of American independence and the notification of France. Digges, however, informed Shelburne that Adams had implied that a settlement short of independence, which would separate the United States from its ally France, might be possible. This was in accord with the ministry’s hopes, but they were soon dashed by Laurens’ report to Shelburne on his own discussions with Adams.6

As the American representative in the Netherlands, John Adams received proposals and appeals from a variety of correspondents. One such group was composed of American prisoners, both those still in British prisons and those who had escaped penniless to the Continent. Adams was concerned about their plight and aided many of these unfortunates, often out of his own pocket. His assistance to xviiione group, sons of Braintree neighbors, brought a sharp letter of rebuke from another prisoner, Isaac Collins, who thought himself slighted.7 As Dutch recognition became a certainty, Adams received a flood of letters requesting his assistance in facilitating trade with and immigration to America, as well as congratulating him on the success of his efforts. One entrepreneur produced gloves made from Dutch and American wool to commemorate the occasion and the editor of a two-volume edition of American constitutions dedicated one of the volumes to John Adams. 8

As April turned into May, John Adams could look back on his accomplishments of the previous year with satisfaction. In April 1781 he had been a private person of no standing, using whatever means were available to pursue a seemingly impossible goal. At the end of April 1782 he was the U.S. minister to the Netherlands, soon to occupy the new American legation at The Hague, a full-fledged member of the diplomatic corps. The States General had received him and he had been presented to the Prince and Princess of Orange. He had submitted a draft treaty of amity and commerce to the States General for its consideration and was making progress towards obtaining a loan. Against formidable opponents, Adams had gained a “Signal Tryumph” for the American cause in the Netherlands, and would forever believe that this triumph represented the pinnacle of his diplomatic career. 9

John Adams and His Letterbooks

During the seven months covered by this volume, John Adams used five Letterbooks numbered 13, 14, 16, 17, and 18, which appear respectively on Reel Nos. 101, 102, 104, 105, and 106 of the Adams Papers microfilm edition. Detailed descriptions of Letterbooks 13 and 14, which contain copies of public and private letters written between 14 August 1780 and 26 April 1782, appear in the Introduction to volumes 9 and 10. Letterbooks 16 and 17, containing mostly official letters written between 8 March 1781 and 29 March 1782, are described in the Introduction to volume 11.10

Letterbook 18 is entitled “Holland Vol. 3.” On its cover Adams xixwrote “No 18. Holland 1782 From March 31. 1782 Paris 1783 From August 10. 1783.” The first 109 pages contain various documents written between 31 March and mid-August 1782 that concern Dutch recognition of the United States and John Adams’ initial undertakings as the American minister at The Hague. Included are letters to the secretary for foreign affairs, the instruments by which the provinces and the States General recognized the United States, and descriptions of the governments of the various provinces. After a gap of 111 blank pages, there is a 40-page section containing letters written between mid-August and 12 October 1782 that concern events in the Netherlands and the impending Anglo-American peace negotiations. The next 55 pages consist of letters written at Amsterdam and Paris between 23 July and 14 September 1783. The final 48 pages of the Letterbook are blank.

Notes on Editorial Method

The editors of the Papers of John Adams are guided by the editorial principles set down in the Notes on Editorial Method in previous volumes, especially volumes 1 (p. xxxi–xxxv), 9 (p. xx–xxiii), and 11 (p. xx–xxi). Three changes in the textual policy, for this and subsequent volumes in the Adams Papers, that incorporate a slightly more literal rendering of the text also should be noted:

Capitalization of proper names and geographical terms follows that in the manuscript.

Abbreviations and contractions are preserved as found throughout the document unless confusion or misunderstanding may result. The ampersand (&) is retained in the form of &c. (for etc.) and in the names of firms; elsewhere it is rendered as and.

Punctuation following all abbreviations and contractions is rendered as in the manuscript.

It should also be noted that volume 12 is the first in which a substantial number of documents in a foreign language other than French have been considered for inclusion. French documents satisfying the general criteria for selectivity in the Papers of John Adams have been routinely translated and printed because John Adams could read French. He could not read Dutch or German, however, leading the editors to consider the basis on which such documents will be included. It has been decided that letters or documents in a language that John Adams could not read must meet one or more of the following conditions: evidence exists that Adams obtained either an English or French translation; he replied or otherwise responded to a letter or document; or the letter or document has an intrinsic value that demands its publication.

Volume 12 of the Papers of John Adams chronicles what was, at least in John Adams’ mind, the most important phase of his diplomatic career. But it is not the only documentary source for that period that is derived from the Adams Papers. The 316 letters and documents printed and 74 items omitted from this volume must be considered in conjunction with the 62 letters for the same period printed in Adams Family Correspondence , 4:223–319. Those letters provide additional information on the progress of John Adams’ efforts in the Netherlands, the actions of Congress, Charles Adams’ return to America on the South Carolina, John Quincy Adams’ residence at St. Petersburg with Francis Dana, and life in the United States during wartime. Abigail Adams remained John Adams’ most important correspondent, but see also the letters he exchanged with John Quincy Adams, Richard Cranch, John Thaxter, William Jackson, Isaac Smith, Cotton Tufts, and Benjamin Waterhouse. Finally, John Adams’ Diary and Autobiography , especially 3:1–5, contains important details on Adams’ activities in the wake of Dutch recognition of the United States, and the Diary of John Quincy Adams , 1:102–124, chronicles the younger Adams’ residence at St. Petersburg with Francis Dana from January through April 1782.


To Benjamin Rush, 22 April 1782, below.


For an account of JA’s illness, see JA to Benjamin Franklin, 25 Aug. 1781, note 1 (vol. 11:469–470).


Vol. 11:272–282.


Address to the president of the States General, ante 9 Jan. 1782 , and note 1, below.


To Robert R. Livingston, 21 Feb. 1782, below.


For JA’s conversations with Thomas Digges and Henry Laurens on 21 March and 15 April 1782 respectively, see Thomas Digges’ letter of 2 April 1782, note 1; Henry Laurens’ memorandum of post 18 April 1782 ; and JA’s letters of 26 March and 16 April 1782 to Benjamin Franklin, all below.


From Isaac Collins, March 1782, below.


See letters from Felix & Fils and Herman van Bracht of 21 and 30 April respectively, both below.


To Livingston, 16 May 1782 (LbC, Adams Papers).


John Adams and His Letterbooks, vol. 9:xix–xx; vol. 11:xx–xxi.

Acknowledgments Acknowledgments

This volume would have been impossible without the assistance of many more people and institutions than can be listed on the title page. We greatly appreciate the work of Joanna M. Revelas, who provided translations of French documents, and of Hobson Woodward, who transcribed Adams documents for this and future volumes of the Papers of John Adams. Conrad E. Wright, Worthington C. Ford Editor of Publications at the Massachusetts Historical Society, undertook an early reading of the manuscript and his observations were of great value in completing the volume.

The assistance of old friends to the project is greatly valued and appreciated. Ellen R. Cohn, Jonathan R. Dull, and Kate M. Ohno of the Papers of Benjamin Franklin were always ready to answer our questions. Stephen Nonack, Head of Reference at the Boston Athenaeum; Edward B. Doctoroff, Head of Administrative Services at Harvard’s Widener Library; and the staff of the Rare Books and Manuscripts Department at the Boston Public Library greatly facilitated our research at their respective institutions. And we remain indebted to Prof. Ward W. Briggs of the University of South Carolina for his Latin translations.

The support of the Harvard University Press for the publication of the Adams Papers volumes continues unabated and is greatly appreciated. We particularly would like to thank Assistant Director/Design and Production Manager John Walsh and Ann Louise Coffin McLaughlin, our former editor, now retired. The crucial support of Kevin Krugh and Steven Lee of Technologies ’N Typography in the production of this volume was also much appreciated.

We would also like to welcome three new and valued contributors. Inez Hollander Lake of Orinda, California, transcribed and translated Dutch letters and was always ready to answer our questions about them. Margarete Ritzkowsky of Tutzing, Germany, did the same for German documents, all of them written in a very difficult archaic script. Eric Stockdale of London, England, verified some elusive newspaper references.

Without the unrivaled collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society and the services of the Society’s learned and devoted staff this volume would have been impossible. Particular thanks go to William M. Fowler Jr., Director; Peter Drummey, Stephen T. Riley Librarian; Brenda Lawson, Associate Librarian and Curator of Manuscripts; Mary E. Fabiszewski, Senior Cataloger; Nicholas Graham, former Reference Librarian; Kate DuBose, former Assistant Reference Librarian; and Jennifer Smith, Photographic Services. We also greatly appreciate the contributions made by the Adams Papers Administrative Committee to the success of this project.

Guide to Editorial Apparatus Guide to Editorial Apparatus
Guide to Editorial Apparatus

In the first three sections (1–3) of the six sections of this Guide are listed, respectively, the arbitrary device used for clarifying the text, the code names for designating prominent members of the Adams family, and the symbols describing the various kinds of manuscript originals used or referred to, that are employed throughout The Adams Papers in all its series and parts. In the final three sections (4–6) are listed, respectively, only those symbols designating institutions holding original materials, the various abbreviations and conventional terms, and the short titles of books and other works that occur in volume 12 of the Papers of John Adams. The editors propose to maintain this pattern for the Guide to Editorial Apparatus in each of the smaller units, published at intervals, of all the series and parts of the edition that are so extensive as to continue through many volumes. On the other hand, in short and specialized series and/or parts of the edition, the Guide to Editorial Apparatus will be given more summary form tailored to its immediate purpose.

Textual Devices

The following devices will be used throughout The Adams Papers to clarify the presentation of the text.

[. . .], [. . . .] One or two words missing and not conjecturable.
[. . .]1, [. . . .]1 More than two words missing and not conjecturable; subjoined footnote estimates amount of missing matter.
[ ] Number or part of a number missing or illegible. Amount of blank space inside brackets approximates the number of missing or illegible digits.
[roman] Conjectural reading for missing or illegible matter. A question mark is inserted before the closing bracket if the conjectural reading is seriously doubtful.
<italic> Matter canceled in the manuscript but restored in the text.
[italic] Matter editorially inserted.
||roman|| Matter editorially decoded.
Adams Family Code Names
First Generation
JA John Adams (1735–1826)
AA Abigail Adams (1744–1818), m. JA 1764
Second Generation
JQA John Quincy Adams (1767–1848), son of JA and AA
LCA Louisa Catherine Johnson (1775–1852), m. JQA 1797
CA Charles Adams (1770–1800), son of JA and AA
Mrs. CA Sarah Smith (1769–1828), sister of WSS, m. CA 1795
TBA Thomas Boylston Adams (1772–1832), son of JA and AA
Mrs. TBA Ann Harrod (1774?–1845), m. TBA 1805
AA2 Abigail Adams (1765–1813), daughter of JA and AA, m. WSS 1786
WSS William Stephens Smith (1755–1816), brother of Mrs. CA
Third Generation
GWA George Washington Adams (1801–1829), son of JQA and LCA
JA2 John Adams (1803–1834), son of JQA and LCA
Mrs. JA2 Mary Catherine Hellen (1806?–1870), m. JA2 1828
CFA Charles Francis Adams (1807–1886), son of JQA and LCA
ABA Abigail Brown Brooks (1808–1889), m. CFA 1829
ECA Elizabeth Coombs Adams (1808–1903), daughter of TBA and Mrs. TBA
Fourth Generation
JQA2 John Quincy Adams (1833–1894), son of CFA and ABA
CFA2 Charles Francis Adams (1835–1915), son of CFA and ABA
HA Henry Adams (1838–1918), son of CFA and ABA
MHA Marian Hooper (1842–1885), m. HA 1872
BA Brooks Adams (1848–1927), son of CFA and ABA
LCA2 Louisa Catherine Adams (1831–1870), daughter of CFA and ABA, m. Charles Kuhn 1854
MA Mary Adams (1845–1928), daughter of CFA and ABA, m. Henry Parker Quincy 1877
Fifth Generation
CFA3 Charles Francis Adams (1866–1954), son of JQA2
HA2 Henry Adams (1875–1951), son of CFA2
JA3 John Adams (1875–1964), son of CFA2
Descriptive Symbols

The following symbols will be employed throughout The Adams Papers to describe or identify in brief form the various kinds of manuscript originals.

D Diary (Used only to designate a diary written by a member of the Adams family and always in combination with the short form of the writer's name and a serial number, as follows: D/JA/23, i.e. the twenty-third fascicle or volume of John Adams' manuscript Diary.)
Dft draft
Dupl duplicate
FC file copy (Ordinarily a copy of a letter retained by a correspondent other than an Adams, for example Jefferson's press copies and polygraph copies, since all three of the Adams statesmen systematically entered copies of their outgoing letters in letterbooks.)
Lb Letterbook (Used only to designate Adams letterbooks and always in combination with the short form of the writer's name and a serial number, as follows: Lb/JQA/29, i.e. the twenty-ninth volume of John Quincy Adams' Letterbooks.)
LbC letterbook copy (Letterbook copies are normally unsigned, but any such copy is assumed to be in the hand of the person responsible for the text unless it is otherwise described.)
M Miscellany (Used only to designate materials in the section of the Adams Papers known as the “Miscellany” and always in combination with the short form of the writer's name and a serial number, as follows: M/CFA/32, i.e. the thirty-second volume of the Charles Francis Adams Miscellany—a ledger volume mainly containing transcripts made by CFA in 1833 of selections from the family papers.)
MS, MSS manuscript, manuscripts
RC recipient's copy (A recipients copy is assumed to be in the hand of the signer unless it is otherwise described.)
Tr transcript (A copy, handwritten or typewritten, made substantially later than the original or than other copies—such as duplicates, file copies, letterbook copies—that were made contemporaneously.)
Tripl triplicate
Location Symbols
CtY Yale University
DLC Library of Congress
DNA The National Archives
MB Boston Public Library
MHi Massachusetts Historical Society
MQA Adams National Historical Park, Quincy, Mass.
MiU-C University of Michigan, The Clements Library
NHi New-York Historical Society
NN New York Public Library
NNC Columbia University Library
OClWhi Western Reserve Historical Society
PHi Historical Society of Pennsylvania
PPAmP American Philosophical Society
PU University of Pennsylvania
PWacD David Library of the American Revolution
Other Abbreviations and Conventional Terms
Manuscripts and other materials, 1639–1889, in the Adams Manuscript Trust collection given to the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1956 and enlarged by a few additions of family papers since then. Citations in the present edition are simply by date of the original document if the original is in the main chronological series of the Papers and therefore readily found in the microfilm edition of the Adams Papers (see below). The location of materials in the Letterbooks and in the volumes of Mis-xxvicellany is given more fully and, if the original would be hard to locate, by the microfilm reel number. Other materials in the Adams Papers editorial office, Massachusetts Historical Society. These include photoduplicated documents (normally cited by the location of the originals), photographs, correspondence, and bibliographical and other aids compiled and accumulated by the editorial staff. The portion of the Adams manuscripts given to the Massachusetts Historical Society by Thomas Boylston Adams in 1973. The corpus of the Adams Papers, 1639–1889, as published on microfilm by the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1954–1959, in 608 reels. Cited in the present work, when necessary, by reel number. Available in research libraries throughout the United States and in a few libraries in Canada, Europe, and New Zealand. The present edition in letterpress, published by The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. References to earlier volumes of any given unit take this form: vol. 2:146. Since there will be no over-all volume numbering for the edition, references from one series, or unit of a series, to another will be by title, volume, and page; for example, JA, Diary and Autobiography, 4:205. Algemeen Rijksarchief, The Hague. Koninklijk Huisarchief, The Hague. Papers of the Continental Congress. Originals in the National Archives: Record Group 360. Microfilm edition in 204 reels. Usually cited in the present work from the microfilms, but according to the original series and volume numbering devised in the State Department in the early 19th century; for example, PCC, No. 93, III, i.e. the third volume of series 93. Miscellaneous Papers of the Continental Congress. Originals in the National Archives: Record Group 360. Microfilm edition in 9 reels. Cited in the present work from the microfilms by reel and folio number.
Short Titles of Works Frequently Cited
Adams Family Correspondence, ed. L. H. Butterfield and others, Cambridge, 1963– . xxvii Thomas R. Adams, The American Controversy, A Bibliographical Study of the British Pamphlets about the American Disputes, 1764–1783, Providence and New York, 1980; 2 vols. Gardner Weld Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution (Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, vol. 77), Boston, 1927 City of Boston, Record Commissioners, Reports, Boston, 1876–1909; 39 vols. I. Minis Hays, comp., Calendar of the Papers of Benjamin Franklin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1908; 5 vols. The Cambridge Modern History, Cambridge, Eng., 1902–1911; repr. New York, 1969; 13 vols. Catalogue of the John Adams Library in the Public Library of the City of Boston, Boston, 1917. Worthington C. Ford, ed., A Catalogue of the Books of John Quincy Adams Deposited in the Boston Athenaeum. With Notes on Books, Adams Seals and Book-Plates, by Henry Adams, Boston, 1938. Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, eds., Dictionary of American Biography, New York, 1928–1936; 20 vols. plus index and supplements. Documents of the American Revolution, 1770–1783 (Colonial Office Series), ed. K. G. Davies, Shannon, Ire., 1972–1981; 21 vols. Isabel de Madariaga, Britain, Russia and the Armed Neutrality of 1780, New Haven, 1962. Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College, with Annals of the College History, New York, 1885–1912; 6 vols. Letters of Thomas Attwood Digges, ed. Robert H. Elias and Eugene D. Finch, Columbia, S.C., 1982. Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, eds., The Dictionary of National Biography, New York and London, 1885–1900; 63 vols. plus supplements. Jonathan R. Dull, The French Navy and American Independence: A Study of Arms and Diplomacy, 1774–1787, Princeton, 1975. Friedrich Edler, The Dutch Republic and the American Revolution, Baltimore, 1911. xxviii The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Leonard W. Labaree, William B. Willcox (from vol. 15), Claude A. Lopez (vol. 27), Barbara B. Oberg (from vol. 28), Ellen R. Cohn (from vol. 36), and others, New Haven, 1959– . The Papers of Nathanael Greene, ed. Richard K. Showman, Dennis Conrad (from vol. 8), and others, Chapel Hill, 1976–?. Francis B. Heitman, comp., Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army during the War of the Revolution, new edn., Washington, 1914. J. C. F. Hoefer, ed., Nouvelle biographie générale depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu’à nos jours, Paris, 1852–1866; 46 vols. Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield and others, Cambridge, 1961; 4 vols. Papers of John Adams, ed. Robert J. Taylor, Gregg L. Lint, and others, Cambridge, 1977–?. The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: with a Life of the Author, ed. Charles Francis Adams, Boston, 1850–1856; 10 vols. Worthington C. Ford and others, eds., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789, Washington, 1904–1937; 34 vols. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Julian P. Boyd, Charles T. Cullen (from vol. 21), John Catanzariti (from vol. 24), Barbara B. Oberg (from vol. 29), and others, Princeton, 1950–?. Diary of John Quincy Adams, ed. David Grayson Allen, Robert J. Taylor, and others, Cambridge, 1981–?. The Papers of Henry Laurens, ed. Philip M. Hamer, George C. Rogers Jr., and David R. Chesnutt (from vol. 5), David R. Chesnutt and C. James Taylor (from vol. 11), and others, Columbia, S.C., 1968–2003; 16 vols. Piers Mackesy, The War for America, 1775–1783, Cambridge, 1965. Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence, Boston, 1913. Acts and Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts [1780–1805], Boston, 1890–1898; 13 vols. Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections and Proceedings. Robert Middlekauff, The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789, New York, 1982. xxix Hunter Miller, ed., Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America, Washington, 1931–1948; 8 vols. The Papers of Robert Morris, 1781–1784, ed. E. James Ferguson, John Catanzariti, and E. James Ferguson (from vol. 6), Elizabeth M. Nuxoll and Mary A. Gallagher (from vol. 8), and others, Pittsburgh, 1973–1999; 9 vols. Richard B. Morris, The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence, New York, 1965. The Parliamentary History of England, from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803, London, 1806–1820; 36 vols. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Ludwig Bittner and others, eds., Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder seit dem Westfälischen Frieden (1648), Oldenburg &c., 1936–1965; 3 vols. Jan Willem Schulte Nordholt, The Dutch Republic and American Independence, transl. Herbert H. Rowen, Chapel Hill, 1982. The Armed Neutralities of 1780 and 1800: A Collection of Official Documents Preceded by the Views of Representative Publicists, ed. James Brown Scott, New York, 1918. John Langdon Sibley and Clifford K. Shipton, Biographical Sketches of Graduates of Harvard University, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge and Boston, 1873–. Paul H. Smith and others, eds., Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774–1789, Washington, 1976–1998; 25 vols. The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 17451799, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick, Washington, 1931–1944; 39 vols. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, Washington, 1889; 6 vols. William and Mary Quarterly.